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Reyes, Richard Per.

4 AH 2/2/12

Unit 3 Art History Exam 2: Early Renaissance Through Mannerism


1. Madonna Duccios: Florence, 1308 (egg tempera on wood) Jesus is sitting Marys body is completely covered there is no movement in her clothing everyone is looking down at Mary less realistic because no ones face is covered by the person in front of them, as it would be in a real crowd Byzantine style there are no angels Giottos: Florence, 1310 (tempera on wood) Jesus is floating Mary is sitting on a thrown you can see Marys body under her clothes because the material flows around her body Jesus has is hand out as he is preaching everyone is looking up towards Mary more realistic because peoples faces are being covered amongst the crowd, as they would be in reality usage of the Byzantine style angels below Mary As we shift from the Medieval Age to the Renaissance Age, we enter a period of thought and logic. This was reflected in the art as well, as we see a more realistic style of painting. A major consept that was introduced in the Renaissance Age, was that of getting closer to G-d through observing the world. Artists, such as Giotto, embodied this idea, as they sought to create a more realistic style of art, in efforts the get closer to Gd.

2. The triangle representing Holy Trinity:The Last Supper, Milan, Sta. Maria della Grazie. Jesus body, the three windows, the apostles grouped in threes represents the Holy Trinity. The use of the triangle directed the eyes of the viewers to Jesus. Triangle- (Architecture) most sound and stable structure. - This idea presents the comfort, trust, and stability in the Father, the son, and the Holy spirit for the believers of Christianity. 3. Tribute Money:

When: 1427. Where: Branacci Chapel. Who: Masacio. What: painting. Why: He was commisioned by Brancacci to decorate the walls with scenes from St. Peter's life. - historical significance - starts to use body language, facial structure to show emotion; uses texture to create illusion; all figures have their own faces and characteristics - made to tell many biblical stories in just one panel -Shows influence of Giotto through emotions. Uses linear perspective -Atmospheric haze:the blue/grey fade in the background What additional advancements in naturalism does this artist show beyond Giottos Arena Chapel works? -Body Gesture- to show more emotion and make it even more realistic -figures can fit in doorways- shows their better understanding of proportionality -individual characteristics- again, shows more distinct emotion and makes it more realistic -chairo scuro- the usage of light and dark colors, making shadowsm to show depth. makes it look three dimensional -Peter is repeated three times in the image. he is the disciple that retrieves the gold coins from the mouth of the fish. THREE=HOLY TRINITY! Scenes Depicted: 1. Jesus and his apostles are traveling to Rome but they are stopped by a Roman guard. They are required to pay in order to get in.

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Peter points to the water where there are Fish and Jesus tells St. Peter to go open the mouth of the fish. 3. As he does what he is told he finds a coin and uses that to pay the guard so that they may pass. 4. Landscape Who: Leonardo da Vinci What: Pen/Ink drawing/sketch When: 1473 (When he was age 21) Where: It is now located in the Uffizi Gallery, Florence, Italy. Why: Naturalistic realism discovered by Leonardo himself. Conveys sense of landscape in process with movement and growth, essence of nature not just appearance. Ink line that vibrates, laid down rapidly, living natural world. Captures falling water, trees blown by wind, mountains cut by water down to river valley below. Command of space near and far. Penetrating observation and rapidity of representation. Incessant curiosity about the world around him, his work always reveals his intellect and imagination 5. Mona Lisa What: Oil Painting Who: Leonardo da Vinci Located: Louvre Museum, Paris, France When: 1503-1506 Why/Historical Significance: Mona Lisa was painted because Leonardo was commissioned by a private patron. This made him realize that artists didnt have to be hired by the Church and paint religious pieces of art. They no longer needed to paint only for the church, and this opened up the art world for all artists. With that being the case, artists now had a much more broad selection of things to paint, not just religious scenes, which allowed the art world to be opened up. 1. What did Mona Lisas smile mean to Leonardos peers? Mona Lisas smile acted as a visual pun for Leonardos peers. This was because the Italian name for this painting was La Gioconda, which means joyous, so her smile may have served as a visual pun to Leonardos peers.

2. How do art historians interpret that famous smile today? Art historians characterize her smile as submissive because the art style of that time. During the period in which the Mona Lisa was painted, the art style that was popular was the submissive appearance, which is why art historians characterize her smile as submissive. 3. Why does everyone recognize this painting and what does that tell us about visual notoriety?

Everyone recognizes this painting because it has been popularized around the world. When one sees this painting, they instantly know that it is the Mona Lisa, but they may not know anything about it or who painted it. This tells us that this painting has become so common in society that it has lost its meaning. The Mona Lisa has become a cultural icon rather than an appreciated piece of art.

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Last Supper Who: Leonardo da Vinci What: tempera and oil on plaster When: 1495-98 Where: Refectory Wall in Sta. Maria della Grazie Church, Milan, Italy Why: Jesus pose he is silent, sad submissive with one palm down and one up, pointing to the bread and wine (body and blood of Eucharist). He has open arms and is still flanked by groups of 3 by 2 on either side. Triangulation of body of Christ refers to the trinity, as an abstraction. Advance in expressionism the groups are agitated and create ten-

sion and movement. Full range of response is shown in these individualized apostles to the announcement that one would betray Christ. Leonardo also uses perspective and linear lines to force ones eyes right to Christ who is the center of the very emotional painting. Through the mannerisms on the table of the different people Leonardo shows emotion expressed in more than just the faces of characters. He is now able to use body language to

convey an emotion to the viewer, rather than just facial expression. Also, because he placed the people in groups around the table, all doing different things, and on different planes of the painting, he has advanced expressionism even more. (groups o f people are in three once again relating back to the holy trinity) 7. David Who: Michaelangelo Buonarroti What: marble sculpture (165 tall) When: 1501-04 Where: Florence, Italy (Originally to be placed on top of the Cathedral of Florence, but then moved to the front of City Hall) Why: Previously intended to be placed on roof of cathedral, but by time he finished there was no thought to hide it up so high up. Cut from a single block of stone, instantly acknowledged and celebrated in Florence and decided by city leaders to be placed in Plaza beside the Palazzo Vecchio. Completely nude, a biblical figure, but this was a completely new convention for renaissance. For Michelangelo the body alone was the principle means to reveal the emotion of figures. Posed in remarkable contraposto stance, chiastic scheme. One hand holds the sling, the other the stones, David watches distance with furrowed brow, resilient curve like bowstring. Hands and head over sized to emphasize guardian qualities as civic protector of Florence, with size and age not per the biblical story. Icon - The Biblical story behind this statue is about David who defeated the giant and horrible ruler, Goliath. At the time the sculpture was made, the Medici family ruled over Florence in a horrible way, that the people related to Goliath. Now that David is placed in front of city hall, he shows the triumph over the horrible ruler and inspires the people to want to be ruled justly. He is an icon for the people who govern Florence, to govern justly, just as he defeated a horrible ruler.

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Sistine Madonna Who: Raphael

What: Oil on canvas, painted as altarpiece for Pope Julius II When: 1513 Where: Relocated to Gemldegalerie Alte Meister (old masters) of Dresden, Germany (Originally made in Piacenza, Italy) Why: Benedictines of the monastery of St. Sixtus ordered this picture. They had required that the Virgin and the Infant Jesus should be in the company of St. Sixtus and St. Barbara. This is how Raphael entered into their views. historical because the last of his madonnas he created. St. Sixtus kneels at feet of Mary with arm pointing out to viewer, with features of pope, with St. Barbara on right. Raphael was famous for his Madonnas, but this one is standing miraculously on clouds framed by curtains on sagging rod, strange device that reveals figures as a vision. Tallest of his Madonnas, 9 high, with triangle composition on solid clouds, with 2 cherubs (now much appropriated and famous) along baseline looking boredly up at clouds, with papal tiara on the left. Pope/St. is wearing a beard, unheard of for a pope, because he was at war with France and swore not to shave until they were expelled from Italian peninsula. The illusion of this work was significant for later painters and was often borrowed. Trained in fresco and oil painting by Perugino, in whose studio Raphael learned to master perspective. The artist was very charming and talented, which helped his rise in art patron circles. Reputation was unassailable, both for art and life, but his works appreciation falters from time to time. one of the masters of the High Renaissance because Raphael was able to put expressionism and perspective together in order to create an art peice even more realistic. Viewers considered his work to all be beautiful and well balanced from all aspects as they also considered him to have good taste. School of Athens

Who: Raphael What: Fresco When: 1510-11 Where: Pope Julius private Library, Vatican Palace, Vatican City Why: This work contains figures of history such as Euclid, pythagoras, a man with galateas pose, michaelangelo, Plato, and Atistotle. With this onslaught of characters, Raphael shows great mastery of rational control of composition of ideas.