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AGBO, DOMINIC .C 2007/147339



DEDICATION With a humble heart I dedicate this work to God almighty by whose inspiring spirit, the work was made.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The completion of my IT programme was a taskful one and I didnt do it all alone , thus I would like to use this medium to show my sincere gratitude to; My lord God almighty , who has been my rock of ages and my hope for years to come. Members of staff of FCC, for ensuring that I got nothing but the best during the IT programme. My friends and course mate for their words of advice and encouragement. Once again I say thank u.

PREFACE The major aim of this work is to present and summarise my experience as a participant of the siwes (student industrial work experience scheme) as a student of mechanical engineering for the 2010/2011. ITF (industrial trust fund) was established in the year 1971 and the siwes (student industrial work experience scheme) in the year 1974 to aid attempts to provide students with an opportunity to apply their theoretical knowledge learnt in the classrooms into real work situation thereby bridging the gap between theory and practical solutions. The value and importance of the industrial experience cannot be over-emphasised. Chapter 1 talks about the history of the company (FCC), and showing clearly the organizational chart of the company as well as a brief description of the service provided. Chapter 2 presents my personal involvement in the activities of the company as well as the knowledge gained during the Industrial Training Experience. Chapter 3 provides some problems I encountered during the period of my stay in the company Chapter 4 conclusion and recommendation



CHAPTER ONE: 1.1 History of FCC





FEROTEX CONSTRUCTION COMPANY,(FCC) was established on the 18th march 1997 and was located at no.1 beach junction Obukpa in Nsukka local govt. of Enugu state. Due to increase in the number of equipments and machines, the company was then relocated to NO.6 Enugu express road, still in Nsukka local govt. of Enugu state. FCC is owned by Chief Festus Osiaba, a native of Enugu-Ezike in Igbo-North, Enugu state. The company comprises of many sections like; mechanical section, administration section, construction section, vulcanizing section and storage section. Mechanic section consists of heavy machine mechanics, truck like; lorry mechanics and hilux mechanics. Heavy machine mechanics deal with repairing and servicing of caterpillar, paver, tyre and steel roller earth work and back-hoe machines. The company being a line and functional organisation has workers in different area of specialisation. The company has also trained a number of IT students from different institutions like; IMT, ESUT and RSUST





2.1 COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE (CI) The main are not controlled by throttling, but adjusting the amount of fuel supplied to the engine and hence is quality governed. When adjusting the fuel supplied to a CI engine, the limitation condition is given by the smoke limit, which is the appearance of black smoke in the exhaust. Engine should not be operated with mixture rich enough to produce smoke, although such a mixture may give a greater power output. The efficiency under this condition

is low and the engine soon becomes dirty. The smoke limit occurs at AIR-FUEL ratio of about 16/1. The engine is tested at different speeds to the smoke limit, which can be observed visually or measured by a smoke meter.



The testing of CI engine consists of running them at different heads and speed and taking sufficient measurement for the performance criteria to be calculated. As well, as the measurement required for the criteria, the air flow is required to give air-fuel ratio and the combustion product can be analysed. An energy balance is sometimes presented for an engine, and the heat taken by the cooling water is obtained by measuring the rate of flow of the water and its temperature rise. The outlet temperature of the cooling water is usually limited to about 80oc to prevent the formation of steam pocket. To estimate the energy of the exhaust gas, an exhaust calorimeter can be fitted, this is simply a heat exchanger in which the exhaust gas is cooled by circulating water, the rate of flow and temperature rise of which are measured. In order to avoid condensation of steam in the gas, the gas is not usually cooled below about 50oc. The items usually included in an energy balance and expressed as percentages of the energy supplied by the fuel (i.e m.f x Q net.v) are as follows (a)bp; (b) the heat to cooling water; (c) the energy of the exhaust referred to the inlet conditions , or as obtained by an exhaust calorimeter ; (d) unaccounted losses obtained by difference and which include radiation and convection losses etc.


FACTORS INFLUENCING THE PERFORMANCE OF CI ENGINES The effects of compression ratio in the CI engines are somewhat simpler than in the SI engines. For combustion to occur at the temperature produced by the compression of air, a compression ratio of about 12/1 is required. The efficiency of the cycle increases with higher value of compression ratio and the limit is a mechanical one imposed by the higher pressure developed in the cylinder. A factor which adversely affect the power-weight ratio. The normal range compression ratio is about 13/1 to 17/1 but may be anything up to 25/1. The combustible mixture in the SI engine is formed before compression, but with the CI engine this mixture has to be formed after compression and after injecting begins. This leads to delay period in the CI engines which are greater than those in the SI engine. The fuel droplet injected has to evaporate and mix with oxygen to give a combustible mixture. The delay period forms the first face of the combustion process and is dependent on nature of the fuel. The second phase consists of the spread of flame from the initial nucleus to the main body of the change. There is a rapid increase during this phase and the rate of pressure rise depends to some extent on the availability of oxygen to the fuel spray, which in turn depends on the turbulence in the cylinder. The main factor however, is that of the delay period. A long delay period means more combustible mixture has had time to form, and so much change will be involved in the initial combustion. As the speed increases the rate of pressure rise also increases. This is because the delay period is a function of time if surrounding condition remains the same, and at the higher engine speed, more mixture will be formed in the delay period. The initial rapid combustion can give rise to rough running and a characterised noise called disk noise.

Four Stroke Engine : The 4-stoke which implies there are four movements of the piston before the engine firing sequence is repeated includes INTAKE, COMPRESSION, POWER and EXHAUST. The cycle begins at top dead centre (TDC). The power stroke is the main source of the engine torque and power. In a 4stroke I.C. engines, the crankshaft make two revolutions for every one revolution of the camshaft

Cylinder head: The cylinder head is a one piece casting which can be removed from the engine as an assembly containing the cam followers and guides, push rods, rocker arms, exhaust valves and injectors. The cylinder herd is securely fastened to the top of the cylinder head by studs and knots, or studs and knots at the corners and bolts in the intermediate positions. Exhaust valve insert (valve seats) pressed into the cylinder head, permits accurate seating of the valve under varying conditions of temperature and materially prolonged the life of the cylinder head. The inserts are ground to very close limits and their freedom from war page, under ordinary conditions, reduces valve reconditioning

to minimum. The exhaust valve and valve seat inserts are ground to seating angle of approximately 30oc.

Crankshaft: This is the part of an engine which translates the reciprocating linear motion of the piston into angular motion. The crankshaft has crankpin, additional bearing surfaces whose axes are offset from that of the crank to which the connecting rods from each cylinder is attached. In order to reduce the pulsation characteristic of a 4-stroke engine, it connects to a flywheel and sometimes as in the CAT 3126 six cylinder diesel engines, a torsion damper at the opposite end to reduce the torsion vibration caused along the length of the crankshaft by the cylinder farthest from the output end.

Piston and Piston Rings: The piston is a cylindrical piece of metal and moves up and down inside the cylinder. A piston ring on the other hand is an open ended ring that fits into the groove on the outer diameter of the piston. There are three types of piston rings; two of them are called compression rings and while also controlling oil, they are primarily for compression; the third type is called oil ring and controls the supply of oil to the liner which lubricates the pistons skirt and the compression rings. Basically, piston rings have three basic functions which include sealing the combustion chamber, supporting heat transfer from the piston to cylinder wall, and regulating engine oil consumption.

Connecting Rod: The connecting rod connects the crankshaft and can rotate at both ends so that its angle can change as the piston moves and crankshaft rotates.

Camshaft: This is the shaft to which a cam is fastened. It is used to operate the poppet valves in I.C. engines and consist of a cylindrical rod running the length of the cylinder bank with a number of oblong lobes protruding from it, one for each valve. The camshaft is connected to the crankshaft either directly through a gear mechanism or indirectly through a timing chain or belt.

Rocker Arm: The rocker arm within the I.C. engine is a reciprocating lever that conveys the radial movement of the cam lobes in linear motion at the poppet valves to open it. When the camshaft lobe raises the outside of the arm the inside presses down on the valve stem, opening the valve. When the outside of the rocker arm is permitted to return due to the camshaft rotation, the inside rises, allowing the valve spring to close the valve.

Poppet Valves: In I.C. engines, they are used to open the intake and exhaust port in the cylinder head. It is usually a flat disc of metal with a long rod known as the valve stem out one end. The stem is used to push down on the valve and open it, with a spring generally used to close it. Valve Seat and Valve Guide: The valve seat in an I.C. engine is the surface against which an intake or exhaust valve rests during the portion of the engine cycle when that valve is closed. On the other hand, valve guide is a tube-shaped piece of metal pressed into the head to positively locate the valve so that it makes proper contact with the valve seat. Sump: The sump surrounds the crankshaft. It contains some amount of lubricating oil, which collects in the bottom of the oil pan.

Turbocharger: A turbocharger is supercharger that is driven by the engines exhaust gases by means of a turbine. Turbochargers are forced induction system. It consists of a turbine and compressor on a shared shaft. The turbine converts the K.E of the engines exhaust and potential energy from the exhausts higher than atmospheric pressure into rotational K.E, which is in turn used to drive the compressor. The compressor draws ambient air and pumps it into the intake manifold at increased pressure, resulting in a greater mass of air entering the

cylinder on each induction stroke. The application of a turbocharger to a naturally aspirated I.C. engine can yield power increase of 30% to 40%.

Waste gate: To avoid detonation and physical damage, the pressure in the cylinder must not go too high; to prevent this, the intake pressure is regulated by a waste gate. A waste gate is a valve or a bypass which shunts the exhaust gases from the cylinder around the turbine directly to the exhaust pipe; this regulates the rotational speed of the turbine and thus the output of the compressor. Boost: This refers to the increase in pressure generated by the turbocharger in the intake manifold that exceeds normal atmospheric pressure. Firing Order: In a reciprocating engine, it is the sequence of power delivery of each cylinder in a multi-cylinder engine. In compression ignition engine, this is achieved by the sequence of fuel injection while in a spark-ignition engine it is achieved by sparking of the spark plug in the correct order. In a Cummins 4BTA 3.9 engine, the firing order is 1-3-4-2 whereas in a CAT 3126 six cylinder inline engine it is 1-5-3-6-4-2. Charged Air Cooler: When air is compressed in a turbocharger its temperature increases. This can be problematic for excessive charge air temperature can lead to detonation. Intercooler or after cooler is a type of heat exchanger which gives heat energy in the charge to the ambient air.

Knocking: when a fuel self-ignites before TDC or at TDC but before the piston has started to descend, the piston and cylinder can be damaged due to extreme heat energy concentrated into a very small space without relief. This damage is called knocking.

CHAPTER THREE: PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED During the cause of IT, some problems were encountered. In other to complete this IT, these problems were solved, faced or avoided as follows: --- Getting a place to be attached during the IT period was difficult as most companys security men wont allow you into the organizational premises. --- Most organisations or workshop required that some amount of money were to be paid before I could be accepted for placement --- Transportation to my place of attachment was a problem due to the fact there was a hike in the pump price of fuel. --Being a workshop trainee, some accident must occur of which I was a victim of some



The importance of students industrial work experience cannot be overemphasized or overstate. In mechanical engineering department, we take courses like mechanics of machine, mechanical engineering design, thermodynamic, fluid mechanic, instrumentation & measurement etc but without the opportunity to consolidate this education by undergoing training in organizations where we see, identify and confirm the workability or practicability of the engine components, mechanisms and principle we can never contribute the quota expected from us to national, economical and technological development. In addition it will be difficult to get employment after graduation and become immediately productive with little or no further training in our field of specialization. Finally, I wish to make the following recommendations; 1. From time to time students in this department should be given the opportunity to consolidate the engineering education gained either through excursions, seminars or by means of teaching aids that will for example illustrates these theories, principles, mechanisms or engine component. 2. SIWES should endeavour that student partake in the program and do so in establishment where they will be trained in areas relating to their field of learning.