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LEADING AND MANAGING CHANGE (Model By Cummings & Worley) 1. Motivating Change Creating Readiness For Change (a) Creating a Felt Need for Change (b) Making People Dissatisfied with Status-quo Methods Producing Dissatisfactions are:(a) Sensitize Organizations To Pressure For Change (b) Reveal Discrepancies Between Current and Desired States (c) Convey Credible Positive Expectations for the Change Overcoming Resistance to Change (a) Technical Resistance (b) Political Resistance (c) Cultural Resistance Three Major Strategies For Dealing with Resistance to Change (a) Empathy and Support (b) Communication (c) Participation and Involvement 2. Creating a Vision (a) Members want the organization to look like or become (b) Vision describes the core values and purpose that guides for future goals Describing The Core Ideology (a)Core Values, (b) Purpose and (c) Relatively Stable Over time Constructing The Envisioned Future

3. Developing Political Support Assessing Change Agents Power Effective Change Identifying Key Stakeholders Management Influencing Stakeholders 4. Managing The Transition (a) Movement from Current State------- Transition State------ to Desired Future state Activity Planning (a) Making a road map for Change

(b) Cite specific activities and events that must occur if the transition is to be successful Commitment Planning (a) Identifying key people or groups whose commitment is required for change to occur and formulating a strategy for their support. (b) Specific plans for identifying key stakeholders Change Management Structures (a) Special Structures for managing change process need to be created (b) Members should be leaders and have power to mobilize change (c) Chief Executive Manages the change effort (d) A manager is temporarily assigned to coordinate the transition (e) The formal organization manages the change effort in additions to supervising normal operations (f) Representative of the major constituencies involved in the change jointly manage the change project. (g) Natural leaders who have the confidence and trust of large number of affected employees are selected to manage the transition. (h) A cross section of people representing different organizational functions and levels manages the change. (i) A kitchen cabinet representing the people whom the Chief Executive consults with and confides in managing the change effort. 5. Sustaining Momentum (a) Sustain Energy and Commitment for Implementing Change (b) The following five activities can help to sustain momentum for carrying change: Providing Resources For Change (a) Implementing organization change requires additional financial and human resources particularly if the organization continues day to day operations while trying to change it. (b) Extra resources are needed for change activities as training, consultation, data collection, feedback and special meetings. (c) A separate Change Budget is required for change activities. Building a Support system for Change Agents (a) Support system typically consists of a network of people with whom the change agents have close personal relationships- people who can give emotional support, serve as a sounding board for ideas and problems, and challenge untested assumptions.

(b) Growing number of companies such as Intel, Proctor & Gamble, BP and Texas Instruments are forming internal networks of change agents to provide mutual learning and support. Developing New Competencies and Skills (a) Organizational change demand new knowledge and behavior from the organization members. (b) In many cases, change cannot be implemented unless members gain new competencies. (c) It is important for the senior managers of all the divisions to attend training programs which build new problem solving skills, team behavior and commitment to quality and organization philosophy. Reinforce New behavior (a) One of the most effective ways to sustain momentum for change is to reinforce the kinds of behaviors needed to implement the change (b) This can be accomplished by linking formal rewards directly to the desired behavior. (c) For example, Integra Financial encouraged more teamwork by designing a reward and recognition program in which the best team players got both financial rewards and management recognition. Staying The Course (a) Change management projects should not be abandoned midway but to be continued till completion. (b) Patience and trust in the diagnosis and intervention design work is necessary. (c) Many managers do not keep focused on a change because they want to implement the next big idea that comes along (d) Successful organizational change requires persistent leadership that does not waver unnecessarily.

Model of Leading and Managing Change by Cummings and Worley