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^T.

'

PL

M792 B8 1872
C.I

ROBA

Presented to the

LIBRARY of the
UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO
by

PROF. A. GLEASON

OF THE

BY

REV.

J.

BBIGEL

B. M. S.

MANGALORE
PUBLISHED BY
1872
C.

STOLZ

BASEL MISSION BOOK & TRACT DEPOSITORY

PREFATORY NOTE.
In
offering to the public this first

attempt at treating the Tulu Languit

age grammatically, the Author and Publisher trust that

will

be wel-

come

to all

who take an

interest in the
first

South Indian Languages, although


of this kind, written as this
is,

they are well aware that a

work

under a pressure of professional duties, cannot claim perfection.

Tulu

is

one of the Dravidian Languages, spoken only in the Col-

lectorate of

South Canara by about

500,000

people,

and

is

nearly

exactly confined

between 12-30 and 13-30

degrees N.
It

latitude, ex-

tending eastward to the foot of the Ghats.

cannot boast of any

literature in the proper sense of the word, nor has it

a character of

its

own.
till

In writing, a modification of the Malayalam alphabet was used,

the Basel Mission Press employed Canarese characters in printing.

This precedent has

now been almost

generally followed.
is

The

first

book ever printed in Tulu,

the Gospel of St.

Matthew

lithographed and published in

1842.

Within

1847

the whole of the


edition of it

New
was

Testament was
issued in

finished,

and a new typographical


this,

1859.

Besides

the

following

was published at
First

Mangalore:

The Psalms,

Liturgy,

Hymn-Book,

and Second

IV
Catechisms, Old

and New Testament Bible

Stories,

Short Bible Stories,

Prayer-Book, Flattich's Household-Rules,


of Scripture Passages.
Special

Congregation-Rules, Selection

acknowledgment

is

due to A. Burnell Esq. M.

c. s.,

who

not

only took
it

much

interest in the publication of this book,

but

facilitated

by a

liberal donation

towards the cost of printing.

Mangalore, \kth September 1872.

GRAMMAR OF THE TULU LANGUAGE


I.

PART:

PHONOLOGY.

1.

Chapter: Of the Alphabet.

1. The Tulu language has no alphabet of its own. Those who formerly wrote in Tulu used to employ Malayalain characters; but more recently the Canarese alpha-

bet has been adopted both in writing and printing; so the


latter
2.

may now
Iii

this

be considered as the modern Tulu alphabet. alphabet there are 15 Vowels, two Medials
A.

and 34 Consonants.
Of Vowels.

3.

Vowels are

either short or long, or diphthongal or

indefinite.

Short:

S5 a,

^
-3?

i,

eni n,

srio

n,

>e,
e,

2*0.
to 6.

Long:

t? a,

i,

yxra u,

sx$J3

n,

Diphthongal:
Indefinite:
e
*

soei(ai),
in

25 on,

(as

),

in

je.

Dr. Lepsius in his


B.

sounded nearly as the French Standard Alphabet represents

it

by
4.

u.

OHl (-dials.
o,
ah.

m,

n,

There are two Medials, viz: or n according to position, and 8


C.

which

is

sounded

Of Consonants.

5.

There are 25

classified

and 9

unclassified Conso-

nants, viz:

2
Classified Consonants.

3
7.
B.

Consonants.

with

a.

59
inherent

the
Consonants

vowel

e?a
53 ka
50D

ka
sokha

kha

a)

khi

Dkhi
?^gi

sookhu

sojs>khu

so^khri

so^khri

Xga
na

ACga
na

?sgi

X^gu
2?

Xoagu
s^> nu

X^gri

83D

ni

26

ni

nu

8?^ nri

8?^

nn

85^ ca
$3t> cha

elci
e3 chi
83 ji

sf^ci

&3ocu

&fja

e^ja

Scpjhi

5cppjhi

cCpojhu c(pjs>jhu

63

ta

fcrata,

&3ti

K^ti

W^tu

63jstu

tha
1

5 thi

da

di

dha

zp dha

^
&

dhi

ft^dhi

^odhu
raonu

^jsdhu
fojanu

^d'hri
rs^nri

flni
ti

f^^ni
3? ti
qi^ thi
>

^ tu
<Sxsthu
rfj

^tM
rf

da

CD da

^ di

di

du

ni
pi

^^ ni
ob^pi

^ nu
^jpu

jl

nu

^^ nri

TJ

pa

ebu

pa

*:

^ppu

20
8^
irfj

ba

aroba

83 bi

83^ bl

ai^bu

eojabu

^jjbri

20^,

bn

bha

ep^bha
~z$

83bni

^^bhi
o^ysmi
0353 yi
sp rl

^fcbhu
o^J-mu
cdoo

^jabhu

e^^bhri
mri 0^3^
odo>, yri

B^rrgbhri
ttSo-rgmrl

ma

js

ma
ya

Siomi
cOo yi

^-jsmu
odojs

odi ya

cdjai

yu

yu

d ra

CD ra

ri

^J ru

sDva
'sD

>vi S
si

S)^vi
?>^ si

^/vu
^o su

^vu

sa

To
Cc

sa

KTS sa
ess

& si
Sshi

&^si
So phi

Tvosu

rojssu

ha

ha

5oohu

Sojshu

5
so ei

2o o

06

J ou

am

ah

<y

sSkhe s^kbe

?<>khei s5jskho

xUi^kho s^Dkhou
?f3 gou
<do

soo

kham soskhah
A gah

AO gam
jjjo

* ghou

gham 3p-ghah
sssiiah
E^O

i^ne
>?ce

"$l nei

^cj^no
'S5j)co

^cjs^no
tSjspco

sJ'Snou

ajonam
s^-ocam

??? cei

^che

^'j?che

a $( chei

E^SCOU
<^?7)chou

cah

cpj>cho

^.ra^cho

^ccham

^=chah

jhe

^jpHhei ^jsjho

<5jk^s^jho

o^p^jhou cCpojham

63 te

3ote

B/ o

tei

S^sto

65jpto
10

&^tou
^'Sthou

&3otam

Gotham

^thah
^odhah
reSnah

'

93

zf/dhei

rf js

dho rif^^dho
f2J?>pno

tj'Sdhou

Rodham
rso

J^ ne

fs^ ne

ri/ nei

"

J^jsno
^-isto

ps'Snou

nam

&

te

SP

te

i}

tei

^jspto

s'Stou

^otam
Z^otham

H;tah
Zj5sthah

(p^ thei
<5/

^J^tho vJ>jth6 ^^thou


<3j3

dei

do

oJ3^ do
^Jw3

n'S dou

DO dam
Tj^o

QJ dah

~Q}

dhei

oj3 dho

dho ^p^ dhou

dham

^
<3

dhah
nah

c^o

nam

-j

pou

zlopam

vpte

vpbe
^5? be

y^phei
eS; bei
j

^ppho
^Sos bo

^^pho
sSjspbo

'^'Sphou

e^Sbou
ep'Sbhou

ptam 200 bam


3fi

^pah ^phah
eo^bah
p=

$bhe
^J?me
o5j ye

^S/bhei
6:/ mei

^5-^bho

^jjs^bho

^Sobham

bhah

&

^jsmo

^Sjspmo

^o'Smou ^oomam
odo^ you
o'Srou

^osmah
odes

o5u^ye
^3? re

oSo^yei o3^,yo

o5js^y6
tfjz^io

$ re

^ ( r ei
is/

^-^ro

"do

odooyam ram

yah

"dSrah

^ve
"?
se

vei
sei
sei

'^/svo
'fjsso

^^vo
^JSOSQ
r\js^so
>-x'js)o

n'Svou

rfovam
"^c

^58

vah

"f^

^^sou
MT^BOQ
oj^sou
ss'Shou

sam

^8sah

SA-^SO

tic sam

^v sei
5cy hei

^ so ojjs
oo^sho
"^jslo

so

rdosam

ToSsah

Scjs^ho

55oham
^/olam

ScShah

fie

^?1

^(Isi

fja^lS

^^lou

The following

fourteen Consonants are pronounced like

the English letters by which they are represented: 3 ka, rt ga, e3 <$a, fci ja, 3J pa, 20 ba, do ma, o3o ya, d ra, o la, d va, nearly ^
sa, ?o sa,

CQ ha.

8.

letters
letters;

The remaining Consonants do not correspond to the of the English alphabet. The following are dental
they must be pronounced with the
teeth: ^
ta,

tip
q$

between the front


9.

q$ tha,

da,

of the tongue dha, ^ na.

The following are cerebral letters: y ta, d tha, d da, ^ dha, re na; ^

sa,

la,

(Tables showing the alphabet with the combinations of the Vowels and Consonants).
c.

Syllables.

10.

The

short vowel of every

is

inherent in the initial or comso that every letter


is

plete form

consonant;

capable of being a complete syllable. Thus: ^odoz3 shepherd; sss&rid a-ma-sa-ra, haste; Wdtg ka-du, forest.
11.

ku-ru-be

a syllable is formed of two or more consonants and one vowel, the vowel is always joined to the
first

When

or uppermost consonant, but sounded after the last or


kli,

lowest one; thus:

tyu,

h^

stri.

^_
3

W; o

rf
<a

12.

The

half letter r

is

pronounced before the


it;

letter

or syllable which in writing precedes


class; ^^rsS kartave,

thus: ^rtr varga,

Lord; 3oJ3^Foc3
d.

liortande,

except.

Double Consonants.

13.

cation,

Most of the consonants are capable of reduplias with unchanged form of under-written consonants:

sj'

&;'

<sp'

c c<3'

ti*

With
nants:
2.

partially

changed form of under-written conso5>; t&',


<*

^,; ri: cdv,


d-

?;$; H; v ^ v w

^9 ^
*,

<p

rf; si; o^x; sd .: **

52!;

si:
'

o\'

nJ'

oo'

%*"

With entirely changed form of under-written consonants:


_o'
^o).'
(i,'

o}'

o'

ro"

3.

Chapter: Of Euphony.
occasions the elision, insertion, and per-

14.

Euphony

mutation of

letters.
a.

Elision.

15.

When

word ending
affix

in

a,

i,

ew

u,

or

u is

followed by an

commencing with

a vowel,

euphony

requires elision as follows:

etc.

b.

Insertion.

16.

Sometimes c^n

is

inserted; as,

c.

Permutation.

compound words sometimes changed; as, ^-srlr^sS instead of SD^r^d;


17. In

the consonant
srart oc^

is

for sra

Remark: In the declensions of nouns and pronouns hard and


consonants are, for the sake of euphony, frequently exchanged;
for ?ro5d; c3)3 for
as,

soft

pad;

O&T? for tfosF^ eS3jaUj for

cJe

II.
1.

PART: ETYMOLOGY.
WORDS ACCORDING TO THEIR

Chapters Of the Formation of Words.


ORIGIN.

DISTINCTION OF
18.

the

The Tuluvas have adopted many words from languages, they have come in contact with; here we
a.,

find in their vocabulary


c.,

pure Tulu,
e.,

6.,

pure Sanscrit,

/.,

corrupted Sanscrit, foreign words.

d.,

Canarese,

Hindustany and
house; woz3
padike,

6 Examples of pure Tulu words: ^o

illu,

banji,

belly; saDiid patera, word; oiiei yedde, good;

&=

bad;
niti,

etc.

Examples of pure
tice;
rtado guru,

Sanscrit:

&^3

priti,

love; $53

jus-

master.
Sanscrit:

Examples of corrupted
(slSe^prasna); roJSc^sonne,
o;

&&

prasne,

question

z3Je>$$ (23J5$cSe>) bodhane, advice.

Examples of
ment; 3J3^,--^ w 2^"

(pure) Canarese:

$6do^

seremane,

confine-

hottekichchi,

envy; 3^0^$=$

tiluvalike,

knowledge.
empty;

Examples
(will) glad.

of Hindustany: ^>

(jus)

kali

(khali)

HJSrO (SJdro) khasi (khasa),

own;

=^o<^

(SJoS, SJO^)

kusi

(khusi, khasi),

Examples of foreign words:


cortu,

rierso

(rosrs^oo) salam (salamu ;

" court; ^ej^iio*

kallakataru, collector.

DISTINCTION OF
19.

WORDS ACCORDING TO THEIR FORM.

There are Primitive, Derivative and Compound


a.

Words.
Primitive Words.

1.
2. 3.

Verbs:

(&>200

nambu, believe;

^eJj. kattu,
fS

build.

Nouns: dodmara, tree; ^^kallu, stone;


Pronouns:
oJJSc^ yanu,
I;

w nela, ground, etc.


inci,

a,

that;

^^

hither.

4.

Numerals: ^otS wonji, one;


nudu,

sis^pattu, ten; sis^ paka,

some;

hundred,

etc.

_
b.
1.

_
3U katta and
3$.

Derivative Words.

Verbal derivatives:

as, c3o)r{ nambige, trust

believe); sa^tajme, patience (from satfo);


katte,

bundle (from 3klx


in

kattu).

2.

Other derivatives:

a]

Ending

^ tva, ^tana, oJ

tfgesas, tooaSo^^kuddhihinatva, oJ

stupidity; ofozS^yoJdetana, goodness;

si) era

afimalladige, great-

ness.
b)

Ending

in rra^gare, ^oJvante,

i,

'R&iite,

?3

sthe,

as, s3j^?3rra3 mosagare,

deceiver; wjadoibuddH^ante, wise man;


S5e)^j^,papiste,

vyabMcari,
d?3 vyaparasthe,

an adulterer;

a sinner;

a merchant, a seller; eSj^q^bodhake, a teacher.


in
s?*

c)

Ending

h,

di:

as,

^ori^ magalu, a daughter;

rfrrada mosagaredi, a deceitful


C.

woman.

Compound Words.

20.

Compound words may be formed by the union of two

nouns or by affixing pronouns to the genitive case of nouns and to participles, as will be seen from the following examples.
a)

Union of two nouns: 006=5%^

Mrekuta, presbytery;

^D*

^o^nirukutta, dropsy; S3D3J!03o3dpapaparihara, forgiveness of sin.

21. b) Affixing pronouns to the genitive case of nouns:

2^3z3>o3j
pntidaju (
S^o

pritidaye

(^3rf+oi>
3JkJ cjaoSj

pritida

+ aye),

lover;
(

^Bd+^ ^ pritida+alu); ^^vlcra^o^J pritidakulu


alu,-S3^)

pntida+akulu), lovers;

patnadaye (3Jyrf patnada+ tJo3o


eikulu), citizen.

aye,-w^
c)

avu,-W^o^o akulu,_S3^j^o

Affixing pronouns to participles which, for the sake of euphony, requires the insertion of the letter c^ nij: sk^cra
o3j malpunaye

(dj^malpu+^ nu+wo3j aye,- ws* alu,

e5S^)

avu)

maker

or one that makes; s&^cJs^o^o malpunakalu (do^malpu+c^ nn+ w^o^o akulu,-SD^j^o eikulu) makers or things that make; w^cra
oi> battinaye

(W^batti+c^ nu+wo3j aye,-W^

alu,-S3^) avu),

one that

10
came; to^^s^o^obattinakulu (zo^
eikulu),

batti+c^ ira+e^otfo

persons or things that came.

2.

Chapter: Of Parts of Speech.


five principal parts of

22.

There are

speech

viz:

Nouns,

Pronouns, Numerals, Verbs and Particles.


FIRST SECTION: NOUNS.
23.

Nouns are of three kinds,


1.

viz:

Substantive, Adjective,

and Adverbial.

OF SUBSTANTIVES.
a.

Gender of Substantives.

24.

Substantives

are

of three Genders:

Masculine,

Feminine, and Neuter. 25. The names of men and gods are Masculine, those of women and goddesses Feminine, animals and inanimate
objects are generally Neuter.

The word
sex; as,

tJr^ ana,

male,
anubale,

is

often prefixed to

show the male


anupili,

yc^WD^

male infant; tJD^&S)


26.

a tiger.
is

The word

s^rso ponnu, female

often prefixed to

sho\v the female sex; as,

^cxarasS

ponnubale,

a female child;

^>rw &>
erss3 bale,

ponnupili,

a tigress.

27. There are

a child,

is

some exceptions to the above rule; thus: generally and t^jana, a person or people,
as, &ras3
is

frequently Neuter;
fcsi-j

bale puttundu, a child s^^-oc^ 5 so^ocs jana battundu, the people have come.
b.

born;

Number of

Substantives.

have two numbers: Singular and Plural. 29. The Plural is formed by adding- o* ru' or "**o lu' V O
28. Substantives

or '^o^o
kartavera,
kuri,

kulu' to

the singular; as, =^^rs5


si^Zo
meji,

kartave, lord,
mejilu,

^rsSa 5
=5*00

lords;

table,

s^So^o

tables;

sheep, ^oO^o^o

kurikulu,

sheep.

11
30. Plural

Substantives of relationship terminate in


ammadlu, fathers; ri^JS^ofosc^sahodriyadlu,

lu; as, S3 d-3>Jpo,

sisters.

31.

When

the cardinal numbers are used in reference

to persons, the

word w^

jana

may

be added to ^oto

wonji,

one,
thus:

and

either &<$ or si>od mande to all the other

numbers;
or
dra*

oo2o fci^ wonji jana,

one person; ds*

fc^

raddii jana

dood

raddu mande,

two persons.
c.

Declension of Substantives.

32. Substantives
nitive,

have 8 Cases

viz:

Nominative, GeAblative or Instru-

Dative,

Accusative, Locative,

mental, Communicative and Vocative. Of these the Nominative singular is the same as the crude form of the word;
the formation of the Nominative plural has been explained in the preceding paragraph, the remaining cases are formed

by adding

affixes to the

Nominative.
Affixes.

Cases.

Singular.
1.

Nominative
Genitive

S3 a, S^)u,
S3 a,

ooe

etc.

O*ru,

2.

^ta,

dda

6 re,

3.
4.

Dative
Accusative

r^g, x^ku, riogu, =^oka

6ns regu
6 re,

c^nu, ^ona

5. 6.
7.

Locative
Ablative or Instru.

^ du,
C3
5
,~.
.

fa

tu,

do du, ib tu

_.u

dudu, o o'

do dudu /->">

O ie4udu
S?d leda

Communicative
Vocative

8.

6? re,

33.

cases of substantives

There are 5 declensions or modes of forming the by adding the above-mentioned affixes,

varying principally according to the termination of words in their crude form. They are therefore conveniently

termed

a.,

declension in e
<

a;

&.,

declension in ^i;

c.,

declen*

sion in srou;

declension in

<ze,

and

e.,

declension in

n.

12
34.
I.

Declension:

IST

EXAMPLE.
i
.

Personal noun

Crude form:

1.

Norn.
Genit.

amma, a
,

mistress.

2.

of a mistress, to a mistress. mistress,

3.

Dat.
Accus.
(

ammagu,

4.

ammanu, a
ammadu,

5.

Local.
Ablat.

in a mistress,

6.

ammadudu, from, by or through a mistress,

7.

Comm.
Focctf.
e-

ammada,
,

to a mistress.

8.

mistress!

35.
2.

2ND

EXAMPLE.
.,

Impersonal nouns

Crude form:

life

Singular.
1.
.ZVonj.

tS^jiva,

life.

2.

(ren.

^^Cojivada,

of

life.

3.

Dat.
^ccu5. Local.
Ablat.

3^>rta

jivogu, to

life-

4.

to^^c^ jivonu,

life.

5.

t3^5^>^0 jivodu, in

life.

6.

t3^o^)^o jivodudu, from, by or through

life.

7.

Comm.
Vocat.

s^^d

jivada, to

life.

8.

^S3e)jiva,

life!

13

Substantive ending in

esa.

wdo, amma, a mistress.

Plural.

u,

mistresses.

of mistresses.
to mistresses.

siic^^o^rf ammanakulegu,

mistresses. S&jjratfo^ctf ammanakulenu,

&x$e>tfoc
dOj.cSeJTfos?^

aminanakuledu, in mistresses.

ammanakuledudu, from, by or through mistresses.

XcSD^OS?^ ammanakuleda, to mistresses.


le,

mistresses!

(with the soft consonants).


Plural
lu, lives.

jivole, of lives.

jivolegu, to lives.
3f

jivolenu, lives.
jlvoledu, in lives.

W jlvoledudui from, by
t3^53^c^
jivoleda, to lives.

or through lives.

le,

lives!

I486.

3RD

EXAMPLE.
&.,

Crude form: dod

mara,

a tree

Singular.
1.

Norn.

mara, a tree.
marata, of a tree.

2.

Gen.

3.

Dat.
Accus. Local.
Allot.

S^o maroku,

to

a tree,
tree,

4.

maronu, a

5.

marotu, in a tree.

6.

marodudu, from, by or through a


marata, to a tree,

tree,

7.

Comm.
Vocat.

8.

mara,

tree!

37.
IST

II.

Declension:

EXAMPLE.
Personal nouns

i.

Crude form:

Singular.
1.

Norn.

pravadi, a prophet,
a

2.

Gen
>#.

pravadi, of a prophet,

3.

pravadigu, to a prophet,
pravadinu, a prophet;
pravadidu, in a prophet.

4.

Accus.
Local.
Ablat.

5.

6.

f pravadidudu, from, by or through a prophet.


ida, to

7.

Comm.
Focctf.

a prophet,
prophet!

8.

pravadiye,

15

(with the hard consonants).

Plural
marokulu, trees.
marokule, of trees.

marokulegu, to trees.
marokulenu, trees.

marokuledu,
*

in trees.

marokuledudu, from, by or through


marokuleda, to trees.

trees.

marokule,

trees!

Substantive ending in a

e.

pra^adi,

a prophet.
Plural.

pravadilu, prophets.
pravadile, of prophets.
pravadilegij, to prophets.
c

pravadilenu, prophets.
pravadiledu, in prophets.

pravadiledudu,

f,-

m, by or through prophets.

pravadileda, to prophets.
pravadile,

prophets!

16

Crude form:

naramani,

a man.

1.

Nora.

naramani, a man.
>

2.

Gen.

naramanya, of a man.

3.

Dat.
Accus.
5*

naramanyagu, to a man.
naramanyami, a man.
naramanyadu,
in a

4.

5. Locat.

man.

6.

^Wai.

tf

naramanyadudu, from, by or through a man.


naramanyada, to a man.

7.

Comm.
Vocat.

8.

naramanya

man!

38. 2ND

EXAMPLE.
Crude form:

2.

Impersonal nouns
Singular.

a.,

1.

meji, a table,

2.

Gen.
Dat.

mejida, of a table,

3.

mejigu, to a table,
mejinu, a table,
mejida, in a table.

4. Accus.
5.

Locat.
,4Wa*.

G.

mejidudu, from, through or by a table,


mejida, to a table,
mejiye,
table!

7.

Comm.
Focatf.

8.

Plural

naramanyeru, men.
naramanyere, of men.

f naramanyeregu,
5 s

to

men.

naramanyerenu, men.
naramanyeredu, in men.

naramanyeredudu, from, by or through men.


naramanyereda, to men.

naramanyere,

men!

meji,

a table (with soft consonants).


Plural,

mejilu, tables,
mejile, of tables,

mejilegu, to tables,
mejilenu, tables,
mejiledii, in tables.

mejiledudu, from, through or

by

tables,

mejileda, to tables,
mejile,

tables!

18
39. SRD

EXAMPLE.
Crude form:
tfoo torn,

.,

a sheep

1.

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.

kuri, a sheep,

2.

knrita, of a sheep,

3.

kuriku, to a sheep,
kurinu, a sheep,
kuritu, in a sheep.

4. Accus.
5. Local.
6.

^Za.
Comm.
Focaf.

kuridudu, from,

by

or through a sheep,

7.

kurita, to a sheep,

8.

kuriye,

sheep!

40.

HI.

Declension:

IST

EXAMPLE.
i.

Personal noun

Crude form:

Singular.
rfodo guru, a priest,
2.

guru, of a priest,

3.

guruku, to a priest,
gurunu,
a priest,

4. Accus.
5.

Local.

gurutu, in a priest.

6.

^Wa.
Comm.
Focatf.

gurududu, from, by or through a priest,


guruta, to a priest,
guro,

7.

8.

rtadosS^ guruve,

priest!

19

(with hard consonants).

Plural.
kurikulu, sheep.

^oO^OS? kurikule, of sheep.


kurikulegu, to sheep.
kurikulenu, sheep. kurikuledu, in sheep.
S*

kurikuledudu, from, by or through sheep.


kurikuleda, to sheep.
e,

sheep!

Substantive ending in

en) u,

guru,

a priest.
Plural.
gurukulu, priests.

rtado^OS? gurukule, of priests.

gurukulegu, to priests,
gurukulenu, priests,
gurukuledu, in priests.
y-aO^CS* gurukuledudu, from,

by or through

priests,

gurukuleda, to priests,
gurukule,
priests!

20
41.

SND

EXAMPLE.
a.,

2.

Impersonal nouns

Crude form:

1.

Norn.

2.

Gen. Dat.
Accus.
Locat.

3. 4.

5.

6. Ablat.

1.

Comm.
Vocat.

8.

21

bolpu,

light (with soft consonants).

Plural.

bolpulu, lights,
bolpule, of lights,

bolpulegu, to lights,
bolpulenu, lights,

bolpuledu, in lights.

bolpuledudu, from, by or through lights,


bolpuleda, to lights,
bolpuje,
lights!

(with hard consonants).


Plural.

u, flowers,

pukule, of flowers.
*

pukulegu, to flowers.
pukulenu, flowers.
pukuledu, in flowers.

i*

pukuledudu, from, by or through flowers,


pukuleda, to flowers,

pukule,

flowers!

22
43.
IST

IV. Declension:

EXAMPLEi.

Personal noun

Crude form:

1.

Norn.

kartave, a lord.

2.

Gen.
Dat.
Accus.

kartava, of a lord.

3.

kartavagu, to a lord.
kartavanii, a lord.

4. 5.
6.

Locat.
ABlat.

kartavadu, in a lord.

kartavadudu, from, by or through a lord.


kartavada, to a lord.

7.

Comm,
Vocat.

8.

^FS3e)

kartava,

lord!

44. 2ND
2.

EXAMPLE.
a.,

Impersonal nouns
Singular.

Crude form:

1.

bele,

work,

2.

beleda, of

work,

3.

belegu, to work.

4.

Accus.
Locat.

belenu, work, beledu, in work,

5.

6.

^Wa^.

beledudu, from, by or through work.


a,

7.

Comm.
Focaf.
bele,

to

work,

8.

work!

23

Substantive ending in

AQ.

kartave,

a lord.

Plural
*

kartaveru, lords,
kartavere, of lords,

kartaveregu, to lords,
kartaverenu, lords,
kartaveredu, in lords.
*

kartaveredudu, from, by or through lords,


kartavereda, to lords,

kartavere,

lords!

bele,

work.
Plural

belelu,

works.
of works,

e,

belelegu, to works,
belelenu, works, beleledu, in works.

beleledudu, from,
beleleda, to

by or through works,

works,

belele,

works!

24
SRD

EXAMPLE.
Crude form: =5^=$
kudike,

&.,

a fox.

1.

1.

2.

Gen.

3.

4.
5.

Locat.

6.

JWa.
Comm.
Focaf.

7.

8.

(with a peculiar plural form "<OF rju)

Plural.
kudikerlu, foxes,
kudikerle, of foxes,

kudikerlegu, to foxes,
kudikerlenu, foxes,
kudikerledu, in foxes.
S?

kudikerledudu, from,
kudikerleda, to foxes,

by or through

foxes,

kudikerle,

foxes!

(with the hard consonants).


Plural.

tarelu, heads,
tarele,

of heads,

tarelegu, to heads,
tarelenu, heads,
tareledu, in heads.

tareledudu, from,
tareleda, to heads,

by or through heads,

tarele,

heads!

26

Most of the Masculine Proper Names are declined


according to the 4th Declension.
46.
IST

V. Declension:

EXAMPLE,
a.,

i.

Personal nouns

Crude form:

27

Substantive ending in

u.

anu,

a boy.

Plural
anulu, boys,
anule, of boys,
anulegii, to boys,

anulenu, boys,

anuledu, in boys,
Cw

anuledudu, from, by or through boys.

anuleda, to boys,
anule,

boys!

dgveru,

God.

o deveruln,

gods,

deverule, of gods,

deverulegu, to gods,
deverulenu, gods.

dveruledu, in gods.
deveruledudu, from, by or through gods.

d^s3do$<3 deveruleda,
deveruls,

to gods,

gods!

28

Remark: Though
48.

deveru is

a plural form, a second

SRD

EXAMPLE.
Crude form:

2.

Impersonal noun

29 -

plural

is

formed by affixing

<&

Ju,

march,

a medicine.

Plural.

mardulu, medicines.
mardule, of medicines.
inardulegu, to medicines.

mardulenu, medicines. marduledu, in medicines.

marduledudu, from, by or through medicines.


marduleda, to medicines.
mardule,

medicines!

RELATIONSHIP.
w^o,
adlu, (cra^o, naklu)

in the plural.

In other respects the


in
a, or
<a

nouns of the

1st Declension,

and those ending

sssSi

amme, a father.
Plural.

ammadlu. fathers.
ammadle, of fathers.

rf ammadlegu,
&c-

to fathers.

&c.

30
.,

Crude form:

ess

appe,

a mother.

Singular.
1.

Plural.

Norn.

appe, a mother.
appe, of a mother.

S3c&W^o, appeadlu, mothers,

2.

Gen.
Dat.

^^W^appeadle,

of mothers.

3.

rf appegu, to a mother. SSSy^zlrs* appead}egu, to mothers.


&c.

&c.

&c.

&c.

c.,

Crude form: Primage, a

son.

Singular.
1.

Plural.

Norn.

mage, a son.
5

magadlu, sons.
magadle, of sons,

2.

Gen. Dat.

maga, of a son.

3.

magaku,
&c.

to a son.
TJ

magadlegu, to sons.
&c-

&c.

&c

VERBAL NOUNS.
50. Verbal

Nouns ending

in

S3^) (as,

s^^^s^ malpunavu,

doing or the act of doing) have no


Singular.
1.

plural.

Norn.

malpunavu, doing, or the act of doing,


malpuneta, of the act of doing,

2.

Gen.
Dat.
Accus.
Locat.
Ablat.
s

3.
4.

malpuneku,

to the act of doing,

malpunenu, the act of doing,


malpunetu, in the act of doing,

5.

6.

C9

malpunedudu, from, by or through the act of doing.


Ipuneta, to the act of doing.

7.

Comm.

31
'J.

OF ADJECTIVES.
in the Tulu

51.

There are very few Simple Adjectives


This defect
is

language.

supplied by turning Substantives into Adjectives by affixing to them the participles of the

Auxiliary Verbs
to

&>

apini,

to

become, and wcks^i

aduppuni,
crao-B

be

danti,

have become) and the negative participle who, which, and that, have not.
(to

52.
tfoofcJo

Examples of Simple Adjectives:

s^?oposa,

new

^j3^

posa kun^u,

anew cloth;

^^xirporlu, fine

^<^OF

We>e3 porlu

bale,

a fine child;

oi>zi yedde,

good

ol>ci

sirartr yedde marga,

a good way.
53.
z3^j3

Examples of Periphrastic Adjectives:


itti,

zS^bene, pain

^^bene

bene uppa, painful; tS^jS zS^fS OX>3^>

^^ ?jo^d
darkness

bene uppu sankada,

a painful sickness;
itti

^$3 kattale,

^^6
s3

Q&S

kattale

(or uppu)
itti

*a^

=^J3^cl kattale

dark (possessing darkness); =5^ (or uppu) kone, a dark room.


^d^Js)?) gati danti nara-

54. Negative Adjectives: ri3 cj3o


mani,

a helpless man.

55.

The

adjective -S-^kinni,
as:

is

also used
kinni,

substantively

signifying a young;

y^d

^-^aneda

the

young of an

elephant;

^j^Od

-S-^korida kinni,

a chicken.

Comparison of Adjectives.

56.

There

is

nothing in Tulu corresponding to the

English terminations er and est (more and most} by which Adjectives could be compared. Comparison is generally
expressed by construing the Adjective with a noun in the Ablative Case; as: & ^ j3dsi5>> ^j^raoSo ! naramanya-

^d^j^c^^

dudu a naramani mallaye, that

bigger than this man; ^023 dJS^dc^ 2Jja^o^ imbe materedudu buddliivante, he is the a 9
is

man

wisest of

all.

32
57.

Comparison may

also

be expressed by the Dative


s3oe> yena-

and Locative Cases.

Thus: o3o^ ^oci^rf ^^ tfock6

kuduregu nina kudure malle, to

my

horse your horse

(is)

a large

one, or your horse


=CTOC$o6

is

larger than mine; sira^ =5brfo6to

^^
all

5i>s3 mata kudureledu nina kudure malle, of,

or

among
is

horses your horse largest of all.

(is)

a large one,

i.

e.

your horse

the

3.

OF ADVERBS.

58.

Adverbs, like adjectives, are of two kinds: Simple

and Periphrastic.
a.
r

Examples of Simple Adverbs;


.a$ini,

as:

$&?$

kode,

yester-

day;

today;

oi>e3yelle,

tomorrow;

^rsozt kande,

morning;
sajja,

sSjOk baiya,

evening;

in vain; ?ow oja^ri pokkade, vainly,

for a time;
sarta,

sSUfi pettige,

immediately; ^o^kuda, again; ?o^r


crookedly;

straightly;

^>^6

wore,

^o^cldodo^cl kankane

marankane,
b.

ss&sSo^

adimelu,

turned upside down, &c.

Periphrastic Adverbs are very freely formed


adu,

by
as:

affixing vrf

past gerund (of

?&

aP ini

an<^ nrsoJ dante

(a negative particle) to Substantives


santosa,
,

and Adjectives;

gladness

^o^JS^
5

WS35 santosa adu,


adu,

gladly;

beauty

o^soor wzs porlu


ridjsspal?)
rio^o,

beautifully; ?osirar^>

c^

samadhana,

peace
secret

zsrf samadhana adu,


5

peacefully;
tivF sarta,

rlol^ guttu,

wzo

guttu adu,

secretly;
?odo sama,

straight
?odo

?O^F

ez^

sarta adu,

straightly;

proper

wc^ sama
59.

adu,

properly;

ri3 crsoi gati dante, helplessly.

Some Adverbs

are declined like nouns in the singu-

lar

number.
SECOND SECTION: PRONOUNS.
60.

Pronouns, like nouns, are of three kinds,

viz:

Substantive, Adjective and Adverbial.

1.

SUBSTANTIVE PRONOUNS.
Pronouns are either Personal, Reflexive,

61. Substantive

Demonstrative, Interrogative or Indefinite.


62.
A,

Personal and Demonstrative Pronouns.

Person.

34
Remark:
or
1
.

This Pronoun

is

used with reference to some other Noun


it.

Pronoun
2.

of the third person preceding

The

plural

is

used honorifically in the second person singular in

the sense of "your honor", "your lordship", etc.


of rank.
.

when speaking

to a

person

Interrogative Pronouns.

64.

yeru,

who?
D.

crs^ dane,

what?

dadavu,

what?

Indefinite Pronouns.

65. toOwori, one

man; ^Br worti, one woman;


yerla,

tootS wonji,

one thing,

etc.

oS^os

c&eosorieja yerandala,

any one.

2.

OF ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS.
Pronouns are either Demonstrative, In-

66. Adjective

terrogative or Indefinite.

67.

A.

Demonstrative.

PROXIMATE.

35

3.

ADVERBIAL PRONOUNS.
Pronouns are either Demonstrative,
In-

70. Adverbial

terrogative or Indefinite.

71.

A.

Demonstrative.

PLACE.

36

73.

C.

Indefinite.

PLACE.

TIME.

MODE.

wherever.
wolandala
yepala

always.
yencala
>

.anyhow. OcH

worme

everywhere.
yepandala

a whenever. yencandala

together.
before, in

dumbu

front.

wora,

once.

wottugu

bega,

soon

behind.
pira,

kuda,

again.

piravu

sSoo mella,
near, at
keitalu,
,

slowly.

late.

mutta

hand.

kadesa
.

...

straightly.

mittu

up.

nidupa

tembuda
not yet.

?o^F

sarta,

straight-

way.
down.
tirtu

tembudla

to 6 wore,

crookedly.
&c.

in, inside.

ulayi

out, outside.

pidayi

around.
sutta

roundabout.

suttumuttu

37
1

38

T3

g
-5 IP

*fc
TP
">

13 o

13

13

13

13

13

t
2

"TO

TP

13

13

13

13

13

Q
25

a
&0
PI

>

J
.

r-

H H 5 S
!Zi

1
Plura

^d
'2

A p
-^

I'

3'

o 02
D
ca

>-5

5
<3^

_
<3

-=

c t

'| H

a
q

tz-

TS

II
<j

O
-to

O
Tt>

O
Tt3

ox

^
CO

Q>

e^

ex

EE

ro
0?

*-<

<P

^*
'

>

<

a c
tz,
S)

1 1 W"~
C2

1
TS
CLX

-G
of

a
(3

a
Tf

CO

39

o
(X|

525

Q
IN*

CO

40
Remark: that the remaining Pronouns are inflected according to the above declensions. Thus: ss^ tanu, like orfjs^ yanu; ^o?5 meru, c3o?5 yeru,
e?5aru, like ^s5 Tru;
undu;
rr,

G 80^ imbalu, like

&e$

molu; osjodo indu, like CADodo

o^d^

dadavu, like

5^

avu

THIRD
76.

SECTION

NUMERALS.

Numerals

too are, like

Nouns and Pronouns,

of

three kinds, viz: Substantive, Adjective and Adverbial.


1.

SUBSTANTIVE NUMERALS.
one (man); 2wBr
worti,

77.
wonji,

08 wori,

one (woman);

aooz3

one

(thing).

irverii,
*

two (persons).

yelveru, seven (persons).


)CS

muverg, three (persons).

yenma mande, eight persons.

nalveru, four
eiveru, five

o^Oo^ wormba mande, nine persons,


pattu mande, ten

ajveru, six

&c.

&c.
is

Remark: From seven upwards


number.
2.

GW mande, people"

added

to the

ADJECTIVE NUMERALS.
78.
a.,

Cardinal Numbers.

wonji

n
.9

raddu
muji
nalu
einu
aji

2 3

4
5 6
7

yelu

8
wormba
si 3J

3^

pattu
pattonji

10
11

J^otS

paduradu padumuji
padunalu

12
13

14

42
paduneinu
padunaji

15 16
O.L

padunelu
23* c3re>

17

padunenma
padunormba
n<r

18
19

rva
irvatonji

20
21

irvaturaddu
irvatumuji
irvatunalu
irvatueinu, etc.

22 23

24
25

muppa,
nalpa
eiva
i ajipa

ao

30
40
50 60 70

vo

(LO

yelpa

2.0

yenpa
sonpa

CO TO

80
90

nudu
3

noo
nutavonji

100
101 102

non
no a

nutaraddu
nutamuji, etc.

103

nutapattu, etc.
nutaeiva, etc.

nno

110

irnudu

300
a.oo

munnudu
alunudu (^3 e>^ JSrfo nanudu)
einudu

voo
asoo

<LOO
yelunudu

2.00

yenmanfldu

wormbanudu

coo TOO

150 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900

43
sara
saratavonji

0,000

sarataraddu. etc.
saratapattu
saratairva

saratamuppa,

etc.

saratanudu
saratairnudu, etc.

pattusara
..

pattonjisara, etc.

laksa

44
82.

The Causative

is

formed by affixing

t?

(some-

times z& du) to the stem of the present tense of the Active

form, as: "^os?^

malpa,

make";

"^dsa) nadapa,

cause to make" from "s&s^ malpu, to cause to walk" from "cSdo^) nadapu, to

walk"; "fd^^r^o cause to walk or to lead" from


to walk";
Crisis kadapa,

"^3^

nadapu,

cause to cross (a river) or cause


kadapudu, to

to stride through"

and "^ds^o
imply

send" (here the


tarpa,

two
or

different affixes

different meanings); ^STOF

^FZ& tarpudu,
83.

cause to bring.
is

The

Reflexive or middle form

formed by adding
for

&o?s>o

wonn, to the

stem of the imperfect tense of the Active

or Causative; as: do^^rao maltonu, to


^srao tuvonu, to see
for

make

oneself; ^J5
3o5>&&ozi

oneself;

tjofo

^^

3e><

aye tananu tane hakonde,

cause to

make

he beat himself; dos^S^prso malpavonu, for oneself; wo3j ^^tf oo^ isJS^JSfli si)^

s^jorl aye tanuku wonji totonu malpavonde,

he caused

to

make a

gar-

den for himself,


Remark: There
the passive sense
?o5o 55ST?as3sccfo

i.

e.

he had a garden made for himself.


;

is

is

no passive form for verbs in Tulu whenever to be expressed it is done in the following way:
hakudinaye aye, he
is

?o3j aye
|

one who has been beaten,


aye,

or he has been beaten

G?c5o $caoJac33o3j Ci'oSo aye nindisudinaye

he

is

one

who was
84.

despised, or he

was despised.

number

of Intransitive Verbs

become

transitive
as:

by changing the terminating


mugiyu, to cease.
pariyu, to tear.
uriyu, to burn.

letter DJJJ yu, into

^ pu;

^ooh^) mugipu,

to finish,

3JO^) paripu, to tear, to

make it

tear.

VOO^)

uripu, to blow,

woriyu, to remain.
nudiyu, to sound.
2.

2^.0^) woripu, to keep, to preserve.

fii^^) nudipu, to give sound,

to speak.

TENSES OF THE VERB.


viz: the Present,

85.

There are three principal Tenses,

45
Past and Future.

Each

of the Past and Future Tenses

has two forms, Imperfect and Perfect, 1st and 2nd Future.
3.

MOODS OF THE VERB.

86. There are six Moods, viz: Indicative, Imperative,

Conditional, Infinitive, Potential and Subjunctive, each of which has a positive and negative form.
4.

CONJUGATION OF THE VERB.


viz: those in

87.

There are two principal conjugations,

which the participle of the present tense terminates in CAJU, and those in which it terminates in & pi. Each of these two
classes has three sub-divisions, the characteristic differences

of which appear in the present, past

and future tenses

of the Indicative, from which all remaining forms may be said to be derived. Accordingly there are 6 conjugations.

88.

Compare

the following table:

ss

46

J*
cd

PH

47

to 'O H3

a a o
*,

<o

o
!-a

1 1
12

*
.

co

s | -^ :& H^
"^
i <

s
:

^P

c3
*"5"

rS

*"3*

CO

TO

-( -i

a
I

S.

S.

S-

g
<&> 2? cJ

S.

a
to
)o

a
^j
9?

a
SM OJ

S
in cJ

f
TJ

S
T)

?
GV?

^
syj

f
T5

O
73

O
73

O
73

O
73

O
73

O
73

^1 O O
73

^1 O
73

73

73

,
-

o .-

*
.2

S S
G
ba

T3
cj

^
4S

a
T3

.12

So ^3

ce

a a o
CD

o,

"
",
co
"*^*~I3
"*~^

ro

*""2

c5

Cd CH

Ts>
(^J

a
t)

a
73
bo

a
T!

a
73

D
T!

T!

7!

73

Q |
EH
rt

bJO

S
CQ 1-1

a
(M

b
CO

48

p.

jrj

49

50

51

52

<s c3

a
"O

-*-=

o C a

Ja

I
<D

f
o?

TS
E3

13

a
c3

X
a
PLI

t a
fe

-a-

?
13

a o
ns

T2

T&
ft

jd
c3

c8

60
PH a-

a
fe

a
v-

a
CK\

a
fe

PM

C
<N

CO

53

1 a
a

2
o

2
o

2 "a

2 "3

OS
c3

"*

J
.

~*

3
.

S
t,

a
*

I a

a
t>

O
T3

T3

Tl

Tl

I
%

<0

^d

3
a
^d
e]

a
S

-"^-103
I

s
c3

g o
,-H*

g 1
H
C3

f a
T3 T! T3

CS

a
\*

a
\t)

K>

f
a
~
r

T!

Tl

o O
-a EH

&H

^ ^
cl

1
cS
*j
GO i-l

R
T3

M
Q
T3 CO <M

54

*.

aj

18

o
~o

'G
>

^ &

3
1
1
a,

$
o W
o
"' CO

72

re
t-^

55

56

do
ha

S3 ?5i

4J
ic3

PH

{3-<

o3

"oS*

pS

cG

cO

"17

02

W H
iy IS>

C1

H fe S I s S
<< V*
hH

|
CO
PERFECT.

Singular

^
1=1

a
T

[1 (O

57
.2
CD

to

fi

<u

^ 1
"c

CD

-t-j

O O o h

58

3
a
-M
c6

S
73
f

O
**

'

"S

cS

C3

?
a

3
a
73
23

1
73
23

a
73

I ^.
a
73
o?
C-J

'I g
73

b b

T3
23

a
73
23

73
eyy
t-J

b
23

7l
53

ft

ft

T3

CO

^
c3

PJ
c3

P*
ci

3'

a
73 73

a
"VO

a
"^>

a
T? tl

a
73 73

b b b

a
ft

a
73
-ft

a
73

73
t)

73

ft

"ft

VI VI
-ft

O-i

*j
CD
T-I

Q
<M

l-<

CO

59
-s

r
S

-8

a
4->

o^4
*->

00 03

P-l

E
c

-^
;

o
TS

B-

-^

i a
2

3'

&
vo

^ O.
n3

S
cj

o
72

-5
'^

O
-2

2'
!=l

S3-

I o

S^

*-

60

tb

.5
ce

a
"o
c!

03

a
23

73

1 1
"

II

-w

p-l

61

1
kenuj

^
-S

O
&
02

03

^ 8

s
a
.

w H ^

be

!1-

tfl

>
103

>
ES

|'O

&

103

Jd t)

*T3

T2

ox
-1)3

ox
!

a-

03

C
(N

T3

ri

62

e
?

-r
j3

_o3

5
i-al
kt*

*"C3

(O
103

Z
ICD

105
^>

8
fe

p
23

23

23

"8
<G

23

(O

t8 Ts
Tg

^ ^

09

-O
SH

"

2
03

s ~

O
J3
cS ITS'
53. 53.

a103

a103

a-

D
TS

63

TS

-~
-pi

o3

-p?

Si
I po
23

1
103

23

H
03 55
E"

d3
v> IG>
1C;

^ To
ICj

(O

to' <G
1C? Ico

to
<O
ICP 'Co

EH

c3

^3
<a

&
+a

*
o?

.-e

|
p.
fl-

po
fl-

1
<O

ml
13

Tsfl

X5
Tg
<1S
<ti>

d3

(Q

(Q

Tg Q^ TP

Tg ax

Tg ax

Tg

Tg

IP

O
CO

D^
**
03

^ C
(M

as

C
50

rH

rH

64

J
^
^
""

o
P!

O C

^,

O
o?
1

c3

o? & ^ P
t*

s?
PI-

1
so P5

kenaya

13

w H
r^

OX

ox

ox

ox

IP

IP

IP

IP

a P 5 &
'eS

03 **

M
105

OX ox

IP

^
o
H^
CD
i-C3

a o

PH P-

1 *

03

C3

T3

&
Pi-

uduppa

rW

ij

^
-3

WJ

o
Ts ax
Ts

O
Ts OX

O
Tg
Q^-

t5

IP

ox

& O
IP

ox

IP

IP

IP

P-l

PL|

2
PH

ns

PI

PM

2
<D

13

QX

T3

T3

'

13 o

13

8 QX
IP

8 QX
IP

8 QX
IP

QX

IP

-^"

S
-

I
a-

$
)

I
Te
;u-\

2
<D
03

f
pj.

JS

3Ex

,'
s-j

^
8

M
,

.M

'Q
fe

IP

c
(M

GG

TJ
OS

P!

A3

&
<D

T3
rt
PI-

TJ
ps.
Pl-

n3
-30
Pl-

n=!

PI-

g:

o s

r^

,1^

>^

MOOD

>NDITIONAL

67

fcO

o
W)
tfl

fcO

CO

K M
cu
oi

s
PI-

13

6 M H
03
ti

<o

(O

8
IP

Q
cc

Q
ss

01

1
H
60

SB

fcO

-S

oQ

E3
pi-

ts

fe

9*

68

a o
T3

o
CS

CO

g'

^
Q
T3
83

4i

TS

T3
23

t>
23 Cj

23 o o 8 8 ox ox

gra ox ox

> H H g D H ^ S B *

i
-I

f
.S

e-

cs

r^

c5 r^* o3

&
T3

T3 T3

T3 t3 T3

8 8 ox ox
03
1f>

fe

P-l

70

I 4
CS
O>

i~
'/?

^
-w

-C

'o
'

c ^

3 -5
3 O
J3

I
T3

t3

>*

<T3

rc3

03

:s> Hj'

?^
p|.

!'

M
Id)

13

13

**>

_S

a
TS
ex
**>

is
t)

13 13
ex

13
ex

oa i-l

C
(M

71

be

PI

S3

I 5

&
g

pr
1

pi-

&
S3

pQ GJ
18
ox

Q W O Z

ti)

O O
&
C!

72

c
rfl

ndIg

1
E ex
H CO H H H cc ^ CH
.s
S5

FO

O2

H H s

525

S
"S
If

73

O
o
'TS rrt

~3

O C
T3

O O

?3 (D

23 O

5S

IP!

S
o

PI

O
-_>

PH

Pi

c
(M

a
!M
10

74

3
o
05

*~^
e o3

3S

^
g

"o

o
c3

,3
cd

'5?

f
*8
33

1
23 23

^2

id
23

c
-3

23

03

<G

a
s

EH

.I CQ

75

a
rf

O
3

!3

i ?
i

g
t>
*3
1

^3

73

8
JH

=8

76

77

<

TJ
i

3 O

3 O
c3

c3

3
8 3
13

o
"**

Tj

|3
-

Q
"O

-3
c

-S

M H S o

fcJO

* 3

<D r-j

,9

^a T:

.S uar

19

-3

78

o
TO

79

os

^ce

eS

o
&C
108

^ ^ 5
>=l

JSf
c3

fl

e
IS

^
I
IS

iS

IS

^2
<G

o
X)

(O

X)

X)

a
a

a 25 P F b a Q

(O

(Q

(Q

X)

X)

X)

=3

J=

to

OJ

.=
t>

fcO

"

*>
rt

S
s

'I

^
I
IS

1 S

IS

S H
IS

3 o

>=

I
<D

3 3

6 d

T3>

-3

j>

80

S.
.6 rs
'

d ^
J2 rS
<D

P.

~rZl

TV

(O

<O

X)

TO

^
^3
rfl

ci

i 1
18

&

(O

[5

si

81

TS

* ^

T3

* J ^
23

^ < & o 14 H HQ O O
t

I
-

^Q

S ^
^

TS T3 -3

13

a
t-t

<M

82

83

to

to

03

bO
e3

EH

Q H D
S5

EH
to

vo

QQ

O o

EM
c3

to

p! <-a

cS

OF

fcO

^2

13

84 -r

a,

J-H

bJD

85

P-.

IS
-<-"

t>
23
23

23

83

<O

^ o

23

(O
G?

? o
^^

GE? "|S)

"jiS)

1Q

PI-

c3

IS

PH
IS

D
5 TO TO

5 o
S

co

86

o
T3

*
23

t)
23

i ^
s TO

fe
83
"?3
tftf)

23
6$)

83
tftf)

23
tftf)

<

TO

***

c3

<n

f-^

O
iS

r-r

(^^

5"
IP

ts

% %
TO

S ^ r
k,

^ 85
PL,

D-i

87

-3

&
10 +^
y,
-I-!

-r-H

r^
10 10

-S r^
10 n? OJ

rQ
10
*)">

10
T> CJ

s
c-J

t>
*s*

t>
CT}?
c>J

t>
<T??

97 -J

5
(Q
<5

cJ

)!

cJ

(O

(O

cO

(O

f
10

g~

^
!g
T>)

-4-3

n3
ifi

5
!3

n?
|jj

-[wj

|y

"TO
TS)

cG

cQ
<s
"TO

(Q

?,

9,

I BH
PH

J
fe;

c
CO
C]

CO

K
if

89

s
^ ~
o
<S" r^
I

c3

PH
p!

PH

PH

&
c3 c3 o3

'il

>

c3

c3

IP!

10

id

S
t3

IP

t>

t>

t)

% % %
,13

13

13

13

PH PH

PH
Pi

PH PH

P!

r
of

p!

n3

s
t> t>
ig

S
>#
-8
"TO

13

*a

13

I
PH

<M

CO

CO
12

90

r-4

p
~
cS c3 c3

PH g*
CD

1^

PH
U3

PH

o O * O
>>

r&

S
,5

PH PH

_2

3
t>

!!=!

c3 r
c|-

*
13

t>

O
-3
7-2

'B
"6

'B
"S

T# >#

t!

73 73

o
T3

13

73

r-S

^
~
03

&=

hH PH PH PH PH

3 O

PH PH

3
fe

S
7.^
73

a 5

- B
9
73 TO
TO

r&j

13

(<>

TO

S
:-

R
P-i

cS

c
(M

CO

CO

07

91

JS

SS
<s>

o
73
UTURE

o
72

<a

T3

H
co

1
'H .s

E-i

5 2

g ~

S
2 a o

a
-=

IS)

T3

93
or

not,
seen.

has

been,

that

not

seen,

has
not

seen.

being

not
Negative.

or

having

having

S.

94

&D
*

m a O B a
h1

^ ~

"S PH

&
J"
3

O
fa

Q W
tD 25
i i

EH

O O

jz;

95

GO

^
ci 00
*->

P"

*j
OT

3 ^5
rs
<=>

r
3 I Q^
p-|

23

96

97

a"

PH

003

PH

PH

pi-

8
s
^

98

<D

r-J

GO

O
r>

^e

<^<<

c
-a
f

fl

1-2

r-

I
t
.

-,

a k H H <j O s *7 H
f-\

99

u
12

-M

>

P.

t,

U
<O

^
12

12

12

12

a o
<u

PU

13*

100

"

'E

101

102

103

104

105

b y

-=

.t:

+3 -

rt

t,
"23

23

23

85

.2 ^3

Q
^ ^ M B

^a

."S

.-5

3S
^s)
!

+5
is)!

_-j

n^l ifl to
6
Jp

isfl

g5

[5

^
p-l

g
<s

O-i

P^

106

to

^a

(O

.a
QJ

^
ji
*'.

J
!Z
"*
i_j

i
a
.13

r^

S
4

e-

<D

O, Pn

P-i

t>

III

05

T-f

<M

CO

107

,0
"o

.S

108

Ja

g) .5

ts

A3

S f
PH

oaijjyandi

09
23
3

I
"13

=13

109

o
CD to

110

so

T3

04

I"
."t;

.,-r

^
'"
-"

o c

=!=,
E3

;2
rrl
i

eg

.2s

&o

S
"8

>>
-I-

^3 "S

p a

&o

.j :p

P a
to

-J f :

3
"8
(O
Q[?"~

3
<23

F 8 S
"8
(D
o?

o
<C

&
a

5.

S
h o

^
f?

S
t,

cO
C?

<C

(C

H
c

Ill
FIFTH SECTION: INDECLINABLE.
1.

POSTPOSITIONS.

98.
a.,

Governing one case, viz: Genitive case of nouns and pronouns:


i.

&olb,rfo ottugu,

with, along with;


lekkane, like, as;

$^& keitalu, near,


>^oi> visaya,

at

hand;

<s3=lekka,

3^,{3

[oi>do visayodu,

about, con-

cerning;
mukhantra,
&.,

en)^oS:> ulayi,

inside;

g^Dd*
case:

prakara, like, as;


of.

dooajso^

through; sj^^rf pagategu, instead

The Communicative
U

e^ oppa, agreeing with, tobut always in connection

gether; as: eofczlo^ayadoppa (^cdj^ayada+a^oppa), with him.


Remark:
2j~\" is never used separately,

with the Communicative case.


2.

Governing two

cases, viz:

The Genitive and Dative


of;

cases; oiiz^tf yedura, in front


suttumutta,

Tfo^
3.

sutta,

round;

^O^^^B

roundabout.

Governing three

cases, viz:
cjoosoo

The

Genitive, Dative and Ablative cases;


e3js=

dumbu,

in front, before, formerly;


hortande, 3oJ5^jF hortu,

bokka,

afterwards; 3J3^roc3

except, besides, without (&c.


mittu,

any

case);

3^rtirtg, below; Oo^,

above;

may follow ^d^ piravu,

behind.
2.

CONJUNCTIONS.

99.

V&ji
tS^od

attuda, or, but, besides.

attande, besides.

hortande, besides.

andunda, namely, that


andanda,
if it

is,

viz.

be

so.

* As
3

sJiSstf

prakara

is

a noun,
?

it is

often used without the case;

as:

i;St;tf

prakara, this

way;

Sj^tid a prakara, that

way;

&

33|5

prakara malpula, do in this way.

112
an6ayineddavara, therefore, because.
a, that.

anda, but,

if,

supposing

it

be

so.

andala, but, at least, though.

avadu, either, or.


lekka, like.

od
CO
j
*

ijjida, or,

but, besides.

od

ijjyande, without.

bokka, and, after, afterwards.


nanala, more, yet,
still.

o3joJSod57S
273
la,

yencandala, however, notwithstanding.

and, also, even.


o la
w ijji,

57S 653^ la attu, neither, nor.

eikadu, therefore.

bodadu, for the sake


saha, also.

of.

3.

INTERJECTIONS.

100.

ayyo
ur5
si ulappa

Expressions of sorrow and pain.

-^

ayyappa

oppa

vappa

ah
aha

Expressions of surprise, pleasure, admioho


S^ hehe
ration, jest or reproach.

appa

danappa)

113
S3 o Cos

anda

S inda
lie

0! oh!

O* is

cici

6hichi

101.
oi e

4.

PARTICLES.
particle denoting affirmation.

(-gsoi) lye)

an emphatic

dda,

if (see

Remark

3 011 page 57).


:

e? a, era na, ia e,

denote question or interrogation as


;

do^Os)?

maltara,

did

yon make?
this

do^;=ra? maltana, didst

thou make?
viodo Jjs^y

wxjodo ^3od3e>? undu nltiya, is this


c5e>?

righteousness?
eo6jsrl^,

uudu

totana, is

a garden?

shall I

come?
is

cra^danna

(^"3^ dane+c3e> na), denotes doubt,

and

com-

monly placed
as:
pinaye, I

after the

word with the interrogative particle;


tijdsf ^)^o3j undu yeddena danna yanu
it is

SAioCta o3os>^e)

C3"3^"S>

do not know whether


and, also, even.

right or not.

a,

III.
1.

PART: SYNTAX.
Structure of Sentences.

Chapter:

On the

SUBJECT AND PREDICATE.


102.

sentence

is

a complete thought expressed in

words.
103.

Every sentence

consists of a Subject

and a Predi-

cate; as: t9d?oj w^osS, the

king rules; ^de/

si>3 ydoo^o, the

sea

is

large.

104.
,

The

Predicate asserts what the Subject does; as:


or

the king rules;

what it

is; as:
15

114

Rama
large.

is

king;

or

how it

is; as:

^zizf rfod ^doodo, the sea is

105.

The verb must agree with


as:
I

its

subject in gender,

number and person;


1st Person

made.

2nd

them sawest
,

Singular.

3rd
,

the girl plays.

the

hand
,

turns.

1st

Person
,

we made.

2nd

Plural.
3rd
55
,

you speak.
s
,

the boys do.

the cows feed.

106.
1.

Exceptions

to this rule are the following:

The

honorific pronoun of the

third person

is

fre-

quently construed with the predicate in the second person; as: ^=3^0 doejso"", o3j^^ doSjskb ^^^)doo3, you are a great

man,
2.

treat

me

kindly.

When

the subject expresses a


is

number

of inanimate

things, the verb

regularly put in the singular number even though the subject has the plural form; as: ud ^oo^o

s^Oo^
3.

s^osi}, a great

many

houses were burnt.

When
When

a sentence contains several nominatives which

are followed
a..

by one verb only, the

rule

is

as follows:

there are several nominatives in the singular


as:

number, the verb must be put in the plural form; as doriejs 20 la^', father and son came.
&.,

wd^

When

there are several nominatives of different gene3d?3oejs>

ders the verb must agree with the last one; as: e^ejs

W^D*, the elephant, the king, and the queen came.

115

two or more personal pronouns, the first person has the precedence of the second and third, and the second has the precedence of the third, wherec.,

If the subject consists of

as the verb

is

put in the plural;


oiJSc^ae)

as:

-gssjs

soi>a) zo^tf, thou

and he came;
107.

-^as wa^,

and thou came.

a personal pronoun, it is often omitted, the person being implied by the form of the verb; as: ^^33, (I) go; sdo^ou, do it (thou).
is

When

the nominative

In the same way, in certain sentences the verb is omitted; as: ^dsira^^ w^(enio^o), man has a soul; sJ&tfrf do
108.
3tfo (enio^o),

birds have wings; rfosldrf

(w^jodo), the wick-

ed

men

will receive punishment.

USES OF THE INFLECTED VERBAL FORMS.


A.

Present Tense.

109.

i.

The present

tense chiefly denotes an action,


it is

passing at the time in which


s3,

mentioned;

as:

aira^ kck

1 read; otosesf eorfo^osS, I live.


2.

It is

used to express determination with regard to a


*$

future action; as:


tjo3o

eosSr, I (shall
if

surely)

come tomorrow;

eo^d

o&e)c3*

s^sS,

he come(s)
it

I (shall) go.

3.

In vivid narration

is

frequently used instead of


s

the past tense; as:


sSrc^, wrlrt cdrac3
ff

?o^ooi>ci>

&>rirloz33 &tfo s>or(^J3rforb


!

w
to

w^)^o ero^, at that time the Coorgs


si

came

Mangalore, then

was

there.

B.

Past Tense.

110.
rally; as:

The Imperfect describes enicsptf do^, we took our meal;


i.

past events genee^srsoaSjsrb s^o3o,

he went to church.

Sometimes

it

expresses certainty with


15*

116
regard to an action that
ejtfosk
2.

is to

take place immediately;

as:

so^oS they (have come=) do come immediately.

Perfect represents an action as entirely comor as pleted; as: 'aeg^ &w^ (zoodo^), I have left the house;
prior to a former action; as:
o3Js)^5*

The

<&&

rf

3ookfo,?3ri

wo3o o^^J,

when
3.

came

to the house,

he was gone.
priority to a former action

The Pluperfect expresses

already completed;

as: ^jsodor dojsdo^ri

oira^

o^a^, when

the sun rose, I had risen.


Future Tense.

111.

i.

The simple
Sometimes

future denotes

what

is

to

happen

in future; as: ^s3o siraJtrs <r>


it

3^, we
>

shall all die:

eo^r

will rain.

it

expresses probability; as:


jo3o todosS,

^JS^cfcs* ero^o*,

they are likely in the room;

he

will probably come.


2.

The

future perfect sometimes expresses priority of an

action with regard to a future action, sometimes doubt with

regard to a past action;

as:

53 cd)

tOe|prl

c&rs^ dosp^d^,
s

when

he comes,
I

I shall

have done

it;

o3ys$

Iq^ckA,

it

may be

have laughed.
3.

The

negative form of the future tense

is

often used to

express resolution or emphasis; as: o&s)^ do^o3o,I shall never do it; wo3j 3JS>oi>, he will never say it; ZO^F zodosf it will not
,

rain.

THE IMPERATIVE MOOD.


person of the Imperative mood is used to express intent with regard to an action; as: c&rscS* O X
112.
i.

The

first

'

r,

let

me

see (I will see); j$5& oq^q$F?>

sktfo^rl,

let

us pray.

117
2.

The second person


as:
-ds

is

used to order, or give comeos3,

mandments;
a.

sj^y, go thou; ^o^o

come yon.
rather

The

third person (do^c^,


it is

^fcrfcsf, sodc^, etc.) is

an optative, though

also used imperatively; as:

23$s3

shall or sk^cs*, they

may do

that work;

erodes*,
4.

may

they be (or do) well.


sjo&^ci),

urgency or necessity of an action; as: ^o^o ^6jsdo, you must come; o, do give us a present.

The form

^o^do,

etc.

signifies

USES OF THE AUXILIARY VERBS.


113.

w&$,

to

become,

to be.

The
it

third person singular


will

(neuter) of the future tense (ws,

become or be)

is

very generally used in answer


bazar and bring some
well!

a command, or to the expression of a wish; as: s^okSrf s^rfo S3D ^JSoci) 200, go to the
to
rice;

w^

(it

will take place=), very


is
it

The

third person of the Imperative


it so,

used to express

assent; as: esozi^ y^cs*, be

or

may

become

so.

(Its

use as a Conjunction will be treated hereafter.)


114.
voo&>,
to be.
of,

Added

to

the present gerund,


to,

it

ex-

presses continuancy
as: Ldjsrao

or habit with regard

an action;

I en>o^d (or ew^,),

am reading, or I am
it

in the habit

of reading.
of

Added to
as:

the past gerund,


en^,, I

denotes completion

an action;

s^o^c/

have done.

Added

to the in-

finitive, it signifies intention

or readiness with regard to

an

action; as:

^^6

ero^,

am

about

to go.
to

115.

&<D (the negative of the affix


ao
,

in do&J^O, etc.)

denotes inability; as: oira^ ^^s36


$.3
oJ

cannot go.

w> he co'
,

cannot do

(it). v '

118
SUPPLEMENTAL VERBS.
express a continued action, a final verb added to the gerund of the reflexive verb; as:
116.
socf^JSrso W)o3) o^o, the fish is living iiithe water;
rao

To

is

s^sS,

go reading; wo3o

o^ri

do&%es)j

tJsSr,

he comes

singing.

117.

used

to

Frequently the past gerund with a final verb is represent an action in its successive steps of comesoh(5*

and put it away; tso3o ^s^cs* (or 3^} spo3o, he lost the way and went on, or he went astray; e^o^o titft? ^loO*, they came drunk;
pletion; as:

cS^cs* srocs*^, take off the coat,

he died.

THE VERBAL FORMS.


118.

(VOICES.)
itself

In the active form the subject appears as acting; as: esd?oo w^osS, the king rules.
1
1

9.

The causative form represents the

subject as caus-

ing another to act; as:


isSs^aoSj),

$55^^
form

t&ritf sjs-^osodod sSsj^oi^or

the father

had

his son called (or

by

his servant.
is

120.

The
as:

reflexive

middle voice)

used

when

the subject

is

doing something

for its

generally own ad-

vantage;

o&e)^

fcooto

Wr^c^ rfo&olfcozi, I acquired property

for myself.
2.

Chapter: Of the Complemental Parts of Speech.

121.

When

the verb

by

itself

does not suffice to


to

convey the entire meaning of some action, it requires be completed in one or more of the following ways:
i.

By an

object; as: ssdrfo

Oe>sBJ3oci)

w^osS, the

king rules

the empire; agaJradtf


feated the French.

^jo^Era^o^

zli^sraoi),

William de-

119
2.

By words
Time
TsW

that express circumstances of time, place,

manner, cause,
a.,

etc.; as:

wo3j ^JS^zS w4,,he

came yesterday;

t?c&>

W3o^

ri

wck#, he is

ill

since a long time; a^js^o dojsz3

erofj,
6.,

he eats thrice a day.


oiracs* s&orttfjscfczk S3)?o s&tf^sS, I

Place

live at

Manga-

lore; tf^o* &oWe>c&>rs* ^js^o^o, the ship sails for

Bombay;

ws* do&^eo^ o
c.,

2o^n ^,
-r

she

came from Mercara.


saDdood), the horse runs swiftly.

Manner

^og^

fi)??o

d.,

Instrumentor cause

ycrfj^ ^j^Ttf ^Oo3o


?3^,
I die of

s
,

they killed
3tn>
6

him with a sword; oira^ zod^do

hunger;

^, the eye has been made for seeing; he acted from anger; & rUi^zi ^oco5 ^
,

the wall

is

made

of

mud.

USES OF THE COMPLEMENTAL CASES.


Nominative Case.

122.
subject

i.

The nominative

case

commonly

represents the

and precedes the verb; as: jS^sStf >7#oa*, the army was victorious.
is

srsJooi),

God spoke;

2.

It

also used to express the

factative object; as:


c^sStf
5

D
,

5
,

they

made him Hng;

sjs^^6^

God makes

sinners righteous people;

esoc^c^

^^DDS^O^^, the queen adopted her

as her daughter.
Dative Case.

123.
to

The

dative case
is

is

used:

i.

To express the
w^d^rf
evil-doer:

object

which the action

directed; as:

JS^F, give to

the poor;
rf

^^okrf
fear

tooa 3Jra, CO O

admonish the

p^o

God.

120
2.

To denote

possession or authority; as:


e3d?oort>

),

man
To

has a soul;
s

ts^^d

eniodo,

the king has

power;
3.

c^s36r\

God is almighty. ridrs^ra eworio, denote intention or purpose; as: oi> tp^rf
<?*

3\><Joi>,

he was
4.

sitting for alms;

fytfrf s^odi**, she

went for milk.

that signify pleasure or displeasure; as: soditf ?ooiJ3^, singing is pleasant to him; ^odrs

With words
death

ossj,
5.

is

a grief to many.
price or worth; as: Ojjjsd o3^?fo?

To express
>,

Judas sold Jesus for


,

thirty rupees;

that

bungalow may be sold


Scltevo
^ojsz3

for

thousand rupees.
6.

To denote measure;
thrice a day.

as:

?i3r

W^F, he

comes
7.

To To

signify time; as: zjod^n* SOSJF,


s
,

we

shall

come this

evening; dc^ ^okSrv* ljc3e)^odD


8.

they will start at 2 o'clock.


t?o3o

express motion to a place; as:

dov^dorio s^ol>,

he went

to

Mysore; ^ocS^o^o ^ds^rf ^a^ozii, the rivers flow


sea.

towards the
9.

To show
2030^

difference, likeness, or distance; as: WrSrfeTs


Jcr

oi>^o)

5^

^d^o, there

is

a great difference between


.

an elephant and a mouse; is far from Madras.


10.

sSort^JSdj

skcra^Tf-rfJSd, Bangalore

To

signify relationship; as:

yc&> oSjo^

sSoz

soJSdosS,

he

is

my

younger brother.
ACCUSATIVE CASE.

124.

The

accusative case

is

used with transitive verbs


5

to express the direct object; as:


,

O&D^* wodocS

^J333, 1

see

him;

Cain killed Abel.

121
2.

Many

verbs govern two accusatives; as:


the schoolmaster

kac&>6 sks^sS, es36533Tj^t& the children read the Bible.


Remark: The crude form of the noun
accusative case; as: i3?^5 s2?3 ^jssSr,
&s?3dso, Lord, show mercy on us.

makes

is

often used instead of the


life;

God

gives

S^rsre,

Locative Case.

125.
,

The

locative case signifies:

i.

situation; as:

it is

in the house.

2.

It

expresses time; as:

a<3jslb e?o3o

&&

^>!^oi>,

he

died on that day.


3.

It

denotes cause; as:


illness.

yp5

e*

d^rU>do ^^0*2^

^s^odo^*,

she died of that


4.

It

is

used to

express

the

superlative

degree of
is

adjectives; as:

&$

sira^

the elephant do^rLoto Sjoe;^

the

largest of all the beasts.


Ablative Case.

126.
i.

The

ablative case

is

used:

To
o

express the cause or instrument of an action; as:


,

we speak with
the mind.

the mouth:

900

we understand with
2.

express the passive voice; as: wodoz^ sSkf, I was beaten by him; w^o^o ^oz^ ^ja^rf SJ^^O^D*, they

To

were deceived by that fellow.


3.

To denote the

material of which a thing

is

composed;

as: (3dsira> dJS^odo eroocssoi), O


4.

man was made


as:
=cfsc>o

of dust.

To express motion from;

the fruit falls from the tree.

122
5.

To

express beginning or origin; as:


sjs^js^o dodra eos^o^, death has

<r

from the beginning,


through
6.

come

sin.

To show comparison;
ass.

as:

=5*0^

^cs*

doe3, the horse

is

bigger than the

Communicative Case.

127.
i.

The communicative case is With verbs like sir^a; as: tsojod


O-J
' ;

used:
siozl. I

told him.

as:

tj^o^d os^idjd, I speak to them.


$tfori
^raosS, I ask'
,

as:
;

you.

as:

d>^6d ^&,re beseech God. So f


sSjs^otfri ^)t5DD?jo^,
; 7

i;

as:

inquire of them.

2.

To show

relation

as:

0^0=0*

wcdod <^d wodo, I <a

am on

good terms with him;


against him.

tsoJo^ <0o^ CJ^STS 'Sto, I

have nothing

Vocative Case.

128.
zS^sSd?,

The

vocative usually

commences
help me!

sentences; as:
essij^, 200,

o^o^

roooaol)

do^o, O God,

father,

come!
USES OF THE POSTPOSITIONS.
Postpositions are used to express

129.

more

definitely

the relation implied by the simple cases. The relations expressed by them are chiefly the fol-

lowing.
1.

Concern (>^oi>,
>2^35[

>^);

as:

T^oogrf

rtoo&rf

DsstoSjsdo

^0=5'

rU>o3fcj,
Ca

concerning the bottom of the sea we do


s^Dldrf

not

know much;
2.

-d>

^^

wd^^<3

sii^sS,

I will

think about this matter.


Locality (03^, ^s?*, ^sSa^S, wsSa^V); as: riodrf on the mountain there is a temple;
,

123

that

book

(will be)

must be with

him.
3.

Direction

^odsradrf (wzSn^^zSn'jrfoo^, &b;3)ck);as:


I to the riverside; $tfos? sj^zSrf zo^,,
sroOoi),

f350&,

he went

came

to you; erusd)

s&^

he ran as far as the village;

^&
-

ddi^j ^ Q
4.

eos3, 00 '

come

after

me, follow me.


riooeoo);

Time
come

(z3J3^,

Sos^,

as:

I shall

in the afternoon; <fc^tf d

they

set out after

midnight; ^odclo^o doozoo

repent

before death.
s.

Measure (skoU);
to

as:

?o^

must forgive up
e.

seventy times seven.

Intention, purpose (eSj^cSe)^); as:


,

labour for the kingdom of God;


j,

came on account of

this matter.

7.

Agreement

(g'Sfsd,

^^);

^s:

^^a
t?

s3,

he will judge with righteousness;


it

make
8.

according to that pattern. Communion (fc^with construed and always con,sBj3^rod, without,
^>

tracted with the communicative case


;

as:

e^cjcljs^(or tjodo ^yo,r1o) ^p^aSo, I


? CTSSTS

went with him; o3

^^6 w, without me

you cannot do
sit

any thing; wodo &ok3o,rio ^o^d w^oc/, you should not him (or near him).
9.

with

Instrument

(sijoujso^d, 5&is3j3&>); as: zS^sStf

ds^JBjii

d ^ooia^oj vuodo rfj^, 553^ His word.


^c^
10.

God

created the world

by

Interchange

(sjrfjA*, wcte/nf, instead); as: wrf^sJrtJn*

20^; the son

came

instead of his father;

instead of love, he

showed enmity.
16*

124
*

USES OF THE ADVERBS.


130.

Adverbs are used


or cause of actions.

to

denote the place,

time

manner
1.

Adverbs denoting place (to^o, o^o yvio^o, where is Bombay?

!3Vo, *aot,etc.); as:

zlfSowsoSo 'sxo^

Bombay

is

here

(in this direction),

Madras
o>
s
ei

is

there (in

that direction): ''


3J><$je>

2o?oFrf =5^s3j5ci>

3>&r&f Q

s3o x

5 >doodo, Sos'Lcso

20rjFQ) zojsdoo^o, in

from below, and dew 2. Adverbs signifying time (^^ today,


'a^ now,
o3o ooe3

the rainy season mist is rising and rain are falling from above.
<od
as:

tomorrow,

moment, o^sS, he who was

this

&&& afterwards, etc.);


there
is

^ ^^^s
tomorrow;

(here) today will start

^Ij, eo?oF tSj^^, dJ3o20o,

now
the

rain, afterwards there

will

be heat.
1.

Remark:

To show
is

commencement

of an action or condition,

frequently the adverb


or\ #js?zSfto8a

construed with the instrumental case; as:

(TW&

/fid
work
<i

3tf

de^

en^orij,

since yesterday I have headache.


is

2.

To express

the point of time at which any thing ends or


CQ$J\

finished,
go'doocij,

the adverb takes the form of the dative case; as:

&

tSjeS

today that
skoi^;
as:

will be done;

or

it

is

construed with the postposition


until here (till
till

skol^,

to the last; r$

skoUj,

now);
eszS

until there;

osjd rfjou,

^^j^, he did not come

now;
will

shall I wait so long? c3?>5 Fido^ ^zS ^OJ^, 5^33,


3.

God

keep us

to the end.

Adverbs of mode or manner (e^ri quickly,


>d crookedly, etc.); as: sS^ri too,
,

dot) slowly,

come

quickly;
it

walk slowly; ^os^s-scj*


Oe>ri
6

=^J50o3o,

he gave

glad-

ly;

S^OOF &zf

sli^o

they sang nicely.

USES OP THE INFINITIVE, PARTICIPLE AND GERUND.


131.
etc.) is

The

first infinitive

(rfotf^

to

make, &&&$

to see
as:

frequently used for the inflected verbal forms; o4>, who has come? oSoo^o^o eo^^, we have come.

125
132.
*J

The second

infinitive

(supine)

is

used as the
essS^T?,
uO^

object to a transitive verb: as: W^O^TS* 200^053-3^6 wodo


his desire is to deliver

them; w

sdDo3j6

^oc^,

she asked

for drink

(lit.

drinking).
is

Remark: The gerund


ing the moaning; as:
also the dative affix K
to

frequently added to the supine without alter-

^pcOoSoTS
is

?5 20^

we came
to it; as:

to receive
si)s?j3

something;
I

sometimes added

^peoSj,

went

do

it.

133.

The

participle has frequently the

meaning of an

adjective or a relative sentence; as: yo3o do^0kt5?3, his work,

the

work he
134.

is

doing;: O

^^o
*

^iscfto

dod, the tree


'

we have

seen.

The gerund
went away.
the

is

used

i.

to
,

express actions in their


'

succession: as: oO^d) vBosfc^,

o^,ns J7

Seises

Sjjseoi),

Esau

ate,

rose and
2.

To denote
Q

tJoSo

JOJjarso 2oJ0" 05

performed; as: be came laughing; ts^o^o io O 01


action
is
lie.

mode how an

they willingly told a


3.

To

express the reason or cause of actions; as:

=3^0^
3^0*
L>

3iloi>, this

boy was ruined by not learning;


the fruits fell

SJOC^'F eoJSD^ocs5 ,

down through O
203^^ wt3

the blow-

ing of the wind.


4. it is

To express

time; as:

-d?

snodorta

d^F

tJoc^,

six years since I

came

to this place.

135.

Participial

and verbal nouns are treated

like

other nouns; as: (S&F?^

^^ wdood), abusing
abusing
is

is

a sin;
?3v

3d>3jv$, the fruit of


>,

shame;

they are afraid of dying; ej^os&


said about their doings?

i,

what may be

126
3.

Chapter: Of the Attributive Parts of Speech.

136.
1.

Pronominal

attributes.
S3i>

Interrogative;

as:

^dd:ra>,

which man? oio^^ =&


way; 8o&<| &&$, Such a<sf such a house.
I

what kind of horse?


Demonstrative;
/

2.

as: -^ Troa, this


7
LJ

an umbrella; &
137.

'

that cow: S3ot&&n r


attributes; as:

'

/)

Numeral

wz3

5&oz3,

six persons;

?ooa,
2o

the third chapter; sis^ dosraoSo, some rupees;

=&J^O, another fowl.

138.
Tors co

Qualitative attributes; as:


starf

oizi

^ooUo, a nice cloth;

dod, a small tree:

$?&, clean water.


v

139.

Participial attributes; as:

l^>^

w^c^,

the

young man who killed the tiger; &^o ^Q Sj, the tiger which was killed by the young man; esdTfo t?o5o naO^n 5 the
,

king David

(or

David who had become king);


f

e5s3o^

eo5o d^sSo*,

the father: woa s^oa w?^, the boy who had no underM 9 eooa wc^, an intelligent boy; atoe^Je^ a?i j standing;
/

God

^^

c^dsjsra^i,

the

man named

Jacob;

2oo3o

^^

^ri,

the animal

called lion.

140.
partiples,

The
as

particle ws?,

is

often affixed to

nouns and

and the compound


,

is

then used attributively; as:

many men
5

so

many minds;
doocS, so

so

much gold as stone; eo^^Ds5


jc&>

many men

as

have

come

^oSo^s

rfjsd,

the distance he went.

4.

Chapter: Construction. ORDER OF WORDS.


subject always precedes the predicate; as:

141.

i.

The

the king rules;

do^

doo^, the world

is

large.

127
2.

Words which form

the completion of the verb as


esd?oo

objects, adverbs, etc.


,

precede the verb; as:

the king rules the kingdom; ed?oo

OetfBj^i-S}
s

kingdom with wisdom; <>3|,o ^ S3D =5s)dc|jsdo ^ozoo^oS f r what reason do the wicked not O r^ srseSc^ sJO^A6 s3^sj> believe in God? 2^0^ a&flkJo too3
,

the king rules the

cs*

2oz3 'surfed zodofo, one

day a boy wrote a

letter

with a

quill for
3.

examination at school.

In the same way, attributes, or words necessary to

complete the subject or object, must precede these; as: <^d c3drfjs>, a good man; tosd^ doo =5\>do6, a -very big horse;
wra
esrio^

iJS^rf riosS^d
is

>etf

^c|

eruoci),

the water of the

boy's father's well


I read a nice story.

good; oiis^ ^z3 ^>^or 3$ff Lao3o,

CONNECTION OF CO-ORDINATE WORDS.


142.

When several co-ordinate words are used


to

in a senis

tence in the same case, the affix by which the case

form-

ed

is

only added
e3e>, ' oo

the last one, and this has the plural

form: as:

erusdo,

rra-^U)^ e5a^0^o w&o"", there are CJ V


villages.

officers in districts,

towns and

143.

Sometimes

different co-ordinate
;

words are joined

together by a demonstrative pronoun

as:

Noah,

his wife, his three sons,

and

then-

wives, these eight persons were spared in the deluge.


Remark: Repetition
1.

of

words

is

employed:
its

To

represent a collective notion in

constituent parts; as: O'ojja

cdj

t^cSas? SJJSSTJ

f&ssSr, he gives to every one according to his deeds;


o3.ac3o

2o5 8oS

33 33

a^eoonstf, every one

is

responsible for himself;


e33

=5^

the

123
beggar
is

travelling

from country to country, roving from village


to

to

village, going from house


2.

house.
?2eOo

ci>,

fSeqo tf^ootfo vessels arc sailing to a very far country; very large

To

denote intensity; as:

deti

dri
3rfc

S, I told

him

until I

became

tired.

USES OF CONJUNCTIONS.
144.

Copulative conjunctions
jsdo, I
,

(<275,

am

going,

come you

too;

love and grace are God's nature;

7^6
sugar;

sjsc^ =&J30odo,

we gave him milk and

of any thing that

is is

in

heaven above or that


under the
it;

is

in the earth beneath or that

in the water

earth tliou shalt not

make an
I shall

idol nor

bow

before

=s^od
in

&3&

zSjpfcg

^8* ^F,

come

in the

morning or

the evening.

145.

Disjunctive conjunctions

(ss^^o
as:

3^odand
wo, cv
,

^eSd, Zi

'atraorf); / co

=$00^4
rioe3

bring;

me

a red one or a white one:

gruel or rice; gqra^i 553^, esd^o cdowdjs^, not the minister but the king is master; sra^^6n* &$ ss^od ^dz&ft
<2T)

w^jodo, sinners

w ill
r

get

dp>6 53^0 ^JS^OF


of

e3^i ?^^o "u

shame besides punishment; sra?o ^o^ ^t3, besides the word


>=9

God we have no

other sacred scripture.

USES OF SOME PARTICLES.


146.

Emphatic particle (,
r; as:

o3j?, sS?, cS^) "^)" is

generally

used after a final vuor

t?o3oo&c34

^^, what he told


oi,

was

a lie:
"

^6 e ro

dorftfois*

even the house tumbled down.


sometimes

is

generally used after a final a or

129
after
c&>^,
s/x>;

as:

what God delights

in is love,

it is

righteousness that
final
55,

exalts a nation.

"c^is generally used after a


woi> oSoo^

some-

times after

<0;

as:

^JSQ^

^ot3

s^^c^
is

what he
come.

gave
"s3d"

me was
is

a book; woi>c^ wdc3% he himself


eru;

to

generally used after a final

as:

rbdosS^ soj^,

the priest has come. 147.


cS^,

Interrogative particles (w, i, ora,

^,

533,

and &

s3^).

Euphonically these are treated like the emphatic

particles, explained in the previous


is it

paragraph;

as:

^3o&e>,
are used

love?

w6oi3e), is it

a wall?

7fove>,. is it oJ *

a lie? &c.
oi\"cra
w

With regard
have you done it?
is

to their signification

in simple questions; as:

vti-vff 2o6j3ci), shall. I

^J3oi>cS"3,

have you seen


is

it?

come? ^O^DD, and ">" or "c3^

expected to be a negation of what has been asked; as: o&s)^ zodod^, shall I come? EO&O& iff
,

used

when

the answer

do not come.
Chapter: Connexion of Sentences.
CO-ORDINATE SENTENCES. Co-ordinate sentences are sometimes put together without formal connexion; as:
148.

5.

the sun

is

shining,

its^

beams are

falling

on the earth, (and)

from

its

heat the rocks are heated.


'

149.

More

frequently, however, they are joined to-

gether by the use of conjunctions; as:

dj^sS, when man is born he is not able to sit, afterwards he learns to walk, and after some time begins to
rfodo
17

130
speak; vfattrf
c&>6
ofozS
i

A}33s>o> rU)o^oodo,

w^o^nf

TrasfcqSgF

az3,

many

people

know

(have)

good

means, but they are not able to employ them; ^dsira&tf


sro^pri)
toJ3Qoi>o*,

so^

t3j3$Se>ztf

ws*

=5^,

Sjzi^raodo*,

men

have fallen into

sin,

therefore they are suffering so

much;

eruodo, creofortotfod wo3o djsd

^1,

he

is tired,

for he has come from a great distance.

SUBORDINATE SENTENCES.
150.

Incomplete subordinate sentences (which are

formed by the use of the uninflected verbal forms) are


either adjectival or adverbial.
1.

Adjectival sentences qualify


,

nouns;
is

as:

otos^

the tree which I see


Jj>cS* Q

high;

!^237)o3j, the

man

that did this

work displayed much


2.

sense.

Adverbial sentences, like adverbs, qualify verbs and

express time, place,


a.,

manner

or cause; as:
7dos3j3li5
(

Time:

qSsJortre^

w&orao eros^^rt g^^o

s^

oC3*,

as long as
otoScS*

Dharmaraja was ruling, the people lived happily; ZO&FC^ rfootoo wo3o ^^oSo, before I came he went
sSkf.

away;

oa Sos^
wtfotfo

sooa ws^oc^, after

became wise;

WOOF

dooeJ,
ej

he was punished he woSo LcSjs^io ^4? ne was -' o

reading until they


Place:

came; yoi> so^ori w^o^o ^"slD^jthey were waiting until he arrived.


6.,

=3^ awso^sk ^^, wo^, where the stone struck there a hole was made.
c.,
cs*,

Mode: ^^

^^

sidd^^jsdo

w5j

d^

^JS^orf

3o^ w^

thy will be done in earth as it is in heaven. d., Cause: ^dto^tf sje)^ ^o^fSc^ ^^> e5G*o$O^>tf, because men have sinned (therefore) they suffer.

131
151.

Complete subordinate sentences are either

re-

lative, conditional, or direct.


1.

Relative sentences are connected with their principal

sentence by the use of the relative and demonstrative pronouns and the particle "ts" or "^ "; as: >tf sissj s&tf^sSora oofo
ff

so^ 3Jo
?3

3^023, he

who commits

sin will eat the fruit of

it;

sssS^

as parents are, so s3^ oio^^ora^o^a) yios&^cra^o^o tTssS^o,

will be their children; s^rs to^o STOCKS) ess^o ^do^o^o, the

eagles will be gathered where the carcass


2.

is.

Conditional sentences are joined to their principal

sentences by the affix "d"; as:

.^F ws^od

cdre^ ^js^oSo,
>^*

if

there be rain, I shall not go; ^sirac^ ^exjjdd


,

&oo

if

you learn well, you


,

will get a present; t?o3o


if

1J

he had been here,

this mis-

fortune would not have befallen me.


3.

Direct sentences are either adjectival or substantival.


Adjectival direct sentences are joined to their principal

a.,

sentences
djsosl

by the use of the verbal form


^oa o^o^
20^0^ dossj

'"s^"; as;
I

c&>

^o

a^

^JS^ro^o,
theft.

am much

grieved

to hear that
ft..

he has committed

Substantival direct sentences are joined to their prin-

cipal sentences

by

the use of the verbal nouns

"^^^4"

or, in the case of quotations,

by

the gerund "esotf^"; as:

all

know

that

God

is

almighy,

but they do not admit that He


if

is

holy, because they know that,

they did

so,

they would judge themselves;

all

say that

God

is

seeing, but

few only believe

it.

17*

132

APPENDIX.
A.

Specimens of the dialect of the Tulu Brahmins.


1.

Examples
Tulu.

of different expressions for the


I.

same thing:

a.

Common
ami,
ro

Brahmins' Dialect.

^JSra mani, boy.

ponnu,
lyavu,

*2J3o$ jovu,
33>5J) papu,

girl.

enough.

lyandu,

srasj^ papanu, not enough.


eSs^
bettu, afterwards.

bokka,
&c.
2.

&c.

Words with changed Consonants:


SADo^) umpu, meal.

nnpu,
dane,
dala,
^

t^cSjane, what? ^"S^jala, any thing.

dayegu,
T
bodci,

^oi>ri jeyegu, why?


tSJS^vl, botri. not ~>
v

wanted.

20^7^ battege,

20^=^6 battekere (or

^D
(to)

kera),

it is

said he came.

533^^

leppuni,

^ps5^^

voleppuna,

(to) call.

ti'^Qfi dappuni,

&z5^<fj adappuna,
sJoo^)^ mampuna,

plough.

sii^^i malpuni,
malpuve,
malte,

(to)

make.

doo^)d mompuve,

make.

sl)o J mante, I made.

malpe,

^OosS mampe,
hrudayogu,
hrudayodu,

I shall

make.
to the heart.

SoNdoSJSo^O hrudayoiiku,

3o\rfo5J5oi]o hrudayontu, in the heart.

unasugij,

^^7^0=5^

unasunku,

to dinner.

nnasudu,
is also

ZKFSrfofcf unasuntii, at dinner.


used for child in general by the Holeyas, and the
is

plural

dU>e#o#o, children"

common

to

all.

133
B.
1.

Tulu Poetry
to metrical rules.

According

(Tula Brahmin's Dialect.)

o
2.

Folksong.
Tulu.)

(Common

rirtd

s^orra

134

Tula Proverbs.

Literal Translation:
throat, the

Of a
it

vessel the

mouth may be
tied up,

tied up, of the

mouth can

be tied

up?
but can a man's

Meaning: The mouth of a vessel may be


tongue be kept quiet?
2.
e5osroc&> srai&orta ?3oc3i>ak Qtf.
Cd

Lit.

Tr.

True being

to a

word reply

is not.

Mean.
3.
S32

Truth makes
right answer turns

free.

away

all obstacles..

w
Tr.

w
The grandmother brought up
be
fit.

Lit.

son, for the performing obsequies

will not

Mean.

son brought up by the grandmother will become

unfit for

anything.

4.

v^tf so^cs-sc&rf
Lit.

oisSorrf

gcd) JSDC&H*?
price

Tr.

For buttermilk, he that came, of the cow, the

why?

Mean. What business has he who came for buttermilk, to ask the price of the cow?
Engl. prov. Meddle not with that you have nothing to do withal!
5.

eros^ Boac3>o3o
Lit.

^o*

^sSr.
water will drink.

Tr. Salt, he

who

ate,

Mean. He who

ate salt will drink water.


in's

Wer den Teufel Germ. prov. Wer A sagt muss auch B sagen. Boot geladen hat, muss ihn auch iiber's Meer fahren.

135
6.
Lit.

Tr.

What ho

expected dust

it

became, what was born a


fulfilled,

girl it
is

was.

Mean. His expectations were not


Germ. prov. Seine Hoffnung und gebaren Mause.
7.

what was born,


gefallen; or:

girl.

ist in's

Wasser

Berge kreisen

Lit.

Tr.

The

Bant, what he has done, for fine; the Brahmin, what he

has done, for ceremonial balls; the Holeya, what he does, for drinking.

Mean. The Bant's earning is spent on law-suits, the Brahmin's earning on ceremonies, the Holeya's on drink.
8.

^otooF
Lit.

^33 ?3oztfz3

23^o

s&jfcl esh o&ri.


SO

f\

Tr. Sugarcane sweet, having said, the root until do not eat.
is

Mean. Because the sugarcane


Germ. prov.
9.

sweet, you must not eat

its

root also.

Man muss

des Guten nicht zu viel thun.

^kJ train? 20^0


Lit. Tr.

3s)3.
cattle, the beating stick.

To draught

Mean. Draught
10.

cattle

want beating.

Z/zY.

Tr.

The

forest
it is

where
fat

it

village,

where

the

is fat the goat you must Konkanas you must let go.

let go,

the

Mean. Where the


is

forest is fat
let

prospering you must


>

you must put the goat, where a village the Konkanas go in.

11.
Lit.

Tr.

For

the time suitable the

game,

for the

country suitable the

language, for the

drum

suitable the dancing.

Mean. According

to the time

must be the
is its

feast (or

game)

of the

demon;

according to the country must be the dance.

language; according to the music

12.
Lit.

Tr.

To

his forehead his hand.

Engl. prov. God gives us hands, but does not build bridges for us.

Mean. He has no help but his own.

136
13.
Zzi.
ff

3e>c3

Tr.
If

He

himself a

thief, if (he) is

the village a thief be.

Mean.

he himself

is

a thief, he think the whole village to be full

of thieves.

Engl. prov. Every one measures other people's corn by his

own bushel

Germ. prov. Der Dieb meint

sie stehlen alle.

14.

jLzY.

2V.

He

himself what he did, the best, the son what he did,

middling, the cooly

what he

did, bad.
is

Mean. What one does himself

well done, what the son does


is

is

not

so well done, but what the servant does

done badly.
he must do
it

Engl. prov. If a
himself.

man

will

have

his business well done,

Germ. prov. Selbst thuts ganz, heissen zur Halft, und Bitten gar

nicht.

15.
Lit.

Tr.

To

dance, to

him

that does not

know, the

floor is

uneven

they say.

Mean. He who does not know


16.
c?z>03od
Lit.
>t

to

dance says the floor

is

uneven.

SS 3 ?

^^

5J3C3*od ?jSi>
in a tube if

WTO?
you put, straight
will
it

Tr.

Of the dog the

tail

become?

Mean. Will a dog's


Engl. prov.

tail

become
is

straight

by putting

it

into a tube?

bargain

a bargain.

Germ. prov.
,17.
Lit. Tr.

Was man

nicht kann meiden, soil

man

williglich leiden.

The mat,

as far as
to the

it is,

the feet one

must

stretch.
feet.

Mean. According
Germ. prov.

mat you must stretch your


die Ftisse nach der

Man muss

Decke

strecken.

18.

or^

=&tfo,ck sjdofo*

^oSo.
sat,

Lit. Tr. In the pit

having

young frogs he caught.

Mean.

Sitting in the pit,

he caught young frogs.

137
Germ. prov. Sie schlagen
nicht shreien.
die

Sclmcckcn auf

die

Schwantze damit

sie

19.

&
Lit. Tr.

For the

ants

why

iron

work?

Mean. What business has the ant with the blacksmith's work?
20.
fcTSofco 5
Lit. Tr.
sfcrt,

In the mouth, darling, darling! in the belly envy, envy!


is bitter.

Mean. The words are sweet, but the mind

21.

230^
LzY.

20JSO

33fcjf.0e>

323j3Ffio "&30
fallen

^tfOe) &d

20&S3S)?

2V.

On

the

back

blows,

to the iron put

water will

it

return?

Mean. The blows given on the back, and the water put on hot iron
in order to

harden

it

can never be taken back.

Germ. prov. Diese niramt ihm kein Jude mehr ab-

22.

Lit. Tr.
fish

The Bants, where they come>


it

quarrel will not

fail,

madenji

where

comes

silt

will not
is

fail.

Mean. Where Bants are there


is silt.

quarrel, where the madenji fish

is,

there

23.

Z(zY.

Tr.

The

rich

man reproach

to tell

is

not allowed, the poor hope

to tell is not allowed.

Mean. Do not blame the

rich,

and make not the poor hope.


fiinf

Germ. prov. Bei grossen Herren muss man

gerad sein lassen.

24.

siraari
Lit. Tr.

^^^

eroretf
in the house,

Of the cobbler,

a dinner

if

there

is,

to the

Brah-

min what?
Mean. What
25.
profit has a

Brahmin

of a dinner in a cobbler's

house?

zhv CO
Mean.

o)c3 sSos; t3e)dpdo. CO

heavy load you must put down slowly.


18

138
26.
fcj

The
27.

vessel broken

by the mother-in-law did cost nothing.


t

It is as if

you gave a ruby


,,,

to a

monkey.

28.

Does the crow understand, or

feel,

the pain of the buffalo?

Having eaten

the yeri fish, he sold the bullock.

As
31.
If

children of seven years are foolish, so are people of seventy years.

c&^
you tease me,
I shall tease

you.

Will the dog which took away bread ask

for

ghee?

Having washed

the bread, he drinks the water.

34.

oats
In daylight he

A
fell into

the well which he

saw

at night.

35.

d/e^ftn*

s^o^^ ?^o^^, 'ao^cre^o^A*

&OOEOF

The

sick one has only one sickness, but the inmates of his house have

nine.

36.

?U>rto dossj
SJ

-323
64

&.

*J
,

&3,.
TT
is

In clearing up the account there

no

grief.

37.

The
38.

tuft of the

tenant

is in

the hand of his landlord.

a
For money no

.
.

a'

-*

interest, for the

cow no

rent.

39.

A tree fit
a bolt.

for a boat

he scratched so much that

it

cannot be used even for

139
40.

Cd

What
41.

one ear heard

is secret,

what two ears heard

is

public.

tr

-D-

After ruin one gets understanding, after death grief.

42.

rifej. w woa^*? co Where the headman is,

3li

there

is

the town.

43.

nS%&
Truth
is

ri3,

qjrfor^ ^odo.
is

support, virtue

victory.

44.

7^

t&Gf ^^FOC3* ^JSlb ^3^0^.

Truth cannot be drowned nor burnt.

45.

rjs&rs* ojs^vB sdos)0c5* ^fi

^^o

sj'sd^o^.

The plague which was wandering on


46.

the road he took

upon himself.

The dead cow had given much


47.
?rad

milk.

^
(is

For a thousand crows one bow 48.


So

enough to drive them away).

fyStir? ^js| a^3j.

To
49.

the village-god live-coals must represent the lamp.

aS^a
It is as if

^
>

^ocra,crfjorf

O
td

3^s XT

^^,
"CT"

you gave the discus to a coward.


*a33, t3s)rl

50.

dd Co
A

s>lic^ W

eoD^^4
man

*sz3.
ti

fool will not

be ruined, a wise

will not prosper.

18*

INDEX.
*

I.

PART: PHONOLOGY.
Page

1.

CHAPTER:
a.,
b.,
c.,

Of the Alphabet

.1
1

Of Vowels
Of Mediate Of Consonants
Of Pronunciation

.1
1

2.

CHAPTER:
a.,
b.j
c.,

2 2

Vowels
Consonants
Syllables
.

3
6 6
7

d.j

Double Consonants
Of Euphony
.

3.

CHAPTER:
a.,
b., c.,

Elision
Insertion

7
7 7

Permutation

II.
1.

PART: ETYMOLOGY.

CHAPTER-

Of the Formation of Words

....
Origin

8 8

Distinction of

Distinction of
a.,
b.,

Words according Words according Words Words

to their

to their

Form

... ...

8
8
9 9 9 9

Primitive

Derivative
1.

Verbal Derivatives

2.

Other Derivatives

c.,

Compound Words
Of Parts of Speech

2.

CHAPTER:

10 10

First Section:

Nouns

II

Page
1.

Of Substantives
a.,
b., C.,

10

Gender of Substantives

Number

of Substantives
.

Declension of Substantives

Nouns

of Relationship

Verbal Nouns
2.

30
.
.

Of Adjectives
Comparison
of Adjectives

31

3.

Of Adverbs

32
32

Second Section: Pronouns


1.

Substantive Pronouns
a.,
b.,

33

Personal and Demonstrative Pronouns


Reflexive Pronouns

....

33 33

C.,

Interrogative Pronouns
Indefinite

^4 ^4

d.,

Pronouns

2.

Adjective Pronouns
a.)
b., C.,

Demonstrative
Interrogative
Indefinite

^
34
34
35
*

3.

Adverbial Pronouns
a.,
b,,
C.,

Demonstrative
Interrogative
Indefinite
.

35 36
37

Declension of Pronouns

Third Section: Numerals


1.

....
41

Substantive Numerals

2.

Adjective Numerals
a.,
b.,

Cardinal numbers

Ordinal numbers

4o

3.

Adverbial Numerals

Fourth Section: Verbs


1
.

Forms

of the

Verb

2.

Tenses of the Verb

44
45

3.
4.

Moods

of the

Verb

Conjugation of the Verb


.

45

Fifth Section: Indeclinables

H*

Ill

Page
1.

Postpositions

Ill Ill 112

2.

Conjunctions

3. Interjections
4.

Particles

113
III.

PART: SYNTAX.
of Sentences
.

1.

CHAPTER:

On the Structure

113 113
115

Subject and Predicate Uses of the Inflected Verbal Forms


a.,
6.,
c.,

Present Tense

115
t

Past Tense

115 116 116 117


'.

Future Tense

The Imperative Mood Uses of the Auxiliary Verbs


Supplemental Verbs

118
118

The Verbal Forms


2.

(Voices)
.

CHAPTER:

Of the Complental Parts of Speech


Nominative Case
Dative Case
Accusative Case
Locative Case
Ablative Case

118
119

Uses of the Complemental Cases

119

....
.

119

120
121
121

Communicative Case
Vocative Case

122

122
122

Uses of the Postpositions Uses of the Adverbs

124
and Gerund
. .

Uses of the
3.

Infinitive, Participle

124 126

CHAPTER:

Of the Attributive Parts of Speech Pronominal Attributes

...
;
.

.126
126 126 126

Numeral Attributes
Qualitative Attributes
Participial Attributes
4.

CHAPTER:

Construction
of

...

126
126 127 128 128

Order

Words

Connexion of Co-ordinate Words


Uses of Conjunctions Uses of some Particles

VI
Page
5.

CHAPTER:

Connexion of Sentences

129
129

Co-ordinate Sentences

Subordinate Sentences

130
. .
.

APPENDIX
a.,
b.,
c.,

132 132
133

Specimens of the Dialect of the Tulu Brahmins Tula Poetry Tulu Proverbs

134

CORRIGENDA.
(The
lines are

counted from the top to the bottom.)

Page

6,

Line 11: Put "Table showing the alphabet with the combinations of vowels and consonants" at the head of
tbe 4th page.

P.
P.
P. P.

8,

L. L.

14: Put a

(*95^)"
to

behind

9,

21: "21"
21: Put 23:
24:

be omitted.

11,

L. L. L.

$K" behind

35

P.
P.
P.
P.

*%
"33"

L. 33, 40,
81,
L.

25:
11:
1:

avu, "that" instead of "this".

L.
L.

"tbat" after remark to be omitted.

P.

5:

Put "Subjunctive Mood" instead Form".

of "Conditional

P.
P.
P.

Ill,

L.
L. L.

4: Put, "The" before "Genitive case".

113,

4-7: Behind tbese words put "Expressions of disgust''.

20: Read

<e"

instead of

w".

P.
P.

120,

L.

27: Put "1" behind "124".


19: Read
7:
rsiaP' instead of "<
fr

124,
125, 136,

L.
L.

P.
P.

L.

3:

Add Add

to

3o<fy5"

s" to "think".

x.