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Makalah AutoCad 2008 :

3D Modelling
Thao Feng

resulting surfaces are not equal. In fact, the three commands are Select As 1 developedthe AutoCAD tasks option cursor to the Standardor select area and illustrated in for specific 2008 in the on The Program surfacestoolbar the the previous Move mind. the 2D Solid menu chapters, there are no command isamostly in 1 used model;icon consistscreate 2D filled area and and Region command is in 2D drawings to Desktop. points, lines, the curves that AutoCAD the wireframe 2008 it on right-click on any icon of the Standard toolbar to display a only of 2D Surface be select the Open a to 2 designed so that general startup dialoggroups. describe In the AutoCAD Today toolbar menumodeling was developed Drawing the edges of the object. shapes canbox, easily transformed into solid list of models. single click Face commandmissing in wireframethat is designed The 3D of the left-mouse-button. only one is the icon the surface informationSelect is provide with a that UCS, with the left-mouse-button, to display modeling. 2 and 3 specifically for the the UCS toolbar ontherefore ita the most wireframe Click on the V-block.dwg afilename to open the V-block suitable for Essentially, defining surface modelingdesign the screen. issurface model. skin of creates such is possible model ittasks. The usetoin the 2D a surface model without in 3D surface the previous chapter. (Use the Browse option to Although that was createdof create Solid and Region commandsusing a modeling can most cases it is locate model, itbe somewhat awkward and at times very difficult. Note wireframethe file if in is not displayed.) much easier to create a surface that model the use of thewireframe model. In surface modeling, a wireframe on top of a Region command will be focused on in the solid modeling As one can imagine, sketching each surface edges and corners so model chapters of this provide information about the manually can be very time can be used to text. consuming is tedious. AutoCAD also provides additional tools for more that the modeling andmore be easily positioned wireframe modeling in that Surface desired faces can sophisticated than and placed. advanced surface not only such as Tabulated surfaces, Ruled the surface modelers define modeling, the edges of 3D objects, but also surfaces and Revolved surfaces. provides hiding, shading, and rendering surfaces. Surface modeling These tools are basically automated procedures, which can be used to define and create multiple copies of planar capabilities that are not available in wireframe modeling. Surface models do notsurfaces in specific directions. The principles and concepts used by these provide the physical properties that solid models provide, such as tools are also used in creating so on. mass, weight, center of gravity, and solid models, which are covered in chapter six through chapter eight defines faceted surfaces using re-examine The AutoCAD surface modeler of this text. You are encouraged toa filled these commands after of surface models solid modeling chapters. polygon. The created faces you have finished the are only planar, which In this chapter, the general have approximate curved surfaces. It XI-F / 33 means the surface models can only procedures to create surface models are illustrated. The that of the 2D Solidsurface modeler does not create use the AutoCAD and 3D Face commands are illustrated is important to note and differences discussed. We these two types of surfaces, of the true curved surfaces. To differentiate will also demonstrate the usefaceted more advanced surface modeling tools. Because of the use of which surfaces are called meshes in AutoCAD. Two wireframe models,faceted were created on true curved surfaces, be computer requirements of approximationin the previous chapters, willthe converted into surface models. most faceted surface modelers are typically much less than that of solid modelers. Faceted surface modeling usually provides reasonably good representations of 3D designs with fast rendering and shading capabilities. Faceted surface models are also useful for creating geometry with unusual surface patterns, such model is retrieved and displayed in the graphics The V-block wireframeas a 3D topographical model of mountainous AutoCAD terrain. window. 2008 provides three basic methods for creating surfaces the 2D Solid, 3D Face and Region commands. The three commands were developed parallel to the historical development of the different types of computer modelers. 2D Solid: The first generation surface command available in AutoCAD. Used mostly to fill an area in the sketch plane of the current UCS. This type of surface is not a true 3D surface. 3D Face: Creates a true 3D planar surface (allowing X, Y and Z coordinates) of three-sided or four-sided shape. This is the type of surface developed primarily for creating faceted surface models. Region: Creates a 2D surface of arbitrary shape from existing 2D entities. This command creates the most flexible and the most complicated type of surface available in AutoCAD. This command was developed to allow manipulation of 2D surfaces using one of the solid modeling construction techniques, namely, the Constructive Solid Geometry method.

Starting Up all three 2008 Although Toolbar and the Meshes Commands IntroductionAutoCADcommands can be used to create planar surfaces, the The UCS

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The Locator Wireframe Option Face Command Creating Invisible EdgeModel3D2. Tools Using theaVisual Styles Toolbar Shape In the Visual Styles toolbar, click Moving with the Grip Editing Surface Using the of Irregular

6. In 7. 6. the command commandarea, the the command Style icon to In the prompt prompt on the InRealistic Visualprompt area, the The 3D Invisible Edge option surface area,turn fourthimagefour-sided Face command allows isInto create the messageor area, [invisible] us used command made displaythe second three-sided available model. The second generation 3. Move the command promptthird Styles The off message SpecifySpecify point of thein message shadedthe Visual of Specify or point or displayto the 1. of the cursor to the polygons. was the 3D Face command. There adjacentis face>:surface Pick the 1. toolbar shape, Open icondisplayed.bedisplayed. Click ontheSpecify onlyonEdgedownward we AutoCAD For surfaces therefore <Createthe theSelect oneone canis3Dused the selected edges and of irregular panel1. exists commandthe positivein our allowThe 3D left-click polygons, option message andFace pointinthetheStandard [invisible] Invisible ison created is point:<exit>: ofdisplayed. three-sided Pick face available 3D Face command, to portion back corner righttogether. Pick thecorner with the model. the is displayed.selected to by the in conjunction toolbar. Pick3D display command. was created with the create true 3D planar surfaces by the FaceThelist of availableof the theedge allowing a below and Z options. appear of created surface model theshown. being by clicking on as front X-axis: X, Y corner that inclined bottom of the Note triangle to ascorner joined the lastcoordinates Invisible corners to becannot be as shown. planetowardcreated byside The applied Solid command. to polygons of the Edge option selectedadjacent corner inclined the rightUCS. of independently of the current as the 2D 2D of the as shown. surface shown. Solid command. can be a three-sided or four-sided shape. This command created polygon the model as shown. 1. Select the 2D select: grip points, the small Four is the primary construction tool for surface modeling in AutoCAD. 1. In the pull-down menu,Wireframe in the Visual Styles toolbar. rectangles displayed at the corners of The in the the 1 In theSelect Free window, pickIn the command resets can be used Select File Orbit 1. Wireframe pull-down menus, the 3. ? The options available2D the UCS highlighted polygon, the orient toolbar [Edge] [Draw] ? [Modeling] ? [Meshes]?allow us to quickly Locator file pull-downcreatedto the default AutoCAD display and shape of the that was display in Chapterto adjust the size mode select: 3. View align the UCS. menu. and 2 Click Openyour own, repeat[Draw] ? [Modeling] ? [Meshes] highlighted polygon. On to open the promptthe 7. In the command model file. area, ? [3D zigzagging pattern fourth point or In the[View] ? [Orbit] ? [Free Orbit] 3. Face] the pull-down menus, message Specify to define select: polygons 4. In the command corners of the [invisible] until all prompt <Create three-sided inclined area, the message Specify Pick the back point been [Draw] ? [Modeling] ? [Meshes] face>: is surface displayed.have selected and model as shown. In the pull-down menus, additional polygons on positive portion of X-axis: 2. is corner of the Eight surface modeling 2. In 8. Incommand prompt area, the as 1 theMove right shown select: are created command prompt displayed. Pick the the cursor oninone of the corner of the commands are ? [Meshes] to create available the messagethe message last area, area, Note that surface editing grip points. as shown. Specify Note _3dface Specify first created figure. that this the 1 inclined plane Noticeprompt polygon axes the In the command the gripis [Draw] ? [Modeling] own, move the cursor point or [invisible]:isisedgeUCS3dface two Pick third created point: ? Meshes. is automatically displayed. andthe grip aligned Pick independent of isdisplayed. to [3D Face] On your the a of we three-sided the message Specify thecorners visibilitydirectly above the top of the different commands and lower corner previous face wereon the of point. the polygon. to toggle right corner of the verticalused In the Visual Styles toolbar, click or [Display]: is8. inclined faceClick on one of the axes and drag the model origin of the three shown. 2 Pickthis face. as as shown. read the Hiddendescription of the to positionofthe UCS edges insideon the 3D brief displayed. icon to display the with surface as shown. 3. In the left-mouse-button to commands in the help-line area. prompt area, the inclined thecommand Inside the move the window, right-mouse-click Note model with hidden lines removed. to 8. graphics grip (Clicking the message _3dface Specify first axis edges of the polygons are 2 Inside point. graphics the on the the activate window,that the option menu and select Enter with the leftThe constrain movement to the selected new UCS is aligned point or [invisible]: displayed. right-mouse-clicktheto is activate to Pick the 3D as shown. mouse-button thedisplayed Face command. be specified end the the thirdinclined to The the top right 2D Solid Entermodel as option axis.) and select command endto menu corner of the to requires vertical point plane diagonally opposite [Esc] key toIn shown. This prompt strange way 3 Press the to the the deselect shown. command.the Displays secondthe commandseemly and curves toof 3. area, the 4. Inside Visual Styles toolbar, the Edge Wireframe: arcball, pressas point. using lines 2D objects 9. In the 5. In the pull-down specifying the third corner message Specify second pointmenus, the highlighted entities. was established when the 2D Solid command or downon the Conceptual 9. left-mouse-buttonStyle Visual Stylesand lineweights are represent the boundaries of objects In the click the Visualcreated. Linetypes toolbar, click Face was first introduced back[invisible]: is displayed.that the theon the in the mid-1980s. Note 3D select: Pick visibleand drag it to rotate the modelis the icon to AutoCAD display mode. with this icon to option. Note that this shaded Hidden default [Modeling] 3D display the model with command, display the Observeimage ofand complete in AutoCAD, modelnot the adjacent [Draw] ? corner above the previous ? On your inthe second-generation surface command the 3D ?wireframeof freely own, space. the above steps removed. the surface does 3D repeat the follow this convention. 3D model. the lines the Hidden: Displays hidden objects using Solid] [Meshes]? [2D of the design. display the shaded selected corner behind surfaces and solids surface representationofwith lines In the pulldown menu, selectvertical inclined 4. that are located face as shown. in contrast to the 3D wireframe removed. In lines edges a Surface Using the objects using promptand curves to Creatingthat are located behindthe command the command prompt 3D Wireframe: Displays the 2D Solid Command area, the [View] ? [Hide] 9. 4. In area, the message Specify it. the command prompt 4. In represent the boundaries of objects created. Displays a shaded 3D user message Specify second point or fourth point ? is [Exit]: an area, the The first Specify [invisible]: is linetypes and lineweights are not message (UCS) icon. Note that displayed. Pick the used to third coordinate systemgeneration surface available in AutoCAD or top frontfillis displayed. Pick area in this option. of the necessary point or [invisible]: is planecorner current UCS. It is thereforethe cornerto visible withthe sketch displayed. of the model as shown. 2D Solid above the second Pick the adjacent the UCS of theto using thedirectly command. properly orient Visual Style: Creates a shaded image of polygon faces Conceptual corner prior point we selected as shown in right solids that uses the Gooch face style, a transition between cool and face of the model and vertical your own, use the 10. On 5. toolbar, as shown. selected edgesdark to light.Selectthe figure. select theicon it can UCS warm The Orbit icon to are 1. In the UCS the is less realistic, World UCS. colors The effect 3 Point UCS but in the Free rather than rotate toolbar. see. 10.the UCS to graphics window, This to the world make the details of display so option removed from the and model easier to resets Inside the alignallows us to The 3 Point UCS option the model the examine right-mouse-click in faces end once Visual coordinate system. image of polygon the to and Realistic Visual Style: Creates 10. Select a that the face command surface area, shaded 2D Wireframe 5. In thethe of the inclined specify the new X-axis and Y-axis directions constructed prompt the 2D to reset the solids model. modelobjects a smooth and realistic appearance. display to that the Specify third point Styles toolbar Solid command. gives the appears to align the UCS. the message or surface of 6. Place the first corner The 2D the 2D command point of Solid solid [invisible] realistic. display Pick command to be more <exit>: isat the5. to In the default AutoCAD display mode. Reset the displayed. of the new UCS. prompt area, the origin the allows the your own,ofreset the threemessage Specify 6. fourthOn creation point the top corner of the model adjacent SE Isometric ViewIn the command prompt area, the or [invisible] before message Isometric Specify sided or filled display to is displayed. the SE three-sided face>: four-sided to theproceed to selected <Create as previously thenew corner point<0,0,0>: is displayed. Pick the next origin polygons,the last selected to which can be used the View shown. Pick the corner below before continuing to section. lower right corner of the front face of the wireframe represent faces of surface corner as shown. next section. model as shown. models. Note that in the above steps, we could accept the three-sided polygon after defining the third corner.

6. Using the Tabulated Surface Option to create a polygon On your own, use the Ruled Surface option Advanced Surface Modeling Commands

mesh for the Select arc on the the surface.Modify is required to click on 2. other Break in top Modify the following settings: Layer in thethe Visual In 1 3. Select two new4. Create Break layers with What Styles toolbar, In Construction Wireframe the 3D Color White toare displayed model AutoCAD, command allows us display the suchthe advanced an ? performtoolbar. operation? surface-modeling commands to construct a Several of toolbar. the TABSURFSurfaceHidden icon Blue Cyan LineType Select theBreak commandtabulated surface defined 0.30mm The Exactly six polygons are quickly erase and Continuous LineWeight create by a 2 Continuous Continuous shown.can us used to Defaultparts of topcommands allow lines removed. arc general polygon mesh representing a aswith hidden betocreated and positioned in the Surfaces toolbar. These 7. along the selected pull-down menus, select: Default path curveobjectsdirectionan object in two. Note thatthe upper arc, with and a or split vector. In the path curve, we can only erase duplicate surfaces in specific manners. the Tabulated Surface command.a portion of the This is set by the parts of a circle. We will therefore erase [Draw] ? two arcs. SurfTab1 variable. We can adjust number of circle and then split the circle into[Modeling] ? [Meshes] 1. ? [3D Face] Surface layer as the Set the segments selection By default, AutoCAD treats the to use by typing the word, surftab1, at Current Layer theWe command prompt. ? by choosing the layer surface modeler point as the The selected edges can override first break point. Select the top circle Note that a Note that the 3. as Control nameto approximate true curves is called in the Layershown. box as shown. the first point by choosingusing portion will the erased. are removed from Firstpolygons be the selected point in a faceted surface modeler. optiondisplay so that the face of menu. We will place the surface model on On your ruled surface appears default, AutoCAD shown.the selectionthe surface model as treats (Hint: Use point as the own, complete theBy command prompt area, the the wireframe layer 9. theIn the of a different faces.) than [Edge]to be more to hidethe first breakthe createdcan override themessage by command realistic. edges point. point or [First point]: is first point model. We Specific second break choosing Right-mouseclick option menu. First point in the once and select First displayed. point in the option menu. 4. Click on the OK button to accept the settings and exit the Using the Ruled Surface Option Pick Tabulated Layer Properties2. Manager dialog box. Surface in the Draw pull-down command by rotating a the of menu. In a 10. In the command1 Creates thesurface mesh prompt area, groupmessage prompt area, the message Revolved Surface: objects about break point: is displayed. Choose the us to or [First point]: is In AutoCAD, axis. RULESURF command break point the construct a Specific second5. allows top graphics window, Specific first an Inside the polygon mesh the left vertical line as Right-mouseclick different objectsFirst point in between two objects. We can use two once and select to displayed. a surface mesh all entities by general endpoint of Tabulated Surface: Creates shown.pre-select representing a using the define the edges of the ruled optionpath curve and arcs, circles, vector. The the by a menu. points, a direction tabulated surface defined surface: lines,left-mousebutton to ellipses, create a elliptical arcs, command series ofarea, the command running along thespecified polylines, prompt In The two objects toprompt area, the message or 2 splines. the polygons Specific as a rails be used 11. In the resulting mesh is a parallel message selection window enclosing all of a ruled breakdisplayed.must bothfirst break choose or closed. endpoint the top second surface mesh Specific an object, point: thedisplayed. Choose path. point: is To split be either open is same For open entities. curves, AutoCAD starts construction of the ruledNote that all selected surface based on 5. On Surface: Creates a surface mesh between two objects. the repeat the above that was chosen as the first endpoint. steps and create another ruled Ruled your own, endpoint of the vertical line as shown. locations 3. the In as shown. (Hint: promptcommand are highlighted. to assist of specified points on the curves. surface the command Use the area, 3 In the Realtime promptfunction the message area, entities Zoom Edge Surface: Creates a surface patch mesh from four edges. Specific second Modify toolbar. Note the the selection ofSelect object the path point: is displayed. Choose the the arc.) in for break the message 12. Select Extend top is set the the as curve: is 1. Pick type endpoint of the vertical linein the prompt displayed. Chooseto View, Draw pull-down menu. Projection Ruled Surface in upper shown as shown. arc aswindow. shown. SurfTab1 & SurfTab2 system variables: These two variables are used to set the number of increments used by the Ruled Surface and Tabulated Surface commands. The default values are set to six, the message 4. In the command prompt area, which means any curve will be approximated with six straight vector: is displayed. Select object for direction lines. 2. In the command prompt area, Choose the the message Select first defining vertical line near the top endpoint as 13. Select the6. right vertical edge Propertiesthe used shown. Note that the endpoint ofto be the line is On the Object toolbar, curve: is displayed. Choose the extendinga reference point to determine the direction the boundary as shown. use the Free Orbit On own, as 1. right your the Layer Control box with of choose lower arc by clicking on the command and the polygon mesh.adjust the display of the left-mouse-button. side as shown. 14. Inside the graphics so the layer name displayed Notice that right-mousewireframe modelwindow, the four vertical click oncelines in the Layer the to connecting Control box is the selected Moving Objects to a Different accept the selection. two circles are Layer visibleobject's assigned layer and layer as shown. To Orbit properties. the use of the Ruled 5. On your own, use the illustrate Surface and Tabulated Surface 15. Pick the shorter to and Visual Styles commands arc near the right endpoint to extend the polygons. 7. In the the constructedbox, in thatwe the first split the top circle as One quarter Control arc click direction. circle examine Layer of the commands, on will Wireframe layer name hasshown. erased. We willinto two arcs. Note that these commands been next 2. Click on the 3. In the graphics prompt split the arc into two arcs allow 16. to construct command window, ? All entities of usingLocator model message mesh to the us Inside the a polygon Select are moved to for the New button area, the different situations and once to The split regions. theWireframe layer. Break command. right-mouse-click create newdisplay layers. secondis defining curve: is circle the to deselect and select Enter 8. Press the [ESC] of the displayed.necessary in creating a key twiceoption menu all highlighted mappedend the Extend command. inside the top plane of the to surface onChoose the entities. model. straight edge on the right side as shown.