Anda di halaman 1dari 24

8-1

PART 1

The Pythagorean Theorem and Its Converse

Vocabulary
Review
1. Write the square and the positive square root of each number. Number
9 1

Square
81 1

Positive Square Root


3 1 1 2 0.9

1 4
0.81

1 16

0.6561

Vocabulary Builder
leg (noun) leg Related Word: hypotenuse Definition: In a right triangle, the sides that the right angle are the legs.
leg
hy

leg

po

ten

us

Main Idea: The legs of a right triangle are perpendicular. The hypotenuse is the side opposite the right angle.

Use Your Vocabulary


Underline the correct word to complete each sentence. 2. The hypotenuse is the longest / shortest side in a right triangle. 3. The legs of a right triangle form a(n) acute / obtuse / right angle.

Chapter 8

426

Copyright by Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

Write T for true or F for false. F T F T 4. The hypotenuse of a right triangle can be any one of the three sides. 5. One leg of the triangle at the right has length 9 cm. 6. The sum of the lengths of the legs of the triangle is 36 cm. 7. The hypotenuse of the triangle at the right has length 15 cm.
12 cm 15 cm 9 cm

Theorem 8-1 Pythagorean Theorem


If a triangle is a right triangle, then the sum of the squares of the lengths of the legs is equal to the square of the length of the hypotenuse. If nABC is a right triangle, then a2 1 b2 5 c 2 . A B
c b a

8. Circle the equation that shows the correct relationship among the legs and the hypotenuse of a right triangle. 132 1 52 5 122 52 1 122 5 132 122 1 132 5 52

Problem 1 Finding the Length of the Hypotenuse


Copyright by Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

Got It? The legs of a right triangle have lengths 10 and 24. What is the length of
the hypotenuse? 9. Label the triangle at the right. 10. Complete the steps below to find the length of the hypotenuse. a2 1 b2 5 c2 10 1 24 5 c2 100 1 576 5 c2 676 5 c2 26 5 c
2 2

10

Pythagorean Theorem Substitute for a and b. Simplify. Add. Take the positive square root.

24

11. The length of the hypotenuse is 26 . 12. One Pythagorean triple is 5, 12, and 13. If you multiply each number by 2, what numbers result? How do the numbers that result compare to the lengths of the sides of the triangle in Exercises 911? 10, 24, 26. Answers may vary. Sample: The numbers are the same _______________________________________________________________________ as the lengths of the sides of the triangle in Exercises 911. _______________________________________________________________________

427

Lesson 8-1, Part 1

Problem 3 Finding Distance Got It? The size of a computer monitor is the length of its diagonal. You
want to buy a 19-in. monitor that has a height of 11 in. What is the width of the monitor? Round to the nearest tenth of an inch. 13. Label the diagram of the computer monitor at the right. 14. The equation is solved below. Write a justification for each step. a2 1 b2 5 c 2 112 1 b2 5 192 121 1 b2 5 361 121 2 121 1 b2 5 361 2 121 b2 5 240 b 5 "240 b < 15.49193338 Pythagorean Theorem Substitute. Simplify. Subtract 121 from each side. Simplify. Take the positive square root. Use a calculator. 15.5 in.
b in. 19 in. 11 in.

15. To the nearest tenth of an inch, the width of the monitor is

Vocabulary Describe the conditions that a set of three numbers must meet in order to form a Pythagorean triple. 16. The table below shows three Pythagorean triples a, b, c. Complete the table. a 3 5 8 b 4 12 15 c 5 13 17 a2 9 25
64

b2 16
144 225

c2
25 169 289

a2
25

b2

169 289

17. Describe the characteristics of a set of three numbers that form a Pythagorean triple. Answers may vary. Sample: The three numbers must be positive integers. _______________________________________________________________________ The square of the greatest number must equal the sum of the squares of _______________________________________________________________________ the other two numbers. _______________________________________________________________________

Chapter 8

428

Copyright by Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

Lesson Check Do you UNDERSTAND?

8-1
PART 2

The Pythagorean Theorem and Its Converse

Vocabulary
Review
Circle the converse of each statement. 1. If your state bird is the cactus wren, then your state is Arizona. If your state is Arizona, then your state bird is the cactus wren. 2. If it is raining, then you use an umbrella. If you do not use an umbrella, then it is not raining. If you use an umbrella, then it is raining. If your state bird is not the cactus wren, then your state is not Arizona.

Vocabulary Builder
classify (verb)
KLAS

uh fy

Other Word Forms: classification (noun), classified (adjective)


Copyright by Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

Main Idea: When you classify numbers or geometric figures, you put them into groups based on a property that they have.

Use Your Vocabulary


Complete each statement with the correct word from the list below. classification classified classify classified classify classification

3. Polygons are 9 by their number of sides. 4. You can 9 triangles by the lengths of their sides. 5. One 9 of counting numbers is by odd and even. 6. Classify each angle as right, acute, or obtuse.
120 90

55

obtuse

right

acute

429

Lesson 8-1, Part 2

Theorem 8-2 Converse of the Pythagorean Theorem


If the sum of the squares of the lengths of two sides of a triangle is equal to the square of the length of the third side, then the triangle is a right triangle. If a2 1 b2 5 c 2 , then nABC is a right triangle. Underline the correct words to complete each sentence. 7. A triangle with side lengths 3, 4, and 5 is / is not a right triangle because 32 1 42 is equal / not equal to 52 . 8. A triangle with side lengths 4, 5, and 6 is / is not a right triangle because 42 1 52 is equal / not equal to 62 . A B
c b a

Problem 4 Identifying a Right Triangle Got It? A triangle has side lengths 16, 48, and 50. Is the triangle a right
triangle? Explain. 9. Circle the equation you will use to determine whether the triangle is a right triangle. 162 1 482 0 502 162 1 502 0 482 482 1 502 0 162

10. Simplify your equation from Exercise 9. 162 1 482 0 502 256 1 2304 0 2500 2560 u 2500

11. Underline the correct words to complete the sentence. The equation is true / false , so the triangle is / is not a right triangle.

Theorems 8-3 and 8-4


Theorem 8-3 If the square of the length of the longest side of a triangle is greater than the sum of the squares of the lengths of the other two sides, then the triangle is obtuse. Theorem 8-4 If the square of the length of the longest side of a triangle is less than the sum of the squares of the lengths of the other two sides, then the triangle is acute. Use the figures at the right. Complete each sentence with acute or obtuse. 12. In nABC, c 2 . a 2 1 b 2 , so nABC is 9. 13. In nRST, s 2 , r 2 1 t 2 , so nRST is 9. obtuse
t

c A b S
r s

B a C

acute

Chapter 8

430

Copyright by Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

Problem 5

Classifying a Triangle

Got It? Is a triangle with side lengths 7, 8, and 9 acute, obtuse, or right?
14. Circle the length of the longest side, c. Underline the lengths of the other two sides, a and b. 7 15. Complete. a2 1 b2 5 49 1 64 5 113 c2 5 81 8 9

16. Underline the correct words to complete the sentence. Since c 2 is equal to / greater than / less than a2 1 b2, the triangle is acute / obtuse / right .

Lesson Check Do you UNDERSTAND?


Error Analysis A triangle has side lengths 16, 34, and 30. Your friend says it is not a right triangle. Describe your friends error. 17. The length of the longest side of the triangle is 34 . 18. Circle the length that your friend used as the longest side, c, in the comparison. 16 30 34
? 162 + 342 = 302 ? 256 + 1156 = 900 1412 900

19. Write the comparison that your friend should have used to determine whether the triangle is a right triangle.
Copyright by Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

162 1 302 0 342 20. Describe the error in your friends work. Answers may vary. Sample: My friend used the wrong length for c in the comparison. _______________________________________________________________________ The comparison should be 162 1 302 0 342 . _______________________________________________________________________

Math Success
Check off the vocabulary words that you understand. hypotenuse leg Pythagorean Theorem Pythagorean triple

Rate how well you can use the Pythagorean Theorem and its converse.
Need to review
0 2 4 6 8 10

Now I get it!

431

Lesson 8-1, Part 2

8-2

Special Right Triangles

Vocabulary
Review
1. Circle the segment that is a diagonal of square ABCD. AB AC AD BC CD A B D C

2. Underline the correct word to complete the sentence. A diagonal is a line segment that joins two sides / vertices of a polygon.

Vocabulary Builder
complement (noun)
KAHM

pluh munt

Other Word Form: complementary (adjective) Math Usage: When the measures of two angles have a sum of 90, each angle is a complement of the other.
Copyright by Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

Nonexample: Two angles whose measures sum to 180 are supplementary.

Use Your Vocabulary


Complete each statement with the word complement or complementary. 3. If m/A 5 40 and m/B 5 50, the angles are 9. 4. If m/A 5 30 and m/B 5 60, /B is the 9 of /A. 5. /P and /Q are 9 because the sum of their measures is 90. Complete. 6. If /R has a measure of 35, then the complement of /R has a measure of 55 . 7. If /X has a measure of 22, then the complement of /X has a measure of 68 . 8. If /C has a measure of 65, then the complement of /C has a measure of 25 . 9. Circle the complementary angles.
120

complementary complement complementary

60

40

50

Chapter 8

436

Theorem 8-5 45-45-90 Triangle Theorem


In a 458-458-908 triangle, both legs are congruent and the length of the hypotenuse is "2 times the length of a leg. Complete each statement for a 458 2458 2908 triangle. 10. hypotenuse 5 "2 ? leg 11. If leg 5 10, then hypotenuse 5 "2 ? 10 .
s 45 2 45 s

Problem 1 Finding the Length of the Hypotenuse Got It? What is the length of the hypotenuse of a 458-458-908 triangle
with leg length 5!3 ? 12. Use the justifications to find the length of the hypotenuse. hypotenuse 5 "2 ? leg 5 "2 ? 5 "3 5 5 "2 ? "3 5 5 "6 458-458-908 Triangle Theorem Substitute. Commutative Property of Multiplication. Simplify.

Problem 2 Finding the Length of a Leg


Copyright by Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

Got It? The length of the hypotenuse of a 458-458-908 triangle is 10. What is the
length of one leg? 13. Will the length of the leg be greater than or less than 10? Explain. Less than. Explanations may vary. Sample: The hypotenuse is the longest side. __________________________________________________________________________________ 14. Use the justifications to find the length of one leg. hypotenuse 5 "2 ? leg 10 5 "2 ? leg 10 5 458-458-908 Triangle Theorem Substitute. Divide each side by "2 .

"2 "2
10

"2

? leg

leg 5 leg 5 leg 5

"2
10

Simplify. ?

"2 "2

"2

Multiply by a form of 1 to rationalize the denominator.

10 "2 2

Simplify. Divide by 2.

leg 5 5 "2

437

Lesson 8-2

Problem 3 Finding Distance Got It? You plan to build a path along one diagonal of a 100 ft-by100 ft square garden. To the nearest foot, how long will the path be? 15. Use the words path, height, and width to complete the diagram. 16. Write L for leg or H for hypotenuse to identify each part of the right triangle in the diagram. H path L height L width path height

width

17. Substitute for hypotenuse and leg. Let h 5 the length of the hypotenuse. hypotenuse 5 "2 ? leg h 5 "2 ? 100

18. Solve the equation. Use a calculator to find the length of the path. h 5 !2 ? 100 h N 141.4213562 19. To the nearest foot, the length of the path will be 141 feet.

Theorem 8-6 30-60-90 Triangle Theorem


In a 308-608-908 triangle, the length of the hypotenuse is twice the length of the shorter leg. The length of the longer leg is "3 times the length of the shorter leg. Complete each statement for a 308-608-908 triangle. 20. hypotenuse 5 2 ? shorter leg
Copyright by Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

2s 30 s V3 60 s

21. longer leg 5 "3 ? shorter leg

Problem 4 Using the Length of One Side Got It? What is the value of f in simplest radical form?
22. Complete the reasoning model below. Think f is the length of the hypotenuse. I can write an equation relating the hypotenuse and the 5 3 shorter leg of the 30 -60 -90 triangle. 3 hypotenuse f Write 2 shorter leg 5 2 3 10 3 3 3
53 3 5 60 f 30

Now I can solve for f.

Chapter 8

438

Problem 5 Applying the 30-60-90 Triangle Theorem Got It? Jewelry Making An artisan makes pendants in the shape of
equilateral triangles. Suppose the sides of a pendant are 18 mm long. What is the height of the pendant to the nearest tenth of a millimeter? 23. Circle the formula you can use to find the height of the pendant. hypotenuse 5 2 ? shorter leg 24. Find the height of the pendant. longer leg 5 "3 ? shorter leg 5 "3 ? 9 N 15.58845727 25. To the nearest tenth of a millimeter, the height of the pendant is 15.6 mm. longer leg 5 !3 ? shorter leg
18 mm 18 mm 18 mm

Lesson Check Do you UNDERSTAND?


Reasoning A test question asks you to find two side lengths of a 45-45-90 triangle. You know that the length of one leg is 6, but you forgot the special formula for 45-45-90 triangles. Explain how you can still determine the other side lengths. What are the other side lengths? 26. Underline the correct word(s) to complete the sentence. In a 45-45-90 triangle, the lengths of the legs are different / the same .
Copyright by Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

27. Use the Pythagorean Theorem to find the length of the longest side. longest side: c2 5 62 1 62 c2 5 36 1 36 c2 5 72 c 5 "72 5 6 "2 28. The other two side lengths are 6 and 6 "2 .

Math Success
Check off the vocabulary words that you understand. leg hypotenuse right triangle Pythagorean Theorem

Rate how well you can use the properties of special right triangles.
Need to review
0 2 4 6 8 10

Now I get it!

439

Lesson 8-2

8-3
PART 1

Trigonometry

Vocabulary
Review
The Venn diagram at the right shows the relationship between similar and congruent figures. Write T for true or F for false. F T T 1. All similar figures are congruent figures. 2. All congruent figures are similar figures. 3. Some similar figures are congruent figures. Similar Figures

Congruent Figures

4. Circle the postulate or theorem you can use to verify that the triangles at the right are similar. AA , Postulate SAS , Theorem SSS , Theorem

Vocabulary Builder
ratio (noun)
RAY

shee oh

Related Words: rate, rational Definition: A ratio is the comparison of two quantities by division. Example: If there are 6 triangles and 5 squares, the ratio of triangles to squares is 6 5 5 and the ratio of squares to triangles is 6 .

Use Your Vocabulary


Use the triangle at the right for Exercises 5 and 6. 5. Circle the ratio of the length of the longer leg to the length of the shorter leg.
5 13 5 12 12 13 13 12 12 5 13 5
5 13 12

6. Circle the ratio of the length of the shorter leg to the length of the hypotenuse.
5 13 5 12 12 13 13 12 12 5 13 5

Chapter 8

444

Copyright by Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

Key Concept The Trigonometric Ratios


sine of /A 5 length of leg opposite/A a 5 c length of hypotenuse
c

B
a

b length of leg adjacent to/A cosine of /A 5 5 c length of hypotenuse a length of leg opposite/A tangent of /A 5 5 length of leg adjacent to/A b

Draw a line from each trigonometric ratio in Column A to its corresponding ratio in Column B. Column A 7. sin B 8. cos B 9. tan B Column B
a c b a b c

10. Reasoning Suppose nABC is a right isosceles triangle. What would the tangent of /B equal? Explain. 1. Explanations may vary. Sample: The legs would be _______________________________________________________________________ congruent, so b would equal 1. a _______________________________________________________________________

Problem 1 Writing Trigonometric Ratios


Copyright by Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

Got It? What are the sine, cosine, and tangent ratios for lG?
11. Circle the measure of the leg opposite /G. 8 15 17 T
17 15

G
8

12. Circle the measure of the hypotenuse. 8 15 17

13. Circle the measure of the leg adjacent to /G. 8 15 17

14. Write each trigonometric ratio. sin G 5 15 opposite 5 hypotenuse 17 8 adjacent 5 hypotenuse 17 15 opposite 5 adjacent 8

cos G 5

tan G 5

445

Lesson 8-3, Part 1

Problem 2 Using a Trigonometric Ratio to Find Distance Got It? A section of Filbert Street in San Francisco rises at an angle of about 178.
If you walk 150 ft up this section, what is your vertical rise? Round to the nearest foot. Below is one students solution and diagram.
x 150 cos 17(150) = x

cos 17 =

150 ft 17

143.4457134 x 143 x 15. What error did the student make?

x Answers may vary. Sample: The student wrote cos 178 5 150 rather _______________________________________________________________________ x than sin 178 5 150 . _______________________________________________________________________

16. Find the vertical rise correctly.


x sin 17 5 150 sin 17(150) 5 x 43.85575571 N x 44 N x

17. The vertical rise is about 44 feet.

Lesson Check Do you know HOW?


Use the triangle at the right. Write each ratio. A
6 10 8

C 18. sin A 8 10 21. sin B 6 10 5 3 5 5 4 5 19. cos A 6 10 5 3 5

B 20. tan A 8 6 23. tan B 5 4 3

22. cos B 8 10 5 4 5

6 8

3 4

Chapter 8

446

Copyright by Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

8-3
PART 2

Trigonometry

Vocabulary
Review
Complete each sentence with the word hypotenuse or leg(s). 1. The longest side in a right triangle is the 9. 2. In a right triangle, the 9 is opposite the right angle. 3. The sum of the squares of the 9 of a right triangle is equal to the square of the 9 . hypotenuse hypotenuse

legs

hypotenuse

Vocabulary Builder
inverse (noun)
IN

vurs

Related Word: opposite


Copyright by Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

Definition: The inverse of something is the opposite. Main Idea: If you know the sine, cosine, or tangent ratio for an angle, you can use an inverse (sin 21 , cos 21 , or tan 21 ) to find the measure of the angle. Examples: Sin 21 is the inverse of the sine ratio.

Use Your Vocabulary


Underline the correct word to complete each sentence. 4. Multiplication and addition / division / subtraction are inverse operations. 5. Tan 21 is the inverse of the cosine / sine / tangent ratio. Identify the inverse of the operation used in the equation. Write addition, division, multiplication, or subtraction. 6. 3x 5 45 8. 27 5 3
x

division multiplication

7. a 2 4.2 9. 15 1 b 5 22

addition subtraction

447

Lesson 8-3, Part 2

Problem 3 Using Inverses Got It? Use the figure below. What is mlY to the nearest degree?
P
100

T
41

Y 10. Circle the lengths that you know. hypotenuse side adjacent to /Y side opposite /Y

11. Cross out the ratios that you will NOT use to find m/Y . sine cosine tangent

12. Underline the correct word to complete the sentence. If you know the sine, cosine, or tangent ratio of an angle, you can use the inverse / ratio to find the measure of the angle. 13. Follow the steps to find m/Y . Write the ratio.

tan Y

100 41

Use the inverse.

tan

( )
100 41
Copyright by Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

3
14. To the nearest degree, m/Y 5 68 .

Use a calculator. Y 67.70637084

Lesson Check Do you know HOW?


What is the value of x? Round to the nearest tenth. 15. Circle the equation you can use to find the value of x. cos x 5 32 tan x 5 32
27 27
x 27 32

sinx 5 32

27

Chapter 8

448

16. Solve your equation from Exercise 15. sin x 5 27 32 x 5 sin 21 ( 27 ) 32 x 5 57.53825503

17. To the nearest tenth, the value of x is

57.5

Lesson Check Do you UNDERSTAND?


Error Analysis A student states that sin A S sin X because the lengths of the sides of kABC are greater than the lengths of the sides of kXYZ. What is the students error? Explain. Underline the correct word(s) to complete each sentence. 18. nABC and nXYZ are / are not similar. 19. /A and /X are / are not congruent. 20. Sin 358 is / is not equal to sin 358. 21. What is the students error? Explain.
Copyright by Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

B Y
35 35

Answers may vary. Sample: The student did not look at _________________________________________________________________ the measures of lA and lX. Congruent angles have equal _________________________________________________________________ sine ratios. _________________________________________________________________

Math Success
Check off the vocabulary words that you understand. trigonometric ratios sine cosine tangent

Rate how well you can use trigonometric ratios.


Need to review
0 2 4 6 8 10

Now I get it!

449

Lesson 8-3, Part 2

8-4

Angles of Elevation and Depression

Vocabulary
Review
Underline the correct word(s) or number to complete each sentence. 1. The measure of a right angle is greater / less than the measure of an acute angle and greater / less than the measure of an obtuse angle. 2. A right angle has a measure of 45 / 90 /180 . 3. Lines that intersect to form four right angles are parallel / perpendicular lines. 4. Circle the right angle(s) in the figure. /ACB /BAD /ADB /CBA /BAC /DBA D A

Vocabulary Builder
elevation (noun) el uh VAY shun Related Word: depression Definition: The elevation of an object is its height above a given level, such as eye level or sea level. Math Usage: Angles of elevation and depression are acute angles of right triangles formed by a horizontal distance and a vertical height.

Use Your Vocabulary


Complete each statement with the correct word from the list below. Use each word only once. elevate elevated elevation elevated elevation elevate

5. John 9 his feet on a footstool. 6. The 9 of Mt McKinley is 20,320 ft. 7. You 9 an object by raising it to a higher position.

Chapter 8

454

Copyright by Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

Problem 1 Identifying Angles of Elevation and Depression Got It? What is a description of l2 as it relates to the situation shown?

Write T for true or F for false. T T F F 8. /2 is above the horizontal line. 9. /2 is the angle of elevation from the person in the hot-air balloon to the bird. 10. /2 is the angle of depression from the person in the hot-air balloon to the bird. 11. /2 is the angle of elevation from the top of the mountain to the person in the hot-air balloon.

12. Describe /2 as it relates to the situation shown. Answers may vary. Sample: l2 is the angle of elevation from the _______________________________________________________________________
Copyright by Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

person in the hot-air balloon to the bird. _______________________________________________________________________

Problem 2 Using the Angle of Elevation Got It? You sight a rock climber on a cliff at a 32 angle of elevation. Your
eye level is 6 ft above the ground and you are 1000 feet from the base of the cliff. What is the approximate height of the rock climber from the ground? 13. Use the information in the problem to complete the problem-solving model below. Know Angle of elevation 32 8 . is Distance to the cliff is 1000 ft. 6 ft Need Height of climber from the ground
Eye level 32 1000 ft Climber

Plan Find the length of the leg opposite 328 by 32 8 . using tan Then add 6 ft.

Eye level is

above the ground.

455

Lesson 8-4

14. Explain why you use tan 328 and not sin 328 or cos 328. Answers may vary. Sample: The sine ratio involves two unknowns. The cosine ratio involves the _______________________________________________________________________ hypotenuse and 1000, but I do not want to know the hypotenuse. The _______________________________________________________________________ ratio that uses the unknown height and 1000 is the tangent ratio. _______________________________________________________________________ 15. The problem is solved below. Use one of the reasons from the list at the right to justify each step.
d tan 328 5 1000

Solve for d. Use a calculator. Write the equation.

Write the equation. Solve for d. Use a calculator.

(tan 328) 1000 5 d d < 624.8693519

16. The height from your eye level to the climber is about 625 ft. 17. The height of the rock climber from the ground is about 631 ft.

Problem 3 Using the Angle of Depression Got It? An airplane pilot sights a life raft at a 26 angle of depression. The airplanes
altitude is 3 km. What is the airplanes horizontal distance d from the raft? 18. Label the diagram below.
26 altitude 3 km Not to scale Angle of elevation 26 d Angle of depression
Copyright by Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

horizontal distance

Raft

19. Circle the equation you could use to find the horizontal distance d. sin 268 5 d
3

cos 268 5 d

tan 268 5 d

20. Solve your equation from Exercise 19.


3 tan 268 5 d

d 5 tan3268 d 5 6.150911525

21. To the nearest tenth, the airplanes horizontal distance from the raft is 6.2 km.

Chapter 8

456

Lesson Check Do you UNDERSTAND?


Vocabulary How is an angle of elevation formed? Underline the correct word(s) to complete each sentence. 22. The angle of elevation is formed above / below a horizontal line. 23. The angle of depression is formed above / below a horizontal line. 24. The measure of an angle of elevation is equal to / greater than / less than the measure of the angle of depression.

Lesson Check Do you UNDERSTAND?


Error Analysis A homework question says that the angle of depression from the bottom of a house window to a ball on the ground is 20. At the right is your friends sketch of the situation. Describe your friends error. 25. Is the angle that your friend identified as the angle of depression formed by the horizontal and the line of sight? Yes / No adjacent to / opposite 20

26. Is the correct angle of depression adjacent to or opposite the angle identified by your friend? 27. Describe your friends error.
Copyright by Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

Answers may vary. Sample: My friend identified the wrong angle. The _______________________________________________________________________ correct angle of depression is below the horizontal line. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

Math Success
Check off the vocabulary words that you understand. angle of elevation angle of depression trigonometric ratios

Rate how well you can use angles of elevation and depression.
Need to review
0 2 4 6 8 10

Now I get it!

457

Lesson 8-4

8-5

Vectors

Vocabulary
Review
1. Circle the drawing that shows only segment AB. A
A 2 B 1 0 1

B
C 2

A
D 3 4

Use the number line below to find the length of each segment.

2. AB 5

3. AC 5

4. BC 5

5. BD 5

6. Explain how a line segment is different from a line. Explanations may vary. Sample: A line segment has endpoints. A _______________________________________________________________________ line does not have endpoints and extends without end. _______________________________________________________________________

vector (noun)

VEK

tur

Related Words: magnitude, direction Definition: A vector is any quantity with magnitude (size) and direction. Main Idea: You can use vectors to model motion and direction. Example: A cars speed and direction together represent a vector.
O x Vector OP, or OP

Use Your Vocabulary


Write T for true or F for false. T F T 7. A vector has an initial point and a terminal point.
O y x 55 B

8. The terminal point of the vector at the right is point O. 9.

W In symbols, vector OB is written as OB .

Chapter 8

462

Copyright by Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

Vocabulary Builder

Problem 1 Describing a Vector Got It? How can you describe the vector at
the right as an ordered pair? Round the coordinates to the nearest tenth. 10. Label the diagram with the lengths x and y. 11. Circle the part of the triangle that has a length of 312. leg opposite 10-angle leg adjacent to 10-angle hypotenuse
y x

y x O 10

312

12. Circle the part of the triangle that has length x. leg opposite 10-angle leg adjacent to 10-angle hypotenuse

13. Circle the part of the triangle that has length y. leg opposite 10-angle leg adjacent to 10-angle hypotenuse

14. Use the justifications below to find the values of x and y. cos 10 5 312 ? cos 10 5 x 307.2600189 <x x 51 Solve for x and y. Use a calculator. Round to the nearest tenth. Write the ratios. sin 10 5 312 ? sin 10 5 y 54.17823143 < y 54.2 < y y 312

307.3 < x

15. Decide whether each coordinate is positive or negative.


Copyright by Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

x-coordinate: 9 y-coordinate: 9

negative negative 254 l.

16. Written as an ordered pair, the vector is k 2307.3 ,

Problem 2 Describing a Vector Direction Got It? What is the direction of the vector at the right?
17. Is the angle above (north) or below (south) the west-east line? 18. Is the angle to the left (west) or to the right (east) of the north-south line? 19. Circle the direction of the vector. 60 south of east 60 north of east 60 south of west 60 north of west above / below left / right
S W 60 N E

463

Lesson 8-5

Problem 3

Finding the Magnitude and Direction of a Vector

Got It? An airplane lands 246 mi east and 76 mi north from where
it took off. What are the approximate magnitude and direction of its flight vector? 20. Label the diagram with the lengths 246 and 76. 21. The vector k 246 , 76 l describes the result of the trip. 22. Complete the reasoning model below. Think The magnitude is the distance from the initial point to the terminal point. I can use the Distance Formula to nd the distance between (0, 0) and (246, 76). d Write (246 0)2 60,516 66,292 257.4723286 The vector is x north of east. I can use the tangent ratio to nd this angle formed by the vector. Then I can use a calculator to nd the inverse tangent. x x 76 246 tan
1

N d W S x
246 76

(76 0)2 5776

tan x

76 246

17.16817244

Property Adding Vectors


For a 5 kx1, y1 l and c 5 kx2, y2 l, a 1 c 5 kx1 1 x2, y1 1 y2 l.

Problem 4 Adding Vectors Got It? What is the resultant of k2, 3l and k 24 , 22 l as an ordered pair?
24. The sum is found below. Use one of the reasons in the list to justify each step. e 5 a 1 c

W W W W

Write the sum. Substitute. Add the coordinates. Simplify.

Substitute. Write the sum. Simplify. Add the coordinates.

e 5 k2, 3l 1 k24, 22l e 5 k2 1 (24), 3 1 (22)l e 5 k22, 1l

Chapter 8

464

Copyright by Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

23. The magnitude is about 257 mi and the direction is about 178 north of east.

Problem 5 Applying Vectors Got It? Reasoning The speed of a powerboat in still water is 35 mi/h. The river
flows directly south at 8 mi/h. At what angle should the powerboat head up river in order to travel directly west? 25. Label the sides of the triangle in the diagram. 26. Use trigonometry to find x.
8 sin x 5 35 8 x 5 sin21 Q 35 R

8 8

mi/h

mi/h x

N S

boat

x N 13.21298036 27. The angle at which the powerboat should head up river is about 13.2 .

Lesson Check Do you UNDERSTAND?


Error Analysis Your friend says that the magnitude of vector k10, 7l is greater than that of vector k210, 27l because the coordinates of k10, 7l are positive and the coordinates of k210, 27l are negative. Explain why your friends statement is incorrect. 28. Complete to find the magnitude of each vector. d1 5 "(10 2 0)2 1 (7 2 0)2 5
Copyright by Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

d2 5 "(210 2 0)2 1 (27 2 0)2 5 5 5


10 2 1 72 100 1 49 149

(210)2 1 ( 27 )2 100 1 49 149

5 5

29. Explain why your friends statement is incorrect. Explanations may vary. Sample: When using the Distance Formula to find magnitude, you square the __________________________________________________________________________________ coordinates. 102 1 72 5 (210)2 1 ( 27)2, so the magnitudes are equal. __________________________________________________________________________________

Math Success
Check off the vocabulary words that you understand. vector magnitude initial point terminal point resultant

Rate how well you can use and describe vectors.


Need to review
0 2 4 6 8 10

Now I get it!

465

Lesson 8-5