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pumps

Introduction
? What are Pumping Systems
20% of worlds electrical energy demand.
25-50% of energy usage in some industries.
Used for
Domestic, commercial, industrial and agricultural service
Municipal water and wastewater services
of pumping system: Objective
Transfer liquid from source to destination
Circulate liquid around a system.
- Main Pumping System Components:
Pumps.
Prime movers: Electric motors, Diesel Engines, Air system, Turbine
Valves to control flow in system.
Hydraulic Motors or Cylinders.
Heat Exchangers, tanks, hydraulic machines.
Other fittings, control, instrumentation.
Pumping System Characteristics
Pump operating point
Duty point: rate of flow at certain head.
Pump operating point: intersection of pump curve and system curve.

Pump performance:

What are Pumps?
A Mechanical device used to add kinetic and potential energy to a
Liquid for the purpose of moving it from one point to another. This
energy will cause the liquid to do work such as flow through a pipe or
rise to a higher level and Pump gives pressure to fluid passing
through it and discharges the fluid to the Outside.
Important notes
i. A Pump doesnt create pressure it only provides flow. Pressure is a
just an indication of the amount of resistance to flow.
ii. Pumps can Pump only liquid not vapor
iii. Pumps create flow by reducing atmospheric pressure on water (by
creating vacuum)
iv. The main reason for using head instead of pressure to measure a
pumps
energy is that the pressure from a pump will change if the specific
gravity
(weight) of liquid changes but the head not change.

Pump Classifications
_ According to the method of energy transfer between liquid & the machine

Positive Displacement Pump:
Positive Displacement Pump = Rotary Pumps+ Reciprocating pumps

Reciprocating Pumps

The reciprocating pump is characterized by its pulsating flow and is
considered to be a positive displacement pump. Positive displacement
means that a set volume of liquid is discharged for each complete
rotation of the shaft Reciprocating pumps are normally used to inject
small amounts of additives in high pressure system.
A reciprocating pump uses a plunger or piston within a chamber to

devolpe positive pressure to move a commodity from one location to
another. The commodity is first drawn into the suction nozzle of the
pump when the plunger or piston is drawn back within the suction
chamber. As the commodity fills the suction chamber a baffle opens in
the discharge chamber and. As the plunger or piston is pushed forward
in the suction chamber the commodity fills the discharge chamber
through the baffle. As the suction chamber is re-filled by the suction
cycle being repeated the commodity is
pushed out the pumps discharge nozzle
by the plunger or piston in the discharge
chamber.
Reciprocating Pumps
Are divided into:
Diaphragm and Plunger, Piston and
each type has 2classsification
Double Acting or Single Acting.

Rotary pumps
Operate on the principle that a rotating
vane, screw, or gear traps the liquid in the
suction side of the pump casing and forces it to the discharge side of the
casing These pumps are essentially self-priming due to their capability of
removing air from suction lines and producing a high suction lift. In
pumps designed for systems requiring high suction lift and self-priming
features, it is essential that all clearances between rotating parts, and
between rotating and stationary parts, be kept to a minimum in order to
reduce slippage. Slippage is leakage of fluid from the discharge of the
pump back to its suction. Due to the close clearances in rotary pumps, it
is necessary to operate these pumps at relatively low speed in order to
secure reliable operation and maintain pump capacity over
an extended period of time. Otherwise, the erosive action due to the high
velocities of the liquid passing through the narrow clearance spaces
would soon cause excessive wear and increased clearances, resulting in
slippage.
Gear pump
It is rotary pump it is divided into internal and external gear pump
Gear pump :

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35 bar 300 m3/h

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Reversing Gear Pump
This type of rotary gear pump moves liquid in the same
direction regardless of the direction the gears turn .The
valves (shown in yellow in this drawing) are forced open
and closed by the difference in pressure on the input and
output sides .
In this drawing, fluid in the higher-pressure output side is
shown in light blue while fluid in the lower-pressure input
side is dark blue .
Notice that when the green gear starts moving clockwise,
the fluid in the outer circular tubes changes pressure but
stops flowing, and fluid flows more or less straight up .
When the red gear is moving clockwise, fluid travels in a
sideways 'S' shape through the outer circular tubes .
The pump in this drawing reverses direction about every 8
seconds .

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Lobe (Root) Pump

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Screw Pump
sIudge
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The screw pump is a positive displacement pump which
comes with two or three screws. (A single screw version
is called a "progressing cavity" pump)
The Quimby Screw Pump is a type of screw pump .
The pump forms hollow cavities which contain the fluid
and move it along the screws. One screw is the drive
screw and the other screw or screws is/are driven by the
drive screw .
Piston Pump
Divided into: Axial Piston Pump or radial piston pump
Radial Piston Pumps can produce a very smooth flow
under extreme pressure. Generally they are variable-
displacement pumps .In variable models, flow rate
changes when the shaft holding the rotating pistons is
moved with relation to the casing (in different models
either the shaft or the casing moves.) Output can also be
varied by changing the rotation speed .

Vane Pump


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200 m3/h 10 bar
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Centrifugal Pumps
How do they work?
Liquid forced into
impeller
Vanes pass kinetic
energy to liquid: liquid
rotates and leaves
impeller
Volute casing converts
kinetic energy into
pressure energy


Components of centrifugal pumps
Impeller
Main rotating part that provides centrifugal acceleration to the fluid
Number of impellers = number of pump stages
Impeller classification: direction of flow, suction type and
shape/mechanical construction
Shaft
Transfers torque from motor to impeller during pump
start up and operation
Casings
Functions
o Enclose impeller as pressure vessel
o Support and bearing for shaft and impeller
Volute case
o Impellers inside casings
o Balances hydraulic pressure on pump shaft
Circular casing
o Vanes surrounds impeller
o Used for multi-stage pumps
Special pumps

A Jet Pump is a type of impeller-diffuser pump that is used to
draw water from wells into residences. It can be used for both
shallow (25 feet or less) and deep wells (up to about 200 feet ).
Shown here is the underwater part of a deep well jet pump.
Above the surface is a standard impeller-diffuser type pump.
The output of the diffuser is split, and half to three-fourths of the
water is sent back down the well through the Pressure Pipe
(shown on the right here)
At the end of the pressure pipe the water is accelerated
through a cone-shaped nozzle at the end of the pressure
pipe, shown here within a red cutaway section. Then the
water goes through a Venturi in the Suction Pipe (the pipe on
the left)
The venturi has two parts: the Venturi Throat, which is the
pinched section of the suction tube; and above that is the
venturi itself which is the part where the tube widens and
connects to the suction pipe .
The venturi speeds up the water causing a pressure drop
which sucks in more water through the intake at the very
base of the unit. The water goes up the Suction Pipe and
through the impeller -- most of it for another trip around
to the venturi .



Air Lift Pump
The Air Lift Pump is a type of deep well pump, sometimes
used to remove water from mines. It can also be used to
pump a slurry of sand and water or other "gritty" solutions .In
its most basic form this pump has NO moving parts, other
than an air compressor. The efficiency of the air compressor
is a prime factor in determining the overall efficiency of the
pump .


Peristaltic Pumps
Peristaltic pumps have a variety of medical applications.
They can be used to add nutrients to blood, to force
blood through filters to clean it, or to move blood
through the body and lungs during open heart surgery .
Note
It found another 2 type of special pumps is Dutch Pump
and Ram Pumps