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Shipping terminology C1 SHIPS Since the dawn of history boats have been used in rivers, and ships have

been used to cross seas and oceans, to carry goods and people from one place to another. The volume of cargo carried by ships continues to increase, and ships become larger and larger. The variety of cargo is also widening. For this reason many ships are built for particular cargoes. Tankers carry liquid cargo such as petroleum, and refrigerated cargo is carried in reefers. Other ships, called bulk-carriers, carry certain cargoes such as iron ore, grains or timber in bulk. Many vessels are built for certain duties: tugs for towing ships, dredgers for deepening channels, and specialist craft such as gas carriers, ice-breakers and floating cranes. New types of ships include container vessels and Ro-Ro ships. Container vessels carry large cases, or containers, of a wide variety of goods. They have a high service speed and can be loaded and discharged very rapidly. Ro-Ro ships have doors in their bows and sterns. These doors allow lorries, with cargo on them, to be driven on and off. Another new type of ship is the Lash-ship. The word Lash stands for lighter aboard ship. Lash-ships carry lighters or floating containers. Tankers known as VLCCs (Very Large Crude Carriers) are designed to carry over 200,000 tons. ULCCs (Ultra Large Crude Carriers) can carry over 400,000 tons of cargo. Although there is a wide variety of ships at the present time, more new designs are expected. Exercises 1. Study each of the following sentences carefully and state if it is true or false according to the information in the text. 1. Ships have been used only to cross seas. 2. Because the volume of cargo has increased ships continue to become larger and faster. 3. At present ships are built for special purposes. 4. Bulk-carriers carry iron ore, grains or timber. 5. Ships are towed by dredgers. 6. Dredgers are used to deepen channels. 7. Container vessels can be loaded quickly and discharged slowly. 8. Ro-Ro ships allow loaded trucks to be driven on and off. 9. Lash stands for Lighter alongside ship. B. Re-arrange the following group of words to form meaningful sentences. 1. design, ships, of, types, shipbuilders, new. 2. a, of, cargo, carries, a, kind, ship, special-purpose, certain. 3. on, some cranes, ships, board, have. 4. time, the, ships, a, is, there, of, variety, present, wide, at. 5. high, service, have, containers, speed, a. C. Give brief answers to the following questions. 1. What do tankers carry? 2. What do reefers carry?

3. 4. 5. 6.

What do bulk-carriers carry? What do tugs do? What do dredgers do? What does the word Lash stand for?

D. Rewrite the following sentences in the interrogative form. 1. The cargo carried by ships continue to increase. 2. We build ships for particular cargoes. 3. Tankers carry liquid cargo. 4. Container vessels carry containers. 5. Ro-Ro ships have doors in their bows. 6. Lash stands for lighter aboard ship. E. Observe the underlined parts in the following sentences: A tanker carries oil fuel. Tankers carry liquid cargo. An icebreaker breaks frozen water. Some ships have doors in their bows. There are not any ships in the harbour. The ship is in the dock. Now complete the following sentences using the underlined words where necessary. 1.Man has used ships since .. dawn of history. 2. .. ice-breaker is a special purpose ship. 3. .. ships are built for special purposes. 4. .. bulk-carrier carries iron ore. 5. This Lash ship doesnt have .. lighters on board. 6. .. ships are becoming larger and faster. 7. We do not have .. floating cranes available. 8. .. icebreakers sail in the arctic seas. 9. .. ULCC carries over 400,000 tons of cargo. 10. .. ships have doors in their sterns. Translate: Navele care transporta hrana au spatii mari izolate pentru transportul carnii, fructelor si produselor lactate si sunt prevazute cu instalatii de frig pentru a mentine spatiile la temperatura specificata pentru marfa ce este transportata.

C2 THE MAIN PARTS OF A SHIP The main structure of a ship is the hull. Within the hull are the tween decks or platforms on which the cargo rests. The uppermost platform or the upper deck, covers the holds in which cargo is stowed. It is loaded and discharged either by cranes on the quay or by the ships derricks. Derricks are operated by winches. The derricks are fitted to masts which stand on the upper deck. The cargo passes into or out of the holds through cargo hatches. At sea, the ship is controlled from the bridge by the captain and the navigating officers. The front part of a ship is called the bow and the rear part the stern. Near the bridge is the funnel. Smoke and gases pass through the funnel from the engine. The engine is fitted near the bottom of the ship in the engine room. The engine drives the propeller at the stern of the ship. The anchors and cables and the windlass are located in the bow of the ship. The right side of a ship facing the bow is called the starboard side and the other side is the port side. The beam is the greatest width of the ship. The draught is the depth of the ships bottom or keel below the water surface. The captain and officers are accommodated in cabins. These are located in the middle part of the ship near the bridge. The other members of the crew live in cabins. They are usually in the rear part of the ship. Exercises A. Are the following statements true or false? 1. The upper deck covers the holds in which cargo is stowed. 2. Cargo is loaded and discharged by the ships derricks. 3. Cargo passes through cargo holds. 4. The smoke from the engine passes through the funnel. 5. The right side of a ship facing the bow is called port and the other side is starboard. 6. The greatest width of the ship is the draught. 7. The captains cabin is in the middle part of the ship. 8. At the bow of the ship are the anchors and cables. B. Rearrange the following groups of words to form meaningful sentences 1. a, of, ship, is, the, structure, the, main, hull. 2. ship, officers, control, from, bridge, the, navigating, the captain, the, and. 3. the, drives, the, ship, propeller, the, engine, of. 4. bow, a, starboard, facing, side, ship, right, of, the, is, the. 5. water, the, is, surface, ships, below, keel, the. C. Give brief answers to the following questions: 1. What is a hull? 2. Where is the cargo stowed? 3. How is the cargo loaded and discharged? 4. What is the front part of a ship called? 5. What is the rear part of a ship called? 6. What drives the propeller? 7. Where are the anchors and cables located?

8. What is the greatest width of a ship? 9. Where are the captain and the officers accommodated? D. Ask questions to which the underlined words are the answers. Example: The funnel is near the bridge. Where is the funnel? 1. The engine is fitted near the bottom of the ship. 2. The anchors and cables are located in the bow of the ship. 3. The officers are accommodated in cabins in the middle part of the ship. 4. At sea, the ship is controlled from the bridge. 5. Cargo is stowed in holds. E. Study the following pairs of sentences carefully. (i) The captain and the navigating officers control the ship from the bridge. (ii) The ship is controlled from the bridge (by the captain and the navigating officers) Now complete the following sentences using the verbs in brackets in the form of (ii) above. 1. Cargo .. and .. either by cranes or by the ships derricks. (load/discharge) 2. Derricks .. by winches. (operate) 3. The captain and officers .. in cabins near the bridge. (accommodate) 4. The front part of a ship .. the bow and the rear part the stern. (call) 5. The anchor and cables and windlass .. in the bow of the ship. (locate) 6. Derricks .. to masts which stand on the upper deck. (fit) F. Try to solve the following crossword puzzle.
1 2 3 15 6 5 16 17 18 4 14

9 11 12 13

10 20

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ACROSS 1. A ship for carrying liquid (6) 2. Opposite to south (5) 3. Members of a ship. (4) 4. Sick (3) 5. An opening in a ship for cargo (5) 6. A ship with doors in her bow and stern (4) 7. Left hand side (4) 8. Stern (opposite) (3) 9. Lighter-aboard-ship (4) 10. Ultra large crude carrier (4) 11. Rear of a ship (5) 12. Opposite to West (4) 13. Wireless (5)

DOWN 14. The body of a ship (4) 15. Turned by the ships engine (9) 16. A place of shelter for ships (7) 17. Also (3) 18. Negative (2) 19. Without large waves (4) 20. Used by fishermen (3)

C3 SHIP ORGANISATION During a voyage, the ship is operated for 24 hours of every day. The day at sea is divided into 4-hour periods starting from midnight. These periods are called watches. They are named as follows: Midnight to 0400 hours -- Middle watch 0400 hrs to 0800 hours -- Morning watch 0800 hrs to Noon -- Forenoon watch Noon to 1600 hours -- Afternoon watch 1600 hrs to 2000 hours -- Evening watch 2000 hrs to Midnight -- First watch The work of the ship is organized under four departments: The Deck, Radio, Engine-Room and Catering Departments. The names of the personnel and the departments to which they belong are shown in the following table
CAPTAIN (Overall Command)

DECK DEPT. Officers Chief Officer Second Officer Third Officer Navigating Cadets Petty Officers Bosun Carpenter

RADIO DEPT.

ENGINE-ROOM D.

CATERING DEPT.

Radio Officer

Chief Officer Second Officer Third Officer Fourth Officer Engineering Cadets

Purser

Pumpman

Chief Steward Chief Cook

Ratings Greasers Able Seamen (ABs) Efficient Deck Hands Ordinary Seamen Second Steward Second Cook

The master of the ship, the captain, is in command of the ship. He is responsible for the efficient navigation of the ship, the lives of those on board, and the safe delivery of the cargo. The chief officer (first mate) is the senior deck officer. He is responsible for the work done by members of the deck department. He allocates duties to the junior deck officers, navigation cadets, the ratings and petty officers of his department. The chief officer usually is in charge of the morning and evening watches. He supervises the loading, stowage and discharge of cargo and ensures its safe keeping. The second and third officers usually keep 12 to 4 and the 8 to 12 watches, respectively. The second officer is often called the navigating officer. He is responsible, under the captain, for the navigation of the ship and for the care of the navigational equipment. The third officer is responsible, under the chief officer, for the safety equipment on board. The radio officer is responsible for all radio communications between the ship and other ships or shore stations. He reports directly to the captain who gives orders for radio

messages to be transmitted from the ship. The radio officer receives radio weather reports and navigational warnings. The chief engineer is responsible, under the captain, for the efficient operation of the main engines and all machinery on board. The purser, or the chief steward in ships that do not carry pursers, is the head of the catering department. He is responsible for all the catering on board and also for the ordering of provisions and for the organization of the catering department. The petty officer in charge of the deck department ratings is the boatswain (bosun). He works directly under the chief officer from whom he receives his orders daily. The carpenter is in charge of the hatchcovers and the general maintenance and deck repairs. Exercises A. Are the following statements true or false? 1. The day at sea is divided into four periods. 2. The captain has an overall command of the ship. 3. The deck department is under the command of the navigating officer. 4. The afternoon watch is between noon and 1700 hours. 5. The loading and discharging of cargo is one of the responsibilities of the first mate. 6. The radio officer works under the command of the chief officer. 7. The chief steward is responsible for the ordering of provisions. 8. The daily orders to the bosun are given to him by the chief officer. 9. The person in charge of the deck repairs is the carpenter. B. Re-arrange the following groups of words to form meaningful sentences: 1. bosun, the, directly, officer, works, the, chief, under. 2. responsible, board, on, all, the, steward, is, catering, chief, the, for. 3. engineer, the, second, assists, chief, chief, the, engineer. 4. reports, officer, weather, the, radio, receives, the, radio. 5. ship, be, to, radio, transmitted, from, the, messages, gives, captain, orders, the, for. C. Give brief answers to the following questions: 1. How many departments are there on board a ship? 2. Mention some of the responsibilities of the master of the ship. 3. Mention some of the duties of the chief officer. 4. Why is the second officer called the navigating officer? 5. Who is responsible for the safety equipment on board? 6. What is the main responsibility of the chief engineer? 7. What is the work of the carpenter? D. Ask questions to which the underlined words are the answers. 1. The day at sea is divided into six periods. 2. The captain has an overall command of the ship. 3. The chief officer is responsible for the loading and discharging of cargo. 4. The work of the ship is organized under four departments. 5. The second officer is often called the navigating officer. E. Observe the use of the underlined words in the following sentences. a. The second officer is called the navigating officer. b. Look at that pitching ship.

c. He works in the catering department. Now complete list A by choosing the right information from lists B. A 1. Catering boys 2. Rolling ships 3. Sailing vessels 4. Loading operations 5. Lifting machinery 6. Fire-fighting equipment 7. Steaming lights B. (i) give way to power-driven vessels in narrow channels (ii) are derricks and cranes (iii) should be regularly checked (iv) work in the catering department (v) are of great importance at night (vi) are uncomfortable for passengers (vii) are the responsibility of the first mate

F. Observe the two ways of expressing the same idea The master is responsible for the efficient navigation of the ship. The master is in charge of the efficient navigation of the ship. Now complete the following sentences: 1. The chief officer is in .. the morning and evening watches. 2. The chief engineer is .. for the efficient operation of the main engines. 3. The carpenter is in .. the hatch covers and maintenance. 4. The chief steward is ..for ordering provisions. 5. The person .. of the deck repairs is the carpenter. 6. The person .. for the overall command of the ship is the captain.

C4 CARGO AND ITS HANDLING The carriage of cargo by sea is the principal reason for the existence of ships. The officer in charge of the loading, stowage, and safe delivery of cargo is the first mate. Before the cargo arrives at the quay or ships side, he will have had information about the cargo to be loaded. Mixed cargo, such as bags of cement, crates of machinery, boxes of electrical equipment, motor car tyres, and crates of cotton goods, is known as general cargo. Cargo which is not in crates, boxes, bundles or bags, such as coal, iron ore and grain, is known as bulk cargo. The first mate draws up a cargo plan based on the information he has received of the cargo to be loaded. It is important that, if the ship is to discharge at more than one port, the cargo for the first port of discharge is stowed in the upper part of the hold. In other words, cargo which is to be discharged at the first discharging port should be loaded last. The first mate considers the stability of the ship when cargo is loaded. The ship must not be too stiff nor too tender to ensure that she will be safe in rough seas. The cargo must be securely stowed in the holds so that there is no possibility of the cargo shifting. Any movement of cargo in the ship might affect the ships stability and seaworthiness. The handling of cargo into and out of the ships holds requires great skill. It is the work of the stevedores. The stevedores work in gangs. Each gang is under the charge of a gang foreman. He usually stands on deck at the hatch when cargo is being discharged. When loading cargo the gang foreman usually supervises in the ships hold. The gang member who stands on deck near the hatch to advise the crane driver or winchman is called the hatchwayman. The winchmen operate the winches on board the ship. The cargo is checked as it is loaded by a tallyman. When loading general cargo as many as eight stevedores work in the hold and six on the quay-side or in the lighter alongside the ship. Exercises A. Are the following statements false or true? 1. The main reason for building ships is the carriage of passengers. 2. The captain is in charge of loading, stowage and delivery of cargo. 3. Unbagged or uncrated cargo is known as bulk cargo. 4. Cargo to be discharged at the final discharging port should be loaded last. 5. Cargo shifting in the holds does not affect the ships stability. 6. A gang foreman is in charge of a gang. 7. Winches on board a ship are operated by the hatchwaymen. 8. Tallymen weigh cargo as it is loaded. B. Re-arrange the following groups of words to form meaningful sentences: 1. tallyman, the, the, cargo, stevedores, as, load, it, checks, the 2. the, advises, hatchwayman, near, crane-driver, hatch, the 3. winchmen, winches, board, ship, the, on, operate, the 4. stevedores, cargo, and, handle, out, holds, into, of, the, ships, the 5. second, the, officer, in, of, loading, is, charge, stowage, and, not, safe, cargo, of, delivery

C. Give brief answers to the following questions: 1. Who is in charge of the safe delivery of cargo? 2. What mixed cargo do you know? 3. What is bulk cargo? 4. Which cargo is stowed first? 5. Why must cargo be securely stowed in the holds? 6. What is the work of the stevedores? 7. What is the work of a gang foreman? 8. Do tallymen repair TV-sets? D. Ask questions to which the underlined words are the answers: 1. The cargo must be securely stowed in the holds so that there is no possibility of cargo shifting. 2. The hatchwayman stands on deck near the hatch to advise the crane-drivers. 3. The ship must not be too stiff nor too tender so that she may be safe in rough seas. 4. Man has built ships to carry cargo. 5. The stevedores refused to work on Saturday and Sunday E. Join the sentences so as to express purpose F. Observe the underlined phrases in the following sentence: The cargo must be securely stowed in the holds. Now complete the following sentences, using the correct form of the given verb with the given modal: 1. If the cargo shifts, the ships stability .. (may, affect) 2. A cargo plan .. by the first mate. (must, draw) 3. Fragile items of cargo .. carefully (should, pack) 4. This shipment .. within three hours (can, load) 5. A space .. for your car if you wanted to (would, keep) 6. A ship .. off its course by wind and waves (might, drive) G. What kind of cargo is each of the following? 1. Boxes of electrical equipment 2. Boxes of cotton 3. Petroleum 4. Coal 5. Boxes of clothing 6. Wheat 7. Timber

C5 PACKAGING AND MARKING OF CARGO The general plan in packing all goods is to make them secure for the kind of journey they have to make. The following are the more common packages for goods. Bag: Sack: Carton: Case: (1) May be made of paper, linen, canvas or rubber. (2) A large bag usually made of jute. (3) Light but strong cardboard box. (4) Strong container made of wood. The inside of the case may be lined with material such as damp-resisting paper or tinfoil, to prevent damage by water, air or insects. Crate: (5) This is a case, but one not fully enclosed. It has a bottom and a frame, sometimes open at the top. Crates are often built for particular goods. Drum (6) A cylindrical container for carrying liquids, chemicals or paint. It is usually made of metal. Certain dry chemicals or powders are sometimes packed in wood or cardboard drums. Cask (7) A wooden container, in the shape of a cylinder, used essentially for packing liquids. Keg (8) A small cask. Barrel (9) A cask of medium size (capacity 36 gallons) Hogshead (10) Large cask. Bales (11) A package of soft goods such as cotton, wool or sheepskin, tightly pressed together and wrapped in a protective material. May be strengthened by metal bands. Can (or tin) (12) A small metal container for packing small quantities of paint, oil, or certain foods. Carboy (13) A very large glass container protected in metal or basket with soft packing between glass and basket. It is used for chemicals. Bundle (14) Various goods packed without a container. A number of small cartons fixed together is also called a bundle. There are three principal types of mark which are used on export packages. These are: 1. The consignees own distinctive mark. 2. An official mark required by authorities. 3. Special directions or warnings. SAMPLES OF MARKS (1) k R LTV X Durban Brisbane

3 Singapore
DO NOT STOW ON DECK STOW AWAY FROM HEAT HANDLE WITH CARE TO BE KEPT COOL

(2) THIS SIDE UP


INFLAMMABLE OPEN THIS ED FRAGILE

LIFT HERE DO NOT DROP KEEP DRY PERISHABLE

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Exercises A. Are the following statements true or false? 1. Securing goods for any journey is the general plan in packing. 2. A carton is a light but strong cardboard box. 3. A crate is a case not fully enclosed. 4. A cask of medium size is called a keg. 5. A number of small cartons fixed together is a bundle. 6. There are special directions or warnings on export packages. 7. Jute is used for making cases. B. Rearrange the following groups of words to form meaningful sentences. 1. bales, bands, are, by, metal, strengthened. 2. can, keeping, used, a, liquid, is, foods, for, or. 3. fully, crate, case, not, a, closed, is, a. 4. journey, goods, be, for, should, any, kind, packed, securely, of. 5. packages, export, used, distinguishing, on, are, marks. Give brief answers to the following questions: 1. What is the aim of packing goods? 2. What is a bag made of? 3. Why is the inside of a case lined with a damp resisting paper? 4. What are drums used for? 5. Which is smaller, a keg or a barrel? 6. How are soft goods packed? 7. What is a carboy? Ask questions to which the underlined words are the answers: A bag is made of paper. The inside of a case is lined with damp-resisting paper. Crates are often built for particular goods. A drum is a cylindrical container. Bales are strengthened by metal bands.

C.

D. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

E. Observe the two structures used for expressing the same idea: (i) A case which is not fully closed is a crate. (ii) A case not fully closed is a crate. Use structure (ii) in the following sentences: 1. A number of small cartons which are fixed together is a bundle. 2. Items of goods packed without a container are called bundles. 3. The marks used on export packages must be clear. 4. The official marks which are required by authorities must be used. 5. Read the directions printed on that package. F. In the text you find these two definitions: (i) (ii) A cask is a wooden container in the shape of a cylinder. A drum is a cylindrical container.

These are some other shapes:

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Try to change the following definitions as in the pattern in (ii). 1. A wheel is a device in the shape of a circle. 2. The sextant is an instrument in the shape of a triangle. 3. A hatch-board is a wooden cover in the shape of a rectangle. 4. The funnel in some ships has the shape of a cone.

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C6 NAVIGATION AND PILOTAGE The art of navigation is taking a ship from pace to place safely, quickly and economically. To do this properly, the ships position must be found frequently. In the interest of safety all observed positions should, if possible, be checked. When in sight of land, a ships position may be found by taking visual bearings of land-marks, such as towers, buildings and hill-tops, or of sea-marks, such as buoys and other floating beacons. In fog or mist the ships radar may be used to observe bearings of land or sea-marks. In shallow water a ships position may be found from soundings by which the depth of water under the ships bottom or keel, is found. When the ship is out of sight of land, her position may be found by observing the sun, the moon or stars, with a sextant. When near a coast or in the ocean, the Decca Navigator, Loran or a satellite navigation system can be used. The direction in which a ship is travelling is indicated by a compass, either magnetic or gyroscopic. The compass is used to set the ships course. The speed at which a ship is travelling is measured by a log. The unit of distance used by navigators is the nautical mile (6080 feet or 1852 metres). The unit of speed is the knot or nautical mile per hour. For short distances the cable, or one-tenth (1/10) of a nautical mile, is the unit used. For measuring the depth of the sea, the fathom (6 feet) is the nautical unit of length. A sextant, which measures the angle between the sun or a star and the horizon, is used to find the ships position. A chronometer and a nautical almanac are also required. A chronometer is an accurate timepiece and the nautical almanac is a book of tables giving astronomical data necessary for finding position. Exercises A. Are the following statements true or false? 1. Navigation is taking a ship from one place to another safely, quickly and economically. 2. Sea-marks are towers, buildings and hill tops. 3. Land or sea marks cannot be observed by radar. 4. A sounding is a measure of the depth of water under a ships keel. 5. A ships position may be found by a sextant. 6. Navigators use aids such as Decca and Loran. 7. The ships course is set by a compass. 8. The ships speed is measured in knots. 9. The nautical unit of length is the fathom. B. Rearrange the following group of words to form meaningful sentences: 1. compass, used, course, ships, a, indicate, is, to, a. 2. mile, of, nautical, a , distance, the, unit, is. 3. speed, used, cable, distances, to, the, measure, is, short, for. 4. accurately, ships, know, all, chronometers, provided, are, with, the, to, time. 5. nautical, tables, giving, data, astronomical, called, book, a, is, of, a, almanac. C. Give brief answers to the following questions: 1. Whats the art of navigation?

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2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

How can a ships position be found when in sight of land? Give examples of land-marks. How is radar used? How can a ships position be found when out of sight of land? What is the compass used for? Which unit of distance is used in navigation? What is a fathom? What information does a nautical almanac give?

D. Ask questions to which the underlined words are the answers. 1. 2. 3. 4. The unit of distance used by navigators is the nautical mile. The unit of speed used by the navigators is the knot. Decca and Loran are used as aids to navigation. The land marks used to find the ships position are towers, buildings and hill-tops.

E. An object is defined by saying the class it belongs to and its use. Example: Object - Compass Class - Instrument Use - It is used to set the ships course. Find the object and its class. Its use is given. a. It is used to give astronomical data necessary for navigation. b. It is used to give the accurate time. c. It is used to measure the angle between the sun or a star and the horizon. d. It is used as a unit to measure the ships speed. e. It is used to measure the depth of the sea. f. It is used to measure short distances. F. Change lexical modality into verbal modality. Choose the proper modal verb. 1. It is essential to find the ships position frequently.(can/may/must) 2. It is advisable to check all observed positions.(can/may/should) 3. It is possible to use the ships radar to observe bearings.(must/may/should) 4. It is possible to find her position by observing the sun with a sextant.(can/may/must) 5. It is possible to find a ships position by taking visual bearings of landmarks. (must/should/can) 6. It is imperative to stow the cargo properly in the holds.(should/must/can)

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C7 STEERING A COURSE

Orders to the helmsman, who steers the ship, are given by the officer of the watch. The officer orders the helmsman to turn the wheel (or helm) to port or starboard and to steady the ship on the new compass course. It is stated as a compass point or in three-figure notation in degrees. The helmsman repeats all orders given to him so that the officer knows that his orders have been understood. When the helmsman has completed his turn at the wheel, he states clearly the course to be steered to the relieving helmsman. He also repeats the course to the officer of the watch when reporting that he has been relieved. When the ship is on voyage, the wind and waves, as well as the action of the propeller, tend to cause the direction in which the ship is heading to change. The helmsman, therefore, must counter the swing of the ship by applying the rudder in the reverse direction of that of the swing of the ship. The art of steering a ship requires the helmsman to keep a very close watch on the compass and to turn the wheel as soon as the compass indicates that the ship is turning off course. An experienced helmsman is able to anticipate how the ship behaves. Most ships are equipped with gyrocompasses. A gyrocompass is an electromechanical instrument. But every ship is equipped with a magnetic compass the action of which is dependent upon the magnetism of the earth. The rudder fitted at the stern of the ship is turned by a steering engine. It is operated by the helmsman whenever he turns the wheel. If the steering engine fails, it is necessary to use an emergency steering system. Exercises A. Are the following statements true or false? 1. The officer of the watch gives orders to the helmsman. 2. The helmsman does not repeat each order given to him. 3. When relieved, the helmsman reports the course to the officer of the watch. 4. The wind, waves, and the action of the propeller do not affect the ships direction. 5. The helmsman is required to turn the wheel as soon as the compass indicates that the ship is turning off course. 6. The rudder is fitted at the stern of the ship. 7. Every ship must be equipped with an emergency steering system. B. Rearrange the following groups of words to form meaningful sentences. 1. is, mechanical, a, instrument, an, electro, gyrocompass. 2. emergency, is, ship, every, steering, an, with, system, equipped. 3. three, in, course, is, compass, notation, degrees, in, stated, figure. 4. by, the, watch, of, orders, to, the, one, helmsman, are, the, given, officer. 5. duty, to, very, compass, on, the, close, is, it, the, of, watch, keep, helmsman, the. C. Give brief answers to the following questions: 1. Who steers the ship? 2. What does the action of the magnetic compass depend on? 3. To whom does the helmsman repeat the orders he receives? 4. What turns the rudder of the ship?

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5. How does the helmsman counter the swing of the ship? D. Ask questions to which the underlined words are the answers: 1. The helmsman receives the steering orders from the officer of the watch. 2. The action of the magnetic compass depends on the magnetism of the earth. 3. The compass course is stated in three-figure notation in degrees. 4. The helmsman states clearly the course to be steered to his relief. E. Join each of the following pairs of sentences to form single sentences. Model: The officer o the watch gives orders to the helmsman. The helmsman steers the ship. The officer of the watch gives orders to the helmsman, who steers the ship. The smoke from the engine room comes out through the funnel. The funnel is near the bridge. The smoke from the engine room comes out through the funnel, which is near the bridge. 1. Most ships are equipped with a gyrocompass. A gyrocompass is an electro-mechanical instrument. 2. A steering engine turns the rudder. The rudder is fitted at the stern of the ship. 3. Steering a course requires an experienced helmsman. He can save time on voyage. 4. At the ships bow there are the anchors and cables. They are used to anchor the ship. F. Who are the persons who give/receive orders? 1. The radio officer receives his orders from . to send messages. 2. The chief officer gives orders to . who is in charge of the deck ratings. 3. The second engineer receives his orders from . 4. The chief cook receives his daily orders from .

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C8

Communication at sea

There are three main methods of communication between ships and the shore. These are: 1. Radio signals which may be passed using radio-telegraphy or radio-telephone. Radiotelegraphy uses Morse Code signals. Radio-telephony uses Very High Frequency (VHF) radio and allows spoken messages to be passed. 2. Daylight or night-time flashing equipment (such as Aldis Lamp) in which signals are sent in plain language using the Morse Code. 3. Flag signalling in which coded messages using hoists of flags are passed. Besides these methods sound signals may be used by the ships whistle or siren, or by bells. Rockets and flares are used for distress and certain other circumstances. Loud hailer uses voice which is amplified. Messages are most commonly passed in plain language. When they are so passed between ships of different flags, the English language (the language of the sea) is almost always used. Exercises A. Are the following statements true or false? 1. Radio-telephony is used to pass messages between ships and the shore. 2. Spoken messages can be passed by means of VHF. 3. Rockets and flares are used as distress signals. 4. The English language is the language of the sea. B. Rearrange the following groups of sentences to form meaningful sentences. 1. voice, hailers, loud, amplify. 2. used, and, in, flares, are, distress, rockets. 3. signals, to, is, radio, pass, used, telegraphy, radio. 4. telephone, are, spoken, by, radio, passed, messages. C. Give brief answers to the following questions: 1. What language is used at sea? 2. How many methods of communication are there between ships and the shore? 3. What kind of frequency is used in radio-telephony? 4. How is sound amplified? D. Ask questions to which the underlined words are the answers. 1. The Aldis lamp is used by night to send signals. 2. Messages are most commonly passed in plain language. 3. The English language is used by ships of different flags. 4. Rockets and flares are used for distress. E. Observe the position of the underlined words. 1. English is always used at sea. 2. He never travels by sea. F. Put the words between brackets in the correct position. a. Have you been on board a tanker? (ever) b. He sends messages by telegraph. (usually) c. Power-driven vessels give way to sailing vessels. (sometimes) d. The captain is on the bridge. (often) e. You can avoid collisions at sea. (hardly)

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