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Application Note - Interpoint

Crane Aerospace & Electronics Power Solutions

Inrush Current

Crane Aerospace & Electronics Power Solutions

Inrush Current
ApplICAtIon note
Although the concepts stated are universal, this application note was written specifically for Interpoint products. The inrush current phenomenon for a PWM switching power supply comes in two parts. The first involves the charging of the input capacitors and/or filter elements. The second is the power converter input current time profile which is supposed to be controlled by the soft start circuitry which in turn controls the PWM and charging rate of the output filter and load elements. Each of these is discussed in the following. 1) The input power line filter may consist of a capacitor across the power line or, more generally, a 2 or 4 pole LC differential filter which will generally be under damped. Refer to Figure 1 for a functional example of a forward converter complete with the input line filter. If the power is applied as a step with a rise time of 1 s or less, the initial inrush current can be 50 amps or more on an unlimited 28 V power bus. This could occur if power were applied with a switch on an aircraft power bus. Where the input filter is only a capacitor, the initial surge current will be a single surge lasting the duration of the input step. Where an under-damped line filter is involved, the initial inrush current will be an exponentially damped sinusoid lasting for as long as a few hundred s. Using a current limited supply or ramping up the input line voltage will reduce the inrush surge amplitude. Using a ramp with a 100 s rise time or longer will reduce the surge currents to reasonable limits. Refer to Figures 2, 3, and 4 for examples of inrush current. Figure 5 illustrates the input filter model used in the examples. For an input capacitor only, the 100 s ramp reduces the surge to about 1% of that where the rise time is 1 s. Where a current limited supply is used, beware that starting a single or several PWM supplies can cause problems with hang-ups and possible damage to the supplies due to their negative input impedance characteristic. Refer to the following paragraphs for further explanation on this issue. Figures 6 and 7 show the circuit for a simple power ramp circuit and its starting voltage profile in response to a step application of the 28 volt power line. The circuit utilizes a HEX 5 N channel FET in the return line configured as an integrator controlled by a current source. The integrator time constant is determined by the voltage across RT, about 6 volts, and the sum of CT and the FET Drain Gate capacitance, on the order of 1000 PF total. As configured, the turn on voltage ramp rise time is about 200 s. Once timed out, the FET becomes a closed switch, and is full on with its Rds in series with the 28 volt return line. Alternately, a P channel FET could be used in the high line with the circuit

MHD/MTR SERIES DUAL OUTPUT TYPE

VBIAS

VOUT

+VIN

INPUT FILTER +VOUT

SYNC INH RTN 600 kHz CONTROLLER CMOS DRIVER

LIMITER

REF AMP CASE MAG. COUPLER

REF

COM

Figure 1: Forward Converter with input Line FiLter Crane Aerospace & Electronics Crane Electronics Group (Interpoint Brand) PO Box 97005 Redmond WA 98073-9705 425.882.3100 electronics@craneae.com www.craneae.com

Page 1 of 6 Rev C - 20061206

Crane Aerospace & Electronics Power Solutions

Inrush Current
ApplICAtIon note

50

Power Line (Volts)

40 30 20 10 0 100 200 300 400 500

28 Volt Input 1 s Rise Time


50

Time (s)

Inrush Current (Amps)

30 10 10 30 50 100 200 300 400 500

Converter Inrush Current Figure 2: 1 s rise Time

Time (s)

re-configured to change active component polarities, or an N channel FET source follower could be used in the high line. The latter has the disadvantage of requiring a charge pump or other means to provide the FET with gate enhancement above the +28 volt line. 2) The input starting current profile of the power converter will follow that due to the filter elements by a few hundred s to a few milliseconds, and can last from a few to tens of milliseconds. Refer to the figures for examples. A properly designed forward
50

or flyback converter will have a smooth inrush profile where the current will not exceed the normal values for a step or ramp start similar to that discussed earlier. For a ramp or slow start, the input current when the PWM begins to control will be on the order of 2.5 times the normal value at 28 V, and will decline smoothly as the line voltage comes up. This is because of the negative input impedance characteristic where the input line current is inversely proportional to the input line voltage. This means that for a constant load, the product of input voltage and current is constant as a function of line voltage except for small

Power Line (Volts)

40 30 20 10 0 100 200 300 400 500

28 Volt Input 100 s Rise Time


5

Time (s)

Inrush Current (Amps)

3 1 1 3 5 100 200 300 400 500

Converter Inrush Current Figure 3: 100 s rise Time

Time (s)

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Page 2 of 6 Rev C - 20061206

Crane Aerospace & Electronics Power Solutions

Inrush Current
ApplICAtIon note

50

Power Line (Volts)

40 30 20 10 0 100 200 300 400 500

28 Volt Input 250 s Rise Time


5

Time (s)

Inrush Current (Amps)

3 1 1 3 5 100 200 300 400 500

Converter Inrush Current

Time (s)

Figure 4: 250 s rise Time


3 H 6 F 0.02 0.001 Power Converter

0.02 Source 0.1 Power Source

I inrush

Figure 5: inpuT FilTer model

differences in conduction losses over the input range. Then, where a current limited power source is to be used, the limit current must be set based on maximum load and the low line starting voltage, usually 11 to 15 volts for 28 volt devices. Where the input line is applied as a step, depending on the individual part and type of soft start, the input current may rise monotonically rather than beginning at a high value and then decreasing as the line voltage rises. Where this is important, it is best to assume the latter case unless the user has proven it to be otherwise. 3) Some examples of output voltage and input current starting profiles follow. All were taken from lab data using a step start from a HP Model 602A, 200 watt switching power supply.

Figure 8 shows the starting profiles for an MCH2805S flyback converter with current mode control. This part starts at just under 12 volts and has a 0.5 watt load. The efficiency should be about 70% at this load such that the input power will be 0.71 watts. When starting occurs at about 12 volts, the input current will be about 0.71 watts/12 volts = 0.06 amps, in agreement with the measured value. At 28 volts, the current decreases to 0.025 amps due to the incrementally negative input impedance. The starting profiles with the load paralleled with 1000 fd is also shown and is well behaved with the current mode control, but requires some additional time to start. Also, due to the large capacitance, there is some overshoot of output voltage. Note that the surge for charging the input capacitor has occurred at time zero on the graph and is not shown.

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Page 3 of 6 Rev C - 20061206

Crane Aerospace & Electronics Power Solutions

Inrush Current
ApplICAtIon note

Figure 9 shows the starting profiles for an MTR2805D with a 1 ohm load on the positive output only, and also a 2 ohm load paralleled with a 2000 fd capacitor. The MTR is a voltage mode forward converter, and the large capacitor significantly modifies the control loop characteristics. The input current peak is defined by the peak output power at current limit. Large capacitive loads should be used with flyback rather than forward power converters whenever possible, since the former doesnt have the disadvantage of a low frequency 2nd order output filter inside its control loop. Figure 10 shows the starting profiles for an MTR2815S with about a 20 watt load and two different values of paralleled capacitors. The first with a 47 fd paralleled capacitor has a smooth and orderly starting profile. The second with a larger 207 fd capacitor shows an oscillatory behavior where starting is controlled by the current limit loop which causes the ON/OFF behavior on the way up. This by itself should not cause any type of damage during startup. Figure 11 shows the starting profile of an MHV2815DF with nearly full load, and with an added 1000 fd capacitor across the load. This is a continuous flyback device with current mode control, and a good soft start. The input current is monotonic and well behaved with and without the added capacitive load. If you are using Interpoint power converters, make sure the power source is large enough for starting as well as for continuous operation. For starting, the following procedure should work safely.
28 V Power Line

28 V 1N4148 62 k RT RTN 1N753 2N2907 1 Meg PWM Converter

62 k

CT 5k 470 pF 1N757 100 pF

IRF150

Figure 6: conTrolled ramp VolTage sTarTing circuiT 200 s ramp

1) Determine the maximum continuous output power in watts. Add a safety factor, like 30%. Then multiply by 1.3 to add the safety factor. 2) Divide this figure by the decimal efficiency to get the maximum input power. Look for the efficiency curves on the data sheet. If you cant find it, use a figure like 70%, and divide by 0.7. If you are not sure, talk to one of the Interpoint Application Engineers.

3) Now you have the maximum input power. Divide this by the low line voltage at which the PWM starts working to get the maximum input current you will need. You can determine this voltage on the bench by turning the power source voltage up slowly and monitoring the power converter 50 output. You may want to apply an additional 40 safety factor like maybe 10%. Do this by multiplying the low line starting voltage by 0.9. Now 30 divide this voltage into the maximum input 20 power you found in step 2), and you have the 10 maximum current you will require. If several power converters are involved, go through 0 100 200 300 400 500 the previous procedure on each, and then Time (s) add the line currents. The answer you get is 28 Volt Input 30 the minimum current capacity you need from your power source at current limit. If you get 24 an answer like 7.5 amps, then the actual line 18 current at 28 volts will be more like 3.5 amps due to the negative input impedance charac12 teristics of the power converters. If you have a 6 supply with an adjustable current limit, be sure 0 to set the limit at 7.5 amps or more, not the 3.5 100 200 300 400 500 Switch closed Time (s) amp normal line voltage operating current. The Voltage across FET lower current limit may cause hang-ups and Figure 7: VolTage across ncH FeT in ramp sTarT circuiT damage to the supplies. Page 4 of 6 Rev C - 20061206

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Voltage Across IRF150 (Volts)

Power Line (Volts)

Crane Aerospace & Electronics Power Solutions

Inrush Current
ApplICAtIon note

Output Voltage (Volts)

50 load only 50 load paralleled with 1000 F

1 load only

VOUT (Volts)

2 load paralleled with 2000 F (similar results with 1 load paralleled with 2000 F)

0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30

0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Time (ms)
0.10 5

Time (ms)

0.08

Input Line Current (Amps)

Input Line Current (Amps)

50 load only 0.06

50 load paralleled with 1000 F

2 load paralleled with 2000 F (similar results with 1 load paralleled with 2000 F)

0.04

0.02

1 1 load only

0.00

10

15

20

25

30

Time (ms) Full Filter Board with 2 ohm damper

Time (ms) Step start at 28 V, load on +5 only

Figure 8: sTarTing proFile mcH2805s

MCH2805S SN 0081

Figure 9: sTarTing proFile mTr2805d

MTR2805D SN 0044

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Page 5 of 6 Rev C - 20061206

Crane Aerospace & Electronics Power Solutions

Inrush Current
ApplICAtIon note

20

20

15

11 load paralleled with 47 F

15

13.9 V
15 load

VOUT (Volts)

10

11 load paralleled with 207 F

VOUT (Volts)

10

15 load paralleled with 1000 F

0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12

Time (ms)
5 1.0

Time (ms)

Input Line Current (Amps)

Input Line Current (Amps)

Oscillatory

0.8

3 11 load paralleled with 207 F 2

0.6

0.6 A
15 load

0.4

1 11 load paralleled with 47 F 0

0.2

15 load paralleled with 1000 F

0.0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

10

12

Time (ms) 28 V start

Time (ms) Profile on +15 V output only, 28 V start Inrush current is measured across a 0.1 resistor in series with input return.

Figure 10: sTarTing proFile mTr2815s

MTR2815S SN 0068

Figure 11: sTarTing proFile mHV2815dF

MHV2815DF SN 0012

Inrush Current Rev C - 20061206 All information is believed to be accurate, but no responsibility is assumed for errors or omissions. Interpoint reserves the right to make changes in products or specifications without notice. Copyright 1999 - 2006 Interpoint Corporation. All rights reserved.

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