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the online magazine No. 23, March 2012


4 On Disinvestment of Cultural Heritage

By Rui Bordalo

5 A Decade of Disorder: Conservation and the Digital Revolution

By Daniel Cull

8 Pragmatism and Compromise in Conservation

By Peter D. Verheyen

11 News on econservation magazine

By Rui Bordalo

12 Urban Conservation in High Asia.

The work of Andr Alexander and Tibet Heritage Fund
By Pimpim de Azevedo and Yutaka Hirako

15 Faces of Memory: the Newest Technology of Preservation and

Restoration of HandWritten and Printed Heritage
Review by Tatyana Krupa

18 Back to the Roots Workshop on Textile Dyeing with Natural Dyes

Review by Anna Karatzani

22 XTACH 2011
Review by Mark Beech


32 The Boxes for the Housing and Protection of Books:

Observations on their History and Development
By Gianlorenzo Pignatti

47 Lining, Relining and the Concept of Univocity

By Cecil Krarup Andersen

57 Salt Damage on the Wall Reliefs of Dendera Temple, Egypt

By Hesham Abbas Kamally

71 Security of Cultural Property: U.S. Engagement and

Potential for Improvement
By Erik Nemeth

78 First Aid of Rare Ptolemaic Textile in Tuna elGebel Excavation, Egypt

By Harby E. Ahmed
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On Disinvestment of Cultural Heritage

History has shown time and time again that (r)evolution is the only constant. Nevertheless, we seem always to be attracted to stability and we continually seek to maintain the status quo. The dictionary defines status quo as "the existing state of affairs (at a particular time)" or "the situation as it currently exists". It is hard for us to let go and to embrace constant change. But, as we will now see, maintaining the status quo may not be a fight worth having, as it may be part of the problem and not of the solution. Simply put, conservation is nothing more than an attempt at keeping the material memories of what has been. One way or another, it has never been more than that, except for our present times. Nowadays, we are trying to achieve more than that by preserving the perishable, the mundane, the superfluous present, and to keep it for the future. This can be seen, for example, in the attempts of archiving content of the internet, conserving ephemeral art, etc. Cultural heritage is all about our cultural identity, to know what we are and where we come from in order to understand how we are now. But if we value the material memories from the past, how is it that we are giving more attention to those of the present? I believe this is because society in general is changing and becoming more immediate: what is important is what we have now, not what we might have later, or what we had once, for that matter. From this change of paradigm into the search of immediate or shortterm satisfactions, we are starting to no longer pay so much attention to our cultural heritage as we are to our present actions. And of course, we dont invest in what we dont value anymore. That is becoming a problem, as the unfortunate tendency in recent years is a continuous disinvestment in cultural institutions. Regrettable examples are conservation courses and museums being closed everywhere. And those that have managed to survive are having their budgets severally diminished. We continue to value cultural heritage but its importance is falling behind other immediate interests. Disinvestment and budget cuts are now shaping the present state of cultural heritage and, hence, of the related professions. Although we should always hope for the better, it is not likely that investment in cultural heritage will become a priority in the near future. Assuming that this state is permanent, it is up to us to raise the continuous awareness so cultural heritage is not forgotten during these times of immediacy. Cultural heritage is by definition past and unchangeable. Thus, if we cant adapt it to our society, perhaps we should try to adapt our society to it. At the end of the day, it is only by embracing changes that we are going though that we can preserve cultural heritage and enable its present memory to be unaffected.

Rui Bordalo EditorinChief

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By Daniel Cull "Revolution is but thought carried into action" Emma Goldman

In 1517 Martin Luther wrote a little tract known as the NinetyFive Theses, you might have heard of it? Less famous, though no less significant, was his friend Christoph von Scheurl, who in 1518 used a printing press to distribute Luthers ideas. In many respects it was this new media distribu tion system that caused the chaos of the protes tant revolution, out of which the world we know was born. Today our world is changing as a result of another media revolution, we can potentially date our entry into this revolution from the date conservationrestoration first appeared on Wikipedia, which it did on 25th February 2002, with the entry: The process of halting the decay and perhaps even renewing to the original state works of art undergoing change is called Conser vation and Restoration [1]. From such humble beginnings the entry has grown, and the site has even become a location for conservation projects [2]. Weve now reached the tenyear mark of our entry into the digital revolution, so with this in mind where do we as a profession stand with the wikitechnology that dragged us kicking and screaming into this new epoch? First, lets take a step back. Wikis can be traced back to 1994, when computer programmer Ward Cunnigham was working on what he called wiki wikiweb, named after the airport shuttles at Honolulu airport. What Cunningham had develo ped was a simple system that allowed anyone to make additions and edits to a webpage, and cru
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cially for those additions to be tracked, and easily reverted. This turned the consumer into a creator fundamentally changing everything. In 2001 Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger embraced this idea to launch their new online encyclopedia, Wiki pedia. The site was launched with the following statement: http://www. Humor me. Go there and add a little article. It will take all of five or ten minutes. Larry [3] Looking back, especially after the SOPAinspired web "black out" [4], it is somewhat incredible to think that the website was launched with so little fanfare, and amazing to re member that the site didn't exist in the twentieth century! The crucial factor behind Wikipedias success is the community, and sense of collec tive ownership, that developed to contribute to, and to fight to keep it free from commercial activity. It is this community that cares for the site, guaranteeing its longevity and continued growth; in terms of quantity and quality. Wikitechnology is of course not the exclusive domain of Wikipedia, far from it. The conservation field is

news & view


A print screen of the Englishlanguage Wikipedia page on 18 January 2012, illustrating its worldwide blackout in opposition to U.S. legislation such as SOPA and PIPA. Image by Wikipedia (some rights reserved).

increasingly awash with wikibased projects whether it is material specific research projects [5], or institutional wide efforts to use wikitech nology [6]. The success, or failure, of these pro jects will very much relate to the extent that the institutions behind them forgo the traditional institutional role and come to terms with the new collaborative coordination model at the heart of this revolution. The socialmedia theor ist Clay Shirky stated that when institutions are told [...] there are other ways of coordinating the value; they go through something a little bit like the KblerRoss stages of reaction [7]. It seems that many conservation institutions have gone through denial and anger, and have cur rently reached bargaining, its difficult to find any that have yet truly accepted the chaotic col laborative systems of the digital world. As we consider how our field is being re/defined by the socialmedia revolution, it is worth remembering

that Clay Shirky predicted 50 years of chaos, so if this is where we are after 10 years, I wonder where well be in 40 years time.

Notes: [1] Wikipedia Contributors, Conservationrestora tion, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, Date of Revision: 25 February 2002 15:51 UTC, Available online permanent link: URL [2] D. Cull, Wikipedia Saves Public Art: An interview with Richard McCoy and Jennifer Geigel Mikulay, econservation magazine 14, 2010, pp. 1927, URL [3] L. Sanger, The Early History of Nupedia and Wikipedia: A Memoir, Posted by Timothy on Slashdot, April 18 2005, URL
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[4] L. Davies, Wikipedia begins blackout in protest against US antipiracy laws, The Guardian, January 18, 2012, URL [5] Salt Wiki, [6] Collaborative Knowledge Base, American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, [7] C. Shirky, Institutions vs. Collaboration, TED Talk, July 2005, URL

The News section is bringing uptodate information on cultural heritage topics such as onsite conservation projects reports, reviews of conferences, lectures or workshops and any other kind of appropriate announcements. If you are involved in interesting projects and you want to share your experience with everybody else, please send us your news or announcements. For more details, such as deadlines and publication guidelines, please visit

Conservator The Musical Instrument Museum Daniel Cull is from the West Country of the British Isles. He trained at the Institute of Archaeology, University College London, where he received a BSc in Archaeology, MA in Principles of conser vation, and an MSc in Conservation for Archae ology and Museums. He was later awarded an Andrew W. Mellon Fellowship at the National Museum of the American Indian/Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. He currently works as a conservator at the Musical Instrument Museum and as a collaborator with econservation magazine.

Website: Contact:

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By Peter D. Verheyen

The ideas for this guest editorial began gestating several months ago when I was first invited to contribute it. In addition to my current experi ences working as the head of a research library preservation department, I had the good fortune to work with interns and engage in professional development activities. More recently, the 2011 American Institute of Conservation (AIC) confer ence was especially thought provoking. I write this from the perspective of an apprentice trained bookbinder and conservator who has spent most of his career working in academic re search libraries in the US, work that has included working primarily with special collections, but also heavily used circulating collections and di gitization. During this time I have also worked with many other conservators, interns from con servation/preservation programs and students of museum studies and librarianship. While the mission ensuring the longterm health of and continued access to the Librarys collections has not changed, how we do that work and prioritize activities has. This has been a result of changes in staffing, funding, and the priorities of the or ganization writ large. The past year has seen a number of changes in conservation education in the US. The closure of the Preservation and Conservation Studies pro gram at the University of Texas at Austin (founded in 1981 at Columbia University) is perhaps the most significant. The Mellon Foundation funded coordination effort among the three remaining major conservation programs (Winterthur, New York University and Buffalo State) will seek to ensure that conservators can continue to receive

formal training in book conservation. Unlike a dedicated program for library/book conservators, students in these programs will receive a more fragmented experience with less time at the bench than they received before. This will require greater effort to obtain the additional training, in addi tion to their other coursework. These changes have led to a reexamination of alternative paths to becoming a conservator including a renewed interest in the apprenticeship model, programs such as the North Bennet Street School in Boston, and study abroad at programs such as West Dean (UK). There are advantages and disadvantages to the academic model and alternatives greater theory vs. handson time at the bench but with a commitment to lifelong learning these can be balanced. However, given the decline in available positions, where can these graduates find em ployment? This is one area where pragmatism can make a significant impact. What has always been missing are entrylevel assistant conservator positions that enable a recent graduate to work besides a more experi enced conservator to develop their skills and re ceive mentorship. Without these positions many new professionals found themselves thrust into leadership positions before they had an opportu nity to mature their skills. Technician positions are more often available, and seem to be increas ingly calling for more experience and training. Yet, these positions are deemed beneath inap propriate to graduates of these programs. Perhaps a realization that even routine benchwork is es sential for building the treatment skills of trained conservators, journeyman years if one will, will lead to a perceptual upgrade of these positions,
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especially those calling for more developed skills. This would also benefit those coming from alter native training paths and give them a career path that allows for upward mobility providing they meet the other criteria. Could this be a winwin for the profession? At the same AIC conference, Barbara Appelbaum presented a very compelling paper entitled "Con servation in the 21th Century; Will a 20th Century Code of Ethics Suffice?" [1]. In it, she asked us to think about AICs code of ethics and the concepts of cultural heritage and personal property. In particular she noted that Thorough training is required to practice in an ethical manner. Ethics and guidelines for practice require substantial knowledge in order to use them appropriately. Another reason that ethics cannot be the ultimate guide to conservation is that many different solu tions to a problem can be equally ethical. As the author of a rather long book on decisionmaking, I can attest to the fact that treatment choice is not primarily a matter of ethics, but of judging the large number of factors that come under the term appropriateness. Mary Striegel (Chief of Materials Conservation at the National Center for Preservation Technology and Training) wrote commenting on Appelbaum on AICs Conservators Converse blog, We must realistically evaluate all that is going on around us and understand the needs of the museum, private collectors and the public [2]. Other presentations, in particular Digitization and Its Effect on Conservation Treatment Deci sions: How Has Widespread Digitizing and Col lections Changed Our Approach to Treatment? [3] focused on the compromises conservators have to make in support of large and smallscale digitization. As conservators we enjoy being able to give an item all the attention it requires,
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becoming lost in the nuances and details until we are done. However when working on a collection level, especially in support of something like di gitization we must change how we approach the work, organize sustainable workflows, and often make compromises in how far we take the work. In the end, we find ourselves doing just enough to stabilize the piece without compromising the ability to properly treat it at a later date, all in highvolume production environment. Perhaps frightening, these kinds of projects are only go ing to become more common and important as libraries and similar organizations with extensive holdings begin to digitize for access. With the attention given to these projects, conservators must ensure that they become part of the plan ning process as well and educate all involved on issues of care and handling, as well as safe stor age of the originals. As our budgets continue to be cut, we must apply the same largescale method ology towards improving storage and creating enclosures and even treatment, ensuring that we can make the maximum impact with the resources we have. At the same time we must continue to treat those items of greatest significance they will be the ones to receive the most attention and handling something that will nurture our need for challenges and keep our skills sharp. In the end, as our field changes in all respects from education, to employment, to the work we do we must ensure that we respond positively and proactively, adapt to new situations and demonstrate our continued value and the neces sity of our work.

References [1] B. Appelbaum, Conservation in the 21th Cen tury; Will a 20th Century Code of Ethics Suffice?, Ethos, Logos, Pathos: Ethical Principles and Critical


Thinking in Conservation, 39th Annual Meeting of the American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, Philadelphia, May 31June 3, 2011, URL [pdf] [2] M. Striegel, 39th Annual Meeting General Session, June 1, Conservation in the TwentyFirst Century: Will a Twentieth Century Code of Ethics Suffice? By Barbara Applebaum, in AIC Blog, American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, URL (accessed 19th February 2012) [3] B. Doyle, AIC 2011, Day Two Notes, in Preser vation & Conservation Administration News, URL (accessed 19th February 2012)


Conservator Contact: Peter D. Verheyen began his involvement in pre servation and conservation while a workstudy student in the conservation lab at the Johns Hopkins University Library. He interned in the conservation lab of the Germanisches National museum in Nuremberg, Germany, and completed a formal apprenticeship in hand bookbinding at the Kunstbuchbinderei Klein in Gelsenkirchen, Germany. He also studied at the Professional School for Book Restoration at the Centro del bel Libro in Ascona, Switzerland and completed a Mellon internship in book conservation at the Folger Shakespeare Library. He has worked with conservators in private practice and in academic libraries, establishing the rare book conservation lab at the Syracuse University Library where he is now head of Preservation and Conservation. He maintains Book_ArtsL and the Book Arts Web. From 2004 to 2012 he published The Bonefolder: an ejournal for the bookbinder and book artist.
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Art Conservation Research



By Rui Bordalo

econservation magazine started back in 2007 as an innovative project to cover the lack of conservation publications freely available on the internet. Focused on conservation and cultural heritage, it was published five times per year reaching 23 issues so far. In these past years, we were able to disseminate free knowledge to the conservation world by publishing more than 80 articles and dozens of case studies and confer ence reviews among our sections. The magazine always offered peerreviewed articles in order to meet the high standards of its readers. The publication of econservation is only pos sible due to the group effort of our volunteers, who, along with their daily jobs have continu ously donated their free time and expertise to provide the best publishing experience. Without them, the magazine would not exist and they are greatly acknowledged and appreciated. In 2012 econservation starts a new phase and will go through some important changes. Per haps the most significant is that from now on the magazine will be published biannually, always in March and September of each year. This new periodicity will allow us more time to prepare it and thus it will add value both to its content and its quality. Issues will offer more content and diversity than before in the same formats you already got used to pdf and html versions. As a consequence, part of the infor mation we regularly provide, such as news,
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announcements, events and much more, will be taken over by our website and presented to you in a more updated and interactive manner. Another major change is that the domain of our website will change its actual name from into the more simple and userfriendly This new domain was recently donated to us by Greek conservator Panagiotis Galatis to whom we wish to thank for his kind support. This change will allow us to reorganize the entire website which will be reformulated and enhanced for a more actual and interactive user experience. Given the magnitude of these changes, we intend to implement them in different stages over the year. We hope to do it smoothly and without causing problems to our authors, readers and visitors of the website. In case you would like to participate in the makeover of the magazine with ideas or suggestions please contact us at or comment this on our blog.

Thank you for your continuous support!


Pimpim de Azevedo and Yutaka Hirako

In memoriam of Andr Alexander (19652012)

When rapid urban development swept China in the 1990's, traditional buildings in the old city of Lhasa began to be demolished and replaced by new construction. In the early 90s, the old city still retained some of its magic, the layout and shape of the Tibetan quarter unchanged. One could walk through its courtyards to the barking of Apsos and stray dogs, become lost in the laby rinthine alleys, suddenly emerging to find some mysterious house, person or holy place. Andr Alexander walked the old city as if he was born there, knew every corner and shortcut, every temple and teahouse. The replacement of the traditional low rise residential buildings with four storey concreteframe blocks was something he could not bear to see. From that moment on he devoted himself to the protection of the old city and the study of Tibetan architecture. Andr first put together a booklet about the old city demoli tion and used it to network with international scholars to solicit their support, and to reach out to Tibetan scholars and citizens with influence who thought that Tibetan architecture was worth preserving. He had discussions with diplomat and Tibetologist Hugh Richardson and with writer Heinrich Harrer, ran around Lhasa with Tibetolo gist Heather Stoddard, and held long discussions with Sonam Wangdu, the first Tibetan archaeolo gist, and other Tibetan scholars and retired politi cians. He also had great admiration for Peter Aufs chnaiter who surveyed the city of Lhasa in 1948 and produced a map that Andr always carried with him. At that time he founded the Lhasa Archive Project with Andrew Brannan to document the old city,
From left to right: Yutaka Hirako, Pimpim de Azevedo and Andr Alexander, Tibet Heritage Fund core team in Bonpuri peak, Lhasa, 1998. Photo by Masaaki Kuwahara.

the starting point of preservation efforts. Andr invited his friend Pimpim de Azevedo to contri bute drawings and maps of old Lhasa. Andr kept up his persuasion, and never stopped talking to anyone who could help to make a change. In 1996, Tibet Heritage Fund (THF) was founded, and that same year secured permission to undertake the first house rehabilitation project, using a municipal government construction com pany. This house, an old residential building on the Barkor street beneath the walls of the great temple, was a first step, and showed what could be done, but THF was not completely satisfied with the quality of the building work. The big challenge for Andr and his colleagues was to persuade the old builders or craftsmen masters that were still alive to join the projects and pass their knowledge to the new generation and to make them understand how valuable still
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Andr with his cat in Leh, 2011. Photo by THF team.

their skills are. After months of discussions and Andr repeating that it was now or never first old craftsmen came to join the projects bringing lot of excitement and challenge together with the needed skills. The first job done by these master craftsmen was the reconstruction of the Labrang Nyingba toilet. The Labrang Nyingba house is an elaborate stone construction on foundations that go back to the early 15th century. One of the dry toilet towers was damaged and in need of urgent restoration. The craftsmen took it as a chance to prove that they had the skills THF was looking for. Big stones, small stones, compacted earth, layer by layer the walls were built up, the rafters placed and the walling continued. The elaborate stone work was of extremely high quality, matching the original wall of the house. It was a time of tension, but that job turned out to be the beginning of a long rela tionship between Andr, the craftsmen, and THF.
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For Andr and THF, the involvement of communi ties and residents was crucial. More than anyone they needed to be won over. Andr had a way of discussing everything with the residents, finding out what they wanted and developing solutions, and involving them in every stage of the conser vation process. In 1996, after some consultation with the Lhasa City Mayor and various government offices the Lhasa Old City Protection Working Group (LOCP WG) was founded with the Mayor as chairman and Andr as vicechairman. In cooperation with the Lhasa prefecture governments Cultural Relics Bureau, 13 residential buildings and a monastery were restored in Lhasa. During these projects, more than 300 people were trained in masonry, carpentry, painting, mural conservation, metal work, water and sanitation, design and planning, architecture survey and management. In 1998, following a proposal by THF, 93 buildings were


Tibet Heritage Fund work team in Lhasa, 2000. Photo by Tibet Heritage Fund.

officially listed as Protected sites by the muni cipality and the Cultural Relics Bureau. In 2000 the local authorities notified THF that henceforth the Cultural Relics Bureau would continue the reha bilitation work, following the path beaten by THF. THF then expanded its rehabilitation and conser vation projects to other areas of the Tibetan cul tural realm: China, Mongolia and India. In 2003, Andr visited Ladakh, and in the old city of Leh, immediately recalled old Lhasa. The conditions were different, the houses were not public (gov ernment) properties like in China but the private owners were moving out of the old city and letting their houses decay through neglect. Again, Andr could not let the old town die. Using his experience and knowledge of Tibetan archi tecture and city planning, he developed a conser vation plan based on the active involvement of the residents and local government. The initiative grew into a local NGO, the Leh Old Town Initiative (L.O.T.I.). Before long they had repaved the streets

and put in drainage. The work was not limited to residential buildings, it included temples and mu ral conservation, and the team was contracted to build a new monument in Leh, the Central Asia Museum and Library in Tsal Soma. Recently, Andr had also begun working on temple restoration in Sikkim. Through involvement in these projects many local people were trained in building skills and conservation, but also in mural conservation, management and architectural surveying. Many students and international volunteers took part in his projects and learned under his guidance about Tibetan and Himalayan architecture and culture. Andr loved the Tibetan land of snow, he was passionate about the beauty of its architecture and art, people and environment. He dedicated his life to protecting these beautiful, dignified buildings, together with anyone who shared the same dream. Andrs vision, passion and dedica tion to preserve Tibetan architecture and culture will be carried on by Tibet Heritage Fund.
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Review by Tatyana Krupa 2428 October 2011 Yerevan, Armenia Organised by: Matenadaran Mesrop Mashtots Institute of Ancient Manuscripts

On last 2428 October, the seminar Faces of me mory: the newest technology of preservation and restoration of handwritten and printed heritage was held in Yerevan, the Republic of Armenia. The seminar was organized by the Matenadaran Mes rop Mashtots Institute of Ancient Manuscripts State NonCommercial Organization (Yerevan, Armenia) with support of the Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Armenia and the Intergovern mental Foundation for Educational, Scientific and Cultural Cooperation (IFESCCO) of Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) countries. Representatives from 16 countries, namely Austria, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kyr gyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajiki stan, Uzbekistan, Ukraine, France and Estonia, took part in this significant scientificpractical forum. The first day was opened by a pressconference where the participants were introduced to the basic tasks and topics of the meeting. The leaders of the workshops, masterclasses and round tables were introduced, as well as the new scientific staff of the Matenadaran. Having received new staff and a restoration laboratory, the Matenadaran can now become a base for the preservation and study of the archeological heritage of Armenia. Next, Armenian Deputy Minister of Culture Arev Samuelyan greeted the guests and the hosts of
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the Matenadaran emphasizing the importance of such significant events on a large scale in the framework of the culturalhistorical heritage of CIS countries, especially in Armenia as it is on the threshold of the 500th anniversary of Armenian bookprinting and the 20th anniversary of its independence. According to Mr. Hrachya Tamrazyan, director of Matenadaran, the main task of the workshop was the necessity of enhance the scientificcreative communication between the participant countries of the forum and making joint efforts to preserve the world printed and manuscript heritage. I think it is important to mention that the post soviet countries experienced during the last 20 years a breakdown of the restoration system and the lack of the training of restorers that existed during the USSR. As result, the level of profes sional training was reduced. Among the problems that contemporary Ukraine faces, in particular, there is the lack of a complete training system for restorers. Therefore, the organization of this international workshop in Yerevan was a great contribution to the revival of the position and fur ther professional development in these countries. During the other three days, the workshop work was organized in three simultaneous sections: restoration, fund keeping and technology. These three sections are high priorities in any serious


Matenadaran's new storage facility.

Demonstration of the work on fixing cracks in wax objects by Dayna Yoninaite, Lithuania.

institutions that preserve and study printed and manuscript heritage. The restoration section started with a workshop on Problems of preserving and studying archeo logical silk in Ukraine given by Tatyana Krupa. Although the workshop was focused on printed and manuscript heritage, it should be kept in mind that most ancient printed works and manuscripts contain textiles, which also requires research and preservation. Patricia Engel (Austria) presented an interesting masterclass on Practical bases of neutralization of medieval manuscripts where she spoke about the stabilization of corrosion of ferrous iron in manuscripts, which is one of their main problems. The seminar Historical and technical methods of restoring ancient stamps given by Dayna Yoninaite (Lithuania) was especially impressive. Ancient stamps are one of the most difficult objects for restorers. The Lithuanian methods that were pre sented were based on their experience and during the seminar the participants assisted to demons trations with hanging stamps, pressed stamps and stamp cases. Wax mixtures of stamps, lacquers

and techniques of making medieval stamps were also analyzed during the seminar. It was especi ally interesting to see the demonstration of fixing cracks with the use of an electric soldering iron with a thin tip. Natalie Palamar (Russia) presented a master class on Scientific Research and Restoration of Archive Documents and Ancient Photos where she summed up her 35 years of experience. The participants were able to get acquainted with the recent requirements and materials for the resto ration of archive documents and old photos, and for creating a stable environment to preserve the objects. Ann Tskhais (Russia) spoke about the Restora tion of the Two Armenian Manuscripts from Rus sian State Library during which she described the badly preserved late medieval Armenian manuscripts and how they were restored. The restoration section ended with Gayane Eli zyans (Armenia) masterclass on Working with Modern Equipments. Her presentation introduced the participants with the newest professional equipments from the Matenadaran, such as the
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archaeological conservation of Chersonese (Sevastopol, Crimea), I couldnt help admiring the temple of Garni, built in the 1st century BC. The temple is considered to be a classical example and it was restored in the Soviet times of Armenian history. Although there are some problems with open air sites of the world archeological heritage of Garni and Erebuni, I could see improvements such as neat towns, multilingual tables, profes sionally restored roads for tourists and covered pavilions under the thermaes. At the end, this workshop led by the head of the project Mr. Ara Khzmalyan was implemented as a creative and uniting project. Personally, I have taken back to Ukraine renewed knowledge and books to use them in my native university. I would like to express, on behalf of the partici pants, my gratitude to the organizers of this event for providing an opportunity to participate on this remarkable forum. I would like to express my special gratitude to the Intergovernmental Foun dation for Educational, Scientific and Cultural Co operation (IFESCCO) of CIS countries (Moscow, Russia) for organizing this project.

Patricia Engel (Austria) and Gayane Elizyans (Armenia) during the demonstration of the methods of stabilization of ferrous iron corrosion in manuscripts.

vacuum table used for cleaning and the stuffing machine. This center of research and preservation of manuscripts has now everything to develop professional work, including a fine group of young restorers with ambition to learn. Aside the interesting masterclasses and practical seminars, the participants had the opportunity to visit the Matenadaran deposits and an exclusive exhibition on ancient manuscripts from the Mate nadaran funds. The legendary Echmiadzin Cathe dral, the museum and treasury of Armenian Catho lics were also visited. The remarkable town of Garni, which it was also visited and was once one of the capitals of ancient Armenia, was recently awarded by UNESCO with the Melina Mercouri In ternational Prize. Having spent 20 years on archae ological research and 10 years on architectural
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TATYANA KRUPA Conservator Contact:

Tatyana Krupa is Head of the restoration studio of the Museum of Archeology and Ethnography of V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Ukraine.




Review by Anna Karatzani 30 November 2 December 2011 Brussels, Belgium Organised by: Royal Institute for Cultural Heritage (KIKIRPA)

Between the 30th of November and the 2nd of December 2011 the Royal Institute for Cultural Heritage (KIKIRPA), Belgium organized Back to the Roots Workshop on Textile Dyeing with Natu ral Dyes under the auspices of the European CHARISMA project (Cultural Heritage Advanced Research Infrastructures: Synergy for a Multidis ciplinary Approach to Conservation/ Restoration). Ina Vanden Berghe from (KIKIRPA) together with Jo Kirby (the National Gallery, London), Maarten van Bommel (Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erf goed, Amsterdam) and Andr Verchecken (inde pendent expert, Antwerp) were coordinating the workshop. A total of 10 participants (conservators, conservation scientists and an archaeologist) from seven European countries attended the workshop. The threeday workshop was divided in lectures given by the coordinators and practical sessions on dyeing experiments with a wide range of natural dye sources. On Wednesday morning, after welcoming the participants Ina Vanden Berghe introduced the speakers and presented the outline of the work shop. Then, Jo Kirby gave the first lecture on Natural organic dyes: biological sources and historical background followed by Maarten van Bommel on Principles of textile dyeing / histo rical recipes and lab recipes. Jo gave a detailed speech about the various natural dyes, their sources (plants, insects and shells) and origin,

trying to explain the importance and value of some natural dyes and the long distance trade that was involved for their transportation at the known dyeing centres of Europe. She used infor mation from custom records (London and Florence) to show the quantity of the different dyes that were imported to Europe and their costs according the place of origin and talked about the regulations that were applied on the use of specific dyes for high or less valued textiles. She also explained the methods of application of the different types of dyes to textiles with special reference to mordant dyes and the various mordants that have been used through time. Maarten talked about the types of natural dyes according to their application method (direct, mordant and vat dyes) and the bonds that are achieved between the fibres and the dyes in each case. Then, he explained how the various dyes are extracted from the plants and insects and what the procedures were for obtaining the actual dye and for preparing the dye bath. Finally, he gave examples of various historical dyeing recipes in order to confirm the difficulties that arise while trying to apply the instructions of such a recipe today, not only because the information given is not clear but also because some of the ingredients are difficult to identify. Before the lunch break, Ina gave the outline of the afternoon practical session. This first practical
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session was entitled Dyeing with a wide range of historical relevant biological dye sources. The aim of this session was to examine the difference in the final colour achieved by using different mordants and the influence of the addition of potash to the final colour. Each participant was asked to apply two dye recipes with the same dye source to five wool samples. Four of the samples were premordanted with the alum, iron, copper and tin while the last sample was unmordanted. The two recipes were performed with and without the use of potash, while one of the participants used also saffron on silk. The second day started with the discussion of the results of the practical session with special refe rence to the differences observed on the colour hue achieved in each case. Then, Andr Verhecken gave a lecture on Historical recipes where he spoke about the historical sources of dyeing reci pes from antiquity onwards at different geographi cal areas. During his lecture, he tried to explain the difficulties in the interpretation of the infor mation given in the historical recipes, not only because some of them are incomplete but also because since the authors of the recipe books were not dyers they were not able to give all the necessary details. He also talked about the various dye sources, their introduction to Europe and their use for specific textiles. Maartens second lecture, Analytical identification of natural organic dyes/case studies, was about the analytical methods that can be used for the identification of organic colorants. After explain ing the application of the various spectroscopic

Top to bottom. The participants working on the preparation of the dyeing recipes; preparation of the two dyeing baths for annatto (Bixa Orellana L.); and Andr Verchecken showing the procedure for obtaining the yellow dye from safflower.
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A card with the wool samples after dyed with Persian berries (Rhamnus sp.).

Participants during the preparation of the dyes.

and chromatographic techniques and the results obtained, he showed examples of the analysis that his team has performed on many different archaeological and historical textiles. Once again, Ina gave the outline of the second practical session entitled Refining of dyeing: Biological source various process parameters. Each participant would execute two different dye recipes on wool samples, one with madder and one with weld by changing the dyeing parameters. The variations were referred to extraction time and temperature, dyeing time and temperature, influence of potash and soap, consecutive dyeing and the use of different mordants. The aim of this practical session was to examine and evaluate the influence of these parameters on the final colour of the textile. During the second practical session Andr demon strated a dyeing with safflower on silk in order to show us the whole procedure to obtain two differ ent colours (yellow and red) from safflower. For the evening of the second day Ina had orga nized a dinner at a local restaurant and we all had the opportunity to relax in a very warm and elegant place, taste some local recipes and discuss.

The last day was dedicated to practical sessions. The aim was to produce green, purple and black shades using two consecutive dyeings, one with indigo and other with a mordant dye (madder, weld and redwood). Each participant performed two dyeings on the same premordanted wool sample (mordanted with either tannin, iron or alum); the only difference was the order of the dyeing baths. Five participants applied the indigo dye first and five the mordant dye first. The second dyeing was performed in the afternoon and after the samples were dried the results of this and the previous practical session were discussed. During the lunch break we also had a tour at the textile conservation laboratory of the institute and we had the opportunity to see some of the objects that were treated at the time as well as the facilities available. The workshop closed with a joined discussion and the evaluation of the three day program while reference cards with all the samples that had been dyed during the four practical sessions were pre pared for each participant. The participation at this workshop was very important for me because this was a unique
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Discussion of the results at the end of the practical session.

opportunity to obtain practical experience on dyeing with natural dyes. During this three day workshop I had the chance to perform various dyeing recipes and to understand how the various mordants and dyeing parameters affect the results of each recipe. At the same time the lectures, the discussions during the practical sessions and the evaluation of the results helped me to acquire valuable knowledge which I can disseminate to my students at the TEI of Athens. I enjoyed the lec tures very much and I have appreciated the fact that all the speakers gave us their presentations as well as detailed reading list and all the dyeing recipes we performed in the laboratories of KIK IRPA. Ina Vanden Berghe, the three coordinators and the members of the KIKIRPA staff were ex tremely helpful throughout the three day period and ready to answer all our questions and find solutions to any problem arising. I believe that all the participants have enjoyed the workshop, the discussions during the lunch and coffee
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breaks at the restaurant of KIKIRPA and we all hope that we will have the opportunity to attend another one in the near future.

ANNA KARATZANI Textile Conservator Contact: Anna Karatzani studied conservation of Antiqui ties and Works of Art at the Technological Educa tional Institute of Athens, Greece. She obtained an MA in Conservation of Historic Objects from De Montfort University (UK) and a PhD in analy tical investigation of ByzantineGreek metal threads from University College London (UK) in 2007. Since March 2011 she is Assistant Professor in Textile Conservation at the Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Greece.


Review by Mark Beech 78 December 2011 Sharjah, United Arab Emirates Organised by: American University of Sharjah (AUS), National Xray Fluorescence Laboratory (NXFL), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

XTACH 2011, an international conference on the use of Xray (and related) techniques in arts and cultural heritage was held on 7th8th December 2012 at the American University of Sharjah in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The conference was organized in cooperation with the National Xray Fluorescence Laboratory (NXFL) and the Interna tional Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The conference was inaugurated by Dr. Peter Heath, Chancellor of the American University of Sharjah and attended by Mr. Kwaku Aning, Deputy Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and Ambassador Hamad AlKaabi, Ambassador of the UAE to the IAEA, university officials, faculty members and students. The conference covered a variety of topics including the usage of Xray and micro beam Xray analysis, synchrotron based techniques, ion beam and neutron based techniques, optical imaging and mass spectroscopy, chromatography tech niques, as well as best conservation practices. XTACH11 provided an excellent forum for scien tists in the region to interact, exchange ideas and to initiate collaborations with each other as well as with the international community. It showcased some of the latest technical developments in the

field of nondestructive testing for the diagnosis and conservation of cultural heritage materials. In addition to the presentations by the invited speakers (Rene van Grieken and K. Janssens, University of Antwerp, Belgium; Thomas Calligaro, Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Muses de France; Stefano Ridolfi, Ars Mensurae, Rome, Italy, and Andrzej Markowicz, IAEA, Austria), a total of 25 other research papers were also presen ted and discussed. Participants from 20 countries participated in the conference: Austria, Belgium, Egypt, Italy, India, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Syria, Thailand, the United Arab Emirates and Yemen. A more detailed outline of the conference programme is as follows. Day 1 (7 December 2011) A total of 13 papers were presented on the first day. The conference began with an invited talk by Thomas Calligaro (Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Muses de France) on The Merits of Ion Beam Analysis in Evidencing Art and Archae ological Fakes, which he demonstrated by showing some recent investigations of rock crystal skulls. These were investigated by examining the degree
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Dr. Peter Heath, Chancellor of the American University of Sharjah, makes the opening address at XTACH11.

Mr. Kwaku Aning, Deputy Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency, addresses XTACH11.

of water penetration (Ficks Law) at the AMS facility at Saclay, just to the south of Paris. He concluded that Ion Beam methods were extremely useful for the provenance and detection of fakes. Rene Van Grieken (University of Antwerp, Belgium) and colleagues then discussed Atmospheric Composition in the Alhambra, Granada, in the Context of Preventive Conservation. The Alhambra is a UNESCO World Heritage site which has 3 million visitors per year. Rene presented a fascinating insight into the analysis of fine particles from the site, such as less than 1 micron sized particles of ammonium sulphate and nitrate, which are acidic and hydroscopic, resulting from fertilizers in the soils surrounding the site. He also illustrated the high quantities of soot resulting from cars being allowed near the entrances to the site, lamenting the lack of specific European guidelines for parti cles such as soot. Martina Griesser and colleagues (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna) presented the First Application of a Newly Developed, Portable, VacuumChamber Equipped XRFInstrument, Designed for the Sophis ticated Needs of the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. This was a new movable (rather than portable!) system for carrying out Portable Energy Dispersive XRF.
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Anjana ReddyLingareddy (Historic Environment Department, Abu Dhabi Authority for Culture and Heritage) discussed Pots, Plates and Provenance: Sourcing Indian Coarse Wares from Mleiha using Xray Fluorescence (XRF) Spectrometry Analysis, based on her recent jointresearch on the analysis of Indian pottery samples from the archaeology site of Mleiha (Sharjah) using Xray fluorescence (XRF) to determine the provenance or origin of this pottery dating from the 2nd mid 3rd century AD. The paper and presentation were prepared in collaboration with Dr. Gaffar Attaelmanan (Applied Physics Department, University of Sharjah) and Dr. Michel Mouton (CNRS, Paris). The analyses were conducted on powdered samples collected from the core of each sherd, which were then irra diated for 1000 seconds using a 1.2 mm diameter Xray beam. The resulting spectra were used for quantification of the Xray intensity and elemental concentration, and the levels of correlation were statistically tested using the Chitest. Initial review of the XRF results indicate that the Maharashtra and Gujarat regions of India are probable source areas for at least two of the types of wares. B.S.B. Karunaratne (Postgraduate Institute of Science, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka) then presented a paper entitled Use of XRay Fluorescence and


The audience at XTACH11.

Diffraction Techniques in Studying Ancient Ceramics. Professor Karunaratne discussed the analysis of ceramic samples from Anuradhapura, which was from the 4th century BC until the beginning of the 11th century AD, the capital of Sri Lanka, as well as from Pinwewa, another 4th century BC site. This demonstrated that the vessels were similar to modern pottery today, providing evidence that some pots had been fired as high as 800 degrees celcius, because of the presence of mullite, and also calcite. M. Abd El Hady (Conservation Department, Cairo University, Egypt) and M.M. Kotb (Conservation department, Fayoum University, Egypt) discussed Characteristics of Ancient Egyptian Glazed Ceramic Objects as Revealed by Ion Beam Analysis. A total of 9 samples of glazed vessels from the Fatimid and Mamluk period site of AlFustat (10th16th century AD), were examined by PIXE analysis. This

was carried out in Warsaw, Poland, using the Lech Van de Graaf Accelerator. The second invited talk was by A. Markowicz (IAEA, Vienna, Austria) and colleagues who undertook a Review of the IAEA Activities in Support of Charac terization and Protection of Cultural Heritage Artifacts. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is located in Siebersdorf, 35 km south of Vienna, Austria. The facility houses the Nuclear Spectrometry and Application Laboratory (NSAL). He pointed out how the use of XRF was a simple, fast and flexible method for the investigation of the inorganic composition of objects, and illus trated some of the Portable XRF spectrometers they currently utilized. Najeh Jisrawi (University of Sharjah, UAE) and colleagues then discussed MicroXRF Mapping as a Tool for the Investigation of Oriental Paintings
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Some of the conference delegates at XTACH11 standing in the American University of Sharjah.

and Manuscripts. He demonstrated the use of a XGT7200 which has a Si drift detector and dual vacuum mode (air or partial vacuum), which had proved very useful for looking at documents, enabling a scan area up to 10x10 cm. The detection of pigments like Titanium oxide, only invented in 1921, can help determine if paintings are modern. Other examples of the analysis of documents from the Juma Al Majid Center for Culture and Heritage were also shown. JoFan Huang (Conservation Department, Abu Dhabi Authority for Culture and Heritage) gave a useful overview of Data and Interpretation: Enhancing Conservation of Art and Cultural Heritage through Collaboration between Scientist, Conservator and Art Historian. Following on from the previous paper, she discussed the use of lead chromate, which only went into use from the late 19th century onwards, and Prussian Blue, which was first manu
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factured in Berlin in 1704, China then monopo lizing its trade from 1820 onwards. Pisutti Dararutana (Chemical Department, The Royal Thai Army, Thailand) and colleagues discussed Corrosion of Ancient Glass Beads found in Southern Thailand. These glass beads were from the ancient site of Laem Pho. PIXE analysis was used to ana lyse the glass beads using the facilities at Chiang Mai university. This analysis revealed that they were low magnesia alkali glass beads with 7475% SiO2. Eisa Yousif (Directorate of Antiquities, Sharjah) and Atta Attaelmanan (University of Sharjah) pre sented a paper on the Role of XRF in the Restoration of a Prominent Architectural Monument at the Site of Mleiha. XRF analysis was used to assist in the restoration of the important site of Mleiha in Sharjah emirate. Based on their analysis of local


samples they came to the conclusion that the source of mud for manufacture of the mud bricks used at Mleiha was an old lagoon al Al Khatem, situated about 600m from the site. Pisutti Dararutana (Chemical Department, The Royal Thai Army, Thailand), Wanwisa Dhanmanonda (Prince of Songkla University, Thailand) and Krit Wonin (Kasetsart University, Thailand) discussed the Characterization of Enameled Glass excavated from Laem Pho Historical Site, Southern area of Thailand. Islamic glass fragments from Laem Pho were investigated using SEMEDS, PIXE and microXRF. The final presentation on Day 1 was Benjamin Marcus (Conservation Department, Abu Dhabi Authority for Culture and Heritage) who presented a paper on the Characterization of Traditional Building Materials in Abu Dhabi Emirate, UAE. He provided an overview of how XRF, XRD, SEMEDX, mortar analysis and chemical tests had been utilized for current projects relating to the conser vation of various historic buildings in Abu Dhabi. These included the historic fort at Umm Al Hosn and Al Hayla Tower in Liwa, the Iron Age site of Hili 17 and the historic Bin Hadi Al Darmaki House in Al Ain, as well as the historic buildings in the old town of Delma Island. All the delegates then departed in a bus for a tour of Sharjah Museums. We were taken to the spec tacular Museum of Islamic Civilization, followed by a tour of the Sharjah Aquarium and a Gala Dinner on the outdoor terrace of the Aquarium. A perfect ending to a very interesting day!

Anjana Reddy from the Abu Dhabi Authority for Culture and Heritage presents her paper at XTACH11.

Ridolfi (Ars Mensurae, Rome, Italy) on Portable Xray Fluorescence Spectrometry for the Analyses of Cultural Heritage. He began by stating the Golden Rule that cultural heritage objects are unique, and so should be treated and respected accordingly. The advantages of XRF were discus sed: reliable, fast, cheap, simple, multielement capability and concentration range (ppm %). XRF is a penetrating technique, which gives immediate results, therefore iterative sampling can be undertaken. Its drawbacks are that although it is noninvasive, what are we in fact analyzing? We might feel safe that there is always a result, and that this is immediate, but is this giving us false security? XRF provides a qualitative analysis, but what about everything else? At the end, he concluded saying that the use of portable XRF is simple but never easy! Mohammed Roumie (Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission) presented a paper on Authenticity determination of AgCu Lebanese coins using combines PIXE and RBS techniques. A series of Lebanese coins minted in 1952 were analysed, combining PIXE and RBS to get better results.
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Day 2 (8 December 2011) A total of 16 papers were presented on the second day. Day 2 began with an invited talk from Stefano


Professor Nasser Hamdan, Chair of the XTACH11 Organizing Committee, and Professor at the Department of Physics, American University of Sharjah.

Greek Bronze Coins with a High Lead Content. The use of oak wood cabinets can create an acidic environment for storing coins. A total of 1,200 coins were analyzed in this study using UVFluo rescent microscopy to document corrosion areas, which are highly fluorescent because of the presence of carbonates. Twenty coins were then examined using Neutron Diffraction at the Ruther ford Appleton Laboratory at the University of Oxford. This revealed that the coins contained up to 2030% Pb and up to 8% Sn. She concluded that Neutron Diffraction was a better method than Xrays for studying coins as more details can be seen. She also recommended that coins should be stored in steel cabinets flooded with nitrogen, where the oxygen concentration is less than 1%. Alessandro Re (National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Torino, Italy) and colleagues presented a paper on Results of the Italian neu_ART project. In this paper he discussed the difficulties involved in scanning a 3m tall chair Doppio Corpo by Pietro Piffetti, a famous 17th century Italian furniture manufacturer. XRay Tomography was utilized to examine the chair. Atta Attaelmanan (University of Sharjah) then discussed the Sensitivity of a Scanning XRay Fluorescence Analysis System for Archaeological Applications. He explained how the use of an X ray analytical microscope can help to analyze untreated archaeological potsherds. By taking four fragments from the same pot, taking a single point and measuring it five times, this enabled him to monitor any changes in the instrument performance (chamber temperature, voltage, etc.). He identified anything between 23% up to 10% variation in major elements, and up to 20% vari ation in minor elements, in the same sample! It was suggested that future results should be opti mized by using a longer analysis time, and by sampling more points (e.g. up to 10).

This indicated that the coins only had a silver enriched layer on their surface. Seyed Mohammedamin Emami (University of Isfahan, Iran) discussed QXRD, XRF and Optical Microscopy Applied to Characterization and Prove nance of Ancient Ceramics from Haft Teppeh (1500 1150 BC),SouthWest Iran. This confirmed that the Haft Teppeh pottery was similar to recent locally produced pottery, but that it had been produced with a different manufacturing process and firing temperature. Ibrahim Odeh (Yarmouk University, Jordan) pre sented a paper on The Application of Thin Films, Coatings and NanoMaterials Technologies in the Conservation and Restoration of Artworks and Archaeological Artifacts: Prospects and Possibilities where he explained about the importance of thin films, less than 1 micron in thickness, and their use as protective coatings. Martina Griesser (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vien na) and colleagues then discussed the Application of XRay and Neutron Tomography to Study Antique
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Daisy Joseph (Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre BARC, India) and K.B. Dasari (Institute of Science, GITAM University, India) presented a paper on EDXRF and PIXE Investigative Tools for Study of Gemstones and Pottery Samples. She discussed the use of EDXRF on gemstones and the use of internal PIXE for pottery samples. Her work demonstrated that Fe is present in naturally occurring gemstones but is not present in synthetic ones. Nasser Hamdan (American University of Sharjah) and colleagues discussed the Integration of microXRF, microRaman and FTIR Techniques to Study Islamic Manuscripts. He discussed their use to study pigments and paper structure of various ancient manuscripts. A number of compounds were identified including the use of Cu (green colour) possibly malachite, Pb (blue colour), Pb3O4 (red lead), mercury Sulfide (HgS): red vermilion or cinnabar, copper (green ink), and Fe (black ink Iron Gall Ink). In the 15th16th cen tury there were principally four types of ink used: soot ink, bister, cinnabar and vermilion. Laxmi Tumung (University of Rovira i Virgili, Tarra gona, Spain) presented a paper Understanding UseWear on NonRetouched Shells, Mytilus sp. and Ruditapes, by performing a Wood Working Experi ment: An Experimental Approach. This concerned the use of microscopy for detecting structures, polish, pitting, edge rounding and microfractures. Koen Janssens (University of Antwerp, Belgium) gave the final of the series of four invited talks on XRay Based Imaging and Spectroscopy of Cultural Heritage Materials. He discussed how the use of new techniques such as a Macro Scanning XRay Fluorescence Spectrometer could be used to examine important paintings such as the por trait of Don Ramon Satu, painted in 1823, kept in the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam, which hides

a new Goya beneath it. He also presented a fasci nating description of the differences between the existing copies of Van Goghs famous Sunflower series of paintings. The example retained in the National Gallery in London has quite bright yellow flowers, in marked contrast to the much browner flowers in the example owned by the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam. At the end of the 19th century artists utilized chrome yellow in their paintings. If one shines UV light onto chrome yellow it becomes brown after only a few weeks! This brown layer is a very thin layer, masking the vivid yellow beneath, and is formed by chromium. Atta Attaelmanan (University of Sharjah) and Michel Mouton (CNRS, Paris) presented details of the Elemental Composition and Correlation of Mleiha Potsherds. Mleiha, located in Sharjah emirate in the UAE, is an important Late PreIsla mic period settlement dating from the 3rd century BC 3rd century AD. Analysis of potsherds of Late Mleiha black ware using XRF spectrometry ana lysis confirmed the homogeneity of the samples. A. Tamimi, F. Abed and R. Al Himairee (College of Engineering, AUS, Sharjah) discussed the Appli cation of SEM and Image Processing in the Analysis of Damaged Artifacts. They discussed how thin sections set in resin, precleaned with acetone, had been investigated to investigate porosity and particle size. SEM and image processing was used to provide qualitative and quantitative data. Ibrahim Odeh (Yarmouk University, Jordan) then talked about The Application of Plasma and Ion Beam Sources in the Restoration and Preservation of Archaeological Objects and Artifacts, and his examination of a jaguar hand rattle. Massaoud Harfouche (SESAME, Jordan) and colleagues presented details about the planned StateoftheArt XRF/XAFS Beamline at SESAME
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Bronze age and PreIslamic pottery on display in the archaeology exhibition at the American University of Sharjah, prepared by the Directorate of Antiquities, Government of Sharjah Department of Culture and Information.

for Scientific Research Applications. There are a series of synchrotrons around the world. This presentation concerned the development of this new facility in Jordan, which by the end of 2015 will be fully functioning, inshallah! Ziyad AlSarraj and Hasan Damboos (Ministry of Science and Technology, Iraq) concluded all the presentations with a short paper on Characteri zation of Iraqi Archaeological Samples Using Ion Beam and the Complementary Techniques. Samples of pottery from the Iraq National Museum dating from the Sumerian to Islamic periods were examined using PIXE, XRF, XRD and SEM techniques. The conference concluded with a Discussion Panel. Thomas Callligaro (Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Muses de France) introduced the Cultural Heritage Advanced Research Infra structure (CHARISMA) website, highlighting some of its components such as ARCHLAB Infra structures (for bibliographies), FIXLAB (for large instruments) and MOLAB (for mobile instruments). He explained that CHARISMA was for people working in Europe (or in associated countries). There was some discussion then about the need for a similar sort of network being established for the Middle East region.
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Stefano Ridolfi (Ars Mensurae, Rome, Italy) con cluded the conference by giving a passionate speech about the dangers of using portable XRF machines by nonspecialists and how easily mistakes in interpretation can be made, con cluding that people are more important than machines!. With that the conference ended.

Other activities associated with XTACH11 Archaeology Exhibition, 30 November 10 December 2011 In collaboration with the Sharjah Department of Culture and Information (Directorate of Antiqui ties), the American University of Sharjah organi zed an archaeology exhibition from the 30th November until the 10th December 2011. Special thanks go to Dr Sabah Jasim and Eisa Abbas from the Sharjah Directorate of Antiquities for facili tating this event. The exhibition included about 45 artifacts from different sites within Sharjah emirate, some of which dated back as long as 7000 years ago. These artifacts included: flint arrowheads, pottery and alabaster vessels, metal objects including bronze arrowheads and coins, as well as carnelian bead necklaces.


Trainers and delegates at the Regional Training Course on the use of Xrays and related techniques in Cultural Heritage.

Regional Training Course, 38 December 2011 In addition to the XTACH11 conference, the Ame rican University of Sharjah, in cooperation with the National Xray Fluorescence Laboratory and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), organized a regional training course from 38 December, 2011. This concerned a similar range of topics to those discussed at the XTACH11 con ference. Participants of the course were trained in the use of physical and analytical techniques in cultural heritage. In addition to lectures from the National Xray Fluorescence Laboratory and from the IAEA, the NXFL team provided the opportunity for trainees to undertake projects on ancient pottery samples, metal artifacts and Islamic manuscripts. The practical part of the course included experiments on XRF (portable, and micro XRF), Raman measurements, as well as other sample preparation techniques. The training course concluded by a series of presentations of the results by the participants, attended by the NXFL team and experts from the IAEA. This trai ning course was organized as part of the activi ties of the IAEA technical cooperation RAS1011

Project: Using Ion Beam Analysis and Complemen tary Nuclear Techniques for Material Characteri zation in ARASIA State Parties. The course was attended by participants from Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Qatar, Syria, the United Arab Emirates and Yemen.

MARK BEECH Cultural Landscapes Manager Contact: Mark has been involved in archaeological research in the UAE for the past 18 years. He is Cultural Landscapes Manager in the Historic Environment Department at the Abu Dhabi Authority for Culture and Heritage since 2006. He is responsible for the Abu Dhabi database of cultural heritage sites and the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) as a cultural heritage management tool. He manages the Historic Environment Department team dealing with "Preliminary Cultural Reviews", which form the cultural component of Environmental Impact Assessments within Abu Dhabi emirate.
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AREAS OF PUBLISHING Conservation Treatment

Mural Painting Painting Stone Sculpture Textiles Paper / Documents Photography Metals Tile / Ceramic / Glass Furniture Music instruments Ethnographic assets Archeological objects

Conservation Science
Scientific research Material studies and characterisation Analytical techniques Technology development Biodeterioration Stateoftheart Reviews

Preventive Conservation
Theoretic principles Art History, Iconography, Iconology, Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Photography, Cultural Management, Museology, Computer Science, Legislation and Juridical Processes, Conservation Policies and any other field applied to Conservation and Restoration of works of art. Find out more:
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Case studies

Documentation in Conservation
Standardisation Documentation methods Data management

Conservation Theory
Ethics Conservation History



By Gianlorenzo Pignatti


Protective boxes and cases for storage of manuscripts and printed books have a long history. Daniel Solanders invention at the end of the 18th century was so significant that today his name identifies his box. The 20th century has seen a great development of the book conservation practice, including box making. Influenced by antirestoration beliefs and gifted with remarkable skills, British and Irish master bookbinders have created wooden boxes that retain their original function many years after their construction. In this paper, examples of wooden boxes are presented and their features are discussed. Research into book conservation techniques increased after the Florence flood in 1966. The boxmaking practice was also influenced and the PhasedBox evolved shortly after the flood. A glimpse into the history of the PhasedBox allows one to observe recent changes of this boxstyle.

Introduction Boxes and cases for the protection of books are historical artifacts [12] that only in the 20th century have become reliable instruments for the long term preservation of manuscripts and prin ted books. The design and construction of protective boxes are today codified procedures. This is the result of theoretical beliefs and the experience of sci entists, artists, bookbinders and book conser vators who gave important contributions to this process. The present work focuses on the British and Irish cultural and professional environments, which provided unique contributions to this aspect of book conservation practice. This work is not a complete investigation of his torical box styles but aims to provide the reader with some practical and useful observations on the history and development of boxes for hous ing and preserving books. When Daniel Charles Solander designed a case for storing specimens at the British Museum, he made a crucial contribution to the development of boxes for storing movable material, including books.
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At the end of the 19th century, the antirestora tion position of the printer William Blades and members of the Arts and Crafts movement sup ported the growing interest in the practice of conserving the original. This theory led to an in creased attention to box making as a valid alterna tive to the restoration of books. These considerations became part of the conser vation works of Roger Powell, renowned conserva tor and part of the team who designed the boxes for the Book of Kells. Several Irish manuscripts conserved by Powell during his career are today housed in wooden boxes designed by him and constructed with the collaboration of Edward Barnsleys workshop. This work describes the wooden boxes designed by Powell and their main features are discussed. The final section of this work focuses on the PhasedBox, a renowned solution for the storage of library collections, and provides observations on the ethos of PhasedBox making and recent transformations of its use and function. Early examples: Daniel Charles Solander and his legacy During the years 17681771 the Swedish naturalist Daniel Charles Solander (17331782) accompanied


Captain James Cook during a journey in the Paci fic. On his return Solander was appointed head of the Department of Natural Sciences in the British Museum where he designed a solid wooden case for the storage of the specimens collected during the voyage. The use of his box (named after him and today commercially known as Solander box) was then extended to other types of artifacts. The scarce bibliographical references and the observation of early examples can suggest that the style of Solan der in use in libraries did not change much until recent years. Niccolo Caldararo quotes three interesting histo rical references on the box [3]. In 1844, a certain J. Maberby described it as a "[] a wooden box, backed with leather, the sides covered with marble or other paper, having leather corners, so that it has much the appearance of a book; one of the sides is made to open as a lid, carrying with it the back which is attached to []" [3]. Sixty years after the death of Solander, Maberby advised collectors of prints and drawings to use the Solander instead of portfolios [3]. We can assume that after this moment the use of these boxes within private collections could have only

Figure 1. Solander box constructed for Chester Beatty (1875 1968), Dublin, Chester Beatty Library, MS Is 1466. The Trustees of the Chester Beatty Library, Dublin. Figure 2. Solander box constructed for a printed copy of the Leabhuir na Seintiomna (Dublin, Benjamin Iveagh Library, VII B 6). The Benjamin Iveagh Library, Farmleigh. By kind permis sion of the Governors and Guardians of Archbishop Marshs Library, Dublin. Figure 3. Solander box in Plenderleith, 1937. Figure 4. Contemporary Solander box for sale. By kind permission of Talas.


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increased (Figures 12). Caldararo also recalls an extract from the work Fragments of bookbinding (1937) by Thomas Harrison: "The early boxes in the British Museum attributed to Solander were constructed of a wooden base with pine woods sides and top. The top and base were cabinet made to prevent warping" [3]. In addition to this, Caldararo includes the repro duction of the Solander in use at the British Mu seum since 1937 included in Harold Plenderleiths work (Figure 3). Harris does not record any aesthetic feature (e.g. tooled spine, false bands) of these boxes while the other sources emphasize this aspect. The rea son for this relates to the change of its use and display purposes. The introduction of a plain wood en case on a shelf of a library was a disturbing presence to the eye of the collector and biblio phile. Consequently, the decision to disguise the shape of the box so that it resembled a book was the best solution to overcome this aesthetic em passe. With the progress of book conservation sciences, the aesthetic embellishments were gradually abandoned. The attention was focused on the research and use of conservation grade materials and the introduction of technical solu tions that allowed ideal storage conditions and safe access to the material. Today, the Solander is a renowned and reliable instrument for the storage and transportation of museum collections and its use amongst institutions is a common practice (Figure 4) [47]. The technical and de tailed description proposed by Roberts and Eth erington [8] clearly refers to the classic style in use in historical libraries: "The Solander box, which is generally of a dropback construction, is made of wood, has dovetailed joints and a back shaped from a single piece of wood. The top and bottom are held in place by screws and glue. The box is secured by two spring catches fixed in the
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"fore edge" frames near the head and tail. When properly constructed the Solander box is very nearly dustproof and almost waterproof. The box [] is generally covered in cloth, or, in more elaborate instances, full morocco. It may even have raised bands on the back (corresponding to the spine of a book) and may be tooled". A vivid description of the box and its advantage for preserving books was also offered by William Blades (18241890) in 1881 in his notorious work The enemies of the books [9]: "I remembering purchasing [] a perfect copy of Moxons Mech anic Exercises []. The volumes were uncut, and had the original marble covers. They looked so at tractive in their old fashioned dress, that I at once determined to preserve it. My binder soon made for them a neat wooden box in the shape of a book, with morocco back properly lettered, where I trust the originals will be preserved from dust and injury for many a long year. Old covers, whether boards or paper, should always be retained if in any state approaching decency. A case [] gives even greater protection than binding. It has also this great ad vantage: it does not deprive your descendants of the opportunity of seeing for themselves exactly in what dress the book buyers of four centuries ago received their volume". Blades not only described a Solander but also made interesting observations on the key role of cases and boxes for the preservation of old bind ings. His empathy for retaining the integrity of the book is highlighted in the following lines. The subject of this quotation is William Caxtons (c.14221491) book featured with the original binding and its antagonist is a wellknown Lon don binder: "Of course [] it was kept in its ori ginal covers, with all the interesting associations of its early state untouched? No such thing! Instead of making a suitable case, in which it could be preserved just as it was, it was placed in the hands


of a wellknown London binder, with the order, Whole bind in velvet. [] the volume now glows luxuriously in its gilt edges and its inappropriate covering and [] with half an inch of its uncut margin taken off all round" [9]. Guy Peterbridge described Blades as "[] a pre servation pioneer in stressing the virtues of simple boxing to protect old bindings, whose gratuitous rebinding for the sake of a fresh appearance he discouraged" [10]. Blades had a genuine understanding of old books. He reflected an ethos and a respect for the evid ence of old books that made him a precursor of the 20th century theory of the preservation of books. Blades however was not the only one to under stand the importance of preserving the origin al. At the end of the 19th century, the members of the international Arts and Crafts Movement, born under the inspiration of John Ruskin (1819 1900), rediscovered the cultural legacy and the tradition of medieval craftsmanship. The Move ment supported the antirestoration positions of Ruskin and encouraged the preservation and in vestigation of ancient artifacts. In this sense, it is meaningful that the expression would you know the new, you must search the old was a maxim at the London County Council Central School of Arts and Crafts, founded by Richard Lethaby in 1896 [10]. This theoretical principle influenced the activity of the Arts and Crafts artists, includ ing print making and book binding techniques. William Morris (18341896) and Thomas James CobdenSanderson (18401922) were relevant figures of the Movement. Morris critical positions against the restoration of old buildings, in line with Ruskins theory, must have reflected in his approach to codices and early printed books. In

fact, Morris considered the book as if it was an architectural structure formed by many parts. The preservation and investigation of the ink, the font, the decorations, the white margins of the text block and the binding are essential ele ments in understanding the historical value of any book [10]. These considerations are relevant for the present work because soon Douglas Bennett Cockerell (18701945), pupil of Sanderson, joined the Movement. Cockerell was a master bookbinder and executor of the conservation project of the Codex Sinaiticus in 1935 [11]. Under Cockerells influence Roger Powell established himself as one of the most influential bookbinders and conser vators of the 20th century.

Roger Powell and the Irish manuscripts Roger Powell (18961990) was taught by Cocker ell at the London County Council Central School of Arts and Crafts. From 1935 until 1947, Powell joi ned Cockerells studio at Letchworth and in 1947 he opened his own studio in Froxfield in Hamp shire (UK) [12]. Edward Barnsley (19001987), fine cabinet maker, also had his workshop in Froxfield. Powells studio was a stroll away from Barnsleys workshop and this helped the creation of a long lasting and prolific collaboration between them: "[] with the Barnsley and Powell work shops only about mile apart, it was a simple matter to arrange the ordering from Barnsley of quartercut oak boards, special cases for books and also book cabinets from time to time" [13]. In 1954, Powell completed the conservation work of the Book of Kells (Dublin, Trinity College, MS 58). He was first invited to Dublin in 1952 and completed several projects on medieval manu scripts belonging to Trinity College and to the
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Royal Irish Academy (RIA). The collaboration with Barnsleys workshop was vital for the exe cution of many of his Irish works including his last project in 1981 the conservation of the Cathach of St. Columba, the Psalter traditionally ascribed to the saint and written between A.D. 560 and 600 (Dublin, Royal Irish Academy, MS 12 R 33). The four volumes forming the Book of Kells are housed in four wooden boxes stored horizontally in a wooden cabinet. The box for the MS 58/2 was examined for this work (Figures 56). Dove tail joints secure the side walls of the base while 16 brass screws ensure a firm adhesion of the walls to the base. The lid is completely removable from the base and its opening/closing mechanism is composed of a brass leaf spring. The rotation of the leaf spring into metal catches keeps the lid closed and the volume under slight pressure (Figure 7). This reduces the risk of deformation of the vellum sections forming the text block [14]. Powells intention was that the leaf spring should provide the book with a smoother pressure than the classic metal fastenings typical of the mon astic bindings [15]. A leather strap assists the removal of the box from the cabinet. To minimize the tension on the binding structure (e.g. sewing structure, head bands) and on the text block during handling, the foredge of the book corresponds to the side with the leather strap: when the box is handled, the gravityforce is focused on the spine of the binding reducing the risk of physical damage to the book.

Figures 5 to 8 (up to down). Wooden box for one volume of the Book of Kells: frontal view; internal base of the box; top view of the box with the lid closed, the leaf spring is hooked in the catches; and external side of the base. Trinity College Library, Dublin.
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Figure 9 (top left). Wooden cabinet for the storage of the four boxes housing the Book of Kells. Reproduced by kind permission of the Edward Barnsley Educational Trust, Froxfield. Figure 10 (top right). Wooden box of the Ricemarch psalter. Front view. Trinity College Library, Dublin. Figure 11 (bottom left). Back view with the releasing system closed. Trinity College Library, Dublin. Figure 12 (bottom right). Back view with the releasing system open. Trinity College Library, Dublin.


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The Book of Kells is part of the permanent exhib ition at the Trinity College Library and normally two volumes at a time are exhibited. The pair are changed approximately every three months so the boxes are moved several times a year [16]. Under visual examination the box looks very solid and sturdy and the only damage associated with its use are scratches on the external side of the base, possibly caused by the sliding of the box on a hard surface such as metal (Figure 8). Powell and Barns ley also designed the cabinet for the boxes. All had to be stored in a safe (Figure 9): "Between the carcase and the walls of the safe there is an airspace at the sides of about 1/8 inches [c. 3 mm]. There is about 1 inch [c. 25 mm] above and below and 1/4 inches [c. 6 mm] behind" [14]. The boxes and cabinet were constructed in 1954 by Rogers son, David, and Herbert Upton at the Barnsley workshop. It took 106 hours for a total cost of 45 [17]. The box structure reproduced in Figures 1012 was designed for both the Ricemarch psalter (TCD, MS 50) and Garland of Howth (TCD, MS 56). It is a box for vertical storage and the spine of the volume is fully exposed. The main feature of this box format is the wooden lever at the back. The lever is hinged to the box and when rotated it pushes the boards of the binding allowing the sliding of the volume out of the case. There is no contact between the text block and the lever. Direct contact is only applied on the new wooden binding boards pro vided by Powell during conservation work. This releasing system seems too invasive and today it is unlikely that it would be considered a viable option in a conservation project. If we contextualize historically this project we can understand Powells consideration: the contact between the lever and the new binding was not relevant comparing to the preservation of the
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only surviving component of the manuscript, the text block. Between 1968 and 1981, Powell was committed to the conservation projects of the Lebor na hUidre (RIA, MS 23 E 25), Book of Lecan (RIA, MS 23 P 2), Leabhar Breac (RIA, MS 23 P 16), Book of Fermoy (RIA, MS 23 E 29) and Cathach of St. Columba. All manuscripts were provided with wooden boxes for horizontal storage and except the Book of Fermoy the others were all constructed by David Powell (George Taylor of Barnsleys workshop collaborated at the construction of the box for the Cathach). An historical reference regarding the Cathach and its historical shrine provides us with a practical example of the evolution in the box design atti tudes during the centuries. The manuscript was considered an important relic of the saint and it was used as a talisman on the battlefield. The shrine for the Cathach was constructed between the years 1062 and 1098 in order to protect the relic when it was held by the army battalion [18]. The following extract from the Ordnance Survey Letters of County Mayo (18341841) proves the exceptional relationship between the manuscript and its protective case. The religious and symbolic values that featured the manuscript were trans ferred to the shrine, here anthropomorphized, that became an active component of the relic: "[] a box [the shrine] with some gems inserted into its cover, which resembled glass eyes, and that whenever any one perjured himself these eyes were wont to turn round to roll like human eyes, and make signs of melancholy disapprobation of the conduct of the profane perjurer []" [18]. The boxes designed and constructed by the Pow ells for the RIA material are of the same structure (Figures 1314) and have the same mechanical solutions featured in the original drawing of the box for the Book of Fermoy, now part of the Barns

Figure 13 (top).Wooden box of the Cathach of St. Columba. By permission of the Royal Irish Academy, Dublin. RIA. Figure 14 (bottom). Open box. The conservation report (left) is housed within the manuscript. Lid on the right. By permission of the Royal Irish Academy, Dublin. RIA.

ley archive [19]. The only exception is the case for the Book of Lecan that differs in appearance (Figures 1516). The base and the lid are individual entities. When it is closed, the lid is hooked into a groove on the back of the base (Figure 17) and the two compo nents are kept firmly in place with one or two metal catches. All boxes are lined inside with soft material (e.g. felt, pig skin leather, foam covered with linen) in order to provide the volume with better housing (Figure 18). In 198587, the same structure was proposed by Eric Pearce for the cons truction of the box for the Book of Ui Maine (RIA, MS D ii 1) previously conserved by Anthony Cains. Powells legacy and influence can be recognized in another project. The fine wooden boxes designed
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Figure 15 and 16. Wooden box of the Book of Lecan. Lateral view of the closed box and lateral view with the lid open (lower bottom). By permission of the Royal Irish Academy, Dublin. RIA.

for the manuscripts belonging to the Parker Lib rary at Corpus Christi College in Cambridge (UK) recall the RIA boxes. It is no coincidence that Nicholas Pickwoad, who trained and collaborated with Powell, contributed substantially to the Parkers boxing project that took place in the mid1980s [20]. Roger Powell was aware of the importance of a wooden case as an active component in the correct storage and preservation of a book. In 1975, he wrote in the conservation note of the Book of Fermoy [21]: "The case to keep the book under slight pressure has been made in the workshop of
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Edward Barnsley CBE in African Sapele. So far as possible the book should always be kept in the case with the catch closed. If left unrestrained vellum becomes cockled; if this happened it might become impossible to close the case". Cains arguably states that Powell "was a distin guished codicologist long before he knew the word" [21]. His sensitivity as a conservator and codicologist had intensified after the experience of the Flor ence flood in 1966. In the conservation notes for the RIA manuscripts Powell showed an increased


interest in the scientific approach to conservation work and the use of longterm stable materials [21] . In 1969, his refusal to carry out any treat ment on the 7th century bound manuscript Stony hurst Gospel (British Library, Loan 74) proved his definite awareness of the importance of preser ving original bindings [22]: "[] it is [the Gospel] no longer in a state to be treated with anything but informed veneration. Repair is not the answer, uni que evidence must not be disturbed".

full conservation treatment of a single volume is generally a long and expensive process, alterna tively the use of a Phased Box is a fast and cost effective way to temporarily store books in need of treatment. The use of a Phased Box for damaged material also slows down some deterioration processes, part of what Feller called the autocatalytic phase in the life of the artefact [2526]. This phase is the moment of greatest decay for any object and it develops as a cascade effect that could lead to the definite dissolution of the item. This phase only stops when all the chemical and physical decaying processes have reached their natural conclusion and the object eventually enters its autoretardant phase [2526]. The European Law collection at the Library of Con gress was clearly in its autocatalytic phase and its phase boxing was the preferred solution to temporarily stop the decay: "Most [volumes] were in such a dilapidated state that every morn ing one could move along the rows of volumes and sweep up fragments" [23]. The use of the Phased Box postpones every treat ment on the volume. When this is considered in relation to the studies in Codicology and Archae ology of the Book, it becomes of high relevance because this box preserves the integrity of ori ginal book structures[27] . In the introduction of the Boxes for the protec tion of rare books [28], Waters stated that fra gile material of limited usage and consultation was ideal for being phase boxed. In fact, when it is open the Phased Box is more cumbersome than other types of boxes and it could be unprac tical for the reader. In addition to this there were concerns about the wear and tear of the box due to continuous opening and closing, which lead to physical damage of the folding flaps.
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The Phased Conservation Box After the Florence flood of 1966, restorers faced an overwhelming and unprecedented number of volumes in need of treatment. The volumes were classified according to different standards in or der to optimize the time and prioritize treatments. The organization of the work according to a phased structure was later introduced at the Library of Congress of Washington D.C. In 1967, Peter Waters was hired as Conservation Officer at the Library of Congress where he dealt with the preservation programme of the collection belonging to the Library [23] and his firsthand experience during the Florence flood certainly influenced his new commitment [24] . The Phased Conservation Project started in the mid1970s and had the purpose of providing a quick and effective solution for the preservation of fragile material from the vast collection of the Library. In Waters intention, the Project was the answer to the daily care and assistance of the collection: "an extension of collection mainten ance" [24]. The core of the project was represented by the Phased Conservation Box, a custommade pro tective box constructed from folded boards. The


Figure 17. Wooden box of the Book of Ui Maine. Detail of the wooden grove on the base. By permission of the Royal Irish Academy, Dublin. RIA.

Figure 19. Books conserved and housed in their Phased Boxes. Delmas Conservation Bindery. By kind permission of the Governors and Guardians of Archbishop Marshs Library, Dublin.

Figure 18. Wooden box of the Lebor na hUidre. Lid on the left. By permission of the Royal Irish Academy, Dublin. RIA.

Phase boxing is a common practice in libraries where are developed according to their specific needs and specifications. According to Baker and Dube, approximately 40% of the seventy three institutions participating in their survey use Phased Boxes for their collections [24]. Since the Phased Box was first introduced in lib raries its role and function have changed. It was born as a temporary protective case, linked to a specific phase in the life of the artifact. Today it is increasingly considered as a permanent box and it is often constructed to store books after
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full conservation treatment (Figure 19). It is part of this evolution the protective case designed at the Derry and Raphoe Diocesan Library Project [29]: "The visible spine allows librarians, archiv ists, scholars who are looking for books of a par ticular period to select them from the shelves without necessarily opening the PhaseBoxes. [] the optional information sheets give further more precise details about both the binding and the text and record the conservation and consul tation history of the book. They will limit the damage caused by unnecessary manipulation".



The VisibleSpine Phase Box is technically a more complex version than the classic style. It protects the book and provides users with bibliographical information at the same time. These features suggest that this box was created under different considerations and for distinct purposes: there is the perception that it was designed as a long term preservation box. It could be suggested that there are today cases when the term phased is no longer appropriate for this type of protective box.

libraries and the adoption of the PhasedBox: both circumstances were significant for the de velopment of protective cases for books. All the subjects tackled in the present work deserve further investigation and especially the geogra phical limits must be extended to include other European and American projects. The Author hopes that the observations presented contribute to a better understanding of the development of this significant aspect of book conservation practice.

Conclusions Daniel Solander designed and created a box of extraordinary success. The 19th century antiresto ration theory which originated in Europe, promo ted the adoption of boxes for preserving books within collections and the circulation of the So lander was probably influenced by this ideal. The Solander and its modern variations are found today in many historical libraries and this proves its solid reputation as a reliable instrument for the storage of bibliographical material. Thanks to his collaboration with experienced and skilled professionals (Douglas Cockerell, Edward Barnsley, David Powell), Roger Powell made an essential contribution to the practice of designing and constructing wooden boxes for manuscripts. The development of this very specific field of book conservation and preservation evolved from the collaboration of professionals who shared an amount of practical knowledge and skills. The Florence flood was a central moment for the development of the research into boxmaking. The PhasedBox partially derives from this tragic event. This work could draw a parallel between the introduction of Solanders creation within

Acknowledgments My gratitude goes to Dr. Jason McElligott, Keeper of Archbishop Marshs Library, for his observa tions and generous support. My warm thanks to Conservators Noureen Qureshi (Delmas Conser vation Bindery, Dublin) and John Gillis (Trinity College, Dublin) for their editing and proofreading and to all colleagues, librarians and archivists for their cooperation and help.

References [1] F. Pesando, Libri e biblioteche, Edizioni Quasar, Roma, 1994 [2] C. Gallavotti, La custodia dei papiri nella Villa suburbana Ercolanese, Tipografia Eugubina, Gubbio, 1940 [3] N. Caldararo, The Solander box, its varieties and its role as an archival unit of storage for prints and drawings in a museum, archive or gallery, Museum Management and Curatorship 12, 1993, pp. 387400. The quoted work is: H. Plenderleith,
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The conservation of prints, drawings and manus cripts, Oxford University Press, 1937 [4] R. Lane, Environmental carrying case design, The Paper Conservator 11, 1987, pp. 9598 [5] A. Wise, C. Granowski and B. Gourley, Out of the box: measuring microclimates in Australian made Solander boxes, URL [pdf] (accessed 11th Dec. 2011) [6] D. Vinod and M. Shin, Hygrometric halflives of museum cases, Restaurator 14, 1993, pp. 3044

[15] R. Powell, Notes on the conservation work of the Book of Durrow, Trinity College, Dublin, MS 2589 [16] Private email of Susan Bioletti, Head of Conservation and Preservation Department of the Trinity College Library, Dublin. Email of the 24th May 2010 [17] Private emails of Gilly Anderson, the Edward Barnsley Workshop. Emails of the 28th January and 1st March 2010

[18] R. O'Floinn, Sandhills, silver and shrines: fine metal work of the medieval period from Done [7] D. Vinod and M. Shin, The moisture buffering gal, in Donegal, history and society: interdisci capability of museum cases, Material Research plinary essays on the history of an Irish county, Society 267, 1992, pp. 453458 Geography Publications, Dublin (ROI), 1995, pp. 85148 [8] M. T. Roberts and D. Etherington, Solander Box, in Bookbinding and the conservation of [19] Edward Barnsley archive, Box 45 books. A dictionary of descriptive terminology, URL (accessed 11th December 2011) [20] N. Hadgraft, Storing and boxing the Parker Library manuscripts, in Conservation and [9] W. Blades, The Enemies of the Books, Trbner, preservation in small libraries, Parker Library London, 1880, pp. 8993, URL Publications Cambridge, 1994 [10] G. Petherbridge, Roger Powell: the compleat binder, Brepols, Tournhout (B), 1996 p. 38 [11] F. Marzo, Codicology: the history of the structural features of the Codex Sinaiticus, URL (accessed 11th December 2011) [12] H. Nixon, Roger Powell and Peter Waters, The Slade, 1965 [13] A. Donnelly and P. Waters, Roger Powell, the compleat binder: liber amicorum, Brepols, Tourn hout, 1996, p. 18 [21] Anthony Cains, Roger Powell, the compleat binder: liber amicorum, Brepols, Tournhout, 1996, p. 85 [22] R. Powell and P. Waters, Technical descrip tion of the binding, in The Stonyhurst Gospel, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1969 [23] P. Waters, Phased Conservation, Book and Paper Group Annual 17, 1998, URL (accessed 11th December 2011)

[24] W. Baker and L. Dube, Identifying standards practices in research library book conservation, [14] R. Powell, Report on the repair and rebinding of American Library Association 54(1), 2007, URL [pdf] the Book of Kells, Trinity College, Dublin, MS 2586 (accessed 11th December 2011)
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[25] R. Feller, Accelerated aging: photochemical and thermal aspects, Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles, 1994, URL (11th December 2011) [26] B. Applebaum, Conservation Treatment Methodology, ButterworthHeinemann, Oxford, 2007, pp. 4864 [27] B. Ogden, On the preservation of books and documents in original form, Abbey Newsletter 14(4), 1990, URL (accessed 11th December 2011) [28] M. R. Brown, Boxes for the protection of rare books: their design and construction, Library of Congress, Washington, 1994 [29] A. Scola, Introducing the visible spine PhaseBox, Society of Archivists 244, 2009


econservation magazine is open to submission of articles on a wide range of relevant topics for the cultural heritage sector. Next deadlines for article submission are: for Issue 24, September 2012 submissions due 15h May 2012 for Issue 25, March 2013 submissions due 15th November 2012 Nevertheless, you can always submit your manuscript when it is ready. Upon revision, it will be published as soon as possible depending on: the number of the manuscripts on hold, submitted earlier by other authors the release date of the upcoming issue the preallocated space in the magazine to each section Please check our publication guidelines for more information.

Conservatorrestorer Email: Gianlorenzo Pignatti is a book conservator graduated at the University of Tor Vergata in Rome, Italy. Previously, he obtained a book con servation diploma at the Conservation Centre Bertesi in Cremona, Italy in 2005, and has since then trained and collaborated with Italian institutions and private conservation studios. From 2008 until 2011 he was based in Dublin, Ireland where he was employed as book conser vator at Archbishop Marshs Library. Between 2010 and 2011, he supervised the preservation project of the collection which included the dusting of the volumes and the condition survey of the collection. He is now based in Florence, Italy as a freelance book conservator.

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By Cecil Krarup Andersen


The Greenwich Lining Conference in 1974 was the first international conference where conservators discussed lining treatments and their consequences. At the conference, a glossary was issued with definitions of the words used by conservators in an attempt to move towards consistency in the English terminology used by conservators worldwide. In the glossary, lining was defined as the treatment where a new support is attached to the back of a canvas. Relining on the other hand was defined as the repetition of a lining. After the conference extensive research was done in structural conservation and a number of new lining methods were introduced. The question is whether the terminology used was now more consistent with the Greenwich definitions. The aim of this article is to establish how and when the words referring to lining treatment have been used from 1974 till now in an attempt to clarify to what degree the definitions from the Greenwich Conference have been accepted and used among conservators. The analysis is based on a search in the bibliographic database AATA Online resulting in 363 abstracts written by authors mainly from Europe and USA. It has been assessed whether the words in these abstracts and their titles have been used according to the Greenwich definitions or not. Surprisingly the investigation shows a decreasing consistency in the use of terminology. The consequences of the lack of consistency in the terminology are discussed.

Introduction In structural conservation of paintings there is a range of words that young conservators have to learn. They describe the many types of structural treatments that are given to paintings on canvas. The amount of words in use is large, and some of the words are more or less synonymous. An example that will be discussed here is lining and relining, words that in some traditions have the same meaning and in others have different mean ings. To understand the conservation language requires a vast amount of knowledge about the history of conservation and the use of words in different regions of the world. This article focuses on the terminology in structural conservation of paintings on canvas, but the diversity in termino logy seems to be a common issue in many fields of conservation. When Gal de Guichen received the Forbes price in 2006 he said: I have the impres sion that we live in the tower of Babel [1], refer ring to the discussion concerning the terms conservation and restoration. The European Committee for Standardization has begun working on standardization of English

terminology within the conservation field (CEN/ TC 346 WG1) [2]. This is a task that involves con servators from many European countries. In the Second Draft from the CEN working group concer ned with terminology, it is stated that the purpose of the work with standardization is to bring greater understanding and better collaboration amongst those who have responsibility for cultu ral heritage [2, p. 4]. The working group wish to avoid confusion, to ensure that what one person means by a word corresponds with what another person means [2, p. 4]. We find it difficult to agree on common under standings of words, and the need for univocity the character of being univocal or having one voice has been expressed in order to ensure uniform communication in a common language. This need arise from the increasing demand to communicate work and research results to colleagues, the public, museum staff and so on. Many conservation and research projects are crossing country boundaries, which is why the CEN working group expresses a need to make sure that conservators speak the same language and use the same words. Consistency in our
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language also becomes an issue in the literature searches that are the basis for all research. Searching words in bibliographic databases require agreement on common terms. Otherwise stated, the word lining will be used here to describe the treatment where a support is attached to the back of a painting and the word relining to describe the removal and replacement of a support attached to the back of a painting. Delining is used to describe the removal of a lining. The lining treatment (Figure 1) has been one of the most discussed subjects in conservation litera ture. In the 1960s an increased lining activity resulted in a discussion of the negative effects of the lining methods used at the time. Painting conservators had realized that many lining treatments changed the appearance and texture

of the paintings and the situation called for inter national consensus on degrees of intervention and the choice of methods and materials. It was what Schaible later called Doublierungskrise, or lining crisis in English [3]. The crisis showed a lack of consensus about what was good lining praxis, and this lack was reflected in the confusion in the terminology. Lining, trans fer, relining and backing were all words used about the same thing. Two important and comparable handbooks written by Stout and Keck illustrate the confusion, as one used relining and the other lining [4, 5]. Conservators realized that there was a need for international cooperation on the subject, and in 1974 the first international lining conference was held at the National Maritime Museum in

Figure 1. A gluepaste lining in progress on a suction low pressure table. The tensioned painting is placed on top of a new canvas. Both the original canvas and the new canvas have been prepared with gluepaste adhesive. The painting will be attached to the lining canvas using heat and negative pressure. Photo by Mikkel Scharff. The Getty Trust.

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Greenwich, England. At the conference, conserva tors discussed lining treatments and their conse quences in an international forum. This required a common understanding of the different words in use, and a glossary was issued in an attempt to move towards consistency in the English terminology used by conservators worldwide. The concept definitions from the Greenwich Conference represent the starting point of this article, since they represent the first interna tional standard for the terminology of structural conservation. In the glossary from the Greenwich conference lining was defined as The sticking of a fabric (traditionally a fine linen canvas) to the reverse side of a canvas picture. The purpose of which may be to counteract structural weakness in the original canvas itself and/or to secure cleavage between the paint ground and the canvas layers [6]. Relining was defined as The lining of a painting which has been lined before. Removal of the old lining canvas and adhesive and mounting on a new lining canvas with new lining adhesive [6]. In the following years there were more attempts to define conservation terminology in reference works, and they define lining and relining in a similar way [7, 8]. After the Greenwich conference there was reason to believe that there would be a movement towards consistency in the terminology, but when going through the literature on structural conser vation written since, the confusion is still evident: in 1975 an article came out that summarized replies from conservators on a questionnaire regarding lining [9]. The title alone, Relining: Materials and techniques: Summary of replies to a questionnaire illustrates this point. Even though

all three authors had been editing the Handbook of terms used in the lining of paintings from the Greenwich Conference [6] they still used the term relining in the heading for their article one year later. In 1984, the article was followed up by a similar article, Lining in 1984: Questionnaire replies [10], and the updated answers to similar questions were discussed. In this article the Greenwich definitions were followed.

Etymology in European Lining Words In 2005, Hackney wrote that relining in some cases means lining [11] and a search in the Abstracts of International Conservation Literature (AATA) [12] and the Bibliographic Database of the Conservation Information Network (BCIN) [13] confirms this confusion. Articles using the word relining go back to the 1930s [14] and perhaps further back. On the other hand, a book title shows that the word lining is used as early as 1853 [15]. Etymology offers a plausible explanation for the reason why both words are used about the same phenomenon. The verbum line, meaning to cover inner side of, goes back to the late 14th Century. It is derived from lin (linen cloth), because linen was frequently used as a second layer of material at the inner side of garment in the Middle Ages [16]. The word lining can be compared to the Spanish forracin and the Italian foderatura. These words mean lining (of paintings) and can also be translated as to cover the inside of a garment. Another tradition is the one where words for lining come from words for doubling. In German doublieren, Dutch doubleren, Danish dublere and Swedish dubblering. The most common French word for lining is rentoilage. Linen in French is again lin but a
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canvas is toile. This comes from Latin tela (web). Entoiler means to cover the inside with canvas, but rentoiler means to line a painting. Rentoiler is also connected to the Spanish word reentelado (tela is canvas) and the Italian rintelatura that also both mean lining. Rentoiler was earlier used about the more radical treatment where the original canvas on a painting was removed and replaced with a new one. Since it was a replacement of the canvas the prefix re was used. Methods became less radical but the word rentoilage remained the same. It now also meant to apply a new canvas on top of the old one. It is a reasonable assumption that the English relining with the same meaning as lining, comes from the direct translation of rentoiler, reente lado and rintelatura into English relinen / relining.

words lining and paintings resulted in more than 500 records. The titles and/or abstracts from 1974 to 2010 that include the words lining or relining in any form have been chosen as the basis for this analysis. Records that dealt with works of art on paper, parchment panel or leather were also disregarded. The result was 363 abstracts written by authors mainly from Europe and USA although other conti nents are also represented. It was then assessed whether the words in these abstracts and their titles have been used according to the Greenwich definitions or not. Not all the abstracts to the articles were written by the authors themselves. In some cases another conservator had been responsible for the English abstract. Neverthe less, their words are searchable in the database. Results Figure 2 shows how many records were found each year and how the words were used accord ing to the titles and abstract texts. Follows the Greenwich definition means that lining is used as the sticking of a fabric to the reverse side of a canvas picture or that relining is used as the lining of a painting which has been lined before. Removal of the old lining canvas and adhesive and mounting on a new lining canvas with new lining adhesive[6]. Three records from the 363 used new lining instead of relining and they were not regarded as following the Greenwich definition. 110 records used the word relining, and in some cases it could not be established from the abstract text whether it was in fact a repetition of a lining or a use of the word that was not consistent with the Greenwich definition. In the cases of doubt a special category was used called not clear. Only 27 records from the 110 using relining could without doubt be

Searching for Lining and Relining in Bibliographic Databases As previously mentioned, the conservation field has two major international bibliographic data bases: AATA [12] and BCIN [13]. In this article, AATA is used because it provides the reader with an abstract in English on records in all languages. This makes conservators able to compare the translations and the use of English terms in different parts of the world. One of the aims of this article is to establish how and when the English words referring to the lining treatment have been used from 1974 till 2010 in an attempt to clarify to what degree the defini tions from the Greenwich Conference have been accepted and used among conservators worldwide. A search in AATA with a combination of the index
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Figure 2. The use of the words lining and relining in records from AATAonline, abstracts of international conservation literature (

identified as dealing with relining as defined in the Greenwich glossary. In Figure 3 the results are divided in decades and shown in percent (numbers at the bottom are the actual number of records). It is clear that a decreas ing percentage (and number) of records follow the Greenwich definitions through the decades. In the last decade the conservation vocabulary has be come so inconsistent that only 60% of the abstracts and titles follow the Greenwich definitions. In some cases both lining and relining are used in the same abstract about the same type of treatment. The word relining is most common in Central and Southern Europe, whereas records from Northern Europe, Great Britain and the USA seem to use the word lining according to the Greenwich definition. The topics considered in the records are shown in Figure 4. Most of them describe lining methods and materials or the history of lining methods and materials. The number of these articles is, however, decreasing. A smaller, but increasing amount of records are considering concerns with

lining methods and recommend avoiding linings. The same pattern is seen for the group where alternative methods are described and for the group where relinings and delinings (repetition of linings and removal of linings) are described. This shows that there is a still growing concern about the use of linings and the challenge of relining and delining comes up more and more often. This information can only be retrieved by reading all the abstracts or articles since the terminology is not used consistently enough to allow us to get access to the appropriate records by searching in index terms. The conservator who is interested in the challenges of relining will have a lot of sorting to do before he finds the right articles to read. It is interesting how the word minimalism is also a complicated word to search. Because minimalism is argued in so many different cases it cannot be related to a certain type of treatment. When con servators use cold lining, strip lining, delining and not lining they may claim to be minimalists. The words nonintervention, noninterventionalist
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Figure 3. Percentage of records following the Greenwich definitions. Under each column is the actual number of records in each category.

and minimalist became common in the 1980s [10]. In earlier days conservators would sometimes define themselves as liners but with the new terms conservators now define themselves by their choice of refraining from lining. The term not lining was also used [17] and a number of articles have been published describing how con servators had succeeded in not lining paintings [1821]. Yet in 2003 the minimalistic ideal was questioned by Ackroyd and Villers in an attempt to move the discussion towards a postminima listic paradigm [22].

concept. Lining and relining are not only used in different geographic areas. They are also used in different traditions of understanding the concept of structural conservation. This implies that there is a lot we can learn from studying the words we use, and forcing everyone to use the same words may deprive some conservators of the possibility of expressing themselves in a way that can be precisely perceived in their area (geography, lan guage, etc.). However the areas in which conser vators move have been enlarged over the years, and whenever we need to communicate interna tionally it can be an advantage to agree on common rules for the use of language. The results presented here suggest that there is a language barrier between countries making our communication difficult. Central and Southern European countries are using a different termino logy which is confirmed by the etymological expla nation of the differences in the use of words. This means that research results from some countries are in risk of being misinterpreted by conservators from other parts of the world and vice versa. The

Implications of Inconsistency It is clear that we have not standardized our termi nology and the question is whether univocity is what we want to aim for. Temmermann argues that the univocity ideal can be questioned accor ding to Sociocognitive Terminology [23]. This concept is based on the assumption that differ ences in terminology can be used to achieve a more precise perception of the meaning of a
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Figure 4. The most common topic in lining literature is reviews or descriptions of methods and materials. However retreatment and alternatives are considered with increasingly frequency.

written evidence of the work conservators do is increasingly important and the consequences of inconsistent terminology can be manifold. Cases like condition reports when paintings are lent out, insurance cases, exchange of research and conservation treatment records are examples of the increasing international corporation and exchange that has called for agreement in the definition of terms.

definitions of words can be to map our differences and degree of communication both when it comes to geographic areas and philosophical schools. The study implies that we do not agree on the definiti ons of concepts and the premises behind concepts. However, communication at international levels is being complicated by the inconsistency in terminology. Time, resources and information are spent on trying to understand the state of the art in lining of paintings and it becomes unclear how the field is evolving. It is clear that a univocal defi nition of certain words is desirable as a working tool for international communication between disciplines within the investigation and conserva tionrestoration of cultural heritage. The CEN initiative may offer a unique opportunity to move forward into a common interdisciplinary under standing of our working language within the European Babylonian continent. The Greenwich definitions or definitions similar to them seem to be the obvious choice for a common definition of words since they offer a possibility to differentiate
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Conclusions The study shows a growing inconsistence in the use of structural conservation terms but the impli cations may cover much more than inconsistency. When conservators insist on diversity in the use of terms related to lining it could be a symptom of diversity in opinions in different regions, schools and traditions. The study offers a platform for further research into the more philosophical issues and differences of opinion within the subject of structural conservation. To uncover different


between linings and relinings. As shown earlier, delining and relining are increasingly significant subjects, a fact that can be difficult to recognize if it is not possible for the next generations of con servators to appreciate the differences between lining and relining. It is therefore to be hoped that other nonEuropean countries will be invited to listen and comment on the CEN progress in order to accept the same definitions in due course and hereby achieve a common tool for reports, papers and so on on an international level. Sandardization and univocity may however not bring greater understanding. With Temmermanns arguments we may want to embrace our differences and explore what the real reasons for them are. Our diverse use of terms may help us to point out issues of importance or even point directly to the heart of the concept of conservation. Why do we do it, for whom do we do it, what is our final goal and what means can be used to achieve it?

[4] C. Keck, A Handbook on the Care of Paintings, American Association for State and Local History, 1965 [5] G. L. Stout, The Care of Pictures, Dover Publica tions, New York, 1971 [6] W. PercivalPrescott and G. Lewis (ed.), "Hand book of terms used in the lining of paintings", Conference on Comparative Lining Techniques, National Maritime Museum, London, 1974 [7] Narcisse (Network of Art Research Computer Systems in Europe, Glossaire multilangue, glossrio multilingue), Commision des Communautes Euro pennes DGXIII Luxemburg, Arquivos Nacionais/ Torre do Tombo Lisboa, 1993, CDROM [8] The Conservation Dictionary, P.K. NET Infor matics, Athens, Greece, 2001 [9] S. Rees Jones, A. Cummings and G. Hedley, Relining: Materials and techniques: Summary of replies to a questionnaire, ICOM Committee for Conservation 4th Triennial Meeting, Venice, 1975 [10] G. Hedley and C. Villers, Lining in 1984: Questionnaire replies, ICOM Committee for Conservation 7th Triennial Meeting, Copenhagen, 1984, pp. 84.2.2225 [11] S. Hackney, Relining, Lining, Delining, Minimo intervento conservativo nel restauro dei dipinti: atti del convegno, Thiene (VI), Secondo congresso internazionale: colore e conservazione, materiali e metode nel restauro delle opere poli cromi mobili, 2930 ottobre 2004, Il Prato, 2005, pp. 2935 [12] Abstracts of International Conservation Literature, (accessed 08072010)

References [1] G. De Guichen, A common Definition of Conser vation and Restauration: Agree or disagree, but we are living in the tower of Babel, Studies in Conservation 52, 2007, pp. 6973 [2] Conservation of cultural property Main general terms and definitions concerning conservation of cultural property, prEN15898, URL (15062010) [3] V. Schaible, Neues berlegungen zur Feutich keit an Leinwandbild, Zeitschrift fr Kunsttech nologie und Konservierung 1(1), 1987, pp. 7594
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[13] Bibliographic Database of the Conservation Information Network, (accessed 08072010) [14] F. SchmidtDegener, Wax relining of picture canvases, Mouseion 32(1), 1932 pp. 8687 [15] H. Mogford, Handbook for the preservation of pictures: containing practical instructions for cleaning, lining, repairing, and restoring oil paintings, with remarks on the distribution of works of art in houses and galleries, their care and preservation, Winsor & Newton, 1853 [16] "Line", Online Etymology Dictionary, URL (accessed 1.9.2010) [17] P. Ackroyd, A. Phenix and C. Villers, Not lining in the twentyfirst century: Attitudes to the structural conservation of canvas paintings, The Conservator 26, UKIC, 2002, pp. 1423 [18] W. Gabler, Eine Mglichkeit der Restaurie rung von Rissen in Leinwandgemlden ohne Doublierung, dargestelt am Beispiel des Gemldes Die Nacht von Ferdinand Hodler, Mitteilungen Deutcher Restauratoren Verband, 198081, pp. 2225 [19] I.V. Nazarova, E. L. Malachevskaya, and L. I. Yashkina, Technique of restoring Paintings on Canvas without Lining, Preprints from ICOMCC 9th Triennial Meeting, Dresden, 1990, Vol 1, p. 132 [20] K. Beltinger, Reversible supports for paint ings as an alternative to lining", Lining and Back ing: The support of paintings, paper and textiles, Postprints from the UKIC Conference, 78 Novem ber, 1995, pp. 111118 [21] M. Bustin and T. Carley (ed.), Alternatives to Lining, The structural treatment of paintings on canvas without lining, conference held jointly

by the British Association of Paintings Conservator Restorers and the United Kingdom Institute for Conservation Paintings Section, 19 September, 2003 [22] C. Villers, Post minimal intervention, The Conservator 28(1), 2004, pp. 310 [23] R. Temmerman, Questioning the univocity ideal, Hermes, Journal of Linguistics 18, 1997, pp. 5190

CECIL KRARUP ANDERSEN Conservatorrestorer Contact: Cecil Andersen holds a BA and a MA degree from the School of Conservation, The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen, Denmark. Presently she is enrolled in the PhD programme at the School of Conservation where she is enga ged in research focusing on the effect linings have on Danish Golden Age paintings on canvas from the nineteenth century. The focus in her research is on mechanics in paintings and struc tural treatments. The PhD is a collaboration between the School of Conservation, The National Gallery of Denmark and the Smithsonian Institu tion in Washington, USA.
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By Hesham Abbas Kamally


The present study aims to identify and to characterize the main deterioration mechanisms that affect the wall reliefs of Dendera temple, Upper Egypt. The temple is famous for its beautiful wall reliefs, painted with religious scenes and inscriptions. Nowadays the reliefs show considerable damage, particularly due to salt weathering processes. In particular, the wall reliefs show salt crystallization at varying levels, in and between grains, and within the cement materials. The change in temperature and relative humidity in the studied area play an important role in the salts crystallization and hydration causing several deterioration features such as cracks, powdering, paint and plaster detachment, flaking, discoloration and iron oxides stains. Several samples were examined by polarizing microscopy (PLM), Xray diffraction analysis (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive Xray analysis system (SEMEDX). The results reveal that the damage in wall paintings are mainly attributed to the effect of different salts such as gypsum (CaSO42H2O), anhydrite (CaSO4), halite (NaCl), mirabilite (Na2SO4.10H2O) and sylvite (KCl). These results allowed the identification of the types of salts and deterioration features, information that may be used in the future for conservation purposes.

Introduction The Hathor temple is one of the best preserved temples in Egypt (Figure 1A). It is located in the town of Dendera, about four kilometers from Qena and 60 kilometers north of Luxor on the west bank of the Nile. The temple was constructed during the Ptolemaic period and dedicated to Hathor, the wife of god Horus. It was constructed on the remains of an older temple erected in the predy nastic period by followers of Horus. Underneath the floor of the temple several crypts decorated by important wall reliefs were found. One of these crypts is today accessible to visitors. Generally, the Dendera temple complex was completely cons tructed from local sandstone, except for several limestone blocks found in the ancient crypts concealed under the temple. Today, the Dendera temple is threatened by dam age and loss of its wall reliefs by deterioration including salt effloresces, scaling, powdering and flaking. After the construction of the Aswan High Dam (19601970), several environmental effects were observed in the area such as soil salinization,

rising groundwater level and groundwater conta mination. The increase in groundwater level, high rates of evaporation, seepage and sewage water from cultivated lands and surrounding local houses represented the main factors leading to the salinity problems. The increase of groundwa ter level and soil salinity lead to deterioration of many monuments in the Upper Egypt [14]. The deterioration of different monumental rocks in Egypt is primarily due to watersoluble salts such as gypsum and halite [5]. Generally, when water evaporates salt will deposit on and beneath the wall painting surface, and in the pores between grains [6]. The mechanism of stone deterioration by salt action is attributed to different processes such as crystallization, hydration, mineral disso lution, osmotic pressure and thermal expansion [7]. The present paper aims to identify which salts are precipitated and to explain the mechanism that lead to the damages of Dendera temple wall reliefs. The obtained results will help us to under stand the weathering mechanisms affecting the wall reliefs and consequently to choose the
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appropriate methods and suitable materials for its conservation.

Materials and Methods Four samples were collected from several locations from the friable layers of wall reliefs at Dendera temple. These samples were crushed and milled in an agate mortar to avoid contamination and were studied by XRay diffraction analysis (XRD) to determine its chemical composition. The powder diffraction patterns of the samples were obtained using a Phillips PW 1840 diffractometer with Cuk radiation and Ni filter. The scanning speed is 21 degree/min at constant voltage 40 KV and 30 Ma. The detection limit of the method was 2% W/W. Three samples of salt were scraped from the al tered wall reliefs at Dendera temple and studied by electron microscopy. The samples were exam ined to provide information about the crystal shape, structural state and morphology of the minerals as well as the salts elemental composi tion and alteration products. A JEOL JSM5300 scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped

Local Climatic Conditions The climate of this area is arid, characterized by a large temperature range (hot summer and cold winter) and rare rain fall. The maximum and minimum temperature of the atmosphere of Qena during July ranges between 45 C and 25 C while in December it ranges between 27 C and 4C. Relative humidity is about 53% in winter and 29% in summer.

Geology of the studied area The geology of the area was largely studied and is referred in literature [812]. The rock units forming the studied area can be arranged strati graphically as shown in table I.

Figure 1. The site of Dendera temple, about four kilometers from the city of Qena, Egypt.

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Table I. Typical stratigraphy of Dendera, Egypt.

Geologic Timescale Holocene Late Pleistocene PlioPleistocene Pliocene Eocene Paleocenelate Cretaceous Upper Cretaceous PreCambrian

Composition Silty clay (Neonile deposits) Sands and gravels with clay interbeds (Prenil deposits) Clays, sands and gravels capped by travertine beds (Proto and PreNile deposits) Clays with some interbedded sands Chalky and dolomitic limestone and marls with flint bands and nodules Shale facies with thin interbeds of chalk and phosphate Sandstone with shale interbeds, it unconformably overlies the igneous and metamorphic rocks Highly fractured igneous and metamorphic rocks

Depth (meters) 1 to 14
~30 ~60 ~25

> 200
~300 ~400

with an Oxford ISIS Link energy dispersive Xray (EDX) from the central laboratories of the Faculty of Sciences, Alexandria University was used. Furthermore, sandstone samples were collected and taken from some altered fragments that had previously fallen off. Several thin sections from these samples were studied and photographed under Polarizing microscopy (PLM) at the Central Laboratories of the Egyptian Geological Survey And Mining Authority. Petrographic examination allowed to determine and describe the sandstone minerals, physicochemical alteration, the relation between grains and the state of preservation.

Results and Discussion Field observation The decay and weathering survey revealed many different types of deterioration found in the wall

reliefs such as cracks, loss of superficial layers, powdering and salt crystallization. This problems are mostly due to the rising groundwater level, seepage and sewage water from cultivated lands and surrounded houses (Figure 2A), making these the greatest problem at Dendera temple. The field observation revealed several wall reliefs in danger due to the growth of salts. The salt crystallization and hydration processes lead to loss of cohesion between grains and caused the current detachment of individual grains. Many wall reliefs have aggregates of salts forming bristly efflorescence's of individual crystals penetrating the surface (Figure 2B) and leading to losses in the reliefs (Figure 2C). For example, the peeling of plaster can be observed at approxi mately the same distance from the ground, as shown in Figure 2C. Moreover, limestone reliefs bulging and bursting points were observed as result of salt subflorescences, changing the morphology of the stone surface and ultimately causing losses of the superficial layers of rock
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Figure 2. Deterioration aspects of wall reliefs in Dendera temple: (A) The groundwater delivering salts into the temple foundations evaporate leaving salts behind; (B) Strongly aggregates of salts form bristly efflorescences; (C) Wall reliefs were completely losses in a belt as a result of salt efflorescences; (D) Limestone wall reliefs bulging as a result of subflorescences; (E) Salts deposits on the painted layers mask the colors of wall reliefs; (F) The areas with high load of salts are characterize by a visibly darker weaken surface as a result of previous restoration by Portland cement.
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Figure 2G and 2H. Deterioration aspects of wall reliefs in Dendera temple: (G) Brownishyellow stains on the sandstone reliefs; (H) Lamination, iron concretion and Portland cement represent weakned areas and induce several types of alteration.

reliefs (Figure 2D). Discoloration, and removal of paint layers were observed in reliefs as a result of the high humidity and the presence of soluble salts (Figure 2E). There are evidence of previous restorations at the temple, carried out with diffe rent techniques and in different periods. Some of these interventions are in good condition while others are aesthetically or scientifically unaccep table. Several areas with high load of salts are characterized by a visibly darker and weakened surface as result of a previous restoration with Portland cement (Figure 2F). Furthermore, alka line cleaning solutions such as ammonium hydro xide, which have been used locally for over a de cade to clean the wall reliefs, can cause damage sandstone containing iron oxides or leave disfigu ring brownishyellow stains as shown in Figure 2G stain. In addition, several sedimentation structures such as lamination, iron and carbonate concre tions were observed in sandstone blocks. These structures are weakness zones and can cause several alteration features in rock reliefs (Figure 2H). Granular disintegration and loss of carbon ate and iron concretions in the rock relief of Bes (god protector of women during childbirth) were observed as a result of the use of Portland cement.

This cement is too hard for the weathered sand stone and is a source of salts that cause intensive disintegration of the relief surfaces.

Petrography of the sandstone wall reliefs in Dendera temple Several sandstone reliefs in Dendera temple are friable or semifriable and have different colors from pale brown to dark brown. The microscopic examination of several thin sections revealed that the sandstone consists mainly of quartz (main component), rock fragments, feldspars (micro cline and plagioclase), calcite, hematite, micas, clay and heavy minerals. Quartz grains occur as turbid color, fine to medium grained and vary from angular to subrounded grains. It was affected by mechanical breakage and chemical process which produced microfractures and cleavages dissect ing the quartz grains into several subindividual grains (Figure 3A). These grains are mostly monocrystalline and polycrystalline, both types have undulose extinc tion (Figure 3B) which may be attributed to the
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Figure 3 (left to right, up to down). The examination of the sandstone samples under polarised microscope: (A) Microfractures and cleavages dissected the quartz grain into several subindividual grains; (B) Quartz grains occur as monocrystalline, polycrystalline with undulose extinctions; (C) Plagioclase and microcline grains occur as subrounded grains slightly weathered; (D) Different rock fragments occur as subangular to subrounded grains; (E) Ferruginous cement occurs as thin films of brown colour coating and filling the interspaces between the quartz grains; (F) Calcite patches filling the microcracks in the feldspar grains.

fractures and cleavages. The quartz grains with undulose extinction were considered unstable grains, easily breaking into very small grains. Feldspar grains are represented by microcline and plagioclase grains. Microcline occurs as subrounded grains and have cross hatching twinning in some
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cases (Figure 3C). Plagioclase grains occurs as angular to subangular grains slightly weathered and may exhibit patchy extinction which may in dicate that the grains were affected by mechanical stresses. In the advanced stage of weathering process, plagioclase occurs as cracks and altered


A a dusty and cloudy appearance of feldspar give

to fine grained of sericite and clay minerals which minerals (Figure 3C). The rock fragments occur as subangular to subrounded grains and partly planar boundaries scattered between the quartz grains and other constituents Figure 3D. The sand stone grains cemented by ferruginous cement. It occurs as thin films of pale brown colour coating and filling the interspaces between the quartz grains. Small cubic shaped and irregular masses from magnetite are scattered between the quartz grains and other constituents. Moreover, in the intensive alteration processes hematite gives a brown to dark chocolate colour pigmentation to the altered sandstone blocks (Figure 3E). Small patches of calcite fill the cracks in the plagioclase and quartz grains and are disseminated between the mineral constituents (Figure 3F). Also, epidote occurs as anhedral to subhedral grains wrapped with iron oxides scattered between the quartz grains (Figure 3B).

Bdegrading its mechanical characteristics, ultima

tely lead to the disintegration of the wall reliefs in Dendera temple (Figure 4C). Many different salt crystals such as mirabilite and gypsum tend to grow within the pores or in highly localized areas between calcite grains under different conditions of RH and temperature (Figure 4D). For example, at different moisture levels, salts will crystallize in various sizes and shapes: a granular crust of smaller and isometric crystals is formed on a wet substrate whereas columnar and thick whisker crystals are formed at a nearly dry surface [13]. Commonly, the gypsum crystals grow within the pores as thin plates. Tiny white dots of gypsum were detected in the sandstone grains causing many deep pits, bumpy surfaces and disintegra tion of the sandstone wall reliefs. Moreover, SEM micrographs revealed that many gypsum crystals occur as blockyshaped and rectangular crystals grow beneath the painted layer (Figure 4E). Intensive pressure developed during crystalliza tion and dehydration of salts within and between grains of rock reliefs. This build up stresses in rock reliefs and causes a variety of cracking patterns in calcite grains (Figure 4F). In other cases, gypsum and halite salts grow preferentially in the calcite cleavage plane enlarging the cleavages and dis sected it into several flakes as shown in Figure 4G. In addition, SEM micrographs show a large grain of feldspar in sandstone wall reliefs dissected by fractures, flakes and pits as a result of sodium sulfate and gypsum crystallization, ultimately lead to fragmentation of rock reliefs (Figure 4H).

(rhombohedral pits) with aid of salt action and

Scanning electron microscope (SEM) The scanning electron microscope results confirm that a major deterioration cause of the wall reliefs is the abundance of soluble salts in the rock, plaster and paint layers. SEM micrographs revealed the salt deposits on the relief surface cause several alterations such as cracks, pores (Figure 4A) and losses of cohesion between grains. The salt crys tallization consists of gypsum, halite, anhydrite and mirabilite filling the pores and coating the surfaces of rock reliefs as shown in Figure 4B. Halite was identified in SEM micrographs as large euhedral cubic aggregates while mirabilite occurs as euhedral prismatic crystals scattered on the wall relief surfaces (Figure 4B). The underground water between the limestone wall reliefs, by dissolving the calcite grains

Energy Dispersive XRay analysis (EDX) EDX microanalysis of three salt samples from the wall relief surfaces essentially consist of calcium (Ca), silicon (Si), sulfur (S), chlorine (Cl), sodium
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Figure 4. SEM micrographs of deteriorated wall reliefs in Dendera temple: (A) Cracks, pitting and losses of cohesion between grains of wall reliefs; (B) Different salt crystals such as halite, mirabilite and tiny salt crystals filling the pores and coating the surfaces of rock reliefs; (C) Dissolution of calcite crystals; (D) Mrabilite and gypsum crystals growing in pores between calcite crystals; (E) Gyp sum crystals occur as blockyshaped and rectangular crystals grow beneath the painted layer; (F) A variety of cracking patterns in calcite grains; (G) Gypsum and halite salts grow on calcite cleavage plane and dissected it into several flakes; (H) Many cracks and separation of scales from the rock reliefs as a result of gypsum and sodium sulphate salts.
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Table II. Energy Dispersive XRay analysis results of the salts from the Dendera Temple wall reliefs.

Samples A B C

Al 1.0 0.8 2.4

Si 5.9 3.2 10.1

K 0.5 0.3 0.7

Mineral Composition (%) Mg Na Fe Ca 51.3 40.8 58.7 4.5 1.2 3.1 2.1 4.2 0.7 0.8 0.4 2.0

S 18.5 47.4 15.0

P 0.3

Cl 15.5 1.7 7.0

(Na), aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K) and phosphorus (P). The sulphate and chlorine ions are attributed to the gypsum, anhydrite, mirabilite, sylvite and halite salts formed within the rock reliefs. The results of EDX analysis of the salt samples are listed in Table II. The high concentration of sodium (0.74.2%) and chlorine (1.715.5%) may be attributed to the crystallization of halite salt on the wall reliefs. The source of these ions may be due to contami nation of groundwater and dissolution of halite salt from soil and sediments during the movement of groundwater between them. The analysis also revealed a high concentration of sulfate (1547.4%) and calcium (40.858.7%) ions which may be at tributed to the crystallization of gypsum and an hydrite salts on the wall reliefs. The most common damaging salts consist of sulfate, chloride and nitrate anions [14]. The sources of sulfate ions may be ascribe to air pollution and contamination of the groundwater by sulfate fertilizer and disso lution of sulfates from gypsum bearing sediments in the studied area. Sulfates may be originated from air pollution [14]. Moreover, the source of calcium ions may be attributed to the plaster layers, limestone and sandstone wall reliefs. In addition, the high amount of magnesium was detected by EDX analysis, attributed to epsomite salt [MgSO4.7(H2O)]. The source of magnesium may be groundwater contamination and dissolu tion of dolomite or leaching from clay sediments

in the study area. Iron oxides also were detected by EDX analysis, attributed to hematite minerals present as cement or alteration products of fer romagnesian mineral in sandstone wall reliefs.

X Ray Diffraction analysis (XRD) Two samples of salt were taken from the weathered wall reliefs and two other samples were collected from wall reliefs sandstone fragments that had previously fallen off. The results are summarized in table III. The table show that the salt contain gypsum, calcite, halite, anhydrite, hematite, mirabilite and sylvite (KCl) while the altered sand stone wall reliefs samples composed of quartz, microcline, orthoclase, vaterite, magnetite, kaoli nite, halite, anhydrite, gypsum, bernalite, halite, epsomite and illite. Clay minerals are represented mainly by kaolinite and illite dispersed in the sandstone wall reliefs as result of chemical altera tion of the feldspar minerals. These results are in accordance with the EDX analysis and SEM micro graphs.

Salt crystallization The XRD analysis showed that the salts consisted mainly of gypsum, anhydrite and halite although other salts of mirabilite, sylvite and epsomite were also detected. Iron oxides are represented by hematite and magnetite minerals. After the
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Table III. Results of Xray diffraction analysis of wall reliefs at Dendra temple.

1 2 3 4

Material Type
Salts from wall reliefs

Composition ( 2 %)
Gypsum (40.08%), calcite (29.86%), hematite (6.65%), halite (4.17%), anhydrite (3.52%) bernalite (14.35%) and mirabilite (1.37%) Gypsum (41.58%), calcite (26.82%), anhydrite (8.40%), halite (10.48%), hematite (10.14%) and sylvite (2.58%) Quartz (60.20%), microcline (4.58%), orthoclase (22.58%), magnetite (1.20%), illite (0.60%), anhydrite (0.97%), gypsum (1.08%), epsomite (7.47%) and dolomite (1.32%) Quartz (78.62%), orthoclase (7.08%), vaterite (4.32%), magnetite (2.04%), Kaolinite(4.4%), bernalite (2.52%) and Halite (1.02%)

Altered sandstone wall reliefs

construction of the High Dam, the temple was exposed to many deterioration features such as disintegration, exfoliation, dissolution of build ing materials and crystallization of salts. Differ ent soluble salts reacted with the foundations and the lower parts of the wall reliefs and deposited in the pores, plaster, cement and grains. Fathy et al. reported that the groundwater in the study area has a high concentration of different salt ions such as sodium (12.0767.5 mg/l), sulphate (7.4880.3 mg/l), chloride (17.11380 mg/l), magnesium (12.8 148.4 mg/l) and bicarbonate (111.6651.5 mg/l) [15]. Consolidation treatments and other previous restoration with grey Portland cement plays an important role to the high concentration forma tion of various salts affecting the wall reliefs and causing disintegration. Moreover, the ancient Egyptians used a fine white plaster based on gyp sum and calcite for the construction of the painted wall reliefs at Dendera temple. These minerals are being dissolved in water and are recrystallized on the wall relief surface leading to many deterio ration forms. Gypsum was detected in very high concentration on the wall reliefs, crystallized at high level of relative humidity and/or presence of water from any source. Larsen reported the
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presence of sulfates and sodium chlorides in com bination with the existing calcium from stone, mortar and lime resulted in the formation of gyp sum [16]. Anhydrite may be developed due to dehydration of gypsum in low humidity. The volu me of gypsum decrease when transformed to an hydrite resulting in many cracks and microcracks in the wall. Maekawa and Agnew stated that gypsum loses water after reaching 42 C transforming into an hydrite [17]. The intensive stresses generated during the growth of gypsum crystals, generally called crystallization pressure, induces damage. Halite, which is naturally found in the Egyptian soil and marine sediments, was also identified. Chlorides are extremely dangerous because they are very soluble and hygroscopic, and penetrate into the rock structure and break up grains and cement. Their hygroscopicity allows them to ab sorb the humidity of the air and to retain it in the wall structure causing deterioration of many types. The wall sodium sulfate crystals usually precipitate as mirabilite. Many authors have attributed the damage caused by sodium sulfate salts to the volume change and hydration pres sure created when thenardite is transformed into mirabilite [1821]. These salts causes deterioration


in the rock such as salt crystallization, scaling, crumbling and flaking [22, 23]. Moreover, salts also play an important role in the deterioration of the wall reliefs by increasing the salts thermal expansion coefficient. For example, when tempe rature rises to about 50 C, halite has a volumetric expansion of 1% leading to intensive stresses which commonly play a great role in the breakdown of the internal structure of the reliefs in Dendera temple. In this study, the presence of sylvite was found to be due to chemical reaction, an ion ex change between calcium (from calcite) and potas sium sulfate fertilizer used in the area. Also, ortho clase and microcline grains found in the sandstone blocks may be a source of potassium ions, which commonly react with chlorides forming sylvite salt. Sylvite salt is also very dangerous because it has a high ability to recrystallize in humid conditions [24]. In addition, the change in temperature and relative humidity during the year in hot conditions can induce further deterioration. When tempera ture and relative humidity increase the rate of chemical reaction also increases. Moreover, the extensive changes in air temperature in closed areas such as Denderas crypts and chambers in crease the salts crystallization and recrystalliza tion in the pore space between grains, exert addi tional pressure and causing several alterations such as powdering, disintegration, cracking and flaking [7]. The crystallization of salts and their recrystallization take place during a change in relative humidity which may develop a stress of high magnitude termed hydration pressure. We known that every visitor in the archaeological site produces a series of variations in the interior microclimate due to their metabolic process [25]. Generally, an individual walking slowly (3.2 km/h) in an environment of 15C develops a heat power of approximately 200 W, releasing 100g of water vapors and 100g of CO2 [26].

Conclusion Several factors are causing the deterioration of wall reliefs in Dendera temple such as increase of the groundwater level, absence of sewage net work, seepage from the irrigation system and from the increasing urban areas surrounding the temple. The results of the present study revealed that the disintegration processes of wall reliefs in Dendera temple are mainly caused by salt crystallization. Crystallization and hydration pressures of different salts within the pores and between sandstone and limestone grains is consider the main cause for disintegration. These processes lead to intensive stresses in the internal structural of stone and cause alterations such as microcracks, cleavages, exfoliation, blistering and powdering of the painted wall reliefs. The microscopic examination of several thin sec tions revealed that sandstone grains were affected by mechanical breakage and chemical processes which produced microfractures and cleavages commonly dissected the quartz grains into several subindividual grains. Also, the interaction of feldspar grains with soluble salts is one of the important alteration processes in sandstone, beginning at the boundary of twinned and finally producing clay minerals. Gypsum, halite and mirabilite was identified by SEM micrographs from crystal habit and EDX analysis. These SEM micrographs show alterations such as cracks, pores, dissolution and dissection of calcite and feldspar crystals reducing the mechanical strength of the rock reliefs. The EDX analysis results revealed that there are some harmful elements such as chlorine and sulphate that combined with other elements to form different types of salts. The XRD results confirmed the petrographic examination, SEM micrographs and EDX analysis. These analyses revealed that the salts of Denderas wall reliefs consists of gypsum, calcite, halite, anhydrite,
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hematite, mirabilite and sylvite (KCl). All the results also confirmed that the greatest deterio ration factor affecting the wall reliefs at Dendera temple can be essentially attributed to the direct effects of salt phenomena. In addition, faulty restoration and inappropriate previous treatments increased the damage of the wall reliefs.

Newsletter of American Research Center in Egypt 114, 1981, pp. 3547 [6] L. K. Gauri, "Stone conservation planning: Analysis of intricate systems", Science and Tech nology in Service of Conservation, IIC, London, 1982, pp. 4650 [7] C. RodriguezNavarro and E. Doehne, Salt weathering: influence of evaporation rate, super saturation and crystallization pattern, Earth Surface Processes Landforms 24, 1999, pp. 191 209 [8] R. Said (ed.), The Geology of Egypt, A. A. Balke ma, Rotterdam, Brookfield, 1990 [9] E. Ahmed, Sedimentology and tectonic evolution of Wadi Qena area, PhD Thesis, Geology Department, Assiut University, 1983 [10] M.M.S. Askalany, Geological studies on the Neo gene and Quaternary sediments of the Nile Basin, Upper Egypt, PhD Thesis, Assiut University, Egypt, 1988 [11] I.M. ElBalasy, Quaternaqy geology of some selected drainage basins in Upper Egypt (Qena Edfu area), PhD Thesis, Cairo University, 1994 [12] A. Mansour and G. Kamal ElDein, Geology and landscape of Qena Governorate, Report sub mitted to Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency, SEAM Programme, 2001 [13] A. Arnold and K. Zehnder, Monitoring Wall Paintings Affected by Soluble Salts, in S. Cather (ed.), The Conservation of Wall Paintings, Proceed ings of a Symposium organized by the Courtauld Institute of Art and the Getty Conservation Institute, London, July 1316, 1987, The J. Paul Getty Trust 1991, pp. 103116

Acknowledgments The author wishes to thank Dr. Fathy Ashor, Direc tor of Conservation in Dendera temple, Supreme Council of Antiquities in Egypt. This work has been supported by the High Institute of Tourism and Restoration, Alexandria, Egypt.

References [1] A. S. Saleh, Study of the reconstruction of the Beard of the Sphinx, Part 1, 1983, Egyptian Anti quities Organization. [2] SWECO, Effects of ground water on Pharaonic monuments. Reconnaissance study report, Egyp tian Antiquities Organisation, 1982 [3] M. A. El Hady, and M. B. Ismaeil, The effect of environmental conditions on deterioration of monu ments in Assiut and Upper Egypt, 1st International Conference on Environment and Development in Africa, Assiut, 2124 October, 1995 [4] M. B. Ismaeil and G. ElHabaak, Durability characteristics of some diorite and granodiorite monuments, Bulletin of the Faculty of Arts 5(2), 1995, pp. 5985 [5] L. Gauri and G. Holdren, Preliminary report on the deterioration of stone at the sphinx,
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[14] S.H. Perry and A.P. Duffy, "The shortterm effects of mortar joints on salt movement in stone", Atmospheric 31(9), 1997, pp. 12971305 [15] A. Fathy, A. Ayman and A. Adly, Degradation of groundwater quality of quaternary aquifer at Qena, Egypt, Journal of Environmental Studies 1, 2009, pp. 1932 [16] P.K. Larsen, The salt decay of medieval bricks at a vault in Brarup Church, Denmark, Environ mental Geology 52(2), 2007, pp. 375383 [17] S. Maekawa and N.H. Agnew, Investigation of environmentally driven deterioration of the Great Sphinx and concepts for protection, A. Roy and P. Smith (ed.), Archaeological Conservation and its Consequences, Preprint of the contributions of the Copenhagen Congress, 1996, International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, London, 1997, pp. 116120 [18] R. U. Cooke, Salt weathering in deserts, Proceedings, Geologists Association of London 92, 1981, pp. 116 [19] E. M. Winkler, Stone: Properties, Durability in Man's Environment, SpringerVerlag, Berlin, 1973 [20] A. S. Goudie, Sodium sulfate weathering and the disintegration of MohenjoDaro, Pakistan, Earth Surface Processes 2, 1977, pp. 7586 [21] H. Marschner, "Application of salt crystalliza tion test to impregnated stones", in UNESCO/RILEM International Symposium on Deterioration and Protection of Stone Monuments, Reliure, Paris, 1978 [22] P. Storemyr, Weathering of Soapstone at Norwegian monuments an overview of current knowledge, The restoration workshop of Nidaros cultural, Trondheim, Norway, 2000, pp. 12

[23] B. Fitzner, K. Heinrichs and D. La Bouchar diere, The Bangudae Petroglyph in Ulsan, Korea: studies on weathering damage and risk prognosis, Environmental Geology 46, 2004, pp. 504526 [24] G. G. Amoroso and V. Fassina, Stone Decay and Conservation: Atmospheric Pollution, Clean ing, Consolidation and Protection, Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, 1983 [25] M. Hoyos, J.C. Soler, S. Canaveral, Sanchez Moral, E. SanzRubio, Microclimatic Character ization of a Karstic Cave: Human Impact on Micro Environmental Parameters of a Prehistoric Rock Art Cave (Candamo cave, northern Spain), En vironmental Geology 33(4), 1998, pp. 231242 [26] P. DiazPedregal, A. Diekmann, How to Recon cile Archaeological Site Protection and Visitor Ac cessibility, APPEAR Position Paper 2, 2004, pp. 19

HESHAM ABBAS KAMALLY Conservation scientist Contact: Hesham Kmally is a conservation scientist specialised in conservation of rock inscriptions. He obtained his Master degree in Geochemistry, Petrography and Structural Studies of Rocks from South Valley University, Egypt in 1999. He was director of the Conservation Center at the Nubia Museum in Aswan, Egypt up to 2003, after which he pursued a PhD in Archaeological Quarrying and Conservation of Rock Inscriptions in Aswan from the same university in 2005. He now works at the Conservation Department of the High Institute of Tourism, Hotel Management and Restoration, Egypt.
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By Erik Nemeth


Recent armed conflict in Iraq and Afghanistan and political violence in Egypt have revealed the strategic significance of cultural property. This paper assesses the role of historic sites and antiquities in foreign engagement. Over the past century, U.S. foreign policy has had successes and shortcomings in leveraging protection of cultural patrimony to strategic advantage. The contrast of successful policy on the protection of immovable cultural property, such as religious monuments, in armed conflict and missed opportunities for tactical intelligence on the trade in movable cultural property, such as antiquities trafficking, identifies potential for development of foreign policy.

Introduction The tightening interrelation of cultural patrimony and regional security characterizes the relevance of cultural security to foreign policy. Targeting of religious monuments in political violence and political backlash against collateral damage of historic sites illustrate the hard and soft, or smart power1, that derives from cultural patrimony. Monetarily, trafficking in antiquities and tribal art demonstrates the value of cultural patrimony to transnational organized crime and insurgencies that may derive funding from looting [1]. The risks of political violence and looting also present op portunities for engagement. Policy on the protec tion of religious monuments in conflict and inter diction of postconflict looting of archaeological sites can garner goodwill in regions of political interest, and development of intelligence on the market for antiquities can provide insights for leveraging cultural patrimony in strategies for counterinsurgency and, optimally, for mitigating risk of conflict. A reactive policy on protection of cultural proper ty in regional conflict misses opportunities for managing evolving security threats of nonstate actors in developing nations. International con ventions have demonstrated the progressive sig nificance of artworks and historic sites in political and armed conflict of the past century. Plunder of Jewish collections and cultural cleansing of

Slavic monuments during World War II compelled, in part, the 1954 Hague Convention on Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict. During the Cold War era, largescale looting of cul tural artifacts in developing nations across Latin America, Africa, and Southeast Asia motivated the 1970 UNESCO Convention on the Means of Prohibi ting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property. Creative implementation of the conventions presents op portunities for strategic foreign engagement. Cul tural security and cultural intelligence represent examples of corresponding innovation in foreign policy and security strategies.

Cultural Security past and potential mani festation in foreign policy The 1954 Hague Convention and 1970 UNESCO Convention recognize the significance of cultural patrimony in armed conflict and foreign affairs. Measured engagement of the United States in the conventions betrays the challenges of strategically leveraging cultural patrimony in foreign policy. While immediately signing the 1954 Hague Con vention, the United States delayed ratification

1 For an introduction to the concept of smart power as a

balancing of hard power, such as military strength, and soft power, such as an appeal to cultural sensibilities, see Joseph Nye, The Future of Power, Public Affairs, New York, 2011.


55 years until 2009 and, to date, has neither rati fied, nor approved, the first (1954)2 and second (1999)3 protocols. In contrast, the United States accepted the 1970 UNESCO Convention in 1983. The delay in ratification of the 1954 Hague Con vention suggests a reluctance to risk ramifications of military engagement that carries liability for collateral damage of cultural property. The shorter delay in accepting the 1970 UNESCO Convention speaks to the political advantage of demonstrating respect for movable cultural patrimony of foreign nations. Subsequently, the United States entered into bilateral treaties to regulate the transfer of cultural patrimony with at least 19 nations across Latin America, Africa, Europe, and Southeast Asia. The United States, however, has not signed or rati fied the 1995 UNIDROIT Convention on Stolen or Illegally Exported Cultural Objects (Rome, 1955), which supports the restitution of stolen cultural objects. The participation of the United States in the inter national conventions indicates foreign policy that acknowledges the value of protecting cultural sites from collateral damage during armed conflict but does not optimally leverage the political clout of protecting movable cultural property [2]. Even prior to the ratification of the 1954 Hague Con vention, the United States successfully applied knowledge of locations of cultural sites to minimize collateral damage in strategic bombing during the military campaign in Iraq in 2003 [3] but had less success in protecting museums [4] and private collections [5] or in preventing widespread, post conflict looting of archaeological sites [6,7]. Ac ceptance of the 1970 UNESCO Convention and

establishment of bilateral treaties indicate an awareness of the political clout of movable cultural patrimony, but delay in acceding to the protocols of the 1954 Hague and 1995 UNIDROIT Conven tions suggest a lack of innovation in leveraging movable cultural patrimony in foreign policy. Measures to prevent trafficking independent of military intervention hold potential for foreign policy that applies the hard and soft power of cultural patrimony. As demonstrated by the return of prized antiquities from the Getty Museum in California and the Metropolitan Museum of New York to Greece [8] and Italy [9] in 2006, cases for repatriation pose political risk. The forced repat riation by Greece and Italy illustrates the vulnera bility of museums and private collectors in the United States, and demands by China for the United States to exercise more influence over collecting practices that enable the illicit market in Asian antiquities [10] reveal the political risk of the vulnerability. The risk presents opportuni ties to engage in discussions on: 1) programs of stewardship or repatriation of displaced cultural patrimony and 2) legitimate markets for exporting cultural patrimony. Programs for repatriation and market development represent a practical basis for engaging foreign nations to garner goodwill in geographic regions of strategic interest.

ArtSpecific Cultural Intelligence leveraging the art market in security strategies In the context of countering transnational ter rorism and organized crime, the United States

2 The Protocol to the Convention for the Protection of Cultural

3 The Second Protocol to the Hague Convention of 1954 for the

Property in the Event of Armed Conflict 1954 concerns the export, import, and return of cultural property of occupied territories.

Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict 1999 improves the convention based on experiences of conflicts that took place at the end of the 1980s and the beginning of the 1990s.

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has integrated intelligence on cultural property into military action and law enforcement. Strategic bombing in Iraq in 2003 spared sites of cultural heritage, and initiative of soldiers to secure mu seums [11] and archaeological sites resembled the spirit of the Monuments Men of World War II. In law enforcement, the FBI responded to the plunder of the Iraq National Museum in Baghdad by forming the Art Crime Team in 2004. With a mission of addressing art and cultural property crime cases in an assigned geographic region, the group of thirteen agents, in some respects, follows from the Art Looting Investigation Unit (ALIU) of the Office of Strategic Services of World War II [12]. Officers of the ALIU tracked down and interrogated art dealers who had formed the net works that acquired artworks for Nazi officials [13]. Strategic bombing and initiative of soldiers demonstrate proactive protection of cultural patrimony in military engagement, but cultural sites and antiquities also present opportunities for preconflict engagement of foreign nations. The United States could inquire with the nation in question about holdings of museums and regions of unexcavated cultural artifacts. The intelligence would allow the United States to follow success ful practices of moving museum collections out of anticipated conflict zones [14] and to plan for protection of sites at risk of postconflict loot ing. As a complement to the soft power garnered by demonstrating respect for foreign cultural patrimony, intelligence on the illicit trade in art has tactical value outside of military interven tion. Trafficking in antiquities that may fund ter rorist groups [1518] and that may rival [19,20] and intersect with markets in weapons and nar cotics [21,22] represents a continuous, transna tional security threat. Assessing worldwide col lecting trends and establishing networks in the art world would yield intelligence to counter the threat.

The market in antiquities and tribal art presents a range of opportunities for collection of art specific cultural intelligence [23] Analysis of the relative market value of antiquities and tribal art by nation of origin [24] can aid in assessing the risk of organized crime engaging in looting and in assessing the threat that revenue from traf ficking could serve as a source of funding for in surgencies. An understanding of the market demand for artworks from a particular source nation would enable the United States to engage the local government in methods for converting looting into a legitimate part of the economy. Such artspecific cultural intelligence would also help to prioritize development of contacts. Deal ers, collectors, and middlemen [25] could provide intelligence not only on the networks that traffic in cultural patrimony but also on intersecting il licit markets. In particular, dealers and middle men who operate in the nation of interest may provide insights into publicsector corruption, local organized crime, and markets for weapons and narcotics. In combination, assessments of relative market value of cultural patrimony and contact with local players in the art market offer an innovation in collection of cultural intelligence.

Comparative Examples The examples in Table 1 illustrate the historical, worldwide significance of cultural patrimony to foreign engagement. The examples represent a range of geographic regions and the economic, political, and military significance of cultural patrimony. The distinction between immovable and movable cultural property creates a distinction in the strategic value of cultural patrimony to foreign policy. In the context of cultural security, immovable cultural property includes historic structures and religious monuments, and movable cultural property includes artworks and artifacts
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Table I. Engagement through protection of monuments and political risk of unprotected cultural patrimony.


Immovable Cultural Property

Tikal, Guatemala The University of Pennsylvania conducted archae ological excavations at the site in the 1950s and 1960s. Since declaration of Tikal as a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1979, the Guatemalan government has developed the site as a tourist attraction. Axum Obelisk4, Ethiopia After agreeing with the United Nations in 1947 to return the obelisk, Italy announced plans for the return in 1997 and began the process in 2003. The return coincided with efforts by Italy to repa triate antiquities from museums in the United States. Cultural Heritage Sites, Iraq Strategic bombing by the United States limited collateral damage of historic buildings, religious monuments, and cultural institutions during military intervention in Iraq in 1991 and 2003. Angkor Wat, Cambodia

Movable Cultural Property

Machu Picchu, Peru Peru challenged, for nearly a century, the right of the Peabody Museum of Natural History at Yale to retain artifacts from Machu Picchu. The persistence led to a memorandum of under standing on the return of Inca artifacts from Yale to Peru. Looting, Mali Colonial accretion and looting since the 1970s motivated emergency action by the United States in 1993 to restrict import of particular archaeological material. Prized Malian tribal art has commanded prices approaching two million U.S. dollars at auction. Looting, Iraq The destabilization that followed the 1991 Per sian Gulf War enable looting, and the plunder of the National Museum in Baghdad during the 2003 Iraq War prefaced widespread looting in the nation. Antiquities, Cambodia Cambodian cultural heritage remains at risk of looting as characterized by the Red List of Cambodian Antiquities (2010). ICOM Red Lists describe and illustrate movable cultural heritage, which is targeted in looting and illicit trafficking.

Latin America


West Asia

Southeast Asia

France pursued study and conservation of the site through the cole franaise dExtreme Ori ent, which conducted research at Angkor Wat; from the 1930s to the 1960s the enterprise of Angkor Conservation grew to over 1000 employees.

that museums and private collectors acquire through licit and illicit trading. The examples suggest that Western nations have more actively engaged in protection of immovable cultural property than in mitigating the risk of looting of and trafficking in movable cultural property.

as African tribal art. In particular, knowledge on the market for cultural artifacts would provide tactical intelligence to counter publicsector corruption and organized crime in developing nations that hold political interest. In combina tion, foreign policy on the protection of immovable and movable cultural patrimony holds potential for strategic innovation in cultural diplomacy.

Conclusions The United States foreign policy has progressed by recognizing the strategic value of protecting historic structures and religious monuments in armed conflict. Further opportunities exist in monitoring trafficking in cultural artifacts such
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4 The size and weight (24 meters and 160 tones) qualify the

obelisk as immovable. Indeed, moving required separating the obelisk into sections.



References [1] United States National Central Bureau of In terpol, Cultural Property Crimes Program, 2008, URL (accessed 21.08.2010) [2] P. Gerstenblith and K. Hanson, Chapter 9 Congressional Responses to the Looting of Iraq's Cultural Property, in L. Rothfield (ed.), Antiquities under Siege: Cultural Heritage Protection after the Iraq War, Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Lanham, New York, Toronto, Plymouth, UK, 2008, pp. 103115 [3] R. Atwood, Stealing history: tomb raiders, smugglers, and the looting of the ancient world, St. Martin's Press, New York, 2004, pp. 267268 [4] L. Rothfield, The Rape of Mesopotamia: Behind the Looting of the Iraq National Museum, The Uni versity of Chicago Press, Chicago, 2009, pp. 112 [5] J. Rosenberger, 'Plundered Kuwaiti art surfaces in London', Art in America 80, 1992, pp. 2931 [6] M. Bailey, 'A nation's history under siege', The Art Newspaper 12(111), 2001, pp. 18 [7] E. C. Stone, 'Patterns of looting in southern Iraq', Antiquity 82(315), 2008, pp. 125138 [8] H. Eakin and A. Carassava, Getty Museum Is Expected to Return Ancient Gold Wreath to Greece, The New York Times, December 11, 2006 [9] E. Povoledo, Italy and U.S. Sign Antiquities Accord, The New York Times, February 22, 2006 [10] R. Kennedy, China's Request for ArtImport Ban Stirs Debate, The New York Times, April 1, 2005 [11] M. Bogdanos, Thieves of Baghdad, Bloomsbury Publishing, New York and London, 2005, pp. 213

[12] E. Nemeth, 'Plunderer and Protector of Cul tural Property: SecurityIntelligence Services Shape the Strategic Value of Art', The Journal of Art Crime 1(1), 2009, pp. 2540 [13] M. Salter, US Intelligence, the Holocaust and Nuremberg Trials: Seeking Accountability for Geno cide and Cultural Plunder, Vol. II, K.A.S. Sibley (ed.), Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Leiden, 2009 [14] UNESCO, MuseuminExile: Swiss Foundation safeguards over 1,400 Afghan artefacts, 02 April 02, 2008, URL (accessed 07.08.2010) [15] "Art and Al Qaeda", Artnet News 2005, August 02, 2005, URL (accessed 25.11.2009) [16] D. Johnston, "Picking Up the Stolen Pieces of Iraq's Cultural Heritage", The New York Times, February 14, 2005 [17] R. S. Mueller, Remarks prepared for Director Robert S. Mueller, III, Federal Bureau of Investiga tion, November 15, 2004, URL [pdf] (accessed 21.02.2010) [18] L. d. l. Torre, 'Terrorists Raise Cash by Selling Antiquities', Government Security News 4 (3), 2006, pp. 1,10,15 [19] J. Astill, Plunder goes on across Afghanistan as looters grow even bolder: Trade in antiquities worth up to 18bn as thieves excavate sites, Guardian, December 13, 2003 [20] A. Loyd, "Afghans' lost city plundered for il legal London art trade", The Times, December 7, 2002, p. 26 [21] N. Brodie, The concept of due diligence and the antiquities trade, Culture Without Context 5, 1999, pp. 1215
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[22] M. Bogdanos, "The Terrorist in the Art Gal lery", The New York Times, December 10, 2005, p. 5 [23] E. Nemeth, ArtIntelligence Programs: The Relevance of the Clandestine Art World to Foreign Intelligence, International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 21 (2), 2008, pp. 355374 [24] E. Nemeth, Market Value of Culture: Quanti fying the Risk of Antiquities Looting, Arts & Cul ture, Blouin Creative Leadership Summit, 2010 [25] N. Brodie, Pity the poor middlemen, Cul ture Without Context 14, 2004, pp. 79

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ERIK NEMETH Cultural Intelligence Researcher
Contact: As an independent researcher in Santa Monica, California, Erik explores the interrelation of cultural property and international security cultural security. In publishing on the intersection of art history, illicit markets, political violence, and intelligence studies, he examines the potential for "cultural intelligence" to inform foreign policy. Erik directs and works as Adjunct Staff with RAND Corporation. He also serves on the editorial board of Journal of Art Crime and as a trustee of Association for Research into Crimes against Art (ARCA). Erik holds a B.A. in Computer Science and a PhD in Vision Science from the University of California at Berkeley.
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case stud


By Harby E. Ahmed



Among the findings of the excavations of Tuna elGebel, Egypt several pieces of textiles were unearthed. These textiles were found in poor conservation state and risked further deterioration if left untreated. This article describes the analytical study and simple conservation interventions that were applied to these textiles, here exemplified with the treatment of a single object. Prior to the intervention, scanning electron microscopy was used to analyze the fibers to identify them and to characterize their deterioration. This case study provides a clear example of the type of damage that exist on the textiles recovered in Tuna elGebel.

Introduction The excavation of Tuna elGebel was a scientific joint venture between the Institute of Egyptology of the University of Munich, Germany and the University of Cairo, Egypt. The ibis burial place at Tuna elGebel, located at west of the ancient city of Thermopolis Magna, has been the first, and for a long period, the only ibis and baboon animal cemetery during the reign of Pharaoh Pasmetkhos (664619 BC). The number of ibises deposited in the extensive subterranean galleries network clearly exceeds one million individuals in total, indicating that on average some 15000 birds had been placed each year in the galleries by the cult servants. Although most specimens originated from more than a dozen ibises feeding places around Tuna elGebel, there is evidence of mummified specimens from elsewhere such as from the Province of Faiyum. In addition to the bundles and mummies of Sacred and Glossy Ibises which constitute most part of the collection (> 80%), at least 115 other verte brate taxa could be found in the galleries, compri sing domestic (cattle, sheep, dogs and cats) and wild mammals (such as shrews, monkeys, ichneu mons, wild cats, and gazelles), reptiles (crocodiles and snakes) and fishes, as well as a huge variety of birds (such as herons, storks, geese, ducks, birds of prey, and owls). The archaeological zone of Tuna elGebel (Figure 1) is situated in a flat desert landscape at west of the cultivated Nile
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valley, 5 km to the south of the modern village, opposite to a wide desert valley [1]. Textiles are sensitive materials since they are very prone to damage when exposed to light, heat, humidity, pollution and microorganisms. They are extremely vulnerable to decay when stored or displayed in inappropriate environmental condi tions. The main purpose of this conservation in tervention is to improve the properties of the textile objects, enhancing their long term stabi lity by slowing down the rate of further deteriora tion. Conservation processes comprised cleaning disinfection, consolidation, mounting and stor age [2, 3].

Description and Condition Among other findings, a piece of dyed textile with vertical and horizontal threads colored with blue and dark beige was unearthed (Figure 2). The piece (registry number T.G 4184) belongs to the Ptolemaic era and was found in the Tuna elGebel excavations (Gallery DD2) in February 2001. The width of the vertical beige threads and of the vertical blue strips is 2.5 cm and 1 cm, respec tively. The horizontal stripes are repeated every 12 cm. The textile is severely damaged and there are many parts missing in the middle. The textile has dark stains of unknown source that were difficult to remove when traditional methods


Figure 1. Show the subterranean animal necropolis at Tuna elGebel, Middle Egypt, Plan of Galleries B, C and D. The textile was discovered in Gallery DD2 which is shown in black color on upper left of the plan.

were used. There are also other unclear parts, probably due to the soil and dust from the tomb ground, that were difficult to clean. The edges of the textile show some sort of solid that could be gypsum. Archeologists have identified this piece as being a cloth bag to place the ibis mummy. It should be noticed that there are two threads above the piece which could have been used for closing the bag opening. The textile has weak or missing parts in the irregular edges. Considering its poor conservation state, the textile object required conservation intervention, especially cleaning for the removal of foreign material to avoid further damage. After its discover, the textiles were initially pre served under uncontrolled conditions in cellars at the Ibis cemetery (Figures 2 and 3). The exist ence of high humidity in the cellars is a constant throughout the year making these textiles more easily exposed to degradation under these con ditions.

Examination and Analysis Visual Study The initial visual assessment revealed that the textile presented a poor conservation condition (Figures 4 and 5). The textiles were weak and very dirty since they were covered with dust, soil and stains. In general, the object suffered from inten sive surface damage resulting in fiber deformation, missing parts and holes especially along the ob jects edges. The fringes were weak and suffered from abrasive damage and tearing. Morphological Study The morphology of the textile surface was exam ined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) FEI Quanta 200 ESEM FEG. The textile fibers were examined according to the Tabulations of Recog nition Characteristics for Fibers [4, 5]. The res ults showed that both warp and weft yarns were
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Figure 2. View from the front and back of the textile with dyed trappings consisting of vertical and horizontal threads colored with blue and dark beige.

Figure 3. Views of the textile showing different details from its conservation condition prior to the conservation intervention.

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Figure 4. Several views and details of the textile. There are unclear parts, probably from dust and soil from the tomb ground, and dark stains from unknown source.

Figure 5. Details from the mechanical damage: fiber deformation, missing parts and holes, especially along the edges.


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Figure 6. SEM micrograpphs of the fibers, which were identified as linen. It can be observed that the fibers were extremely roughened, damaged and covered with particles of dirt.

composed of linen fibers. The SEM micrographs (Figure 6) show changes in the fiber morphology. In particular, it can be seen that the fibers are roughened, damaged, broken with transverse cracking and longitudinal splitting characterized by scratches, slits and holes in the fibers. These damages are the effects of degradation induced by light, relative humidity and soiling. Further more, dust, dirt and adhesive can also be seen covering the fibers. Dyes Stability Test The direction of the yarn spin and woven struc ture were recorded before the dye testing. Prior to wet cleaning, it is important to test the stabi lity (solubility) of the colors. The test consisted in wetting a small sample area with the cleaning solution of each color using a cotton swab (Fig ure 7). The test showed that all the dyes were stable and did not bleed with the solution used for the wet cleaning [6, 7].

Conservation Intervention Mechanical cleaning The object was covered with dirt, namely dust, lose sand particles and calcified and compact sand deposits, that was removed with the use of different types of smooth and rough brushes. To help the removal of the calcified sand, an air blower together was also used with the brushes. Temporary Support Reinforcement Before proceeding with any wet cleaning procedure, the object was temporarily inserted between two layers of fine nylon tulle (sandwich method) in order to offer the fabric the necessary support to withstand the cleaning process (Figure 8A). The stitching was made with a very thin needle and cotton thread using a running stitch. The needle was carefully inserted between the yarns and not through them to avoid any damage to the weak ened fibers. In this process, it is very important to keep the stitches tension fairly loose, allowing

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Figure 7. The stability test had the objective of determining if the dyes were soluble in the cleaning solutions. For the test, a cotton swab immersed in the cleaning solutions used for washing was placed in contact with the colored fibers.

Figure 8. Details from the wet cleaning procedure: (A) the textile was placed temporarily between two layers of fine nylon tulle (sandwich method); (B) wet cleaning procedure using water and natural detergent Synperonic N; (C) local dry cleaning with alcohol for the soiling parts with smooth brushes; (D) drying the object after the cleaning process.


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Figure 9. Details of the textile after the cleaning and attachment to linen support.

an even weight distribution across several yarns for each stitch. Wet cleaning The main purpose of the wet cleaning was to re move the rests of harmful deposits of soils and dirt that were disfiguring or causing physical and chemical damage to the textile. The selection of the most appropriate cleaning method depends from several factors such as the nature of the dirt and of the materials, structure, and condition of the textile [8]. To avoid causing unnecessary movements during the cleaning of the textile, the washing is best performed in the same tray and changing the cleaning solutions when required.
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The solution used for the first bath consisted of one part of detergent Synperonic N to 100 parts of distilled water at 30 C. The solution was agitated for 15 minutes to increase its penetration in the fibers and the release of the dirt particles (Figure 8B). Then, a second and third baths with pure distilled water were given, each for 10 minutes and again agitating the water. This operation reduced the soiling, relaxed the fibers, removed the creas ing and brightened the colors [2, 9, 10]. A pH indicator was used to control the solutions pH. Dry cleaning After the wet cleaning was completed, it was observed that some soiling was not removed.


Figure 10. General view of the textile after conservation. the framing provides support for the object and will reduce future handling to a minimum.

Hence, further cleaning was attempted using smooth brushes with alcohol for 15 minutes (Fig ure 8C). However, this procedure had poor results and the dirt was not completely removed. After wards, the textile was inserted in a bath with distilled water and alcohol without soap for five minutes to remove any undesired traces and to equalize the effect of the alcohol on the fibers. This step was applied on all the pieces that were cleaned. This process also allowed the steriliza tion of the fabric from the effect of fungi and fungal spores that could have been present [11].

Drying and Laying out The drying process of wet textiles can provide an opportunity to realign distorted fibers. The wa ter acts as a lubricant reducing the stress of the fibers and allowing the straightening of the yarns with minimum risk. Blocking and drying are con sidered a crucial part of wet cleaning process [3]. To proceed with the next stage drying a table was prepared and covered with sheets of black plastic. Then, the textile pieces still wet from the wet cleaning were placed on top of the table and
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covered with sheets of Japanese papers to absorb any water surplus (Figure 8D). It should not be forgotten that while wet the textile is soft and can easily be damaged during handling [3, 12]. The Final Support In order to prepare the textile for storage and display, it is necessary to provide the fabric with a new support to increase its strength. For this, a wooden frame was prepared by a carpenter from a nearby village to the location of excavations. The wooden frame was later coated with Paraloid B72 (10% in acetone) to isolate the wood from the environmental conditions, minimizing thus the movements of the wooden frame [2]. Later, a new undyed linen support was prepared and washed to remove any chemical residues from the sizing and finishes, and to prevent shrinkage at a later time due to the humidity changes. After washing and drying, the linen was ironed to remove creases and it was then attached to the wooden frame with tacks [13]. Mounting Once the new fabric support was prepared, the textile object was placed carefully over the fabric (Figures 9 and 10). In mounting, it is important to choose the right materials such as needles and threads to provide the maximum visual satisfaction and to ensure of the future stability without the risk of adverse effects [2]. Usually, conservators recommend silk threads as the best choice, fol lowed by cotton, viscose rayon or polyester, de pending on availability. In this project, a very fine undyed silk thread was used. In the beginning, the object was fixed in the support with wide stitches to preserve its place. Later on, two types of stitches were used: the first type, an overcast stitch, was used to support the edges of the object; and the second type, a running stitch, was used to support
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the internal areas adjacent to primary stitches and damaged areas. These stitches ensured that the mounted textile was not strained, although they were tight enough to prevent movements or abrasion on the mounting. This type of framing ensures good support for the object and will re duce future handling to a minimum rate (Figure 11). The mounting is the last stage of the inter ventions, after which the object becomes ready for either storing or display [2, 14, 15].

Conclusion The present article described the analysis and conservation intervention of a textile found in the archeological excavations in Tuna elGebel, Egypt. The textile, dating from the Ptolemaic period, is thought to have been a bag for a Ibis mummy. Analyses by SEM have shown that the textile found in the excavations of Tuna elGebel are made of linen. The objects surface presented an intense accumulation of dust and dirt affecting its mechanical properties and the appearance of the object, giving it a dull grey and opaque tone. The conservation intervention, which included its cleaning and mounting in a proper support, had the objective of increasing its stability. Although there was a noticeable improvement of the appear ance and integrity of the object after the interven tion, there was one type of dirt that could not be removed by wet or dry cleaning. After the clean ing and its mounting, the object is free from dirt, has become softer and it is aesthetically more pleasing. Physically, the wrinkles and folds are also much less obvious. It is recommended that the textiles should be moved from the excavation to the to the AlAshmounin Museum storage as soon as possible after the conservation treatment for safe keeping of the pieces. It is also recommended that


further research should be carried out to study the materials used in the manufacture of the textile, namely the natural dyes and mordents.

lysis of Ancient and Historic Textiles: Informing Preservation, Display and Interpretation, AHRC Research Center for Textile Conservation and Textile Studies, First Annual Conference, Arche type, 2005, pp. 5157 [6] O. Brigitte, Fastness to Light and Washing of Direct Dyes for Cellulosic Textile, Studies in Con servation 41, 1996, pp. 129135 [7] M. FluryLemberg, "Textile conservation and research: a documentation of the textile depart ment on the occasion of the twentieth anniversary of the Abegg Foundation", Schriften der Abegg Stiftung Bern, vol. 7, AbeggStiftung Bern, 1988 [8] A. Lister, Guidelines for the Conservation of Textiles, English Heritage, London, 1996

Acknowledgements The author would like to thank Dr. Mahmoud Eibed from the Faculty of Archeology, Cairo Uni versity, Egypt. Furthermore, Katrin Schlueter and Mlanie FlossmannSchtze from the institute of Egyptology of the Ludwing Maximilian University, Munich, Germany are acknowledged for their contributions.

References [1] A. von den Driesch, D. Kessler, F. Steinmann, V. Berteaux and J. Peters, Mummified, deified and buried at Hermopolis Magna the sacred birds from Tuna ElGebel, Middle Egypt, gypten und Levante XV, 2005, pp. 204244 [2] S. Landi, The Textile Conservators Manual, ButterworthHeinemann, 1992 [3] A. TmrBalzsy, and D. Eastop, Chemical Principles of Textile Conservation, Butterworth Heinemann, 1998 [4] J. Columbus, Washing Techniques Used at the Textile Museum, Bulletin of the American Group, International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works 7, 1967, pp. 1416 [5] J. Batcheller, "Optical and scanning electron microscopy techniques for the identification of hair fibers from Romano Egyptian textiles", in R. Janaway and P. Wyeth (eds.), Scientific Ana

[9] S. Howard, An Introduction to the Wet Cleaning of Carpets, in A. TmrBalzsy, and D. Eastop (eds.), International Perspectives on Tex tile Conservation, Papers from the ICOMCC Textiles Working Group Meetings, Amsterdam 1314 Octo ber 1994 and Budapest 1115 September 1995, Archetype, 1998 [10] Y. Moes, Tapestry Cleaning by Aerosol Suc tion, in A. TmrBalzsy, and D. Eastop (eds.), International Perspectives on Textile Conservation, Papers from the ICOMCC Textiles Working Group Meetings, Amsterdam 1314 October 1994 and Budapest 1115 September 1995, Archetype, 1998 [11] J. W. Rice, Drycleaning versus Wetcleaning for Treating Textile Artifacts, Bulletin of the American Group, International Institute for Con servation of Historic and Artistic Works 12(2), 1972, pp. 5055 [12] S. Fletcher, and J. Walsh, The treatment of three prints by whistler on fine Japanese,
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Journal of the American Institute for Conservation 18(5), 1979, pp. 119 126, URL [13] V. Constance, The Conservation of Tapestries for Museum Display, Studies in Conservation 15(2), 1970, pp. 134153 [14] H. Ahmed, Treatment and conservation of textile with written decoration applied to some chosen samples from the textile of the Ottoman Age, MA thesis, Cairo University, Egypt, 2002 [15] F. Greene, The Cleaning and Mounting of a Large Wool Tapestry, Studies in Conservation 2, 1955, pp. 116

HARBY E. AHMED Conservatorrestorer Contact: Harby E. Ahmed is a conservatorrestorer spe cialised in textiles. He started his training at the Conservation and Restoration Institute, in Kina, Egypt where he obtained a Diploma degree in 1993. He later obtained a Bachelor and Master degrees in Conservation and Restoration in 1997 and 2002, respectively, at the Cairo University, Egypt and a PhD on the use of enzymes for con servation of textiles from the Enzyme Biotech nology Department of the School of Chemical Engineering from the National Technical Uni versity of Athens, Greece in 2010. At the present he is a lecturer of Textiles Conservation at the Conservation Department of the Faculty of Ar chaeology, Cairo University. He is the author of a chapter of the book History of Natural dyes in North Africa" and of several specialty articles.
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