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Development and Eigenvalue Calibration of an Automated Spectral Mueller Matrix Measurement System

Harsh Purwar, Jalpa Soni, Harshit Lakhotia, Uday Kumar, Ayan Banerjee, Nirmalya Ghosh Department of Physical Sciences Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata, India
Email: harsh@iiserkol.ac.in

Introduction
Polarization properties of light are helpful in: Understanding the interaction of electromagnetic waves with matter, Exploring the characteristics of chemical bonds, Understanding the complex nature of biological systems and in other areas. Polarimetry: Polarization parameters are of great interest to biomedical applications. Multiple scattering causes numerous complexities in systems like biological samples, where the traditional polarimetry (well suited for clear media) is not very effective. The Stokes-Mueller formalism helps to correctly determine the actual properties of the system. Several polarimetric methods are proposed over the years to measure the Mueller matrix and also to calibrate the system for accuracy. A fully automated method is presented here for recording the spectral Mueller matrix ( ~ 400 700 nm) calibrated using Eigenvalue calibration method, with elemental errors reduced to less than 0.01.

Mueller Matrix & its Decomposition


The Stokes parameters can be determined by six intensity measurements. + = = Mueller matrix Transforms the Stokes vector describing the polarization properties of incident light to the Stokes vector of scattered light. Gives complete information about all the polarization properties of a medium 0 = . =
Measured Mueller Matrix () Polar Decomposition Depolarization Matrix ( ) Retardance Matrix Diattenuation Matrix L , ,

Our Measurement Strategy


Polarization State Generator ( ) comprises of a linear polarizer followed by a quarter wave plate. It, in principal can be used to generate any polarization state.
= 1 0 0 0 0 2 2 1 + 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1
2 2 1 + 1 1

0 1 1

1 1 0 0

1 1 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

1 0 0 0
Si

Polarization State Analyzer ( ) is dedicated to the measurement of an unknown Stokes vector. It can be described by a characteristic matrix A that links the measured intensities to the input Stokes vector.
= 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 2 0 1 + 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1
2 2 1 + 1 1

MM for QWP

MM for LP at H position

0 1 1

MM for LP at V position

MM for QWP

, ,

Measured Mueller vector,


=

For 4 chosen angles of the generator quarter wave plate,


, ,
= 1 2 2 1 + 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 + 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 3 + 3 3 3 1 3 1 1 1 2 2 1 3 3 1 4 4 1 1 2 2 4 + 4 4 4 1 4 1 2 3 4

Experimental Setup

accounts for the depolarization (linear and circular) effects of the medium. incorporates retardation effects (linear and circular retardance: difference in phase between orthogonal linear or circular polarization states). accounts for diattenuation (differential attenuation of two orthogonal linear or circular polarization states).

Similarly, for 4 chosen angles of the analyzer QWP,


2 2 1 1 + 1 2 2 1 2 + 2 2 2 1 3 + 3 2 2 1 4 + 4

Hence, measured Mueller vector is given by,

= =

Eigenvalue Calibration
Schematic of the experimental setup for transmission geometry with angle resolved Mueller matrix measurement.

Consider,
0 = , 1 = 0 = 1 , = 1 = 0 = 1

Optimal angles, s and s were computed so as to maximize the determinant of the matrix.

Mueller matrix of the sample with both diattenuation and retardance takes the form,
= 1 cos 2 0 0 cos 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 sin 2 cos sin 2 sin sin 2 sin sin 2 cos

Results
PSG Matrix PSA Matrix

and has four eigenvalues (2 real & 2 imaginary). Matrices , and being similar have the same eigenvalues, which are
1 = 2 cos 2 , 1 = sin 2 , 2 = 2 sin2 2 = sin 2 1 , 2 Air Mueller Matrix QWP Mueller Matrix = 1.61 rad. 1 + 2 = , 2 = tan1 2 = ln 1

So,

Consider equations,
= 0

with a unique solution, = . 4 4 matrix can also be written in a 16 1 basis as follows


Schematic of the experimental setup for backscattering geometry with microscopic configuration.

where is a 16 16 matrix. Matrix is,

16 = 0

Null Elements of the MM for QWP

An estimate of the elemental error for a LP

Conclusions
Completely automated novel spectral Mueller matrix measurement system for both elastic scattering and inelastic scattering (fluorescence) polarimetric measurements has been developed. To generate four required elliptical polarization states using a PSG and a PSA unit, four different angles for retarders were calculated and optimized to obtain most stable Mueller matrix with least experimental errors. The performance of the system has been calibrated using Eigen value calibration method with the order of average error to be less than 0.01. Initial results of tissue samples show quite interesting diattenuation effects, indicating possible applications of such study in diagnosis of diseases like cancer. These observations surely suggest that tissue polarimetry needs to be done more thoroughly, and current studies regarding these investigations are underway in our laboratory.

where, are constructed from and is a 4 4 matrix given by,


= for = 1,2,3, , 16 =
1 1 + 2 2

= 1 , 2 , 3 , , 16

Finally the solution of the above equation is given by,


+

Quantitative MM Fluorescence Polarimetry


Decomposition derived diattenuation for a synthetic dye Coumarin 102 (M. Wt. 255) ~ 1 mM dissolved in different solvents of different viscosities.

is a positive symmetric real matrix with a null eigenvalue, because it has a unique solution 16 of the equation 16 = 0. It has been shown that the eigenvector of with zero eigenvalue gives the 16 elements of the (PSA) matrix. From , can also be obtained using, = 0 1 .

Limitations & Advantages


Limitations: Minimum two reference samples are required to uniquely determine PSG and PSA matrices. The forms of the Mueller matrices of reference samples must be known. Advantages: Choice of reference samples is independent of PSA and PSG matrices. Need not correct for the source and detector polarization responses. Optical elements constituting PSG and PSA need not be ideal. PSG and PSA matrices are obtained using eigenvalue calibration method over the spectral range ( = 400 700 nm.). System can easily be automated for fast and easy data acquisition.

Applications in Biomedical Polarimetry


Decomposition derived diattenuation for normal and cancerous human cervical tissues (biopsy samples)

References
1. E. Compain, S. Poirier, B. Drevillon, Applied Optics, 38, 3490 (1999). 2. N.Ghosh, A. Banerjee and J. Soni, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 54, 30001 (2011). 3. N. Ghosh and I. A. Vitkin, J. Biomed. Opt., 16-11, (2011). 4. C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, [Absorption & Scattering of Light by Small Particles], Wiley, New York (1983). 5. R. A. Chipman, Polarimetry, Chap. 22 in [Handbook of Optics], 2nd Ed., M. Bass, Ed., Vol. 2, pp. 22.122.37, McGraw-Hill (1994).