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Hvitfeldtska Gymnasiet Naturvetenskapsprogrammet Projektarbete 100p 2012-04-05


Author: Alexander Wall, N3H (940120-7536) Supervisor: Bodil Nystrm

The Pros and Cons of Silver Use in Textiles

In recent years, suppliers of silver-based textiles have seen an upswing in consumption to their appeasement. However, there is much controversy on the usage of silver salts and atomic silver as antibacterial agents in clothing. In order to obtain empirical data on silver biochemistry as well as to better understand possible future directions, this study was commenced. An experiment with Escherichia Coli was conducted. These laboratory results indicated that even the highest concentration of silver found in natural waters could not act as a biocide but a possible growth inhibitor. Available extensive research have confirmed that there are several risks associated with silver-use, such as contamination of wastewater and sludge, bacterial resistance and a rare blue-grayish skin condition called Argyria. It was further noticed that there is a huge lack of knowledge regarding chemical uses in general and that further research is necessary before an eventual approval of a continued use of silvertreated textiles. Keywords: Silver, textiles, biocide, anti-odor, Escherichia Coli, sludge, wastewater

Alexander Wall

Table of Contents
1 2 Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 4 Literary Studies and Interviews .......................................................................................... 6 2.1 2.2 3 Silver in Textiles ......................................................................................................... 6 Biochemical Effects of Silver ..................................................................................... 7

Laboratory Experiment ..................................................................................................... 10 3.1 3.2 3.3 Material and Methods................................................................................................ 10 Data ........................................................................................................................... 11 Results ....................................................................................................................... 12

4 5 6

Discussion ......................................................................................................................... 13 Conclusions ...................................................................................................................... 15 References ........................................................................................................................ 17

The Pros and Cons of Silver Use in Textiles


Silver could be one of the first metals ever utilized by humans. Due to its resistance against corrosion and luster it was particularly used for jewelry; necklaces, earrings, wristbands etc. However, silver was more than mere decoration. The antiseptic and preservative qualities of the metal have been known since the age of the Chinese emperors. This would explain why the mineral was respected and acted as a symbol of beauty and divinity in ancient culture. During the Ancient era it was very common amongst the Persians to conserve water and wine within large silver vessels. It has also been documented that silver powder was used in Greece and Rome as a disinfectant for injuries (Atomic Silver, 2012). In spite of the significance of silver in human culture and medicine, the biocide has become a scapegoat for chemical pollution in modern times (Sultan, 2012). By the end of the 20th century, there was an increase in production as well as consumption of silver-based products. Nowadays, products like clothes, toothbrushes, towels, sponges and washing machines are treated with silver salts for antibacterial effect. (Kemikalieinspektionen, 2012). It is important to notice the difference in biochemical properties of silver due to its physical or chemical composition. Solid silver is a stabile physical form that can be used in jewelry, cutlery or containers without risk. However, silver ions (Ag+) have a higher toxic level than that of mercury (Nordn, 2012). According to The Silver Institute (2012) the world-leading silver producer is Mexico with a production of 128,6 million ounces (approx. 3,65 million kg), although Sweden can be found among the top 20 with 9,2 million ounces (approx. 0,26 million kg). In clothing, silver salts or silver nanoparticles are often found in socks, underwear, first-layer sporting garments and shoe insoles: All items with a high probability of sweat collection and consequently bacterial growth (Diener, 2011:16). The following terms will be used to describe clothing containing either silver salts or silver nanoparticles (atomic particles of silver that are 5 nm or smaller in diameter): silvertreated/silver-based/silver-impregnated textiles/clothing/garments. This study will mainly focus on silver-treated textiles. Potential environmental and human risks will be discussed. The purpose is to indicate eventual risks that are associated with usage of these products. Also, an experiment with Escherichia Coli was conducted to obtain empirical data about different concentrations of silver ions and how they possibly vary in antimicrobial properties. Relevant information on biochemistry, the textile industry and effects of silver ions and silver 4

Alexander Wall nanoparticles derive from literature, internet and personal communications by interviews. Six interviews were held for a documentary, which will also be a part of the project.

The Pros and Cons of Silver Use in Textiles

Literary Studies and Interviews

2.1 Silver in Textiles

As noted above, silver-treated textiles is a very popular product as the demand for hygiene wares designed to prevent and reduce growth of bacteria, fungi and algae is very high in modern society (GFMS, 2011:30). This would bring truth to the assumption that the silverbased garments are very effective in their uniqueness. Strangely, a study by Josefin Damm contradicts this assumption (2011: Abstract). Damm conducted a consumer test to investigate if there was any notable difference between the treated and untreated sportswear. The results showed no difference. When it comes to odor-free sportswear there are usually three antiseptics used, triclocarban, triclosan and silver (Ag) salts such as silver nitrate (AgNO3) and silver sulfadiazine (AgSD). Unlike the other two, silver is an element found in the periodic system and can thus never be decomposed to smaller parts. Further, silver is a natural element whereas triclocarban and triclosan are artificial biocides (Nordn, 2012). The antibacterial effect of sportswear follows a model called controlled release principle. When moisture or sweat is applied to the clothing it releases a corresponding amount of silver ions. However, this design has its flaws. When the same garment is put into the washing machine there is an enormous amount of silver release as the moisture levels in the machine are much higher than after an ordinary training session (Damm, 2012). In December 2011, the Swedish Chemicals Agency (Kemikalieinspektionen, 2012) issued a PM, as asked for by the Swedish Government, to set guidelines for companies selling antibacterial products. This was to minimize chemical pollution and the risks associated with it in society. The method in order to confirm suspicions of the release of silver ions to the environment was by washing odorfree clothes up to ten times. The results revealed that after ten washes with silverimpregnated clothes, there was a huge variety (10-98 %) in how many silver ions had been washed out. However, in several cases half of the silver ions were gone after only three washes. One of the major uses of silver salts has been in photographic film as silver halide salts (Wikipedia, 2012). However, as a result of the digitalization of the photographic film industry the remnants found in sludge decreased remarkably. But many scientists fear that an increasing production from companies and more frequent consumption of silver-treated clothing, primarily in the hygiene market, will increase the amount of silver found in sludge (Kemikalieinspektionen, 2011:8). In the Gothenburg region, these silver ions end up at the

Alexander Wall local sewage treatment plant GRYAAB. Christer Hansson (2012), an engineer at GRYAAB, explains that all chemicals, including silver ions, pass uninhibited through the cleansing processes and either end up in natural waters or sludge. In 2008, silver concentrations in natural waters varied between 0.03 to 500 ng/l (Luoma, 2008:6). Also, according to GRYAAB there was in January-Mars 2010 a concentration of 3,1 mg/kg of silver found in their sludge, that resulted in 8,2 kg of silver in total during that period. In addition, silver nanoparticles have shown a tendency to inhibit denitrifying organisms during sewage cleansing. However, silver ions in sportswear are thought to be much larger than nanoparticles and thus not as harmful in this regard. Moreover, recent studies have deduced that silver ions react to form silver sulfide in wastewater. Hence, the risk of it negatively affecting the denitrifying bacteria are heavily reduced (Diener, 2011:22). On the other hand, silver nanoparticles from clothing can still inhibit the denitrifying process and hence be a major threat against the quality of sewage water cleansing. As the PM written by the Swedish Chemicals Agency reveals, most of the silver ions found in wastewater or sludge come from consumers washing their antibacterial textiles. According to a survey conducted by Damm (2011) most consumers tend to stick to their ordinary washing habits, even though silver-impregnated garments dont need to be washed more often than 4 times per year. A counter-argument from Polygiene, one of the companies selling odor-free clothes, was that there was also a large amount of silver ions released into the ocean from worn silverware while showering. This statement was overruled by a report released by GRYAAB. They concluded that in order to release the same amount of silver found in sludge during one year it would require that every person in Gothenburg connected to GRYAAB (658.000) showered 1800 times per day for one year (GRYAAB, 2011:7).

2.2 Biochemical Effects of Silver

Whereas the antimicrobial effects of silver ions are well known the same does not apply for silver nanoparticles. Although it is known that silver bioaccumulates faster than any other trace metal and is especially bioaccumulative as nanoparticles (Diener, 2011:22). In an experiment (Kim, et al., 2007: 95), different concentrations of nanoparticles of silver were distributed in liquid systems. The results suggested that infinitesimal amounts of atomic silver can act as growth inhibitors for microorganisms and therefore be applicable during medicinal treatment.

The Pros and Cons of Silver Use in Textiles When it comes to silver ions there are many means by which they can harm bacterial cells. Silver ions react with amino acids in proteins, resulting in their denaturation. In this way they interfere with bacterial metabolism by inhibiting enzymes and causing metabolite efflux. Even in tiny amounts Ag+ can disturb the electron transport chain and cancel DNA replication, hence preventing the bacteria from reproducing or surviving the attack (Percival et al. 2004:2). The antimicrobial effects of silver ions have made them useful when treating serious ailments such as burn wounds. In these cases it is mostly the infection that causes the death of the patient. But with a combination of two antiseptic silver agents (AgNO3 and AgSD) the skin can be restored. However, using only AgNO3 can result in the skin blackening (Silver et al. 2006: 629). This irreversible skin condition is called Argyria and it is one of the major controversies when it comes to silver in medical care. It is caused by AgNO3 granules located in the dermis layer of the skin (Silver, 2003: 349). The image shows Rosemary Jacobs, one of the victims of Argyria. When she was eleven her mother told a medical doctor that she constantly had a cold. The doctor decided to give Rosemary nose drops containing silver ions to take regularly based on present need. Only three years later, when starting high school she had developed Argyria. Since then, she has become an activist against companies that sell silver-based products in health care such as colloidal silver. (Jacobs, 1998) (Picture source: silver1_801310c.jpg) Another controversy in silver-use is that of developed bacterial resistance. The resistance can either be intrinsic or acquired. The latter can arise through mutation or the acquisition of resistant plasmids; rings of genetic material and self-replicating DNA. Intrinsic resistance can be developed by reducing the permeability of the cell wall, hence minimizing the cells intake of the antimicrobial agent. In addition, resistant bacterial cells contain powerful enzymes programmed to decompose antibacterial compounds (Percival et al. 2004:3). But as silver is an element it is not possible to decompose. The first documentation for silver resistance in bacteria was in 1969 (SBU 2010:10). Further research has revealed that silverresistance exists in both bacteria that humans are in contact with and those that occur in 8

Alexander Wall nature. One study showed that 10 % of intestine bacteria are silver-resistant (SBU 2010:10). A study of antiseptic resistance in E. coli (Escherichia coli) where silver nitrate and silver sulfadiazine were used revealed that E. coli had a regulated outer membrane permeability which reduced the amount of Ag+ taken into the cell. The experiment tested both silversusceptible and silver-resistant E. coli and the results point out that even silver-susceptible E. coli sustain an active Ag+ efflux but not sufficient for it to negate cell death. It was further noted that by adding glucose as an energy source it accelerated the Ag+ efflux of the cell (Li et al. 1997: 6127). This suggests that antibiotic resistance can be caused by energy input and sustained by a more effective distribution of energy within the bacterial cell. The reason why silver resistance in bacteria is used as an argument against silver ions in consumer products is because it can cause resistance against other antimicrobial chemicals. It is known that the genes for silver- and antibiotic resistance are located at the same plasmid (Silver, 2003), though the exact link has yet to be proven (SBU, 2010:10).

The Pros and Cons of Silver Use in Textiles

Laboratory Experiment

3.1 Material and Methods

Purpose: To examine how Escherichia coli are affected by different amounts of silver ions. Hypothesis: There is a negative correlation between the amount of silver ions present in the final solution and the bacterial growth. Material: 8 Eppendorf-tubes, spreader, 16 agar-plates, 100 l pipette, adjustable 1-1000 l pipette, matches, candle. 0,1 M Silver nitrate, 70 % M Ethanol, Agar-Agar, Nutrient solution (Pure & with E. coli) Method: To ensure the sterility of the process and thus no external interference from other bacteria than E. coli, the work area was scrubbed with 70 % ethanol. Hands were rubbed with 70 % ethanol with regular intervals. 1. The agar plates were filled with warm agar-agar solution until the bottom of the plate was covered. The lid was placed on top and the process was repeated until 16 agarplates were finished. (They were cooled before the next step). 2. 900 l of Nutrient solution (With E. coli) was placed in B-H (they were shuffled before absorption). Pure nutrient solution was placed in A. 100 l of 0,1 M Silver nitrate was placed in C, the mixture was dilated with the pipette by absorption and release of the mixture (approx.. 10 times). 100 l from tube C was placed in tube D. This process was repeated until all tubes in the range C-H had received silver ions. 100 l from tube H was discarded to ensure that all tubes contained 900 l of the mixture. 3. To fully dilute the different mixtures all Eppendorf-tubes were placed (with closed lids) in a vortex mixer. 4. 100 l of A was placed in the first agar-plate, a spreader was used to cover the bottom of the plate with the solution. This process was repeated for the second agar-plate. But before using the spreader on the third (for tube B) it was cleaned with 70 % ethanol and the alcohol was burned over a lighted candle (the spreader was cooled afterwards). 5. Next, the agar-plates were filled with their respective mixture, the bacteria were placed in a heating cabinet with temperature 37 degrees Celsius to grow. 6. After two weeks, the results were examined. 10

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3.2 Data
Dilution Setup: A: 900 l Nutrient solution (Pure) B: 900 l Nutrient solution (With E. coli) C: 900 l (Nutrient solution + 10-2 M Silver nitrate) (With E. coli) D: 900 l (Nutrient solution + 10-3 M Silver nitrate) (With E. coli) E: 900 l (Nutrient solution + 10-4 M Silver nitrate) (With E. coli) F: 900 l (Nutrient solution + 10-5 M Silver nitrate) (With E. coli) G: 900 l (Nutrient solution + 10-6 M Silver nitrate) (With E. coli) H: 900 l (Nutrient solution + 10-7 M Silver nitrate) (With E. coli) Assessment Model (see picture): 0 No signs of growth 1 Mild intensity 2 High intensity 3 Extreme intensity (The differences in bacterial growth were determined by the density of E. coli colonies. In the pictures, whose colors are inverted, this is shown by an increasing thickness). Calculations: Example: Tube C Step 1: Calculate the quantity of Ag+ n(Ag+) = c(Ag+) V = 0,01 mol/dm3 900 l = 9 mol Step 2: Calculate the mass of Ag+


The Pros and Cons of Silver Use in Textiles m(Ag+) = n(Ag+) M(Ag+) = 9 mol 107,87 g/mol 0,971 mg Step 3: Calculate the concentration of Ag+ C(Ag+) = m(Ag+) V = 0,971 mg 900 l 1,079 g/l = 1079 mg/l Step 4: Repeat the process for tubes D-H C(Ag+) = c(Ag+) V M(Ag+) V = c(Ag+) M(Ag+)

3.3 Results
Tube Other E. coli Concentration of Ag+ (mg/l) 0 0 0 0 1079 1079 107,9 107,9 10,79 10,79 1,079 1,079 0,108 0,108 0,011 0,011

bacteria growth Blank (No E. coli or AgNO3) 1 Blank (No E. coli or AgNO3) 2 Blank (E. coli, no AgNO3) 1 Blank (E. coli, no AgNO3) 2 10-2 M AgNO3 (E. coli) 1 10-2 M AgNO3 (E. coli) 2 10-3 M AgNO3 (E. coli) 1 10-3 M AgNO3 (E. coli) 2 10-4 M AgNO3 (E. coli) 1 10-4 M AgNO3 (E. coli) 2 10 M AgNO3 (E. coli) 1 10-5 M AgNO3 (E. coli) 2 10-6 M AgNO3 (E. coli) 1 10-6 M AgNO3 (E. coli) 2 10-7 M AgNO3 (E. coli) 1 10-7 M AgNO3 (E. coli) 2

Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No No Yes

0 0 3 3 0 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3

Studying the results, see the table above, silver nitrate had functioned as a growth inhibitor for E. coli. In tube C, where 10-2 M AgNO3 was present there was no recorded growth of E. coli. The results also show a similar growth pattern in tube B (Blank (E. coli, no AgNO3)) and tube H (10-7 M AgNO3 (E. coli)). The reason behind AgNO3 working as a growth inhibitor is probably the large passage of time (2 weeks). Excluding contaminations the


Alexander Wall results are in accordance with the hypothesis which suggests that the silver ion concentration is negatively correlated to growth of E. coli. In C (10-2 M Silver Nitrate) there was no visible growth of E. coli, but in D-H there were signs of bacterial growth that amplified with decreasing Ag+ concentration. Interestingly, the most notable difference between each step in the Silver Nitrate distribution setup was between C and D, indicating that a concentration of 10-2 M Silver Nitrate or higher is deadly E. coli. The results of B and H are to the naked eye extremely similar, hence suggesting that a concentration of 0,011 mg/l of AgNO3 has no visible antimicrobial effect on E. coli. The lowest concentration in the dilution setup is far greater than the highest concentration of silver found in natural waters, 0.03 500 ng/l (Luoma, 2008:6). This suggests that the amounts of silver present in natural waters are hardly enough to harm bacteria, let alone multicellular organisms. Concerning the validity of the experiment, there are several circumstances that reduces the credibility of the results. First of all, the dilution setup could have been broader, with even lower concentrations of Ag+. This would have given a deeper understanding of how more natural occurring amounts of silver ions affects E. coli. Secondly, only E. coli were used for the experiment, it would have been interesting to learn how other microbe organisms reacted to Ag+ exposure. On the other hand, due to the importance of narrowness in this project perhaps it was sufficient to test only one bacterial group. Nonetheless, further research into silver salts as an anti-microbial agent or a possible growth inhibitor ought to be performed. In addition, the experiment should have been conducted in a proper laboratory instead of a classroom, this could have prevented contamination. Lastly, the study of the results could have been more precise and not merely what the naked eye could see. However, despite all these possible improvements the results received are definitely decipherable.


Based on interviews and literary studies it can be stated that there is a high amount of silver ions and silver nanoparticles leaking from silver-treated garments and as there is no way to isolate it in wastewater, it either ends up in the sludge or the natural waters. The lab results reveal that the amount of silver found in natural waters (0.03-500 ng/l) have infinitesimal or no antibacterial effect, assuming that the environmental differences such as the presence of organic material or other chemicals are negligible. However, silver nanoparticles, as mentioned above, have an intense antibacterial effect in lower concentrations. In addition,


The Pros and Cons of Silver Use in Textiles silver nanoparticles have interfered with the denitrifying bacteria during sewage cleansing. Hence, even though silver ions have not shown any direct signs of being harmful to the environment with the current concentrations, silver nanoparticles might be. One of the largest issues with chemicals such as DDT and PCB was the unpredictability of their impact due to synergetic effects from being gradually concentrated in the food chains of the ecological system. However, silver occurs naturally and have been used by humans for approximately 2 millennia. In addition, empirical data about silver biochemistry have been collected for many years. This reduces the risk of silver ions and nanoparticles having effects beyond expectancy although it does not remove the future possibility. The well-known precautionary principle is there to be recognized and respected. The only direct human impact noted henceforth is Argyria, which is a very rare skin condition that requires an immense intake of silver over many years. Also, workers at silver excavation sites have shown signs of headaches, fatigue and sleep disorders. Again, this was under an extreme exposure to silver (Damm, 2012). One of the largest controversies with the silver industry is bacterial resistance. Although it is confirmed that silver-resistant bacteria exist, the resistance in itself is not a cause of alarm as bacteria have developed resistance to many substances. A matter of higher interest is if it can cause antibiotic resistance to other substances thus making other biocides used in medicine ineffective. Considering the risks revealed from this assessment it makes one wonder if the usage of silver salts and silver nanoparticles in textiles is even in accordance with current legislation. If so, then companies marketing these products need to justify the massive pollution they cause. If not, then todays society already has enough widespread pollution for it to have time and resources to deal with further contamination of the environment. Moreover, as a part of the hygiene market, treatment of textiles fuels the lie that is a commonly accepted truth in society: That being clinically hygienic is healthy. In an interview, Gunnar Lindgren (2012) explains that bacteria play a very important role in our bodies and our surrounding environment. The increasing level of hygiene that modern western society aspires to reach can damage our immune system and cause autoimmune effects and allergies. Our white blood cells need to be exposed to bacteria with regularity in order for them to function properly. The anti-microbial products that consumers use wont provide their immune systems with the filth that it needs in a long-term perspective.


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To conclude this project, silver-based textiles expose eco-systems located in natural waters and in terrestrial environments to a risk. It has not been determined how much this industry contributes to the overall silver pollution yet it has been confirmed that the industry is a major cause behind it. It is important that we work towards a society free of unnecessary chemicals as hundreds of these substances are found in the blood of newborn babies and can cause allergies, behavioral abnormalities or even cancer (Lindgren, 2012). Even though silver ions or nanoparticles have not yet shown any direct risk towards humans it is vital that we discard the industry of silver-impregnated textiles. Finally the conclusions can be listed accordingly: Large quantities of silver ions and silver nanoparticles leak from washing anti-odor clothes. The amounts of silver ions presently found in natural waters are not an immediate environmental threat. With the present concentrations in natural water and sludge, silver is not harmful to human beings, but can indirectly affect us through an environmental impact. There is a huge lack of knowledge as to how silver in sludge will affect the terrestrial environment and agriculture. The suppliers of silver-impregnated garments need to justify their marketing of their products. The industry of silver-based clothing is unnecessary and ought to be discarded. Further research and discussions on these issues are strongly recommended.

The following persons are greatly acknowledged: Per Holtstrand, held the camera and supported me through my work, Bodil Nystrm, a great teacher and counselor without whose help acceptable experimental results would never have occurred, Gunnar Lindgren, full of wisdom, Lars Nordn, great help with information, Christer Hansson, information on GRYAAB and showed me the worlds largest wall-painting, Ann Mattson, guided me to the


The Pros and Cons of Silver Use in Textiles right people at GRYAAB, Josefin Damm, knowledge on silver-impregnated textiles and Anders Sultan, insight into the economic drama behind the scenes.


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Atomic Silver (2012a) Historical uses of silver [Online], Available: [25 Feb 2012] Atomic Silver Silver Trivia, [Online], Available: [10 Feb 2012]. Damm, J. (2012) Project coordinator at Textilhgskolan Bors (filmed interview 27 Jan 2012). Damm, J. (2011) Silver i luktfria klder En stinkande lsning. Published thesis (BS), Textilhgskolan Bors, [Online], Available at: [Online], Available at: Davidsson, F. (2011) Miljrapport 2010 Syrhla (version 2). GRYAAB Rapport 2011:2. Diener, D. L. (2011) Silver in the product stream: From consumer goods to sludge and water ecosystems with a focus on stakeholder positions. G. W. thesis, Chalmers University of Technology. GFMS (2011). The Future of Silver Industrial Demand. Commissioned by the Silver Institute, The Silver Institute. Retrieved from [24 Mar 2012]. Hansson, C. (2012) Operation engineer at GRYAAB (filmed interview 3 Jan 2012). [26 Feb 2012]. Jacobs, R. (1998) My Story, [Online], Available: [26 Feb 2012]. Kemikalieinspektionen (2012), Antibakteriella medel, [Online], Available: [6 Mar 2012]. Kemikalieinspektionen (2011) Antibakteriella mnen lcker frn klder vid tvtt. PM 4/11. [Online], Available at: Kim, J. S., et al. (2007) Antimicrobial effects of silver nanoparticles. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine, 3, pp. 95-101. Li, X. Z., et al. (1997) Silver-resistant mutants of Escherichia Coli display active efflux of Ag+ and are deficient in porins. Journal of Bacteriology, pp. 6127-6132.


The Pros and Cons of Silver Use in Textiles Lindgren, G. (2012) Environmental profile at Hgskolan fr scen och musik and Winner of Miljmedicinska priset 2001 (filmed interview 4 Jan 2012). CV available at: Luoma, S. N. (2008). Silver Nanotechnology and the Environment: Old Problems or New Challenges. Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars: Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies. Nordn, L. (2012) Environmental engineer at GRYAAB (filmed interview 3 Jan 2012). Nordn, L., et al. (2011) Silveravgng vid rengring och kemisk polering av silvergods. GRYAAB Rapport 2011:10. Percival, S., et al. (2004) Bacterial resistance to silver in wound care. Journal of Hospital Infection, 60: pp. 1-7. SBU (2010) Silverfrband vid behandling av kroniska sr. Stockholm: Statens beredning fr medicinsk utvrdering (SBU); 2010. SBU Alert-rapport nr 2010-02. ISSN 1652-7151., [Online], Available at: Silver, S. (2003) Bacterial silver resistance: molecular biology and uses and misuses of silver compounds. FEMS microbiology reviews, 27, pp. 341-353. Silver, S. et al. (2006) Silver as biocides in burn and wound dressings and bacterial resistance to silver compounds. Journal of Industrial Microbiology, 33, pp. 627-634. Sultan, A. (2012) Development manager at Ion Silver (telephone interview 5 Jan 2012). The Silver Institute (2012) Silver Supply, [Online], Available: [24 Mar 2012]. Wikipedia (2012) Photographic Film. [Online]. Available from: [25 Feb 2012].