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UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PERLIS

Peperiksaan Pertengahan Semester Kedua Sidang Akademik 2010/2011

Februari 2011

ENT218 – Biomechanics [Biomekanik]

Masa : 1 jam 30 minit

Please make sure that this question paper has FIVE (5) printed pages including this front page before you start the examination.

[Sila pastikan kertas soalan ini mengandungi LIMA (5) muka surat yang bercetak termasuk muka hadapan sebelum anda memulakan peperiksaan ini.]

This question paper has THREE (3) question. Answer ALL questions.

[Kertas soalan ini mengandungi TIGA (3) soalan. Jawab KESEMUA soalan.]

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Question 1

[Soalan 1]

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(ENT 218)

Muhammad is professional player. He represents the Malayan Tiger squad which recently defeats Hong Kong 2-0 in a friendly match at the Shah Alam Stadium. The squad is applying the biomechanical analysis of qualitative and quantitative in the match. The outcomes of analysis are used to make improvements on training and team strategy. One of analysis had found that Muhammad’s tibia has a higher density compare to normal person.

[Muhammad merupakan pemain bola sepak yang profesional.Dia mewakili skuad Harimau Malaya yang baru-baru ini mengalahkan Hong Kong 2-0 dalam perlawanan persahabatan di Stadium Shah Alam. Pasukan ini menggunapakai analisis biomekanik secara kualitatif dan kuantitatif dalam perlawanan. Dapatan daripada analisis tersebut digunakan untuk membuat penambahbaikan latihan dan strategi. Salah satu hasilan tadi mendapati bahawa tulang Tibia Muhammad memiliki ketumpatan tulang yang lebih berbanding orang biasa]

(a) Explain how biomechanics are related to football analysis

[Terangkan bagaimana biomekanik berkait rapat dengan bola sepak.]

Answer

(4 marks/markah)

Biomechanics is the application the mechanics principle to the study of living organisms. Biomechanics can be divided into four parts, which are statics, dynamics, kinematics and kinetics.

Football analysis is including kinematics and kinetics.

2 marks each

(b) Distinguish qualitative and quantitative analysis in football match and give an example of each one that is related to football.

[Bezakan analisis kualitatif dan kuantitatif dalam bola sepak dan berikan contoh bagi setiap satu yang berkaitan dengan bola sepak.]

(6 marks/markah)

Answer

Qualitative analysis is an analysis which using description to analyse the result. It does not use number. The example of qualitative is good, poor, and etc.

However quantitative analysis is an analysis which using the number to analyse the result. For example thirteen millimetres, five meters and ect

Based on football match,qualitative and quantitative analysis can be used. By qualitative, Muhammad is a good and professional player. By quantitative, Muhammad runs 10.0m/s at average during the match

2 marks each

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(ENT 218)

(c) Based on the Wolff’s law, justify why Muhammad’s tibia having larger density compares to normal people.

[Berdasarkan hukum Wolff’s, jelaskan mengapa tibia Safee mempunyai ketumpatan tulang yang lebih berbanding orang biasa.]

Answer

The Wolff’s law defines as the density, shape and sizes of the bone are determined by the magnitude and direction of the acting force.

If the loading apply on the particular bone, the bone will remodel to become stronger so that the bone can resist on that sort of loading

2 marks each

(4 marks/markah) (d) As a biomechanical analyst, what other improvement could be considered beside training and team strategy.

[Sebagai penganalisa biomekanik, apakah penambahbaikan yang lain yang patut diambil kira selain latihan dan strategi kumpulan]

Design footwear

Coaching

Regular exercise to maintain fitness

2 marks each

(6 marks/markah)

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Question 2

[Soalan 2]

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(ENT 218)

In the last flood, one of Unimap’s students became a volunteer for PEMBINA to help flood victims. He helped raise the goods to be moved to relief centers. Unexpectedly, he fell on a slippery floor and hitting his elbow while lifting. He was rushed to Hospital Kangar due to the pain. The Doctor clothes him with Rolyan Elbow Protector. The Rolyan Elbow Protector is an elbow support designed to provide support and shock absorption in order to prevent further elbow injury. It consists of a neoprene pad with reinforced support around the elbow region.

[Pada banjir yang lepas, seorang pelajar Unimap menjadi sukarelawan PEMBINA untuk membantu mangsa banjir.Dia membantu mengangkat barang-barang untuk dipindahkan ke pusat penempatan banjir.Tanpa diduga , dia terjatuh atas lantai yang licin dan sikunya terhentak sekali semasa mengangkat barang.Dia terus dikejarkan ke Hospital Kangar akibat kesakitan.Doktor mengenakan dia Pelindung Siku Rolyan. Pelindung Siku Rolyan adalah sokongan siku yang direka untuk memberikan sokongan dan penyerapan hentakan bagi mengelakkan kecederaan siku lebih lanjut. Ini terdiri daripada pad neoprene dengan sokongan diperkuatkan sekitar kawasan siku.]

(a) Identify muscles that are active during lifting movement

[Kenalpasti otot-otot yang aktif ketika gerakan mengangkat.]

Biceps

Triceps

Deltoid

2 marks each

(6 marks/markah) (b) If the elbow of the volunteer is not injured,what are the factors influencing the relative mobility and stability of elbow articulation?

[Apa faktor yang mempengaruhi mobiliti relatif dan kestabilan artikulasi siku?]

(4 marks/markah)

Joint stability defines as ability to resist dislocation and displacement.

So when the elbow is not injured, might probably the ligament and tendons are strong enough to resist the dislocation and displacement.

Other factors are shape of the articulating bone surfaces, arrangement of ligament muscle and fascia

Any 2 points with 2 marks each

(c) From the type of elbow protector Hassan wear, what probably the injuries that he may sustain and how biomechanical analysis could explain this problem?

[Dari jenis pelindung siku yang dipakai Hassan, apakah kecederaan yang mungkin dia hadapi dan bagaimana analisa biomekanik dapat menjelaskan masalah ini?.]

(6 marks/markah)

The acute loading cause the elbow fracture and dislocation

The compression force that over the limit of elbow can cause elbow fracture

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(ENT 218)

This is because when he felt on a slippery floor and hitting his elbow, his elbow exerted a greater force or impact.The impact force will affected his elbow joint and muscle

2 marks each

(d) What would happen to his muscle and ligament if Hassan was not immediately taken to hospital?

[Apakah yang akan berlaku kepada otot dan ligament sekiranya Hassan tidak dibawa segera ke hospital?]

(4 marks/markah)

His muscle and ligaments will cause dislocation if he was not immediately taken to hospital.

This is because when he felt and hit his elbow, his muscle of elbow will be out of the position which is dislocation.

2 marks each

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Question 3

[Soalan 3]

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(ENT 218)

(a) The man weighs 71 kg and has a height of 1.76 m as shown in figure 1. At the instant considered, the angle his body makes with the horizontal plane (θ) is 20°. The distance from the bottom of his feet to his center of gravity = 1.02 m. The distance between his head and shoulders is 0.32 m. The body is aligned straight and rotates around the fixed point O as shown in the figure. Assume that the arms can be represented by weightless rods hinged at the middle. Arms transmit vertical forces only.

[Seorang lelaki berat 71 kg dan mempunyai ketinggian 1.76 m seperti yang ditunjukkan pada gambarajah 1. Pada masa yang dipertimbangkan, sudut tubuhnya dengan satah mendatar (θ) ialah 20°. Jarak dari bawah kakinya ke pusat graviti = 1.02 m. Jarak antara kepala dan bahu ialah 0.32 m. Tubuh sejajar lurus dan berputar di sekitar titik O tetap seperti yang ditunjukkan pada gambar. Andaikankan bahwa lengan boleh diwakili oleh batang ringan berengsel di tengah. Lengan mengenakan daya menegak sahaja.]

(i) Determine the vertical ground forces acting on a man at the feet (F F e 2 ) and hands (F H e 2 ) while performing push-ups

[Tentukan daya-daya bumi menegak yang bertindak pada seorang lelaki di kaki (F F e 2 ) dan tangan (F H e 2 ) ketika melakukan tekan tubi]

(4 marks/markah)

F e 2 ) dan tangan (F H e 2 ) ketika melakukan tekan tubi] (4

Figure 1

[Gambarajah 1

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(ENT 218)

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(ENT 218)

(b) Consider an athlete who is pushing against a wall in figure 2 to stretch his Achilles tendons during a warm-up before an athletic event. The athlete has a mass m = 80 kg and a height L of 183 cm. The distance DB between the top of his head and his shoulders is 30 cm. The distance AC between the bottom of his foot and his center of gravity is 101 cm, and the distance AG between the heel and the toes is 25 cm. Assume further that the friction between the hands of the athlete and the wall is negligible.

[Pertimbangkan seorang atlit yang menolak dinding sepertimana dalam gambarajah 2 untuk meregangkan tendon Achilles semasa pemanasan sebelum acara olahraga. Atlit tersebut mempunyai berat m = 80 kg dan tinggi L ialah 183 cm. DB jarak antara bahagian atas kepala dan bahu adalah 30 cm. AC jarak antara bahagian bawah kakinya dan pusat gravitinya adalah 101 cm, dengan AG jarak antara tumit dan jari-jari kaki adalah 25 cm. Pertimbangkan lebih lanjut bahawa geseran antara tangan atlet dan dinding diabaikan.]

(i) Determine the forces exerted on the athlete by the wall and the ground as a function of the angle of inclination θ of 30°, 45°, and 60°.

[Tentukan daya yang betindak pada atlit pada dinding dan bumi dengan fungsian dari sudut θ kecerunan 30 °, 45 °, dan 60 °.]

(6 marks/markah)

fungsian dari sudut θ kecerunan 30 °, 45 °, dan 60 °.] (6 marks/markah) Figure 2

Figure 2

[Gambarajah 2]

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(ENT 218)

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