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TROPICAL & SUBTROPICAL PERENNIAL VEGETABLES

Compiled by Eric Toensmeier for ECHO Conference 2011 TREES


Genus Adansonia Artocarpus Bambusa Dendrocalamus Ensete Erythrina Leucaena Moringa Moringa Morus Musa Species digitata altilis spp. spp. ventricosum edulis esculenta oleifera stenopetala alba acuminata baobab Common Name Africa Asia Asia Origin Part Used Leaves, fruit, nuts Fruit Shoots Shoots Tuber & trunk starch Beans Beans Leaves cooked Fruit Lowlands Region Humidity Humid Mesic to arid

breadfruit bamboos bamboos enset

Pacific Africa India Asia

chachafruto guaje moringa moringa white mulberry

Andes Mesoamerica East Africa

Lowlands Low, high, subtropics Lowlands, subtropics Highlands Highlands Lowlands Lowlands, subtropics Lowlands, subtropics Low, high, subtropics Low, high, subtropics Low tropics Region Low, high subtropics

Humid to mesic Humid to mesic

Mesic to semi-arid Mesic to semi-arid Mesic to semi-arid Humid to semi-arid Humid to semi-arid Humid to semi-arid Humid to semi-arid Humidity Humid to mesic Humid to arid

Leaf, pods Leaf, pods

SHRUBS
Genus Abelmoschus Cajanus Species manihot cajan

banana, plantain edible hibiscus pigeon pea Common Name

Asia, Africa Pacific Origin

South Asia

Part Used Leaves cooked Beans

Carica Cnidoscolus Crotolaria Hibiscus Manihot Opuntia Sauropus

papaya chayamansa longirostrata acetosella esculenta ficus-indica androgynous

papaya chaya

chipilin

Americas Africa

cranberry hibiscus katuk

Mesoamerica Mesoamerica South America Mesoamerica Asia Asia Asia Asia

cassava, yucca, manioc nopale cactus

Fruit Leaves cooked Leaves cooked Leaves raw or cooked Roots, leaves cooked Pads Leaves raw or cooked

Low, subtropics Low, high subtropics Low, high, subtropics Low, subtropics Low, high, subtropics Low, high, subtropics Lowlands, subtropics

Humid to mesic Humid to arid Humid to arid Humid to arid

Humid to semi-arid Humid to semi-arid

VINES
Genus Basella Coccinia Diocorea Dioscorea Lablab Phaseolus Phaseolus Psophocarpus Species alba grandis bulbifera alata purpureus coccinneus lunatus tetragonobolus

Humid to mesic Humidity Humid to semi-arid Humid to mesic Humid to mesic Humid to mesic

Common Name ivy gourd

Malabar spinach air potato

Origin

white yam lima bean

lablab bean* runner bean winged bean

Asia & Africa Africa Asia Mesoamerica Americas

Part Used Leaves raw or cooked Fruit, leaves raw or cooked Aerial & mother tubers Tubers Beans Beans Beans

Region Lowlands, subtropics Lowlands, highlands, subtropics Low, high, subtropics

Beans, leaves,

Lowlands, subtropics Low, high, subtropics Highlands, subtropics Low, high, subtropics Low, high, subtropics

Humid to semi-arid Humid to semi-arid Mesic to semi-arid Humid to mesic

Sechium Trichostigma Tropaeolum Ullucus

edule octandrum tuberosum tuberosus

chayote ulluco

* Some lablab varieties (typically cover crop forms) are toxic.

Haitian basket vine mashua

Mesoamerica Americas Andes Andes Asia Asia

flowers, tubers Fruit, cooked leaves, tubers Leaves cooked Tubers Tubers, leaves Part Used Scallions, leaves Leaves, flowerbuds Tubers Tubers Leaves Tubers, shoots Tubers, leaves & stems of some vars. Leaves Tubers Tubers Tubers, leaves & stems of

Low, high, subtropics Lowlands Highlands highlands

Humid to semi-arid Humid to mesic Humid to mesic Humid to mesic

MEDIUM TO LARGE HERBS


Genus Allium Allium Alocasia Arracacia Brassica Canna Colocasia Gynura Oxalis Smallianthus Xanthosoma Species fistulosum tuberosum macrorrhiza xanthorhiza oleracea edulis esculenta crepioides tuberosa sonchifolia sagittifolium

Common Name garlic chives bore

Welsh onion

Origin

arracacha tree collards, colocha achira taro, malanga yacon Okinawa spinach oca cocoyam, taioba

Oceania Andes Andes Asia Asia Andes Andes Europe

Region Low, high, subtropics Low, high, subtropics Lowlands, highlands highlands Highlands Low, high, subtropics Low, high, subtropics Lowlands Highlands Low, high, subtropics Lowlands, subtropics

Humidity

Humid to semi-arid Humid to semi-arid Humid to mesic Humid to mesic Humid to mesic Humid to semi-arid Humid to semi-arid Humid to mesic Humid to semi-arid Humid to semi-arid Humid to mesic

South America

GROUNDCOVERS
Genus Alternanthera Ipomoea Oenanthe Tetragonia Species sissoo batatas javanica tetragonioides

some vars. Common Name Samba lettuce Sweet potato Water celery New Zealand spinach Origin South America South America Asia Pacific Asia Asia Asia Asia Asia Asia Part Used Leaves Tubers, leaves cooked Leaves Leaves Region Lowlands Low, high, subtropics Highlands, subtropics Highlands, subtropics Humidity Humid to mesic Humid to mesic Humid to semi-arid Humid to semi-arid Humidity Aquatic Aquatic Aquatic Aquatic Aquatic Aquatic Aquatic

AQUATIC SPECIES
Genus Eleaocharis Ipomoea Nasturtium Nelumbo Neptunia Oenanthe Sagittaria Species dulcis aquatica officinale nucifera oleracea javanica graminea

Common Name Water spinach Watercress Water lotus Arrowhead

Water chestnut

Origin

Part Used Leaves Leaves Leaves Leaves

Water mimosa Water celery

Eurasia

Tubers

Tubers, nuts Tubers

Region Low, subtropics Lowlands, subtropics Low, high, subtropics Low, high, subtropics Low, subtropics Highlands, subtropics Low, high, subtropics

Books & Websites Botanica de los Cultivos Tropicales. Jorge Leon, 2000. ECHO Seed Bank Catalog. http://www.echonet.org/content/SeedBank Edible Water Gardens. Nick Romanowski 2009. Food Plants International www.foodplantsinternational.com Fruits of Warm Climates. Julia Morton 1987. Lost Crops of Africa Volume 2: Vegetables. National Research Council 2006. Lost Crops of the Incas. National Research Council 1989. Perennial Vegetables. Eric Toensmeier 2007. Plant Resources of Southeast Asia 8: Vegetables. PROSEA 1993. Plant Resources of Southeast Asia 9: Plants Yielding Non-Seed Carbohydrates. PROSEA 1996. Plant Resources of Tropical Africa Database. www.prota4u.org Tropical Legumes: Resources for the Future. National Research Council 1979. World Agroforestry Center Agroforestree Database. http://www.worldagroforestrycentre.org/resources/databases/agroforestree Seed & Plant Sources Agrohaitai www.agrohaitai.com B&T World Seed Service http://www.b-and-t-world-seeds.com/ Earthcare Enterprises www.earthcare.com.au ECHO Seed Bank & Nursery http://www.echonet.org/content/SeedBank Global Breadfruit www.globalbreadfruit.com Las Canadas www.bosquedeniebla.com.mx Lilypons Water Gardens www.lilypons.com Moore Water Gardens www.moorewatergardens.com Pond Plants and More www.pondplantsandmore.com