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Root Locus Theory

Digital Control Systems

The Root Locus


Study the stability of a unity feedback control system for a DC motor with 1 transfer function P (s) = and a proportional controller C(s)=K . s(s + 1)

Open Loop System

L(s) =

K s(s + 1)

Closed Loop System

Tr (s) =

K s2 + s + K

Roots of characteristic polynomial

s1,2 K=0 K=
1 4

1 1p = 1 4K 2 2

1 1 s1,2 = = {0, 1} 2 2 s1,2 = 1 1 1 = { , } 2 2 2

K>

1 4

s1,2

1 1p 4K 1 = j 2 2

as K poles move towards zeros

c J.C. Cockburn

Review

Root Locus Theory

Digital Control Systems

Root Locus Denition


Def. The Root Locus (RL) is the set of values of s for which the characteristic equation (s) = 0 is satised as a (real) parameter varies. Root Locus Transfer Function To analyze and plot the RL one must write (s) = 0 in root locus form

(s) =

a(s) + Kb(s) = 0 1+K b(s) =0 a(s)

1 + KGrl (s) = 0
where K is the real parameter that generates the RL and Grl (s) the root locus transfer function.

(s) = 0 Grl (s) =

1 K

Normalization Grl will always be normalized so that both b(s) and a(s) are monic. Magnitude & Angle Conditions

Grl (s) = |Grl (s)|e


c J.C. Cockburn

j Grl (s)

1 K
Review

Root Locus Theory

Digital Control Systems

1 If K > 0, K =

1 j(+2l) Ke

Grl (s)

= =

+ 2l, 1 K

l = 0, 1, . . .

|Grl (s)|
1 If K < 0, K =

1 j(0+2l) Ke

Grl (s)

= =

0 + 2l, 1 K

l = 0, 1, . . .

|Grl (s)|

Conclusion The positive (or 180) RL is the set of points in the s-plane where the phase of Grl (s) is 180. The negative (or 0) RL is the set of points in the s-plane where the phase of Grl (s) is 0.

c J.C. Cockburn

Review

Root Locus Theory

Digital Control Systems

General Properties of the RL


(Direction) The RL branches start at the poles of Grl (s) and end at the zeros of Grl (s) (including those at ) (Symmetry) The RL is symmetric with respect to the real axis. (Centroid) The RL centroid, is

0
=

1 @ pi r i=1

n X

m X j=1

1
zj A

where r is the relative degree of Grl

(Singular points) Breakin/Break away points occur when multiple roots of (s) coincide. If sb is a break point of the RL then it dGrl (s) satises ds = 0 or equivelentely db(s) da(s) a(s) b(s) =0 ds ds

c J.C. Cockburn

Review

Root Locus Theory

Digital Control Systems

Positive Root Locus Properties


1. (Real axis RL) A point on the real axis belongs to the RL if the total number of poles and zeros to its right is odd. 2. (Asymptotes) As |K| , r branches of the RL approach one asymptote each. Asymptotes originate on the real axis at the centroid and form angles w.r.t the real axis of

180 l = k, r

k = 1, 3, . . . , 2r 1

3. (Angles) The departure angle, dep,k of the RL from a pole pk (of multiplicity 1) of Grl (s) is given by

0
dep,k = @

m X i=1

n X j=1,j=k

1
j 180 A

mod 360

The arrival angle arr,k of the RL to a zeros zk (of multiplicity 1) of Grl (s) is given by

0
arr,k = @

n X j=1

m X i=1,i=k

1
i + 180 A

mod 360

where j from poles and i from zeros.

c J.C. Cockburn

Review

Root Locus Compensation

Digital Control Systems

Negative Root Locus Properties


1. (Real axis RL) A point on the real axis belongs to the RL if the total number of poles and zeros to its right is even. 2. (Asymptotes) As |K| , r branches of the RL approach one asymptote each. Asymptotes originate on the real axis at the centroid 1 0 n m X 1 X pi zj A = @ r i=1 j=1 and form angles w.r.t the real axis of

360 l = (k 1), r

k = 1, 2, . . . , r

3. (Angles) The departure angle, dep,k of the RL from a pole pk (of multiplicity 1) of Grl (s) is given by

dep,k

0 1 m n X X =@ i j A
i=1 j=1,j=k

mod 360

The arrival angle arr,k of the RL to a zeros zk (of multiplicity 1) of Grl (s) is given by

0
arr,k = @

n X j=1

m X i=1,i=k

1
iA mod 360

where j from poles and i from zeros.


c J.C. Cockburn Review

Root Locus Compensation

Digital Control Systems

Performance Specications Transient Response


Constrains dominant RL branches in s-plane.

ln(P O/100) ), = sin(), (damping). ln(P/100) 2. = , (settling time). ts 1.8 3. m , (rise time). tr 4. d = , (peak time). tp
1. = arctan(

Steady State Response (Unity Feedback)


Imposes lower bound on controller DC gain C(s)|s=0.

ess,k = lim

1 P (s) , dss,k = lim k s0 sk + sk P (s)C(s) s0 s + sk P (s)C(s) ess,k (dss,k ) small sk P (s)C(s)|s=0 large.

Stability
Imposes lower/upper bounds on controller gain Kc.
c J.C. Cockburn Review

Root Locus Compensation

Digital Control Systems

Root Locus Design Philosophy


d r
-

F (s)

C(s)

P (s)

1. Translate Transient Response Specications into Acceptable Regions (AR) for the dominant poles of the closed loop. 2. Find lower and upper bounds got the compensator gain K from Steady-State Specications and Stability Requirements. 3. Use the zeros of the feedback compensator C(s) to attract the branches of the RL of the the dominant poles into the Acceptable Regions (AR). 4. Use the poles of C(s) to shape the root locus as required. If necessary add far-o poles for noise reduction and realizability. 5. Design the prelter F (s) to improve the overall transient response.

c J.C. Cockburn

Review