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Hildebert Wagner

Sabine Bladt

Plant Drug Analysis


A Thin Layer Chromatography Atlas
Second Edition

With 184 Colored Photographs by Veronika Rickl

Springer

Contents

Introduction 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 Alkaloid Drugs Preparation of Extracts Thin-Layer Chromatography Detection Drug List Formulae TLC Synopsis of Important Alkaloids Chromatograms Rauvolfiae radix, Yohimbe cortex, Quebracho cortex, Catharanthi folium Vincae minoris folium Secale cornutum Strychni and Ignatii semen Gelsemii radix Harmalae semen Justiciae-adhatodae folium, Uncariae radix Ipecacuanhae radix Chinae cortex Opium Corydalidis rhizoma, Fumariae herba Spartii flos, Sarothamni herba Genistae herba Chelidonii herba Colchici semen Berberidis cortex, Colombo radix, Hydrastis rhizoma, Mahoniae radix/cortex Boldo folium Nicotianae folium Aconiti tuber, Sabadillae semen Lobeliae herba, Ephedrae herba Solanaceae drugs Purine drugs Drugs Containing Anthracene Derivatives Preparation of Extracts Fig. 1,2 3 3 4 6 6 14 22 24 Fig. 3,4 Fig. 5,6 Fig. 7,8 Fig. 9,10 Fig. 11,12 Fig. 13,14 Fig. 15,16 Fig. 17,18 Fig. 19,20 Fig. 21,22 Fig. 23,24 Fig. 25,26 Fig. 27,28 Fig. 29,30 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 53 53

2 2.1

VIII 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7

Contents Thin-Layer Chromatography Detection Circular TLC in Addition to the Ascending TLC Drug List Formulae Chromatograms Aloes Rhamnus species Rhei radix Sennae folium, fructus Circular TLC (CTLC) in comparison to ascending TLC of Senna extracts Hyperici herba Bitter Drugs Preparation of Extracts Thin-Layer Chromatography Detection Drug List Formulae TLC Synopsis of Bitter Drugs Chromatograms Gentianae radix, Centaurii herba, Menyanthidis folium TLC Synopsis, Drugs with Iridoid Glycosides Absinthii herba Cnici herba Oleae folium, Marrubii herba Quassiae lignum TLC Synopsis, Drgus with Cucurbitacins Cynarae herba Humuli lupuli strobulus Cardiac Glycoside Drugs Preparation of Extracts Thin-Layer Chromatography Detection Drug List Formulae and Tables TLC Synopsis of Cardiac Glycosides Chromatograms Fig. 1,2 Fig. 1,2 Fig. 1,2 Fig. 3,4 Fig. 5,6 Fig. 7,8 53 54 55 56 58 62 62 64 66 68

Fig. 9,10

70 73 73 73 74 75 79 84 86

3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7

Fig. 3,4 Fig. 5,6 Fig. 7,8 Fig. 9,10 Fig. 11,12 Fig. 13,14

86 88 90 92 94 96 99 99 99 100 102 104 110 112

4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7

Contents Digitalis folium Nerii (Oleandri) folium Uzarae (Xysmalobii) radix Strophanthi semen Erysimi herba, Cheiranthi herba Adonidis herba, Convallariae herba Helleborus species Scillae bulbus 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 Coumarin Drugs Preparation of Extracts Thin-Layer Chromatography Detection Drug List Formulae Chromatograms Asperulae, Meliloti herba; Toncae semen Coumarins - Chromatographic Standards Abrotani herba, Fabiani herba Fraxini cortex, Mezerei cortex Scopoliae, Belladonnae Mandragorae radix Ammi fructus TLC Synopsis of Apiaceae Roots, Furanocoumarins . . . Imperatoriae, Angelicae and Levistici radix Rutae herba Herniariae herba Drugs Containing Essential Oils (Aetherolea), Balsams and Oleo-Gum-Resins 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 Determination of Essential Oils Thin Layer Chromatography Detection List of Essential Oil Drugs, Gums and Resins Formulae Terpene and Phenylpropane Reference Compounds . . . Fig. 1,2 Chromatograms Anisi fructus, Foeniculi fructus, Basicili herba, Sassafras lignum Cinnamomi cortex, Caryophylli fios Calami rhizoma, Asari radix Myristicae semen, Petroselini fructus Fig. 1,2 Fig. 3,4 Fig. 5,6 Fig. 7,8 Fig. 9,10 Fig. 11,12 Fig. 13,14 Fig. 15,16 Fig. 3,4 Fig. 5,6 Fig. 7,8 Fig. 9,10 Fig. 11,12 Fig. 13,14

IX 112 114 114 116 118 120 122 125 125 126 126 126 130 132 132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146

149 149 151 151 152 162 166 168 Fig. 3,4 Fig. 5,6 Fig. 7,8 Fig. 9,10 168 170 172 174

Contents Ajowani fructus, Thymi and Serpylli herba Carvi, Coriandri, Cardamoni fructus, Menthae crispae folium Menthae folium (Lamiaceae) Rosmarini and Melissae folium (Lamiaceae) Melissae folium and substitutes (Lamiaceae) Lavandulae fios and commercial oils (Lamiaceae).... Aurantii and Citri pericarpium Salviae folium, Eucalypti folium Matricariae fios, Anthemidis and Cinae flos Curcumae rhizoma Juniperi aetherolea, Myrrha Benzoin and balms Pini aetherolea, Terebinthinae aetherolea 7 7.1 7.1.1 7.1.2 7.1.3 7.1.4 7.1.5 7.1.6 7.1.7 7.1.8 Flavonoid Drugs Including Ginkgo Biloba and Echinaceae Species Flavonoids Preparation of Extracts Thin-Layer Chromatography Detection Drug List Formulae Reference Compounds TLC-Synopsis "Flos" Chromatograms Arnicae flos and adulterants Calendulae, Cacti, Primulae flos Pruni spinosae, Robiniae, Acaciae, Sambuci, Spiraeae and Tiliae flos Farfarae folium; flos Petasitidis folium, radix Betulae, Juglandis Rubi, and Ribis folium Castaneae folium Crataegi folium, fructus flos, Lespedezae herba Equiseti herba Virgaureae herba Violae herba Anserinae, Passiflorae herba, Sophorae gemmae Flavon-C-glycosides as reference compounds Citri, Aurantii pericarpium Orthosiphonis, Eriodictyonis folium Cardui mariae (Silybi) fructus Viburni cortex Ginkgo biloba Fig. 1,2 Fig. 3,4 Fig. 5,6 Fig. 7,8 Fig. 9,10 Fig. 11,12 Fig. 13,14 Fig. 15,16 Fig. 17,18 Fig. 19,20 Fig. 21,22 Fig. 23,24 Fig. 25,26 195 195 195 196 196 197 204 210 212 214 214 216 218 220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234 236

Fig. 11,12 Fig. 13,14 Fig. 15,16 Fig. 17,18 Fig. 19,20 Fig. 21,22 Fig. 23,24 Fig. 25,26 Fig. 27,28

176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192

7.2

Contents 7.2.1 7.2.2 7.2.3 7.2.4 7.2.5 7.2.6 Preparation of Extracts Thin-Layer Chromatography Detection Drug Constituents Formulae Chromatogram Ginkgo bilobae folium 7.3 7.3.1 7.3.2 7.3.3 7.3.4 7.3.5 8 8.1 8.1.1 8.1.2 8.1.3 8.1.4 8.1.5 8.2 8.2.1 8.2.2 8.2.3 8.2.4 8.2.5 8.3 Echinacea radix Preparation of Extracts Solvent Systems and Detection Drug List Formulae Chromatogram Echinaceae radix Fig. 29,30 Fig. 27,28

XI 236 236 236 237 237 240 240 242 242 242 242 243 244 244 247 247 247 247 247 248 248 249 249 249 249 249 250

Drugs Containing Arbutin, Salicin and Salicoyl Derivatives Drugs with Arbutin (Hydroquinone derivatives) Preparation of Extracts Thin-Layer Chromatography Detection Drug List Formulae Drugs Containing Salicin and its Derivatives Preparation of Extracts for TLC Thin-Layer Chromatography Detection Drug List Formulae Chromatograms Arbutin drugs Salicis cortex Drugs Containing Cannabinoids and Kavapyrones Cannabis Herba, Cannabis sativa var. indica L., Cannabaceae Fig. 1,2 Fig. 3,4

252 252 254 257

9 9.1

257 257 257

9.1.1 9.1.2

Preparation of Drug Extracts Thin-Layer Chromatography

XII 9.1.3 9.1.4 9.2

Contents Detection Formulae Kava-Kava, Piperis methystici rhizoma, Piper methysticum G. FORST, Piperaceae (MD, DAC 86) 258 258 258 259 259 260 Fig. 1,2 260 263 263 263 264 264 266 Fig. 1,2 Fig. 3,4 Fig. 5,6 268 268 270 272 257 258

9.2.1 9.2.2 9.2.3 9.2.4 9.3

Preparation of Drug Extracts for TLC Thin-Layer Chromatography Detection Formulae Chromatograms Cannabis herba, Hashish Kava-Kava rhizoma, Piper methysticum Drugs Containing Lignans Preparation of Extracts Thin-Layer Chromatography Detection Drug List Formulae Chromatograms Eleutherococci radix (rhizoma) Viscum album Podophylli rhizoma Cubebae fructus Drugs Containing 1,4-Naphthoquinones Droserae herba, Dionaeae herba

10 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6

11

275 275 275 275 276 276 Fig. 1,2 278 278 281 281 281 282 282

11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 12 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4

Preparation of Extract Thin-Layer Chromatography Detection Drug List Formulae Chromatograms Droserae herba, Dionaeae herba Drugs Containing Pigments Preparation of Extracts Thin-Layer Chromatography Detection Drug List

Contents

XIII

12.5 12.6

Formulae Chromatograms Hibisci flos, Reference compounds TLC Synopsis Myrtilli fructus, Croci stigma Drugs with Pungent-Tasting Principles Pungent-Tasting Constituents Fig. 1,2 Fig. 3,4

283 286 286 288 291 291 291 291 292 292 293 293 293 294

13 13.1

13.1.1 Preparation of Extracts 13.1.2 Thin-Layer Chromatography 13.1.3 Detection 13.1.4 Drug List 13.2 Drugs with Glucosinolates (Mustard Oils)

13.2.1 Preparation of Extracts 13.2.2 Thin-Layer Chromatography and Detection Methods 13.2.3 Drug List 13.3 Drugs with Cysteine sulphoxides and Thiosulphinates Allium sativum L., Allium ursinum L., Allium cepa L. - Alliaceae 13.3.1 Preparation of Extracts for TLC 13.3.2 Thin-Layer Chromatography and Detection 13.4 13.5 Formulae of Pungent Principles Chromatograms Capsici and Piperis fructus Capsici fructus, Sinapis semen Galangae and Zingiberis rhizoma Allium species Saponin Drugs Preparation of Extracts Thin-Layer Chromatography Detection Drug List Formulae Chromatograms TLC Synopsis of Saponin Drugs Ginseng radix Hippocastani semen, Primulae radix Quillajae cortex, Saponariae radix Hederae folium

294 294 295 296 298

Fig. 1,2 Fig. 3,4 Fig. 5,6

298 300 302 305 305 306 306 307 311 318

14 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6

Fig. 1,2 Fig. 3,4 Fig. 5,6

318 320 322

XIV

Contents Rusci rhizoma, Centellae herba Avenae sativae Liquiritiae radix Fig. 7,8 Fig. 9,10 324 326 329 329 329 329 330 331 332 Fig. 1,2 332 335 335 335 335 336 336 338 Fig. 1,2 338 341 341 341 342 342 343 Fig. 1,2 346 346 349 349 350 350 352

15 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6

Drugs Containing Sweet-Tasting Terpene Glycosides Preparation of Extracts Thin-Layer Chromatography Detection Drug List Formulae Chromatograms Liquiritiae radix Steviae folium Drugs Containing Triterpenes Preparation of Extracts Thin-Layer Chromatography Detection Drug List Formulae Chromatograms Cimicifugae rhizoma Ononidis radix Drugs Containing Valepotriates (Valerianae radix) Preparation of Extract Thin-Layer Chromatography Detection Drug List Formulae Chromatograms Valerianae radix Screening of Unknown Commercial Drugs Preparation of Drug Extracts for Analysis Thin-Layer Chromatography Detection and Classification of Compounds Scheme of Separation and Identification

16 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 16.6

17 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 17.6

18 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4

Contents 19 Thin-Layer Chromatography Analysis of Herbal Drug Mixtures Salviathymol Commercial laxative phytopreparations Appendix A: Spray Reagents Appendix B: Definitions Standard Literature Pharmacopoeias Subject Index Fig. 1,2

XV 355

355 359 365 367 368 369