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Wireless Communication Techniques


(Fall 2011)
Lecture 8
Diversity &
Equalization
Dr Shurjeel Wyne
DI VERSI TY
(CH7 - Rappaport ,2e)
(CH13- Molisch)
Error Performance of Digit al Modulat ion
in Slow Flat -Fading Channels
To obt ain average error perf ormance under f ading, we must view
t he AWGN error performance at some arbit rary received SNR
as a condit ional probabilit y where t he condit ion is t hat is fixed.
To obt ain t he average error performance when is random, we
must average t he ( condit ional) AWGN error performance over t he
probabilit y densit y funct ion of ,i.e., we evaluat e t he int egral:
Where is t he probabilit y densit y funct ion of
0
2
N
E
b
=
, ) , ) d pdf P P
AWGN
e e }

=
0
,
, ) pdf

BER in Fading Channels


Fading causes serious BER problems !
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
10
-6
10
-4
10
-2
10
0
E
b
/N
o
[dB]
A
v
e
r
a
g
e

B
E
R
BPSK with Coherent Detection
Rayleigh Fading
AWGN (non-fading)
2
Diversit y t echniques are used t o combat Fading
Macro-diversit y: mit igat es t he effect s of shadowing from
buildings and obj ect s
Combining signals received by several base st at ions
Requires coordinat ion among involved Base st at ions
Needs prot ocols in infra-st ruct ure based net works
(we will not st udy t his furt her)
Micro-diversit y: mit igat e t he effect s of mult ipat h fading
(we will only focus on Micro-diversit y in t he course)
DI VERSI TY TECHNI QUES
The principle of diversit y is t o t ransmit t he
same informat ion on M st at ist ically
independent channels.
By doing t his, we increase t he chance t hat
t he informat ion will be received properly.
An example of one such arrangement is
ant enna di versi t y.
DI VERSI TY ARRANGEMENTS
The Diversit y Principle
Diversit y is used t o combat Fading ! !
(Not e: correlat ed channels will give
diminished performance relat ive t o
uncorrelat ed channels).
DI VERSI TY ARRANGEMENTS
Small Scale Fading Pat t ern
DI VERSI TY ARRANGEMENTS
General I mprovement Trend
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
10
-6
10
-5
10
-4
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
10
0
E
b
/N
o
[dB]
A
v
e
r
a
g
e

B
E
R
SER of BPSK with Coherent Detection
Rayleigh Fading
Rayleigh Fading (4 branch Diversity)
AWGN (non-fading)
2
3
DI VERSI TY ARRANGEMENTS
Some Techniques
Our focus will be on spat ial
(antenna) diversit y.
M
M
Figure: General Block Diagram for M-branch Ant enna Diversit y
Ant enna (Space) Diversit y Techniques
Ant enna Diversit y Techniques can be classified int o four Cat egor ies:
1. Select ion Diversit y
2. Maximal Rat io Combining (MRC)
3. Equal Gain Diversit y
4. Feedback Diversit y
Combiner
Out put
:
Diversit y Advant ages
I ncrease in average SNR (at combiner
out put ) relat ive t o t he single-branch SNR
I mprovement in t he out age probabilit y of
t he SNR at t he combiner out put relat ive t o
t he single-branch SNR
ANTENNA DI VERSI TY
Sel ect i on Di ver si t y
Among t he M r ecei ver br anches ( ant ennas) , t he r eci ever br anch havi ng
t he hi ghest i nst ant aneous SNR i s connect ed t o t he demodul at or
-10 -5 0 5 10
10
-4
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
10
0
/ I [dB]
P
r
o
b
.

[


/
I
s

a
b
s
c
i
s
s
a
]
P
out
of Selection Combining in Rayleigh Fading
M=1
M=2
M=3
M=4
M=5
M=6
Di mi ni shi ng r et urns wi t h
i ncr easi ng number of
ant ennas, M
Fig: RSSI -driven 2-Branch select ion Diversit y
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ANTENNA DI VERSI TY
Maxi mum Rat i o Combi ni ng ( MRC) Di ver si t y
The signals from each of M branches are co-phased and weight ed
according t o respect ive signal t o noise rat ios and t hen summed
MRC produces an out put SNR equal t o t he sum of t he input SNRs
This t echnique gives best st at ist ical reduct ion of fading among all
linear diversit y combiners
MRC

M M

M
G
ANTENNA DI VERSI TY
Equal Gai n Combi ni ng Di ver si t y
The variable weight ing capabilit y of MRC diversit y is replaced wit h
fixed branch weight s, set t o unit y for all M branches
The signals from each branch are st ill co-phased
The performance of Equal Gain Combining Diversit y is marginally
inferior t o MRC, and superior t o select ion diversit y
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1
ANTENNA DI VERSI TY
Scanni ng/ Feedback Di ver si t y
I nst ead of always using t he best of M signals, t he M signals ar e
scanned in a fixed sequence unt il one is found t o be above a pre-
det ermined t hreshold
This signal is t hen received unt il it falls below t he pre-det ermined
t hreshold, and t he scanning is int iat ed again
ANTENNA DI VERSI TY
Performance Comparison of Select ion & MRC Diversit y
Normalized SNR [ dB]
5
Q. Assume 4-branch select ion diversit y is
used, where each branch receives an
independent Rayleigh fading signal. I f
t he average branch SNR is 20 dB,
det ermine t he probabilit y t hat t he
inst ant aneous SNR will drop below 10
dB. Compare t his wit h t he case of a
single receiver wit hout diversit y
EQUALI ZATI ON
(CH16 - Molisch)
EQUALI ZATI ON
I nt er-symbol int erference
Discret e Time Channel Model
Linear equalizers
Decision-feedback equalizers
Maximum-likelihood sequence est imat ion
I NTER SYMBOL I NTERFERENCE
Background
Even if we have designed t he basis pulses of our modulat ion t o be
int erference free in t ime, i.e. no leakage of energy bet ween
consecut ive symbols, mult i-pat h propagat ion in our channel will
cause a delay-spread and i nt er-symbol i nt er f erence ( I SI ) .
I SI will degrade performance of our receiver, unless mit igat ed by
some mechanism. This mechanism is called an equal i zer .
6
ASK
ASK Mat ched Filt er should
now be mat ched t o
cascade of Tx pulse
& channel f ilt er
I NTER SYMBOL I NTERFERENCE
I ncluding a Channel I mpulse Response
Assume Ampl i t ude Shi f t Keyi ng ( ASK) modul at i on wi t h Mat ched Fi l t eri ng:
AWGN Channel Model
Mat ched Filt er
MF out put samples
I SI -free for properly
shaped pulses g(t )
These out put samples
no longer I SI -free &
noise is not whit e
I ncl udi ng i mpul se r esponse of a Di sper si ve Channel , h( t )
The discret e t ime equivalent of the new syst em is:
where we can say t hat F(z) represent s t he basis pulse and channel, while
F* (z
-1
) represent s the matched filt er.
We can now achieve whit e noise quite easily, if (t he not unique) F(z) is
chosen wisely, i.e., F* (z
-1
) has a st able inverse:
k
c
k
c
k
n
k

k
n
k
u
k

I NTER SYMBOL I NTERFERENCE


The Discret e Time Channel Model
) (z F
) (z F
) (
1 *
z F
) (
1 *
z F ) ( 1
1 *
z F
k
c
k
n
k
u
) (z F

=

+ =
L
j
k j k j k
n c f u
0
I NTER SYMBOL I NTERFERENCE
The Discret e Time Channel Model
Wit h t he applicat ion of a noise-whit ening filt er, we arrive at a discret e-t ime model
where we have I SI and whit e addit ive noise, in the form
The coefficients f
j
represent the causal impulse response of the discrete-t ime
equivalent of t he channel F (z ), wit h an I SI t hat ext ends over L symbols.
k
u
k
c

=

+ =
L
j
k j k j k
n c f u
0
I NTER SYMBOL I NTERFERENCE
The Discret e Time Channel Model
+
k
n
What is the t he operat ion indicat ed by t he summat ion?
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EQUALI ZATI ON
Compensat es for int ersymbol int erference (I SI )
creat ed by mult ipat h time dispersive channels
Compensat es for t he average range of expect ed
channel amplit ude and delay charact erist ics
Must be adapt ive since t he channel is generally
unknown and t ime varying
Adapt ive equalizer operation includes t raining
and t racking
Must balance I SI reduct ion wit h minimizing noise
enhancement
Classificat ion of Equalizers
Apply an equalizer filt er E (z ) at t he receiver t o mit igat e t he effect of I SI :
LI NEAR EQUALI ZER Principle
Now we have t wo different st rat egies:
1) Design E(z) so t hat t he I SI is t ot ally removed:
2) Design E(z) so t hat we minimize the mean squared-error:
k k k
c c =
Zer o- f or ci ng
MSE
Equalizer Filt er
1 ) ( ) ( = z E z F
LI NEAR EQUALI ZER
Zero Forcing Equalizer
zer o- f or ci ng equal i zer aims to remove t he I SI complet ely, i.e., 1 ) ( ) ( = z E z F
k
c
) (
1
) (
z F
z E =
k
c
k
u
k
n
) (z F
ZF Equalizer
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A serious problem wit h t he zero-forcing equalizer is t he noise
enhancement , which can result in infinit e noise power spect ral densit ies
aft er t he equalizer.
The noise is enhanced (amplified) at frequencies where t he channel
has a high at t enuat ion.
Anot her, relat ed, problem is t hat t he result ing noise is colored, which
makes an opt imal det ect or quit e complicat ed.
By applying t he minimum mean squared-error crit erion inst ead, we
can remove t he noise-enhancement effect s.
LI NEAR EQUALI ZER
Zero Forcing Equalizer
LI NEAR EQUALI ZER
MSE Equalizer
k
c
) (z F
0
2 2
1 * 2
) (
) (
N z F
z F
s
s
+

k
c
k
u
k
n
The MSE equal i zer is designed t o minimize t he error variance
The MSE equal i zer removes t he most problemat ic noise
enhancement s as compared t o t he ZF equalizer. The noise power
spect ral densit y cannot go t o infinit y any more.
This improvement from a noise perspect ive comes at t he cost of not
t ot ally removing t he I SI .
The noise is st ill colored aft er t he MSE equalizer which, in combinat ion
wit h t he residual I SI , makes an opt imal det ect or quit e complicat ed.
LI NEAR EQUALI ZER
MSE Equalizer
We have seen t hat t aking care of t he I SI using only a linear fil t er will
cause (somet imes severe) noise coloring.
A slight ly more sophist icat ed approach is t o subt ract t he int erf erence
caused by already det ect ed dat a (symbols).
This principle of det ect ing symbols and using feedback t o remove t he
I SI t hey cause (before det ect ing t he next symbol), is called
deci si on f eedback Equal i zat i on (DFE).
DECI SI ON FEEDBACK EQUALI ZER
Principle
9
k
c
k
c
k
n
) (z F ) (z E
) (z D
This part shapes
t he signal t o
work well wit h
t he decision
feedback.
This part removes
I SI on f ut ur e
symbols from t he
current ly det ected
symbol.
a wrong
decision
from t he
decision
device will
increase
t he I SI
inst ead of
minimizing
it
DECI SI ON FEEDBACK EQUALI ZER
Principle
DECI SI ON FEEDBACK EQUALI ZER
Zero Forcing DFE
k
c
) (z F
) (z E
k
c
k
n
) (z D
I n t he design of a ZF-DFE, we want to complet ely remove all I SI
before t he det ect ion.
This enforces a relat ion bet ween the E (z ) and D (z ), which is (we assume
t hat we make correct decisions!)
As soon as we have chosen E (z ), we can det ermine D (z ).
, ) , ) , ) 1 = z D z E z F
Like in t he linear ZF equalizer, forcing t he I SI t o zero before t he
decision
device of t he DFE will cause noise enhancement .
Noise enhancement can lead t o high probabilit ies for making t he wrong
decisions ... which in t urn can cause error propagat ion, since we may
add I SI inst ead of removing it in t he decision-feedback loop.
DECI SI ON FEEDBACK EQUALI ZER
Zero Forcing DFE
k
c
) (z F ) (z E
k
c
k
n
) (z D
To limit noise enhancement problems, we can concent rat e on minimizing
mean squared-error (MSE) before the decision device inst ead of t otally
removing t he I SI .
The overall st rat egy for minimizing t he MSE is the same as for t he
linear MSE equalizer (again assuming t hat we make correct decisions).
DECI SI ON FEEDBACK EQUALI ZER
MSE DFE
10
By concent rat ing on minimal MSE before t he det ect or, we can reduce
t he noise enhancement s in t he MSE-DFE, as compared t o t he ZF-DFE.
The performance of t he MSE-DFE equalizer is (in most cases) higher
t han t he previous equalizers ... but we st ill have t he error propagat ion
problem t hat can occur if we make an incorrect decision.
DECI SI ON FEEDBACK EQUALI ZER
MSE DFE
k
c
k
c
k
n
) (z F
k
u
The opt imal equalizer t hat correct ly det ects t he t ransmitt ed sequence wit h t he highest
probabilit y, is t he maxi mum- l i kel i hood sequence est i mat or ( MLSE) .
The principle is t he same as for t he Maximumi Likelihood symbol det ect or (receiver)
but wit h t he difference that we now look at the ent ire sequence of t ransmit t ed symbols.
MLSE:
Compare t he received
noisy sequence u
k
Wit h all possible noise free
received sequences and
select t he closest one
For sequences of lengt h N symbols, this requires comparison wit h 2
N
different noise free sequences.
Br ut e f orce MLSE i s t oo compl ex
t o i mpl ement pr act i cal l y compl ex
MAXI MUM LI KELI HOOD SEQUENCE ESTI MATOR
Principle
T
T T T
T
T
T
T 2
T T
T 3
T 2
T 3
Single pulse at input of linear equalizer filter:
Compensated pulse at output of linear filter:
ISI to neighboring pulses