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PRESENT SIMPLE Aff: SB + VB 1 Neg: SB +DO / DOES + NOT+ VB 1 Int: DO /DOES + VB 1 + SB ( I speak, He, She, It speaks ) (I do not speak)

( Do I / Does He, She,It speak?)

1)Habitual / regularly actions / daily rouyines Time indicators: usually, generally, often, always, sometimes, seldom, never, every day/ week/ month/ year ; once/twice/ times a day/ week/ month/ year; on (Sundays); at night/ the weekend. I usually wake up at 9 oclock in the morning. He smokes two packets of cigarettes a day. She goes to church on Sundays. My father never works at weekends. 2) Truths & Facts A dentist treats peoples teeth. Rabbits love carrots. 3)Instructions/ directions/ recipes/ commentaries ( on radio, TV)/ headlines (in newspapers)/ reviews ( book, film, play, etc. )/ narration Go straight on and when you came to the first traffic lights, turn left. Mix the flour and water together, than add sugar. John passes the ball to Henry, Henry shoots. POLICE DISCOVER MORE DEAD BODIES. She plays her role marvelously. The witch appears suddenly from nowhere and throws a spell upon him. 4)Planned future actions referring to the future : travel arrangements, fixed programs, timetables The train leaves at 5 p.m. The zoo is open daily from 9a.m. to 5 p.m. 5)Expresses thoughts, feelings and states It matters a great deal to him to win the championship. They feel a lot of loyalty to the company. Jill doubts the truth of his statement. She deeply regrets saying those nasty things about him. 6) in "I declare, I promise, I assure, etc. I declare this pet is not dangerous. I promise you, I won't do anything stupid. I assure you everything will be all right. 7) Conditional sentences - type 1 referring to the future : If you invite me I will come to the party.

PRESENT CONTINUOUS Aff: SB + AM/ARE+ VB+ -ing Neg: SB + AM/ARE + NOT + VB+ -ing Int: AM/ARE + SB+ VB + -ing (I am/ you are speaking) ( I am / you are not speaking) ( Am I/ Are you speaking?)

1) Actions/ events in progress at the moment of speaking Time indicators: now; at the moment; just expressed or implied (exprimate sau cu subinteles) Look! Its raining. Im not going out. Im watching Tv now. 2) Temporary actions/ habits/ behaviour ( happening about this time) My friend is studying for his exam. Why are you being so rude? (Youre usually polite) Youre eating so much tonight. (Whats wrong with you? You usually eat like a bird). 3) Arrangements, plans actions already decided referring to the near future ( the time of action must be mentioned) We are moving next Sunday. 4) Criticism/ bad habits Time indicators: always, constantly, continually, for ever, all the time, etc. You are always borrowing money from me. The kids are constantly throwing stones in my window. 5) Time clause when; while, as, when etc. Ill take a nap while you are writing a letter to your mother.

PAST SIMPLE Aff : SB + VB2 / ed Neg: SB + DID + NOT + VB 1 Int: DID + SB + VB 1 ( I spoke) ( I did not speak) (Did I speak?)

1) Actions completed in the past (at a definite point of time) e.g. I packed my bags yesterday. Time indicators: yesterday; yesterday morning/ afternoon/ evening/; last night, last week/ month/year, etc., (2 minutes) ago, before ( noon) , after ( 2 oclock), in (1990), then, at that time, the other day, etc. - with when e.g. When I entered the room you were reading. 2) Past habits e.g. When I was little I loved swimming. - used to + vb 1 ( Infinitive) - often in contrast with present When I was younger I used to play tennis. - would + vb 1 ( Infinitive) habitual action in the past When I was little I would swim a lot. 3) Narration sequence of past events/ actions following closely - with: when, then, as soon as, etc. eg. He came in , took off his coat and sat down. 4) If sentences type II eg. If I had a lot of money, I would share it with you.

*VB1 Infinitive *VB2 Past Simple

PAST CONTINUOS Aff : SB + WAS/WERE +VB + - ing Neg: SB + WAS/WERE + NOT + VB + -ing Int: WAS/WERE + SB + VB + - ing (I was/ you were speaking) (I was not/you were not speaking) (Was I/ Were you speaking?)

1) Actions in progress: - at a certain moment in the past : I was watching Tv last night at 10. - during a given period in the past: This time yesterday they were still looking for their pet. / Last week he was living in this house. 2) Parallel actions going on at the same time in the past e.g. While I was preparing the dessert, Marcela was laying the table and Victor was bringing the juice. 3) Past interrupted actions an action in progress interrupted when something .else happened: - with: when, while, as, etc. e.g. I was sleeping when you phoned me. Somebody knocked on the window while we were watching a horror movie. As he was surfing the internet, the phone rang. 4) Background description in narratives: e.g. The airport was full of people. Some were reading, others were talking 5) Complaints about past bad habits- criticism: e.g. When she was at school, she was always losing things. 6) To introduce polite requests, suggestions and inquiries, often with verbs like hope, think, wonder : e.g. I was wondering if you could lend me your pen. I was thinking could you give me a lift.

PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE Aff: SB + HAVE/HAS+ V3 Neg: SB + HAVE/HAS + NOT + V3 Int: HAVE/HAS + SB + V3 ( I have/ He, She, It has spoken) (I have not/ He,She,It has not spoken) (Have I/ Has He,She,It spoken?)

1) Past action with a present result ( time not given, insignificant, unknown): e.g. She has shopped a lot= ( effect: She has no money left) All the students have studied hard = ( effect: the students have scholarships) 2)An action that happened recently/ just finished: - with: just/ already ( aff. ) ; (not) yet ( neg. ); yet/already ( int.). e.g. Ive just made a cup of coffee. 3) An action whose moment of occurrence is not mentioned: e.g. I have made a toll free call <-> I made a toll free call yesterday. 4) Future actions in time closes: e.g. Well make a move as soon as the rain has stopped. Dont say anything until youve heard everything I have to say. We will call you when we have known the results. 5)Past action time not definite ( period up to the present) possibly repeated - with certain adverbs: until now, always, never, (not) ever, before, often, lately, recently, already, (not) yet; so far; nearly etc. e.g. I have seldom experienced racism. How long? FOR + PERIOD ( including / up to the present moment) Since when? SINCE + POINT OF TIME ( in the past = starting point of the action) PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOS Aff: SB + HAVE/HAS+ BEEN+ VB + -ing ( I have/ He, She,It has been speaking) Neg: SB+HAVE/HAS+NOT+BEEN+VB+-ing (I have/HeIt has not been speaking) Int: HAVE/HAS + SB + BEEN + VB + -ing (Have I/ Has He... It been speaking?) 1) An action that started in the past , stopped recently and whose result you can usually see now: e.g. A. Why are you so happy? B. Because I have been talking to my boyfriend. Why are you so dirty? I have been painting my room. He has been writing letters all morning <-> He has finished four letters. 2) An action that started in the past and is still going on ( often used with for and since): e.g. We have been studying English for two years . (We have started studying English two years ago and we are still studying it now and possibly in the future). Harry has been asking Barbara to marry him for a year and she still hasnt given him an answer. *VB3 Past Participle

PAST PERFECT SIMPLE Aff: SB+ HAD + V3 Neg: SB + HAD + NOT + V3 Int: HAD + SB + V3 ( I had spoken) ( I had not spoken) (Had I spoken?)

1) Action completed/repeated before a given moment in the past Time indicators: always, never, (not) ever, before, often, already, (not) yet, nearly, by (the time)..., by that time, etc. e.g. By the end of summer they had earned $ 1,000. 2) Action completed/repeated before another action/event in the past - with: when, after, before, as soon as, by the time, (not) until, till; e.g. When John arrived at school, the class had already started. (= the class started first and then John arrived at school). The following constructions are used to show that the actions they introduce happened first: - hardly/scarcely/barely + Past Perf, when + S.Past - no sooner + Past Perf.., than + S.Past e.g. I had no sooner returned from my vacation than I went to work. (=I went to work immediately after I returned from my vacation). Jane had hardly gone to sleep when the dog started barking. ( = the dog started barking immediately after Sheila went to sleep). !!!Very often and especially in formal written English, inversion is used: No sooner had I returned from my vacation than I went to work. Hardly had Jane gone to sleep when the dog started barking. The next two examples represent cause-effect situations: She was happy because she had won the prize. (= cause: she won the first prize; effect: she was happy) Mary didnt water the garden because it had rained. (= ca use: it rained; effect: Mary didnt water the garden). 3)Unrealized action ( hope, expectation, desire, intention) prevented or stopped before it was completed - with verbs like: hope, expect, intend, mean, think, suppose, want, etc. e.g. They had hoped to reach the summit but Johnson fell ill. Obs. It shows the order of past events and it is the equivalent of mai mult ca perfectul in Romanian.

PAST PERFECT CONTINUOS (Used to emphasize the duration of an action usually incomplete) Aff: SB + HAD + BEEN + VB + -ing Neg: SB + HAD + NOT+ BEEN + VB + -ing Int: HAD + SB + BEEN + VB + -ing ( I had been speaking) (I had not been speaking) (Had I been speaking?)

1)Action in progress for some time in the past ( for, since): - a) including that past moment possibly continued - b) up to that past moment interrupted/just finished Time indicators: always, never, (not) ever, before , often, already, (not) yet, nearly, by (the time)..., by that time, etc. e.g. When their parents got home they had been watching TV for two hours. Mother had been cooking for 1 hour when I arrived home. 2)A previous action whose result is still continuing at a given past moment although the action itself has stopped e.g. He left the library where he had been reading all morning. The bodyguards were restless because somebody had been trying for days to hurt the president. NOTE: If you do not mention the length of time such as for three days, for two hours, since May, etc, it is recommended that you use the Past Continuous Tense. Compare: Cinderella was cleaning the house when her stepmother called her. ( = the cleaning was interrupted by her stepmother calling) Cinderella had been cleaning the house for two hours when her stepmother called her. ( = the cleaning stopped just before her stepmother called her.)

SIMPLE FUTURE Aff: SB + WILL+ VB 1 ( I will speak) Neg: SB + WILL+ NOT + VB 1 (I will not speak) Int: WILL + SB + VB 1 ( Will I speak?) We use WILL to: 1) Something that will certainly occur in the future: e.g. A meeting will be held next Monday at 2 p.m. 2) Something that we are not so certain will happen e.g.I think he will phone me later. 3) Make a prediction / state a fact e.g.The rain will stop soon. / Oil will float on water. 4)Express willingness to do something in the future. e.g.I will help you clear the rat-infested storeroom in a moment . 5)make a sudden decision at the moment of speaking. e.g.There's a noise outside. I will just go and check. 6)Give a command/ give an invitation, make an order or a threat. e.g. You will report to me at eight o'clock tomorrow. e.g. They will invite Professor Dunce to speak at the scientific conference. e.g.I will have a double brandy. e.g.Give me your wallet or I will slit your throat with this. 7) ask questions or make a suggestion or promise e.g.Will you phone your mother-in-law to apologize, please? e.g. I will try not to be late again. Be Going To [am/is/are + going to + verb] BE GOING TO is used to refer to future actions: 1) Intention or decision already made to do or not to do something: Example: We are going to move to a new neighbourhood next month. 2)Plans or arrangements for the near future that are made prior to the time of speaking Example: We are going to visit the zoo on Sunday 3)Prediction of an outcome based on current situation Example: Look at the overcast sky. It is going to rain hard. NOTE: When a decision or plan is made for the distant future, will is usually used- She will get married in two years. Going to is usually used when a plan is made for the near future- We are going to visit them again early next month.

3. Be to Be to (is/are + infinitive) refers to an action that is to take place in the future. You are not to answer any question from any one of the reporters. (instruction). You are to hand this packet over to him before noon. (obligation). The Prime Minister is to meet his successor tomorrow. (arrangement). The museum is to be closed while it is being renovated. (information). The General Manager is to present the report to the board on Monday. (duty). 4. Be about to (+ infinitive) We use be about to for an action or event that will happen very soon. e.g. Everyone sits down when the film is about to start. / We walked quickly home when it was about to rain. e.g. I was just about to eat my dinner when the phone rang. 5. Simple present tense referring to the future ( schedules, timetables): e.g. The train for Birmingham departs from platform 3. 6. Present continuous tense - future arrangements: e.g.I am having dinner with him at seven o'clock. NOTE: We use will to ask a favour of somebody. e.g. Will you look after my things for a while, please? We use shall to ask a first person question/for instructions/ make a suggestion/ an offer: e.g. Shall I open the widow? / Shall I give you a lift to the airport? We use won't (will not) to show unwillingness or refusal to do something: e.g. I have asked the noisy children to keep quiet, but they won't listen. FUTURE CONTINUOUS "Will" [will be + vb1 -ing] / "Be Going To(am/is/are + going to be + vb1 ing) Aff: You will be waiting/ are going to be waiting Neg: You will not be waiting/are not going to be waiting. Int: Will you be waiting/ Are you going to be waiting? 1)An action in progress at a particular time in the future ( the action has duration and is not complete) : e.g. Please dont call me at seven oclock . I will be eating dinner then. 2) An action extending over a longer period of time in the future: e.g. I will be very busy next month. I will be working on my term paper. 3) A future action that has been previously arranged: e.g. Dont worry. I will be passing the supermarket in my way, so I will get you the groceries you need. NOTE: No Future in Time Clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Future, Present Continuous is used - While I am finishing my homework, she is going to make dinner.

FUTURE PERFECT (will have) + the past participle/ regular vb. -ed) Aff: She will have talked. Neg: She will not have talked. Int: Will she have talked? The future perfect tense is used : 1) to show that an activity will be completed by a specified time in the future e.g.I will have saved about one million dollars by the year 2090. 2) to show that an action will be completed before another takes place in the future e.g. The fire will have burnt the building to the ground by the time the firemen arrive. 3)to show a situation will be over in the future e.g.The special offer buy two, get one free will have finished by midday tomorrow. 4) with conditional 'if'. e.g. If you don't hurry up, we will have eaten all the food when you get to the table. 5)with time clause - the future perfect tense may come either before or after the time clause. a) On April 1st, she will have been here for six months. b) She will have been here for six months on April 1st. c) We will have waited for more than thirty minutes by the time the bus arrives, Time clauses: On April 1st/by the time the bus arrives Main clauses: She will have been here for six months/We will have waited for more than thirty minutes 7) with time expressions such as by seven o'clock, by this evening, by next Thursday, by then, until noon tomorrow, before closing date. e.g. He will have prepared the documents by next Friday FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS (will have been + vb1+-ing) Aff: He will have been talking. Neg: He will not have been talking. Int: Will he have been talking? Future perfect continuous is used: 1) to indicate the length of time that an action continues in the future e.g. At noon tomorrow, my aunt will have been driving a hearse for fifteen years. 2)to show an action in progress until an event happens in the future. Here, we usually make use of the time clause. The future perfect continuous tense may come either before or after the time clause. a) By the time the bus arrives, we will have been waiting for more than thirty minutes. b) We will have been waiting for more than thirty minutes by the time the bus arrives, Time clause: by the time the bus arrives Main clause: we will have been waiting for more than thirty minutes

FUTURE IN THE PAST


( WOULD + VB 1) Aff: You would help him. Neg: You would not help him. Int: Would you help him? [was/were + going to + VB 1] I was/ you were going to help him. I was/ you were not going to help him. Was I/ were you going to help him?

1) Future in the Past is used to express the idea that in the past you thought something would happen in the future. 2) Would" is used to volunteer or promise, and "was going to" is used to plan. Both forms can be used to make predictions about the future. Examples:

I told you he was going to come to the party. plan I knew Julie would make dinner. voluntary action Jane said Sam was going to bring his sister with him, but he came alone. plan I had a feeling that the vacation was going to be a disaster. prediction He promised he would send a postcard from Egypt. promise

NOTE: Future in the Past cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of using Future in the Past, you must use Simple Past. e.g. I already told Mark that when he arrived, we would go out for dinner. Correct

English Tenses - examples


Future Future Simple action that takes He will / is going to He played football He plays football place once, never or play football every every Tuesday. every Tuesday. several times Tuesday. He played football He will play football actions that happen He plays football and and then he went and then he will go one after another then he goes home. home. home. state He loved football. He loves football. He will love football. Past Progressive Present Progressive Future Continuous action going on at He was playing He is playing He will be playing that moment football. football. football. He was playing He will be playing actions taking place He is playing football football and she was football and she will at the same time and she is watching. watching. be watching. Present Perfect Past Perfect Simple Future Perfect Simple action taking place He had won five before a certain He has won five He will have won matches until that moment in time; matches so far. five matches by then. day. emphasises the result Past Perfect Present Perfect Future Perfect Progressive Progressive Continuous action taking place before a certain He will have been He had been playing He has been playing moment in time (and playing football for football for ten years. football for ten years. beyond), emphasises ten years. the duration Explanation Past Simple Past Present Simple Present

*Future I Simple (will + vb1) *Future I progressive (continuous) *Future II Simple Future perfect *Future II progressive (continuous) Future perfect continuous action that takes place once, never or several times actions that happen one after another moment in time

actions that suddenly take place action that started before a certain moment and lasts beyond that moment actions taking place at the same time action taking place before a certain moment in time puts emphasis on the result action taking place before a certain moment in time puts emphasis on the course or duration of the action

period of time

Result

Course/Duration

CONDITIONALS TYPE 1 (Real condition) expresses something that is likely. It is possible but also very likely that the condition will be fulfilled. Form: if + Simple Present + will (Simple Future) e.g. If I find her I will send her an invitation. TYPE 2 (Hypothetical condition) - expresses something that is unlikely. It is possible, that the condition will be fulfilled. Form: if + Simple Past + would + infinitive e.g. If I found her I would send her an invitation. TYPE 3 ( Impossible condtion) expresses something that is impossible. It is impossible that the condition will be fulfilled because it refers to the past. Form: if + Past Perfect + would have + Past Participle e.g. If I found her I would have send her an invitation.

Conditional Type 1. If you invite me (Daca ma vei invita, Type 2. If you invited me (Daca m-ai invita,

Main clause I will come. voi veni) I would come. as veni)

Type 3. If you had invited me I would have come. (Daca m-ai fi invitat as fi venit) Type 0. If I wake up I finish my work. ( present + present) If it was raining we stayed indoors. ( past + past) NOTE: Expressions that replace if provided ( only if); providing; on condition; on the condition that; unless that; unless ( if not) ; as long as; in case; in the event that; given; suppose. Note: Were you = dac- ar fi ( daca as fie eu in locul tau) Should you = daca cumva Had I known = e acelasi lucru cu if But for = daca nu (ar fi fost el, ea)

Examples: If you should see Peter, tell him to be here at 8 oclock. / Should you see Peter If you had invited me to the party I would have come. / Had you invited me If it hadnt been for Mary, I would have failed. / But for Mary .. I advise you to start looking for a job = If I were you I would start looking for a job. EXERCICES: I.Rewrite each sentence so that the meaning stays the same. If you should have any time free, could you give me a ring? .. We wont go away if the weather is bad. If they were to offer you the job, would you accept? ............................................................................................................ If it hadnt been for John, we would have been in trouble. .. If I had known you were coming, I would have met you at the station. If you should need any help, just call me. II.Choose the most suitable tense: 1. If the machine stops/will stop, you press/will press this button. 2. I cant understand what he sees in her! If anyone treats/ will treat/ treated me like that, I am/will be/would be extremely angry. 3. If you help me/helped me with this exercise, I will do/would do the same for you one day. 4. According to the timetable, if the rain leaves/ left on time we will/ would arrive at 5:30. 5. If it is/will be fine tomorrow, we go/ will go to the coast. 6. If we find/found a taxi, we will get/would get there before the play starts. 7. Its quite simply really. If you take/will take/took these tablets every day, then you lose/ will lose/ lost/ would lose weight. 8.I dont like this flat. I think I am/will be/ would be happier if I live/ will live/ lived in a house in the country. 9. I dont know how to play basketball, but Im sure that if I will/do/did, play/ will play/ would play a lot better than anyone in this awful team. 10. If I phone/will phone/phoned you tonight, are you/will you be/ would you be in? Propozitia circumstantiala de timp

In cazul in care predicatul din principala este la timpul prezent, in propozitia temporala putem folosi orice timp. Atunci cand predicatul propozitiei principale este la timpul viitor, in propztia temporala putem avea diferite timpuri: 1) pentru a exprima un raport de simultaneitate cu actiunea verbului din principala, in propozitia circumstantiala de timp introdusa de conjunctiile when, until, as soon as se foloseste timpul prezent: Ill give him your message when I see him. Ill read the newspaper until you get back. Well buy a new car as soon as we have enough money. 2) pentru a exprima un raport de anterioritate fata de actiunea din principala, in secundara se foloseste Simple Present sau Present Perfect Simple: Ill lend you the book when I have finished it. I finish. OBS. In lb. romana verbul din prop. temporala poate fi la prezent sau la viitor: Ma voi duce sa ma plimb cand imi voi termina temele /cand imi termin temele. Daca verbul din prinicipala este la un timp trecut , in temporala putem avea : - PAST TENSE - in raport de simultaneitate : She invited me to her new house / when I met her. The weather was fine/ when we went on that trip. I was sure he would help you /when he finished his work. - PAST PERFECT in raport de anterioritate: They bought a new car /as soon as they had saved enough money. I was sure he would hel you /when he had finished his work. Propozitia conditionala: OBS: De obicei, propozitia principala este urmata de conditionala: I would come out with you if I didnt feel so tired. Daca ordinea propozitiilor este inverse, sunt separate prin virgula: If I didnt feel so tired, I would come out with you. Conditionalele pot fi uneori indirecte, nu neaparat introduse direct de if: Type 1 : Given time, theyll probably agree. ( If we give them time theyll probably agree.) Type 2: To hear him talk youd think he was the Prime Minister. ( If you could hear him talk, youd think he was the Prime Minister). Type 3: Without your help, I couldnt have done it. ( If you hadnt help me, I couldnt have done it). In different circumstances, I would have said yes. ( If circumstances had been different, I would have said yes.)

ALL TENSES: Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense: 1) He (live).. in London at the moment but he (hope) to move to Oxford next year. 2) You (sleep).so peacefully when I ( look) into your room. 3) I ( wait) .. here since 6 oclock. 4) This parcel ( just, arrived).. for you. 5) We ( be) . in this town for 8 years. 6) Mary ( sleep).. in the living room tonight because her room is being redecorated. 7) I ( hope) .. you realize what a difficult job they have. 8) My brother( always, borrow)money from me and that annoys me. 9) Jane missed the party because no one ( tell) .. her about it. 10) I hope I (see)..you next week. 11) I (live).in Austria for several years, but now I ( live) .. in Italy. 12) Youre late! I ( wait).for you since 5 pm. 13) I ( work)..in the garden tomorrow at 9. 14) I cant understand your behaviour, Dan. You (be)very rude today. 15) By the time you get back, Harry(leave). 16) When I ( phone) .Helen last night she (write) letters for hours. 17) This is second time I (eat)Chinese food. 18) Look at the clouds! It (rain). 19) I (still, have)a pain in my leg, but it (get). Better. 20) Great news! Jean and Chris ( come).. to stay with us. 21) While Susan (try) to get onto the platform, a man grabbed her bag. 22) I ( let) .you know the minute I ( hear). the results. 23) I (dig).the garden. Thats why Im so dirty. 24) By 5 oclock this afternoon I ( do)my homework for two hours. 25) My parents (eat, already)..by the time I got home. I.Present simple or continuous? A: Who is that woman who (stand)..next to the window? B: Which woman? (talk, you)..about the woman who (wear) the blue and gold dress? A: No, I (talk, not) about her. I (mean)the woman who (wear).the blue suit. B: Oh, I (know, not).I(recognize, not)..her. A: She ( look)very smart. I (want)..to know her. II. Past Simple or continuous?

1. I am sitting in the class right now. I (sit)in class at this exact same time yesterday. 2. I got a package in the mail. When I (open)..it, I (find)..a surprise. 3. Tommy went to his friends house, but the boys (be.not)..there. They (play).football in the vacant lot down the street . 4. Mike(climb) .the stairs when he (trip)..and (fall) Luckily, he (hurt, not)himself. 5. I (sleep). when the Germans invaded the city. III. Present perfect simple or continuous? 1. The little boy is dirty from head to foot because he(play).in the mud. 2. Alex is talking on the phone. He (talk).on the phone for over an hour. 3. A: (be, you)..able to reach Bob on the phone yet? B: Not yet. I (try).for the last twenty minutes, but the line (be) .busy. 4. A: Hi, Jenny. I ( see, not).. you for weeks. What ( do, you) .lately. B: Studying 5. Whats the matter? Your eyes are red and puffy. (Cry, you).? 6. In her whole lifetime, Anna ( see, never).snow. 7. You ( study) .for the five past hours. Why dont you take a break? IV. Past perfect simple or continuous? 1. Until yesterday, I(never, hear)about it. 2. The police (look)..for the criminal for two years before they caught him. 3. The thief simply walked in someone ( forget) to lock the door. 4. The patient (wait) ..in the emergency room for almost an hour before a doctor finally treated her. 5. Her eyes were red because she (cry).. 6. He finally came at six oclock. I (wait) .for him since four-thirty. 7. Sam (already, leave)when we got there. 8. After the guests ( leave) ..,I went to bed. 9. I (see, never)..any of Picassos paintings before I visited the art museum. V. Future tense simple or continuous? 1. At this time tomorrow, I (sit)in class. 2. Dont get impatient. She (come)soon. 3. Tomorrow at nine I (study).in the library. 4. I promise I ( disappoint, not).you again. 5. Next year at this time I (do)..exactly what Im doing now. I (attend).school and (study).hard next year. 6. Two days from now I (lie) ..on the beach in the sun.

7. Ask your teacher about it. She (help).you. 8. Im sure I (finish)my work tomorrow. VI. Future perfect simple or continuous? 1. By the next time I see you, I (already, graduate) 2. I (sleep)for two hours by the time he gets home. 3. I (finish)..my homework by the time I go out on a date tonight. 4. By the time we reach the finish line, they (run).for more than two hours. 5. By the time we get to the airport, Bobs plane (arrive, already) 6. Right now it is 10:00 and Im in the class. By 11:00, I (sit)here for one hour. 7. Dont worry about this work. By the time you get back, we(take) ..care of everything. 8. By the year 2012, Mary (live).on this earth for 5o years. 9. He got married again? At this rate, he (have).a dozen wives by the time he dies. 10.At 9 oclock tomorrow, we (fly)..for half an hour. VII. Future in the past Re-write the following statements, which express future expectations and plans, using "would" and "was/were going to". Example: I think I will win this competition I thought I would win the competition. 1. I imagine that I will meet a lot of interesting people at the party. (would) I that I ..a lot of interesting people at the party, but I didn't. 2. I think I will make new friends when I move town. (would) I ..I.new friends when I moved town, and I did. 3. I hope I am going to have time to visit my family. (was/were going to) I .I.time to visit my family, but I didn't. 4. I'm sure I'm not going to have any problems dealing with this task. (was/were going to) I ..I any problems dealing with that task, but I it turned out to be extremely difficult. 5. I expect that I'll fall in love some day. (would) I that I some day, and I did. 6. I think I am going to go for a walk this afternoon. (was/were going to) I .I.for a walk that afternoon, but it started raining.

Articolul zero ( fara articol) se foloseste: 1) Cu nume de tari (la singular): Germany is an important economic power. - Germania e o importanta putere economica. (Exceptie: I'm visiting the United States next week. - Vizitez Statele Unite saptamana viitoare.) 2) Cu numele limbilor: French is spoken in Tahiti. - Franceza este vorbita in Tahiti. English uses many words of Latin origin. - Engleza foloseste multe cuvinte de origine latina. 3) Cu numele meselor: Lunch is at midday. - Masa de prnz este la prnz (amiaza). Dinner is in the evening. - Cina este seara . / Breakfast is the first meal of the day. - Micul dejun e prima masa a zilei. 4) Cu numele persoanelor (doar cele la singular): John is coming to school. - Ion vine la scoala./ George King is my uncle. - Regele George este unchiul meu. 5) Cu titluri si nume proprii: Prince Charles is Queen Elizabeth's son. - Printul Charles este fiul reginei Elisabeta Dr. Watson is our family doctor. - Dr. Watson este doctoral nostru de familie. Obs. nsa titlurile luate singure, au articol: the Queen of England, the Pope. 6) Dupa cazul posesiv format cu s: His sister's car. - Masina surorii lui. Laura's basket. - Cosul Laurei. 7) Cu numele profesiilor: Engineering is a useful career. - Ingineria e o cariera folositoare. He'll probably go into medicine. - El probabil va merge la medicina. 8) Cu nume de magazine: I'll get the card at Smith's. - Am sa obtin cardul la magazinul lui Smith. 9) Cu ani: 1978 was a wonderful year. - 1978 a fost un an minunat. Do you remember 1995? - Iti amintesti de 1995? 10) Cu substantive unice (uncountable nouns): Milk is often added to tea in England. - Laptele este adesea adaugat la ceai in Anglia. Peace is good. - Pacea e buna. 11) Cu numele unor munti, lacuri si insule: Mount McKinley is the highest mountain in Alaska. - Muntele McKinley e cel mai inalt munte din Alaska She lives near Salty Lake. - Ea locuieste (traieste) langa Lacu Sarat. Have you visited Long Island? - Ai vizitat Long Island? 12)Cu majoritatea numelor de strazi , orase, statii pentru mijloacele de transport si aeroporturi. Victoria Station is in the centre of London. - Statia Victoria e in centrul Londrei. Can you direct me to Bond Street? - Poti sa ma directionezi spre strada Bond? They are flying from Heathrow. - Ei zboara de la Heathrow. 13) n unele expresii invariabile ( neschimbatoare): by car (cu masina), at school (la scoala), at work (la munca), at University (la universitate), in church (la biserica), in bed (in pat), by train (cu trenul), on foot (pe jos), on holiday (in vacanta), on air (in broadcasting) (in direct).