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Vapor Pressure and Enthalpy of Water

Data:
Patmosphere = 744 mmHg h= 58 mm Temperature (C) Volume (mL) 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 2 7.21 6.83 6.42 6.01 5.66 5.41 5.31 4.40

Calculations1. Corrected Volumes Temperature (C) Volume (mL) 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 2 7.01 6.63 6.22 5.81 5.46 5.21 5.11 4.20

2. Pcylinder = 744 + 58 * (1.00 mmHg/13.6 mm H2O) = 748 mm Hg 3. nair = (748 mmHG * .0042 L /275 K *62.4 mmHgL/molK) = .000183 mol

4 Pair 5. Pwater

Temperature (K) 353 348 343 338 333 328 323 275 6.

Volume (mL) 7.01 6.63 6.22 5.81 5.46 5.21 5.11 4.20

Pair (mmHg) 575 599 629 664 696 719 722 747

Pwater (mmHg) 173 149 119 84 52 29 26 1

Ln P water 5.15 5.00 4.78 4.43 3.95 3.37 3.26 0

1/ T .00283 .00297 .00296 .00292 .00300 .00305 .00310 .00363

Vapor Pressure and Enthalpy of Vaporization of Water


6 5 4 ln P 3 2 1 0 0.002 0.003 1/T (K)
Slope= -6650.4 m= -Hap / R -6650.4= -Hap / 8.314 Hap = 55291 Jmol = 55 kJ/mol Reported value= 55kj/mol Actual value= 41 kj/mol Percent Error= (51-44)/44 = 15.9% 1. Vapor pressure is the pressure exerted on the inside of a container due escaping vapors from the liquid. Some of these particles have enough energy to enter the gas phase, and

0.004

because they are a gas they exert pressure on the container. However, the vapor particles can also return to the liquid phase. Particles go back and forth from liquid to gas and gas to liquid. Therefore, when a constant pressure is reached, equilibrium is assumed. Pressure changes with temperature because at higher temperatures, the liquid has more energy and moves faster. Likewise, the gas laws infer that pressure increases with temperate at constant volume. Therefore, the vapor pressure is directly proportional to temperature. 2. Enthalpy of vaporization is the energy required to transform a certain quaintity of substance into a gas at a given pressure. This is usually measured the substances boiling point. 3. The actual vapor pressure of water near zero is 4.58 mmHg not the assumption of 0mmHg. This number is quite insignificant when compared to the vapor pressures of temperatures at 50 and 80 degrees. But it can still invalidate data if not properly adhered to 4. Due to this assumption, h was set to remain constant throughout the experiment, even though the water level dropped as the experiment went on. Water pressure changes with depth, so the h value should have been calculated at each temperature interval. 5. No, our data was not close to a straight line. At times, values would increase; and other times they would decrease. Data was all over the place. However, overall there seemed to be some kind of trend. There was probably a large margin of error. 6. ln(5.15/3.26)= -Hvap /8.314 (1/ 323 1/353) Hvap = .0000145 The graphical method gives a value because it takes into consideration more than two points of data. The more points are used, the closer the slope of the line will be to the true value.