Anda di halaman 1dari 16

World energy consumption - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Page 1 of 16

World energy consumption


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

World energy consumption in 2010: over 5% growth [6] Energy markets have combined crisis recovery and strong industry dynamism. Energy consumption in the G20 soared by more than 5% in 2010, after the slight decrease of 2009. This strong increase is the result of two converging trends. On the one-hand, industrialized countries, which experienced sharp decreases in energy demand in 2009, recovered firmly in 2010, almost coming back to historical trends. Oil, gas, coal, and electricity markets followed the same trend. On the other hand, China and India, which showed no signs of slowing down in 2009, continued their intense demand for all forms of energy. In 2009, world energy consumption decreased for the first time in 30 years (-1.1%) or 130 Mtoe (Megaton oil equivalent), as a result of the financial and economic crisis (GDP drop by 0.6% in 2009).[7] This evolution is the result of two contrasting trends. Energy consumption growth remained vigorous in several developing countries, specifically in Asia (+4%). Conversely, in OECD, consumption was severely cut by 4.7% in 2009 and was thus almost down to its 2000 levels. In North America, Europe and CIS, consumptions shrank by 4.5%, 5% and 8.5% respectively due to the slowdown in economic activity. China became the world's largest energy consumer (18% of the total) since its consumption surged by 8% during 2009 (from 4% in 2008). Oil remained the largest energy source (33%) despite the fact that its share has been decreasing over time. Coal posted a growing role in the world's energy consumption: in 2009, it accounted for 27% of the total. In 2008, total worldwide energy consumption was 474 exajoules (474 1018 J=132,000 TWh). This is equivalent to an average energy consumption rate of 15 terawatts (1.504 1013 W)[1] The potential for renewable energy is: solar energy 1600 EJ (444,000 TWh), wind power 600 EJ (167,000 TWh), geothermal energy 500 EJ (139,000 TWh), biomass 250 EJ (70,000 TWh), hydropower 50 EJ (14,000 TWh) and ocean energy 1 EJ (280 TWh).[8] More than half of the energy has been consumed in the last two decades since the industrial revolution, despite advances in efficiency and sustainability.[9] According to IEA world statistics in four years (20042008) the world population increased 5%, annual CO2 emissions increased 10% and gross energy production increased 10%.[10]

Growth in energy consumption 2010 for the G20 from Enerdata (http://www.enerdata.net/enerdatauk/publicatio -20-2010-strongly-energy-demandincrease.php)

Rate of world energy usage in terawatts (TW), 19652005[1]

Global energy usage in successively increasing detail (2005)[2][3]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_energy_consumption

10/2/2011

World energy consumption - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Page 2 of 16

Most energy is used in the country of origin, since it is cheaper to transport final products than raw materials. In 2008 the share export of the total energy production by fuel was: oil 50% (1,952/3,941 Mt), gas 25% (800/3,149 bcm ), hard coal 14% (793/5,845 Mt) and electricity 1% (269/20,181 TWh).[11] Most of the world's energy resources are from the sun's rays hitting earth. Some of that energy has been preserved as fossil energy, some is directly or indirectly usable; for example, via wind, hydro- or wave power. The term solar constant is the amount of incoming solar electromagnetic radiation per unit area, measured on the outer surface of Earth's atmosphere, in a plane perpendicular to the rays. The solar constant includes all types of solar radiation, not just visible light. It is measured by satellite to be roughly 1366 watts per square meter, though it fluctuates by about 6.9% during a yearfrom 1412 W m2 in early January to 1321 W m2 in early July, due to the Earth's varying distance from the sun, and by a few parts per thousand from day to day. For the whole Earth, with a cross section of 127,400,000 km2, the total energy rate is 174 petawatts (1.740 1017 W), plus or minus 3.5%. This value is the total rate of solar energy received by the planet; about half, 89 PW, reaches the Earth's surface.[citation needed] The estimates of remaining non-renewable worldwide energy resources vary, with the remaining fossil fuels totaling an estimated 0.4 YJ (1 YJ = 1024J) and the available nuclear fuel such as uranium exceeding 2.5 YJ. Fossil fuels range from 0.6 to 3 YJ if estimates of reserves of methane clathrates are accurate and become technically extractable. The total energy flux from the sun is 3.8 YJ/yr, dwarfing all non-renewable resources. From 1990 to 2008 the average use of energy per person as IEA data increased 10 % and the world population increased 27 %. Regional energy use grew from 1990 to 2008: Middle East 170 %, China 146 %, India 91 %, Africa 70 %, Latin America 66 %, USA 20 %, EU-27 7 % and world 39 %

Energy intensity of different economies The graph shows the ratio between energy usage and GDP for selected countries. GDP is based on 2004 purchasing power parity and 2000 dollars adjusted for inflation.[4]

GDP and energy consumption in Japan, 19582000 The data shows the correlation between GDP and energy use; however, it also shows that this link can be broken. After the oil shocks of 1973 and 1979 the energy use stagnated while Japan's GDP continued to grow, after 1985, under the influence of the then much cheaper oil, energy use resumed its historical relation to GDP.[5]

Contents
1 Emissions 2 Primary energy 2.1 Fossil fuels 2.1.1 Coal 2.1.2 Oil

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_energy_consumption

10/2/2011

World energy consumption - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Page 3 of 16

Regional energy use (kWh/capita & TWh) and growth 1990-2008 (%)[12][13] kWh/capita 1990 USA EU-27 Middle East China Latin America Africa India Others* The World 89,021 40,240 19,422 8,839 11,281 7,094 4,419 25,217 19,422 2008 87,216 40,821 34,774 18,608 14,421 7,792 6,280 23,871 21,283 Growth -2% 1% 79 % Population (million) 1990 250 473 132 2008 305 499 199 Growth 22 % 5% 51 % 17 % 30 % 55 % 34 % 23 % 27 % Energy use (1,000 TWh) 1990 22.3 19.0 2.6 10.1 4.0 4.5 3.8 36.1 102.3 2008 26.6 20.4 6.9 24.8 6.7 7.7 7.2 42.2 142.3 Growth 20 % 7% 170 % 146 % 66 % 70 % 91 % 17 % 39 %

111 % 1,141 1,333 28 % 10 % 42 % 355 634 462 984

850 1,140

nd 1,430 1,766 10 % 5,265 6,688

Source: IEA/OECD, Population OECD/World Bank

Energy use = kWh/capita* Mrd. capita (population) = 1000 TWh Others: Mathematically calculated, includes e.g. countries in Asia and Australia. The use of energy varies
between the other countries: E.g. in Australia, Japan or Canada energy is used more per capita than in Bangladesh or Burma.

2.1.3 Gas 2.2 Nuclear power 2.3 Renewable energy 2.3.1 Hydropower 2.3.2 Wind power 2.3.3 Solar power 2.3.4 Geothermal 2.3.5 Biomass and biofuels 3 By country 3.1 Oil 3.2 Coal 3.3 Natural gas 4 By sector 5 Alternative energy paths 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_energy_consumption

10/2/2011

World energy consumption - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Page 4 of 16

Emissions
The global warming emissions resulting from energy production are a serious global environmental problem. Therefore many nations have signed the UN agreement to prevent a dangerous impact on the world's climate. What is a dangerous concentration remains a subject of debate. Limiting global temperature rise at 2 degrees Celsius, considered as a high risk level by Stockholm Environmental Institute, demands 75% decline in carbon emissions in the industrial countries by 2050, if the population is 10 mrd in 2050.[14] 75% in 40 years is about 2% decrease every year. As 2011, the warming emissions of energy production continued rising regardless of the consensus of the basic problem. There is a 2530 years lag in the complete warming effect of emissions. Thus human activities have created already a 1,5 C temperature rise (2006).[15] According to Robert Engelman (Worldwatch institute) for security civilization has to stop increase of emissions within a decade regardless of economy and population state (2009).[16]

Primary energy
The Energy by power source 2008[18] TWh Oil Coal Gas Nuclear Hydro Other RE* Others Total 48 204 38 497 30 134 8 283 3 208 15 284 241 143 851 % 33.5% 26.8% 20.9% 5.8% 2.2% 10.6% 0.2% 100% 1990 2000 2005 2008
Source: IEA/OECD

World energy and power supply (TWh)[17] Energy 102 569 117 687 133 602 143 851 Power 11 821 15 395 18 258 20 181

Source: IEA *`=solar, wind, geothermal and biofuels

United States Energy Information Administration regularly publishes a report on world consumption for most types of primary energy resources. According to IEA total world energy supply was 102,569 TWh (1990); 117,687 TWh (2000); 133,602 TWh (2005) and 143,851 TWh (2008). World power generation was 11,821 TWh (1990); 15,395 TWh (2000); 18,258 TWh (2005) and 20,181 TWh (2008). Compared to power supply 20,181 TWh the power end use was only 16,819 TWh in 2008 including EU27: 2 857 TWh, China 2 883 TWh and USA 4 533 TWh. In 2008 energy use per person was in the USA 4.1 fold, EU 1.9 fold and Middle East 1.6 fold the world average and in China 87% and India 30% of the world average.[17] In 2008 energy supply by power source was oil 33.5%, coal 26.8%, gas 20.8% (fossil 81%), renewable (hydro, solar, wind, geothermal power and biofuels) 12.9%, nuclear 5.8% and other 4%. Oil was the most popular energy fuel. Oil and coal combined represented over 60% of the world energy supply in 2008.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_energy_consumption

10/2/2011

World energy consumption - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Page 5 of 16

Since the annual energy supply increase has been high, e.g. 20072008 4,461 TWh, compared to the total nuclear power end use 2,731 TWh[18][19] environmental activists, like Greenpeace, support increase of energy efficiency and renewable energy capacity. These are also more and more addressed in the international agreements and national Energy Action Plans, like the EU 2009 Renewable Energy Directive and corresponding national plans. The global renewable energy supply increased from 2000 to 2008 in total 3,155 TWh, also more than the nuclear power use 2,731 TWh in 2008.[20] The energy resources below show the extensive reserves of renewable energy. Fuel type Oil Gas Coal Hydroelectric Nuclear power Average power in TW[21] 1980 4.38 1.80 2.34 0.60 0.25 2004 5.58 3.45 3.87 0.93 0.91 0.13 15.0 2006 5.74 3.61 4.27 1.00 0.93 0.16 15.8 USA EU-27 Middle East China Africa India The World Regional energy use (kWh/hab)[12][13] kWh/capita Population (milj) 1990 2008 1990 2008 305 199 1 333 462 984 1 140 6 688 89 021 87 216 40 240 40 821 19 422 34 774 8 839 18 608 7 094 7 792 4 419 6 280 19 421 21 283

Geothermal, wind, solar energy, 0.02 wood Total 9.48

Latin America 11 281 14 421

Source: The USA Energy Information Administration

Fossil fuels
Main article: Fossil fuel The twentieth century saw a rapid twentyfold increase in the use of fossil fuels. Between 1980 and 2006, the worldwide annual growth rate was 2%.[1] According to the US Energy Information Administration's 2006 estimate, the estimated 471.8 EJ total consumption in 2004 was divided as follows, with fossil fuels supplying 86% of the world's energy:

Source: IEA/OECD, Population OECD/World Bank

Regional coal supply (TWh) and share 2009 (%)[22] 2000 North America Asia excl. China China EU 6,654 5,013 3,700 2008 6,740 7,485 3,499 2009* 6,375 7,370 3,135 %* 16% 19% 47% 8%

7,318 16,437 18,449

Africa 1,049 1,213 1,288 3% Coal fueled the industrial revolution in the Russia 1,387 1,359 994 3% 18th and 19th century. With the advent of the automobile, airplanes and the spreading Others 1,485 1,763 1,727 4% use of electricity, oil became the dominant Total 26,607 38,497 39,340 100% fuel during the twentieth century. The Source: IEA, *in 2009 BP growth of oil as the largest fossil fuel was further enabled by steadily dropping prices from 1920 until 1973. After the oil shocks of 1973 and 1979, during which the price of oil increased from 5 to 45 US dollars per barrel, there was a shift away from oil.[23] Coal, natural gas, and nuclear became the fuels of choice for electricity generation and conservation measures increased energy efficiency. In the U.S. the average car more than doubled the number of miles per gallon. Japan, which

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_energy_consumption

10/2/2011

World energy consumption - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Page 6 of 16

bore the brunt of the oil shocks, made spectacular improvements and now has the highest energy efficiency in the world.[24] From 1965 to 2008, the use of fossil fuels has continued to grow and their share of the energy supply has increased. From 2003 to 2008, coal, which is one of the dirtiest sources of energy,[25] was the fastest growing fossil fuel.[26] Coal In 2000 coal was used in China 28%, other Asia 19%,North America 25% and the EU 14%. In 2009 the share of China was 47%.[22] Oil The use of oil doubled in China during 2000 2009. In 2009 the consumption of oil was in the EU 1,6 fold and North America 2.5 fold compared to China.[27] Gas In 2009 the world use of gas was 131% compared to year 2000. 66% of the this growth was outside EU, North America Latin America and Russia. Others include Middle East, Asia and Africa. The gas supply increased also in the previous regions: 8.6% in the EU and 16% in the North America 2000 2009.[28]

Regional oil supply (TWh) and share 2009 (%)[27] 2000 North America Asia excl. China China EU Africa Russia Others Total 8,510 2,490 7,980 1,482 2,138 8,562 2008 9,217 4,130 8,055 1,624 2,828 9,761 2009* 9,620 4,855 8,050 1,730 1,499 8,526 %* 26% 21% 10% 17% 4% 3% 18% 12,350 12,590 12,305

43,506 48,204 46,585 100%

Source: IEA, *in 2009 BP

Nuclear power
As of December 2009, the world had 436 reactors.[29] Since commercial nuclear energy began in the mid 1950s, 2008 was the first year that no new nuclear power plant was connected to the grid, although two were connected in 2009.[29][30] Annual generation of nuclear power has been on a slight downward trend since 2007, decreasing 1.8% in 2009 to 2558 TWh with nuclear power meeting 1314% of the world's electricity demand.[31]

Renewable energy
Main article: Renewable energy Renewable energy comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, which are renewable (naturally replenished). As of 2010, about 16% of global final energy consumption comes from renewables, with 10% coming from traditional biomass, which is mainly used for heating, and 3.4% from hydroelectricity. New renewables (small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and biofuels) accounted for another 2.8% and are growing very rapidly.[32] The share of renewables in electricity generation is around 19%, with 16% of global electricity coming from hydroelectricity and 3% from new renewables.[33]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_energy_consumption

10/2/2011

World energy consumption - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Page 7 of 16

Hydropower Regional gas supply (TWh)[28] Main article: hydropower 2000 2008 2009* % Worldwide hydroelectricity installed capacity North America 7,621 7,779 8,839 28% reached 816 GW in 2005, consisting of 750 GW of Asia excl. China 2,744 4,074 4,348 14% large plants, and 66 GW of small hydro China 270 825 1,015 3% installations. Large hydro capacity totaling 10.9 GW was added by China, Brazil, and India EU 4,574 5,107 4,967 16% during the year, but there was a much faster growth Africa 612 974 1,455 5% (8%) small hydro, with 5 GW added, mostly in China where some 58% of the world's small hydro Russia 3,709 4,259 4,209 13% plants are now located. China is the largest Latin America 1,008 1,357 958 3% hydropower producer in the world, and continues to Others 3,774 5,745 6,047 19% add capacity. In the Western world, although Canada is the largest producer of hydroelectricity Total 24,312 30,134 31,837 100% in the world, the construction of large hydro plants Source: IEA, *in 2009 BP has stagnated due to environmental concerns.[34] The trend in both Canada and the United States has been to micro hydro because it has negligible environmental impacts and opens up many more locations for power generation. In British Columbia alone, the estimates are that micro hydro will be able to more than double electricity production in the province. Wind power Main article: Wind power Wind power is growing at the rate of 30% annually, with a worldwide installed capacity of 198 gigawatts (GW) in 2010, [36][37] and is widely used in Europe, Asia, and the United States. [38] Wind power accounts for approximately 19% of electricity use in Denmark, 9% in Spain and Portugal, and 6% in Germany and the Republic of Ireland.[39] The United States is an important growth area and installed U.S. wind power capacity reached 25,170 MW at the end of 2008.[40] Solar power Main article: Solar energy The available solar energy resources are 3.8 YJ/yr (120,000 TW). Less than 0.02% of available resources are sufficient to entirely replace fossil fuels and nuclear power as an energy source. Assuming that our rate of usage in 2005 remains constant, estimated reserves are accurate, and no new unplanned reserves are found, we will run out of conventional oil in 2045, and coal in 2159. In practice, neither will actually run out as natural constraints will force production to decline as the remaining reserves dwindle. [41][42][43] The rate at which demand increases and reserves dwindle has been increasing dramatically because the rate of consumption is not constant. For example, if demand for oil doubled, reserves would not last as long. In addition, the cost of fossil fuels continues to rise while solar power becomes more economically viable.

Wind power: worldwide installed capacity (not actual power generation)[35]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_energy_consumption

10/2/2011

World energy consumption - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Page 8 of 16

In 2007 grid-connected photovoltaic electricity was the fastest growing energy source, with installations of all photovoltaics increasing by 83% in 2009 to bring the total installed capacity to 15 GW. Nearly half of the increase was in Germany, which is now the world's largest consumer of photovoltaic electricity (followed by Japan). Solar cell production increased by 50% in 2007, to 3,800 megawatts, and has been doubling every two years.[44] The consumption of solar hot water and solar space heating was estimated at 88 GWt (gigawatts of thermal power) in 2004. The heating of water for unglazed swimming pools is excluded.[3] Geothermal Main article: Geothermal power Geothermal energy is used commercially in over 70 countries.[45] In the year 2004, 200 PJ (57 TWh) of electricity was generated from geothermal resources, and an additional 270 PJ of geothermal energy was used directly, mostly for space heating. In 2007, the world had a global capacity for 10 GW of electricity generation and an additional 28 GW of direct heating, including extraction by geothermal heat pumps.[3][46] Heat pumps are small and widely distributed, so estimates of their total capacity are uncertain and range up to 100 GW.[45] Biomass and biofuels Main articles: biomass and biofuel Until the beginning of the nineteenth century biomass was the predominant fuel, today it has only a small share of the overall energy supply. Electricity produced from biomass sources was estimated at 44 GW for 2005. Biomass electricity generation increased by over 100% in Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands, Poland, and Spain. A further 220 GW was used for heating (in 2004), bringing the total energy consumed from biomass to around 264 GW. The use of biomass fires for cooking is excluded.[3] World production of bioethanol increased by 8% in 2005 to reach 33 billion litres (8.72 billion US gallons), with most of the increase in the United States, bringing it level to the levels of consumption in Brazil.[3] Biodiesel increased by 85% to 3.9 billion litres (1.03 billion US gallons), making it the fastest growing renewable energy source in 2005. Over 50% is produced in Germany.[3]

Ohaaki geothermal power station

By country
See also: Energy by country and List of countries by energy consumption per capita Energy consumption is loosely correlated with gross national product and climate, but there is a large difference even between the most highly developed countries, such as Japan and Germany with 6 kWh per person and United States with 11.4 kWh per person. In developing countries, particularly those that are sub-tropical or tropical such as India, the per person energy use is closer to 0.7 kWh. Bangladesh has the lowest consumption with 0.2 kWh per person.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_energy_consumption

10/2/2011

World energy consumption - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Page 9 of 16

The US consumes 25% of the world's energy with a share of global GDP at 22% and a share of the world population at 4.59%.[47] The most significant growth of energy consumption is currently taking place in China, which has been growing at 5.5% per year over the last 25 years. Its population of 1.3 billion people (19.6% of the world population[47]) is consuming energy at a rate of 1.6 kWh per person. One measurement of efficiency is energy intensity. This is a measure of the amount of energy it takes a country to produce a dollar of gross domestic product.

Oil
Top oil producers (Mt) [48][49][50] 2005 2008 2009 1 Russia 2 Saudi Arabia 3 United States 4 Iran 5 China 6 Canada 7 Mexico 8 Venezuela 9 Kuwait 10 United Arab Emirates x Norway x Nigeria Total Top ten 470 519 307 205 183 143 188 162 nd nd 139 133 485 509 300 214 190 155 159 137 145 136 nd nd 494 452 320 206 194 152 146 126 124 120 nd nd

3,923 3,941 3,843 62 % 62 % 61 %

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_energy_consumption

10/2/2011

World energy consumption - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Page 10 of 16

Coal
Top hard coal and brown coal producers (Mt) [48][49][50] 2005 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 China United States India Australia Indonesia South Africa Russia Kazakhstan Poland Colombia Total Top ten 2,226 1,028 430 372 318 315 222 79 160 65 5,878 89 % 2008 2,761 1,076 521 397 284 236 323 108 144 79 6,796 87 % 2009 2,971 985 561 399 301 247 297 101 135 73 6,903 88 %

Top hard coal importers (Mt) [48][49][50] 2005 2008 2009 1 Japan 2 China 3 South Korea 4 India 5 Taiwan 6 Germany 7 United Kingdom 8 Turkey 9 Italy 10 Spain x France x United States Total x Top ten 178 25 77 37 61 38 44 nd 24 25 nd 28 778 186 nd 100 58 66 46 43 19 25 19 21 nd 778 165 114 103 66 60 38 38 20 19 16 nd nd 819

69 % 75 % 78 %

Import of production 16 % 13 % 14 %

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_energy_consumption

10/2/2011

World energy consumption - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Page 11 of 16

Natural gas
Top natural gas producers (billion cubic meters) [48][49][50] 2005 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 x x United States Russia Canada Iran Norway China Qatar Algeria Netherlands Indonesia United Kingdom Saudi Arabia Total Top ten 517 627 187 84 90 nd nd 93 79 77 93 70 2,872 67 % 2008 583 657 175 121 103 76 79 82 85 77 nd nd 3,149 65 % 2009 594 589 159 144 106 90 89 81 79 76 nd nd 3,101 65 %

Top natural gas importers (billion cubic meters) [48][49][50] 2005 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 x x Japan Germany United States Italy France Ukraine Turkey Spain South Korea United Kingdom Netherlands Total Top ten Import of production 81 91 121 73 47 62 27 33 29 nd 23 838 70 % 29 % 2008 95 79 84 77 44 53 36 39 36 26 nd 783 73 % 25 % 2009 93 83 76 69 45 38 35 34 33 29 nd 749 71 % 24 %

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_energy_consumption

10/2/2011

World energy consumption - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Page 12 of 16

By sector
Industrial users (agriculture, mining, manufacturing, and construction) consume about 37% of the total 15 TW. Personal and commercial transportation consumes 20%; residential heating, lighting, and appliances use 11%; and commercial uses (lighting, heating and cooling of commercial buildings, and provision of water and sewer services) amount to 5% of the total.[52] World energy use per sector[51] 2000 Industry Transport 2008 2000 2008 TWh %*

21,733 27,273 26.5% 27.8% 22,563 26,742 27.5% 27.3%

Residential and service 30,555 35,319 37.3% 36.0%

Non-energy use 7,119 8,688 8.7% 8.9% The other 27% of the world's energy is lost in energy transmission and generation. In Total* 81,970 98,022 100% 100% 2005, global electricity consumption Source: IEA 2010, Total is calculated from the given sectors averaged 2 TW. The energy rate used to Numbers are the end use of energy generate 2 TW of electricity is Total world energy supply (2008) 143,851 TWh approximately 5 TW, as the efficiency of a typical existing power plant is around 38%. [53] The new generation of gas-fired plants reaches a substantially higher efficiency of 55%. Coal is the most common fuel for the world's electricity plants.[54] Total world energy use per sector was in 2008 industry 28%, transport 27% and residential and service 36%. Division was about the same in the year 2000.[51]

Alternative energy paths


Denmark and Germany have started to make investments in solar energy, despite their unfavorable geographic locations. Germany is now the largest consumer of photovoltaic cells in the world. Denmark and Germany have installed 3 GW and 17 GW of wind power respectively. In 2005, wind generated 18.5% of all the electricity in Denmark.[55] Brazil invests in ethanol production from sugar cane, which is now a significant part of the transportation fuel in that country. Starting in 1965, France made large investments in nuclear power and to this date three quarters of its electricity comes from nuclear reactors.[56] Switzerland is planning to cut its energy consumption by more than half to become a 2000watt society by 2050 and the United Kingdom is working towards a zero energy building standard for all new housing by 2016.

See also
Comparisons of life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions Cubic mile of oil Domestic Energy Consumption Earth's energy budget Electricity generation Electric energy consumption Energy development Energy policy Environmental impact of aviation

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_energy_consumption

10/2/2011

World energy consumption - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Page 13 of 16

Kardashev scale Peak oil Sustainable energy The End of Energy Obesity (book) A Thousand Barrels a Second: The Coming Oil Break Point and the Challenges Facing an Energy Dependent World (book)

Regional: Lists: List of countries by carbon dioxide emissions List of countries by electricity consumption List of countries by electricity production List of countries by energy consumption and production List of countries by energy intensity List of countries by greenhouse gas emissions List of countries by renewable electricity production Asian brown cloud Energy by country Energy use and conservation in the United Kingdom Energy use in the United States Making Sweden an Oil-Free Society

References
1. ^ a b c Energy - Consumption'!A1 "Consumption by fuel, 1965 2008" (http://www.bp.com/liveassets/bp_internet/globalbp/globalbp_uk_english/reports_and_publications/statistical_ (XLS). Statistical Review of World Energy 2009, BP. July 31, 2006. http://www.bp.com/liveassets/bp_internet/globalbp/globalbp_uk_english/reports_and_publications/statistical_energy Energy - Consumption'!A1. Retrieved 2009-10-24. 2. ^ "BP Statistical review of world energy June 2006" (http://www.bp.com/liveassets/bp_internet/globalbp/globalbp_uk_english/reports_and_publications/statistical_ (XLS). British Petroleum. June 2006. http://www.bp.com/liveassets/bp_internet/globalbp/globalbp_uk_english/reports_and_publications/statistical_energy Retrieved 2007-04-03. 3. ^ a b c d e f "Renewables, Global Status Report 2006" (http://www.ren21.net/globalstatusreport/download/RE_GSR_2006_Update.pdf) (PDF). Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century. 2006. http://www.ren21.net/globalstatusreport/download/RE_GSR_2006_Update.pdf. Retrieved 2007-04-03. 4. ^ "World Energy Intensity: Total Primary Energy Consumption per Dollar of Gross Domestic Product using Purchasing Power Parities, 19802004" (http://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/international/iealf/tablee1p.xls) (XLS). Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy. August 23, 2006. http://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/international/iealf/tablee1p.xls. Retrieved 2007-04-03. 5. ^ "Historical Statistics of Japan" (http://www.stat.go.jp/english/data/chouki/index.htm) . Japan Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. http://www.stat.go.jp/english/data/chouki/index.htm. Retrieved 200704-03. 6. ^ World energy use in 2010: over 5% growth, Enerdata Publication (http://www.enerdata.net/enerdatauk/publications/pages/g-20-2010-strongly-energy-demand-increase.php) 7. ^ Global Energy Review in 2009, Enerdata Publication (http://www.enerdata.net/enerdatauk/publications/world-energy-statistics-supply-and-demand.php) 8. ^ State of the World 2009, Worldwatch Institute, 2009

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_energy_consumption

10/2/2011

World energy consumption - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Page 14 of 16

9. ^ "Historical Review of Energy Use" (http://www.wou.edu/las/physci/GS361/electricity% 20generation/HistoricalPerspectives.htm) . ND. http://www.wou.edu/las/physci/GS361/electricity% 20generation/HistoricalPerspectives.htm. Retrieved 2010-11-05. 10. ^ IEA Key energy statistics 2010 (http://www.iea.org/textbase/nppdf/free/2010/key_stats_2010.pdf) and Key energy statistics 2006 (http://www.iea.org/textbase/nppdf/free/2006/key2006.pdf) page 48 11. ^ IEA Key energy statistics 2010 (http://www.iea.org/textbase/nppdf/free/2010/key_stats_2010.pdf) and IEA Key energy statistics 2009 (http://www.iea.org/textbase/nppdf/free/2009/key_stats_2009.pdf) oil page 11, gas p.13, hard coal (excluding brown coal) p. 15 and electricity p. 27 12. ^ a b Energy in Sweden 2010, Facts and figures (http://webbshop.cm.se/System/TemplateView.aspx? p=Energimyndigheten&view=default&cat=/Broschyrer&id=e0a2619a83294099a16519a0b5edd26f) Table 55 Regional energy use, 1990 and 2008 (kWh per capita) 13. ^ a b IEA Key energy statistics 2010 (http://www.iea.org/textbase/nppdf/free/2010/key_stats_2010.pdf) Population page 48 forward 14. ^ Energilget 2050 by prof. Cristian Azar and Kristian Lindgren Chalmers Gteborg (Swedish) 15. ^ Paul Brown, Global Warming, The last chance for change, London 2006, pages. 165, 16, 4345, 13 16. ^ State of the world 2009, Worldwatch institute, 2009 17. ^ a b Energy in Sweden 2010, Facts and figures (http://webbshop.cm.se/System/TemplateView.aspx? p=Energimyndigheten&view=default&cat=/Broschyrer&id=e0a2619a83294099a16519a0b5edd26f) Table 46 Total world energy supply, 19902009 and Table 48 World power generation by energy resource, 1990 2008, (TWh) 18. ^ a b Energy in Sweden 2010, Facts and figures (http://webbshop.cm.se/System/TemplateView.aspx? p=Energimyndigheten&view=default&cat=/Broschyrer&id=e0a2619a83294099a16519a0b5edd26f) Table 46 Total world energy supply, 19902009, Table 53 Global supply of renewable energy, 19902008 (TWh) 19. ^ IEA Key energy statistics 2010 (http://www.iea.org/textbase/nppdf/free/2010/key_stats_2010.pdf) page 17 nuclear electricity 2 731 TWh in 2008, 20. ^ Energy in Sweden 2010, Facts and figures (http://webbshop.cm.se/System/TemplateView.aspx? p=Energimyndigheten&view=default&cat=/Broschyrer&id=e0a2619a83294099a16519a0b5edd26f) Table 53 The global supply of renewable energy, 19902008, TWh 21. ^ World Consumption of Primary Energy by Energy Type and Selected Country Groups (http://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/international/iealf/table18.xls) December 31, 2008 Microsoft Excel file format 22. ^ a b Energy in Sweden 2010, Facts and figures (http://webbshop.cm.se/System/TemplateView.aspx? p=Energimyndigheten&view=default&cat=/Broschyrer&id=e0a2619a83294099a16519a0b5edd26f) Table 52 Global supply of coal, 19902009 (TWh) 23. ^ Yergin, p. 792 24. ^ "Key World Energy Statistics" (http://www.iea.org/textbase/nppdf/free/2006/key2006.pdf) (PDF). International Energy Agency. 2006. http://www.iea.org/textbase/nppdf/free/2006/key2006.pdf. Retrieved 2007-04-03. pp. 4857 25. ^ Coal Pollution (http://www.knowyourpower.net/coal_pollution/default.aspx) 26. ^ Yergin, p. ? 27. ^ a b Energy in Sweden 2010, Facts and figures (http://webbshop.cm.se/System/TemplateView.aspx? p=Energimyndigheten&view=default&cat=/Broschyrer&id=e0a2619a83294099a16519a0b5edd26f) Table 47 Global supply of oil, 19902009 (TWh) 28. ^ a b Energy in Sweden 2010, Facts and figures (http://webbshop.cm.se/System/TemplateView.aspx? p=Energimyndigheten&view=default&cat=/Broschyrer&id=e0a2619a83294099a16519a0b5edd26f) Table 50 Global supply of gas 19902009 (TWh) 29. ^ a b Trevor Findlay (2010). The Future of Nuclear Energy to 2030 and its Implications for Safety, Security and Nonproliferation: Overview (http://www.cigionline.org/sites/default/files/Nuclear%20Energy% 20Futures%20Overview.pdf) , The Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI), Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, pp. 1011. 30. ^ Mycle Schneider, Steve Thomas, Antony Froggatt, and Doug Koplow (August 2009). The World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2009 (http://www.bmu.de/english/nuclear_safety/downloads/doc/44832.php) Commissioned by German Federal Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety, p. 5. 31. ^ World Nuclear Association. Another drop in nuclear generation (http://www.world-nuclearnews.org/newsarticle.aspx?id=27665&terms=another+drop+) World Nuclear News, 05 May 2010.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_energy_consumption

10/2/2011

World energy consumption - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Page 15 of 16

32. ^ REN21 (2011). "Renewables 2011: Global Status Report" (http://www.ren21.net/Portals/97/documents/GSR/GSR2011_Master18.pdf) . p. 17. http://www.ren21.net/Portals/97/documents/GSR/GSR2011_Master18.pdf. 33. ^ REN21 (2011). "Renewables 2011: Global Status Report" (http://www.ren21.net/Portals/97/documents/GSR/GSR2011_Master18.pdf) . p. 18. http://www.ren21.net/Portals/97/documents/GSR/GSR2011_Master18.pdf. 34. ^ "Environmental Impacts of Renewable Energy Technologies (adapted from material in the UCS book Cool Energy: Renewable Solutions to Environmental Problems, by Michael Brower (MIT Press, 1992), 220 pp)" (http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/renewable_energy_basics/environmental-impacts-of-renewableenergy-technologies.html) . Union of Concerned Scientists. 10 August 2005. http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/renewable_energy_basics/environmental-impacts-of-renewable-energytechnologies.html. Retrieved 2007-04-08. 35. ^ GWEC, Global Wind Report Annual Market Update (http://www.gwec.net/index.php?id=180) 36. ^ Lars Kroldrup. Gains in Global Wind Capacity Reported (http://greeninc.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/02/15/gains-in-global-wind-capacity-reported/) Green Inc., February 15, 2010. 37. ^ REN21 (2011). "Renewables 2011: Global Status Report" (http://www.ren21.net/Portals/97/documents/GSR/GSR2011_Master18.pdf) . p. 15. http://www.ren21.net/Portals/97/documents/GSR/GSR2011_Master18.pdf. 38. ^ Global wind energy markets continue to boom 2006 another record year (http://www.gwec.net/uploads/media/07-02_PR_Global_Statistics_2006.pdf) (PDF). 39. ^ New Report a Complete Analysis of the Global Offshore Wind Energy Industry and its Major Players (http://www.pr-inside.com/new-report-a-complete-analysis-of-r533066.htm) 40. ^ U.S., China Lead Global Wind Installation (http://www.nawindpower.com/naw/e107_plugins/content/content_lt.php?content.3459) 41. ^ Oil, the Dwindling Treasure (http://www.hubbertpeak.com/hubbert/natgeog.htm) 42. ^ World Energy Reserves (http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/iea/res.html) 43. ^ World Energy Consumption in Standard U.S. Physical Units (http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/iea/wec.html) 44. ^ Solar Cell Production Jumps 50 Percent in 2007 (http://environment.about.com/od/renewableenergy/a/solar_cells.htm) 45. ^ a b "The Future of Geothermal Energy" (http://geothermal.inel.gov/publications/future_of_geothermal_energy.pdf) (PDF). MIT. http://geothermal.inel.gov/publications/future_of_geothermal_energy.pdf. Retrieved 2007-02-07. 46. ^ Fridleifsson,, Ingvar B.; Bertani, Ruggero; Huenges, Ernst; Lund, John W.; Ragnarsson, Arni; Rybach, Ladislaus (2008-02-11). O. Hohmeyer and T. Trittin. ed (pdf). The possible role and contribution of geothermal energy to the mitigation of climate change (http://iga.igg.cnr.it/documenti/IGA/Fridleifsson_et_al_IPCC_Geothermal_paper_2008.pdf) . Luebeck, Germany. pp. 5980. http://iga.igg.cnr.it/documenti/IGA/Fridleifsson_et_al_IPCC_Geothermal_paper_2008.pdf. Retrieved 200904-06. 47. ^ a b "World Population Prospects" (http://esa.un.org/UNPP/) . esa.un.org. http://esa.un.org/UNPP/. Retrieved 2011-02-07. 48. ^ a b c d e IEA Key energy statistics 2010 (http://www.iea.org/textbase/nppdf/free/2010/key_stats_2010.pdf) Crude Oil page 11 49. ^ a b c d e Key world energy statistics 2009 (http://www.iea.org/textbase/nppdf/free/2009/key2009.pdf) 50. ^ a b c d e Key world energy statistics 2006 (http://www.iea.org/textbase/nppdf/free/2006/key2006.pdf) 51. ^ a b Energy in Sweden 2010, Facts and figures (http://webbshop.cm.se/System/TemplateView.aspx? p=Energimyndigheten&view=default&cat=/Broschyrer&id=e0a2619a83294099a16519a0b5edd26f) Table 56 Total world energy use per sector 19902008 (TWh) 52. ^ "International Energy Outlook 2007" (http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/index.html) . United States Department of Energy, Washington, DC. http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/index.html. Retrieved 2007-06-06. 53. ^ "Energy efficiency measures and technological improvements." (http://www.e8.org/index.jsp? numPage=138) . e8.org. http://www.e8.org/index.jsp?numPage=138. Retrieved 2007-01-21. Article by group of ten leading electricity companies

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_energy_consumption

10/2/2011

World energy consumption - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Page 16 of 16

54. ^ "Coal Facts 2006 Edition" (http://www.worldcoal.org/assets_cm/files/PDF/coal_fact_card_2006.pdf) (PDF). World Coal Institute. September 2006. http://www.worldcoal.org/assets_cm/files/PDF/coal_fact_card_2006.pdf. Retrieved 2007-04-08. 55. ^ "Danish Annual Energy Statistics" (http://www.energistyrelsen.dk/graphics/UK_Facts_Figures/Statistics/yearly_statistics/Figures2005.xls) (XLS). Danish Energy Authority. December 2006. http://www.energistyrelsen.dk/graphics/UK_Facts_Figures/Statistics/yearly_statistics/Figures2005.xls. Retrieved 2007-01-27. 56. ^ Smil, p. ?

Further reading
World Energy Outlook 2006. International Energy Agency. 2006. ISBN 9-264-10989-7. MacKay, David J C (2008). Sustainable Energywithout the hot air (http://www.withouthotair.com) . Cambridge: UIT. ISBN 978-0-954452933. http://www.withouthotair.com. Smil, Vaclav (2003). Energy at the crossroads. MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-19492-9. Tester, Jefferson W; et al. (2005). Sustainable Energy: Choosing Among Options. The MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-20153-4. Yergin, Daniel (1993). The Prize. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-79932-0.

External links
World Energy Outlook (http://www.worldenergyoutlook.org/) Official Energy Statistics from the US government (http://www.eia.doe.gov/) Energy Statistics and News from the European Union (http://www.energy.eu/) Annual Energy Review 2006, DOE/EIA-0384(2006) (http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/pdf/aer.pdf) , by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (PDF) Statistical Review of World Energy 2009 (http://www.bp.com/productlanding.do? categoryId=6848&contentId=7033471) , annual review by BP Energy Export Databrowser (http://mazamascience.com/OilExport/) A visual review of production and consumption trends for individual nations; data from the British Petroleum Statistical Review. Google - public data (http://www.google.com/publicdata/explore? ds=d5bncppjof8f9_&ctype=l&strail=false&nselm=h&met_y=eg_use_pcap_kg_oe&hl=en&dl=en) "Energy use (kg of oil equivalent per capita)" World Energy Consumption Figures (http://yearbook.enerdata.net/)

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_energy_consumption" Categories: Energy policy | Energy economics | Energy by region | Energy consumption This page was last modified on 30 September 2011 at 23:00. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of use for details. Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_energy_consumption

10/2/2011