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Engineering Systems: Coursework 1 Handed Out: Thursday 3 November 2011 Hand in: Wednesday 24 November 2011, 12pm, Coursework

Box, GBegg Building Q1. (a) The cylinders of a four-cylinder in-line 4-stroke normally aspirated petrol engine are equally spaced and numbered consecutively from one end. The angles of the cranks of cylinders nos. 2, 3 and 4 relative to the crank of cylinder no. 1 are 180, 180 and 0 respectively. The engine develops 30 kW at 2000 rpm when tested on a brake dynamometer. An indicator diagram test on any one cylinder reveals that the work done on the gases during the compression stroke is around 0.25 times the work done by the gases during the power stroke. If (radians) is the angle made by the crank of cylinder no.1 from its top dead centre position, the cyclic variation of its contribution to the crankshaft torque (i.e. the individual torque due to cylinder no. 1 only vs ) is given by the following expression:

(T )cylinder no.1
where A, B are positive constants.

A sin = 0 B sin


for < < 3 for 3 4

Sketch the variation of the individual torque (T )cylinder no.1 over one four-stroke cycle and calculate the values of A and B. Label your sketch to show the greatest values of the individual torque during the power and compression strokes, and its mean value. [8 marks] (b) The cylinders fire sequentially according to the firing order 1-2-4-3. i Draw the cyclic variation of the resultant engine torque (i.e. resultant torque vs ) at 2000 rpm. Also indicate the mean value of this torque on your diagram. [7 marks] ii. Hence, find the moment of inertia of the flywheel necessary to keep the engine speed fluctuation within 0.1% of the mean speed, under a constant resisting torque. [10 marks]

The disc brake on a vehicle wheel (Figure Q2) consists of a pair of identical brake pads which clamp simultaneously to bear on opposite sides of a flat steel disc which is fixed to the wheel and rotates between the pads. Each pad has a bearing surface whose shape is that of a sector of an annulus with inner and outer radii r1 , r2 respectively. The pads subtend an angle at the centre of the annulus from which they derive and are positioned such that this centre is coincident with that of the disc. The axial thrust is W

and the friction coefficient is . Derive, from first principles, expressions for the braking torque T in terms of the given parameters only, assuming: (a) (b) uniform pressure distribution over contact area uniform wear over contact area.

[20 marks]



Front view

Side view

Figure Q2

A new sports car has the following published specifications and performance when fitted with a 1.8 litre, 4 cylinder, 16 valve, double overhead cam, turbocharged engine. Maximum Power: 190bhp at 7800rpm Maximum Speed: 140mph (level road, still air, with engine at its maximum power and car moving at constant speed) Mass (including typical loading): 1200kg Chassis dimensions (approx.): 1.7 1.4 4.2 m (width height length) Coefficient of drag for the vehicle is 0.34 Rolling resistance of the vehicle at 140mph is 200N Sea-level air density is 1.2 kg/m 3

a) Why may it be important that this car has 16 valves, what purpose do they serve and could their number be decreased (justify your answer with reference to the workings of an internal combustion engine). ANSWER IN LESS THAN 80 WORDS. [7 marks] b) Estimate the efficiency of the power transmission system in converting engine power to vehicle motion. [8 marks] c) Suppose the vehicle climbs a hill inclined at an angle to the horizontal at constant speed at the maximum engine power. Let the speed in this condition be denoted by

Vmax, (in m/s).

i. ii. Stating any assumptions made, calculate the values of Vmax, for seven different values of in degrees: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30. Convert these values of Vmax, into miles per hour and plot the resulting values against the corresponding values of (in degrees).

[10 marks] For part (c) of question no. 3 you may find Matlab computing particularly useful (to solve polynomial equations and plot graphs). On the Blackboard webpage of the Engineering Systems module you will find brief notes that teach you the basics of Matlab. Use of Matlab is not compulsory for this question.