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Completed by: Lauren Zahner, Adam Case, Kaitlin Pierce Foundations of Maternal-Newborn and Womens Health Nursing- Chapter

6 1. Describe formation of the female and male gametes. Gametogenesis is the development of ova in the woman and sperm in the man. Gametogenesis requires a special reduction division called meiosis, which halves the number of chromosomes to arrive at the haploid number. Only 1 of each chromosome pair (22 autosomes and 1 sex chromosome) is directed to the gamete. Oogenesis is the formation of female gametes within the ovary. Oogenesis begins during prenatal life, by the 30th week of gestation, the female fetus has all the ova she will ever have The process of gamete maturation continues throughout her reproductive years until the climacteric, which is sometimes called the change of life. Spermatogenesis begins during puberty in the male and requires approximately 70 days to complete. Primitive sperm cells, or spermatogonia, develop during the prenatal period and begin multiplying by mitosis during puberty. Unlike the female, the male continues to produce new spermatogonia that can mature into sperm throughout his lifetime. Although male fertility gradually declines with age, men can father children in their fifties, sixties, and beyond. The spermatids gradually evolve into mature sperm. The gamete from a male determines the gender of the new baby because the ovum carries only an X chromosome. If an X-bearing spermatozoon fertilizes the ovum, the baby is a girl. If a Y-bearing spermatozoon fertilizes the ovum, the baby is a boy. 2.Relate ovulation and ejaculation to the process of human conception. Natural conception is the interaction of many factors, including correct timing between release of a mature ovum at ovulation and ejaculation of enough healthy, mature, motile sperm into the vagina. Although exact viability is unknown, the ovum may survive no longer than 24 hours after its release at ovulation. Ovulation occurs approximately 14 days before a woman's next menstrual period would begin. The follicle develops a weak spot on the surface of the ovary and ruptures, releasing the mature ovum with its surrounding cells onto the surface of the ovary. It is picked up by the fimbriated (fringed) ends of the fallopian tube. The ovum is transported through the tube by the muscular action of the tube and movement of cilia within the tube. Fertilization normally occurs in the distal third of the fallopian tube (ampulla) near the ovary. The ovum, fertilized or not, enters the uterus approximately 3 days after its release from the ovary. The male preparation for fertilizing the ovum consists of ejaculation, movement of the sperm in the female reproductive tract, and preparation of the sperm for actual fertilization. When a male ejaculates during sexual intercourse, 35 to 200 million sperm, 50% to 90% of which are morphologically normal, are deposited in the upper vagina and over the cervix. The sperm are suspended in 2 to 5 mL of seminal fluid, which nourishes and protects the sperm from the acidic environment of the vagina. The seminal fluid coagulates slightly after ejaculation to hold the semen deeply in the vagina. Many sperm are relatively immobile for approximately 15 to 30 minutes until other seminal enzymes dissolve the coagulated fluid and allow the sperm to begin moving upward through the cervix. The whiplike movement of the tails of spermatozoa propels them through the cervix, uterus, and fallopian tubes. Uterine contractions induced by prostaglandins in the seminal fluid enhance movement of the sperm toward the ovum. Only sperm cells enter the cervix. The seminal fluid remains in the vagina. Only 50 to 150 reach the fallopian tube where the ovum waits Sperm are not immediately ready to fertilize the ovum when they are ejaculated. During the trip to the ovum, the sperm undergo changes that enable one of them to penetrate the protective layers surrounding the ovum, a process called capacitation. During capacitation a glycoprotein coat and seminal

Completed by: Lauren Zahner, Adam Case, Kaitlin Pierce proteins are removed from the acrosome, which is the tip of the sperm head. After capacitation the sperm look the same but are more active and can better penetrate the corona radiata and zona pellucida surrounding the ovum. Eventually, one spermatozoon penetrates the ovum. Fertilization occurs when one spermatozoon enters the ovum and the two nuclei containing the parents' chromosomes merge 3.Explain implantation and nourishment of the embryo before development of the placenta. The preembryonic period is the first 2 weeks after conception Around the fourth day after conception, the fertilized ovum, now called a zygote, enters the uterus. The endometrial glands are secreting at their maximum, providing rich fluids to nourish the conceptus before placental circulation is established. The endometrial spiral arteries are well developed in the secretory phase, providing easy access for development of the placental blood supply. The conceptus carries a small supply of nutrients for early cell division. However, implantation at the proper time and location in the uterus is critical for continued development. Implantation and survival of the conceptus require a continuing supply of estrogen and progesterone to maintain the decidua in the secretory phase. Production of hCG by the conceptus causes the corpus luteum to persist and continue secretion of estrogen and progesterone until the placenta takes over this function. At this early stage, nutritive fluid passes to the embryo by diffusion (the passive movement across a cell membrane from an area of higher concentration to one of lower concentration) because the circulatory system is not yet established. 4.Describe normal prenatal development from conception through birth. See Figure below. 5.Explain structure and function of the placenta, umbilical cord, and fetal membranes. The placenta is a thick, disk-shaped organ. The placenta has two components: maternal and fetal It is involved in (1) metabolic functions, (2) transfer functions, and (3) endocrine functions. The fetal side is smooth, with branching vessels covering the membrane-covered surface. The maternal side is rough where it attaches to the uterus. The umbilical cord is normally inserted on the fetal side of the placenta, near the center. However, it may insert off center or even out on the fetal membranes. It is the lifeline between the fetus and placenta. It has two arteries that carry deoxygenated blood and waste products away from the fetus to the placenta, where these substances are transferred to the mother's circulation. The umbilical vein carries freshly oxygenated and nutrient-laden blood from the placenta back to the fetus. The umbilical arteries and vein are coiled within the cord to allow them to stretch and prevent obstruction of blood flow through them. The entire cord is cushioned by a soft substance called Wharton's jelly to prevent obstruction resulting from pressure. The two fetal membranes are the amnion (inner membrane) and the chorion (outer membrane). The two membranes are so close they seem to be one membrane (the bag of waters), but they can be separated. The amnion is continuous with the surface of the umbilical cord, joining the epithelium of the abdominal skin of the fetus. Chorionic villi proliferate over the entire surface of the gestational sac for the first 8 weeks after conception. A conceptus observed at this time looks like a shaggy sphere with the embryo suspended inside. As the embryo grows, it bulges into the uterine cavity. The villi on the outer surface gradually atrophy and form the smooth-surfaced chorion. The remaining villi continue to branch and enlarge to form the fetal side of the placenta. Amniotic fluid promotes normal prenatal development by the following actions:

Completed by: Lauren Zahner, Adam Case, Kaitlin Pierce Allowing symmetric development as the major body surfaces fold toward the midline Preventing the membranes from adhering to developing fetal parts Allowing room and buoyancy for fetal movement 6.Describe the occurrence of common deviations from normal conception and prenatal development. 7.Describe prenatal circulation and the circulatory changes after birth. 8.Explain the mechanisms and trends in multifetal pregnancies.

Completed by: Lauren Zahner, Adam Case, Kaitlin Pierce