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DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02

ENGINEERING TEAM PROJECT

DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE BY GROUP 2


MUHAMMAD SYAFIQ BIN MOHAMAD KHAIRI AISHAH SAKINAH BT ABDUL HAMID NOR AMALIA BINTI HUSSIN SUNTHARESAR A/L SHUMMUGHAM IKHWAN BIN MD SHAHSAZIZAN FARIZUL FAHMI BIN SHAHRANI ( 15312) ( 13020) ( 13291) ( 15309) ( 15483) (16606)

SUPERVISOR : DR. SHARUL SHAM B. DOL JANUARY 2012

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI PETRONAS BANDAR SERI ISKANDAR 31750 TRONOH,PERAK DARUL RIDZUAN
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DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Alhamdulillah, praise to Allah (S.W.T), with His will, we finally completed this project, drain cleaning machine. First of all, a special thank goes to our supervisor, Dr. Sharul Sham bin Dol. The supervision and support that you gave, truly help us in doing this project. Although your time with us was limited due to your time constraint and your problems, we really appreciate the time you spend with us before. You advices and ideas were really helpful in making our project, the drain cleaning machine become successful. The co-operation is much indeed appreciated. Our grateful thank also goes to Dr. Suhaimi Hassan for spending his time for fabrication of our drain cleaning machine. Your advices and recommendation for our project really helps us for Pre-SEDEX presentation. The project would be not successful if there is no guide and recommendation from you. Not forgotten, the two panels that judges our project during Pre-SEDEX, thank you very much for your advices and comments. We will noted the points so that there will be no more same mistakes when we doing the project in the future. The last and foremost, thank you to our parents, family and friends for supporting us. Without your support either for financial or motivation, we will not be able to finish this project. Thank you very much to all.

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DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02

ABSTRACT
In this Engineering Team Project, the project was done to produce a machine, which is called Drain Cleaning Machine. The idea is based on our observation towards problems faced by people to clean drains at their house by using conventional method (ordinary brush). Observations were conducted from type of drain, drain cleaning problems, design of the machine and economical consideration of the machine. From an online shop in the web, this machine was still not famous in the market of Malaysia and still not available in certain places. Moreover, the available machines were for large drains and there is no water supplied from the machine. Therefore, our machine was specifically for an open drain sized 0.3m width and 0.15 depths with a water supply that can straight away cleaning dirt after we brushed it. The design of the machine was made ergonomically in order to ease women to use it as well. It is specifically designed to be lightweight, easy to handle and affordable. The specifications of the machine will be explained later in the next chapter. As the result of our experiment, the machine takes only 30 minutes to completely clean the drain compared to the conventional method (using ordinary brush and manpower to scrub) that takes about more than one hour to completely clean the drains. Therefore, it is proven that the machine can save time and manpower. From economic views, this machine is affordable because the cost for making this project is only RM 199.60. As the conclusion, this project is useful for people doing their chores in cleaning drains. With the aid of water supply, the effectiveness of this machine will be more. It will give a great implication to our daily lives as our work will be easier and save time and money too.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
No 1 2 3 Subjects Background of project Identification and definition of problem 3.1Objective 3.2Scope 4 Project management 4.1Gantt Chart 4.2Task allocation 5 6 7 8 9 10 Literature review Theory Procedure / Methodology Engineering analysis Business / economic analysis Results and discussion 10.1 Result 10.2 Discussion 11 Conclusion Recommendation 12 13 References Appendices 39 40-43 38 12-20 21-22 23-26 27-30 31-32 33-37 10-11 Page numbers 5-6 7-8 9

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1.PROJECT BACKGROUND
Open drains are the most common means of transporting wastewater in most countries. The significant of open drains can be seen during heavy rains; clogged drains usually lead to flash flood during heavy rain in cities where natural water reservoir is unavailable. Flash flood does not only blocking roads but also cause rubbish from the drains to float and also contamination towards people. In Nigeria, 93% of the population had parasitic infection and water borne due to contaminated open drains. This is why maintaining open drainage system is important because people are able to be in contact with them unlike closed drainage system. From our research through websites, drain cleaning machine is hardly to find in Malaysia. If we search through markets, the price is expensive and the function only for brushing dirt and not be able to unclogged rubbish and watering the dirt after cleaning. In this project, we will design a drain cleaning machine that could clean and unclog open drains easily. This machine is the combination of the conservative brush which is used to clean drain and a water jet. A rotating brush is inserted to ensure efficient cleaning impact to the drain compare to one direction of normal brush and also break any obstacle that clog the drain. High pressured water is use to break any accumulated clog that prevent water to flow. By this action, we do not need to take out the sludge in the drain. Therefore, our machine is different from any drain cleaning machine in the market. There are few aspects that we analyzed in making this machine such as:

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DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 The depth and width of the drain this is to ensure that the brush can be rotated perfectly The motor speed, torque, and horse power to ensure the speed of brush is bigger than friction force as it will affect the effectiveness of the brush. With the invention of this drain cleaning machine with water jet, it will gives advantages to society especially whose dealing with this business. Cleaning drain is not a difficult task anymore for human.

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2.IDENTIFICATION AND PROBLEM DEFINITION


Open drain can be seen almost everywhere especially in housing area. It acts as a channel to transport waste water from houses or storm water .Maintaining an open drain is important because it is directly in contact with human and can be a medium to transmit disease unlike closed drain. A blocked drain could trigger flash flood in town during heavy rain .For example, the flash flood occurred this year in Raffles City Mall, Singapore ,is believed to be caused by clogged drain at the ground level said the Phyllis Cheong, the spokesman to the The Straits Times . The problem is there are no efficient tools to maintain and clean open drain like the closed drain. Tools that are usually used to clean open drains are brush with stick that needs a lot of energy and hoe that is used to pick up rubbish that blocked the drain. These tools are not effective and time consuming to complete a simple task. In term of workforce on developing the prototype, we also detected a few problems. These problems might cause some delay or imperfections in our project. The problems are as below:

I.

Task Constraint

This team project consists of mostly Mechanical Engineering disciplines. Therefore, there are some difficulties in evenly assigning the tasks that need to be done. The other team members from other engineering disciplines are assigned with tasks which are related to them. Knowledge limitation is also a problem since mostly all the team members have extensive knowledge and experience in engineering.

II.

Resources Constraint
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DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 The ETP budget is set at maximum RM 200 for all teams. We went from shop to shop to get lower price for some of our equipments. Extensive demonstration using expensive equipment is impossible so other alternatives must be identified.

III.

Time Constraint

We have time constraint since we are taking other subjects. We have to cope with other subjects and the Engineering Team Project (ETP). Assignments and tests for other subjects consume a significant amount of time causing less time for the ETP.

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3.OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE OF PROJECT


3.1 OBJECTIVE This project focuses on cleaning and unclogging open drainage system. There are several main objectives for this project: i. To design a machine that is able to clean open drains efficiently and effectively. Using power supply to rotate the brush, more force is exerted on the drain surface which results in better result than using human force alone. Rotating brush breaks through clogged obstacles and unclogged them. ii. To create a drain cleaner machine that could unclog drains without the need to remove them out from the drains. The rotating brush alone is not enough to make the clogs particles to flow, installation of water pump to supply water to the rotating brush helps to break the clog into smaller pieces and allow them to flow easily with the water. Therefore, risks for flash flood to occur would be reduces as the drains are not clogged with rubbish.

3.2 SCOPE OF PROJECT There are four scopes in producing this prototype. Firstly, we would like to produce a drain cleaning machine that is specifically for open drains of housing area of size 0.3m width x 0.15m depth. This is to ensure the machine could work efficiently to that particular drain. Secondly, there is no distance limitation for this machine. As long as the power supply is not run out, we still can use this machine. The duration for battery life is approximately 4 hours. Furthermore, it is made for man and woman. Therefore, it is suitable for any adults. The last scope is to make an agronomic, easy and comfortable to use machine.
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4.PROJECT MANAGEMENT
4.1)Gantt Chart
Table 1 : The table below shows that project planning of the group with respect to the week starting from week 2 until week 14. This is to make sure every work will be done and finished on time.

Week Number 1 Activities ETP Briefing Group organization & brainstorming Assessment & choose of title of project Consult supervisor Data collection for proposal Finalize proposal Proposal submission Design solution Cost analysis for the system design Work on progress report Designing process and prototype Purchase required tools and materials Progress report submission Implementing the process of project Construction of prototype Prototype testing Submission of FORM 03 Posters designing Consult supervisor Final check on the prototype Preparing and presenting slides EDX Submission of UTP claim form Oral presentation Submission of final report 2 3 4 5 6 7 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

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Mid Semester Break (8 11 March 2012)

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4.2) Task Allocation


Table 2 : The table below shows the task allocation for each member of the group.

Unit

Person charge

in Department Task

Fabrication of Syafiq brush and shaft part

Mechanical Engineering

Farizul Mechanical Engineering

Design the structure of the brush and shaft part. Do research on the most suitable type of brush and also material for the front part. Prepare mechanism for the brush to rotate with the shaft . Draw machine using software

Fabrication of Ikhwan water pump Mechanical Engineering

Suntha Mechanical engineering

Design the mechanical system for the pump and water outlet Decide the best arrangement for the prototype when combining with mechanical and electrical part. Design backpack for water tank Fabricate the water pump system so that the flow of the water could be controled

Aishah Sakinah Analysis

Petroleum engineering

Nor Amalia

Chemical engineering

Do research on material used such as what type of steel suitable for the prototype Perform analysis on machine Record analysis Report

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5.LITERATURE REVIEW
5.1 Literature Review There is several research has been made, but since there is not equivalent machines that can clean open drains that currently available in the market, the research are more towards the design of the machine as it being influenced by other machines that share the similarity on its parts. The design features that being studied is the ergonomics, machines mechanisms, motor, battery, water pump and the materials used. Machines or tools such as grass cutter all the way to water jet is made as an examples because of its availability on the market and their design meets most of the consumer requirements and parts and design from the machines can be applied to the drain cleaning machine.

5.1.1 Conventional method The conventional method is a method where the drain is cleaned by the person. In this method, equipments or tools that being used is brush, shovels, hoe and broom. This can be done by brushing the drain by hand to clean the dirt in the drain. However, this method had various weaknesses such as ergonomics (human factors) in difficulties of cleaning the drain, very limited cleaning range, fatigue, time consuming and poor cleaning results. 5.1.2 Motor Motor is a crucial part where it produces kinetic energy to do work. This part is very important because the drain cleaning machine in order to work it needs a motor to rotate the brush since the design of the machine is to clean out the drain by rotating brush. To fulfill the cordless design of the machine, research has been conduct

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DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 towards other cordless tools such as cordless power drill and battery powered grass cutter. Commonly motor that being used in such machines is the 12V DC motor where it powered by direct current. This motor is chosen because the battery can only provide direct current and its reliability.

DC motor works by the principle where an electric current through an armature that being twisted by wire and the armature is placed in one magnetic field. The magnetic field was created whether from a permanent magnet or an electromagnet called twister. Connected to the armature is an internal commutation where current flow through carbon brushes.

The DC current is supplied to the brush where it will flow to the commutation and armature thus creating a magnetic field. The magnet pole on the commutation is the same with the magnet pole on the armature. When both magnetic field are the same pole, it will against each other and rotate counter clockwise.

When the armature rotate at 90, it is under the influence of the opposition pole from the permanent magnet; where the opposite poles is tendency to pull each other, the armature is pulled at counter clockwise and keep rotating until exceed 90. In this position, magnetic field in the internal commutation is charged, so the commutation will against the armature, making it continue to rotate further than 90. Armature later then being pulled to the opposite pole and continue to rotate more than 90 and the poles the armature being charged so the both fields against each other. This sequence will create continuous rotating motion, however the rotating armature can cause the brush is fade and create arc inside the motor.

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DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 Type of DC motor: 1. Brushless DC motor Advantages: Do not have any brush, so the friction is small. Motor cools faster.
Figure 1: brushless DC motor

Disadvantages Require complicated computer control. Price is quite expensive. Torque output is less.

2. Brushed DC motor Advantages: Low cost. Motor control is easier. Torque and speed is linear.

Disadvantages Motor size is big. Excessive heat can weaken the motor.

Figure 2 : Brushed DC motor

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DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 3. Stepper DC motor Advantages: Motor is stabile, it can handle various loads. Torque output is high even at low speed Disadvantages: Not efficient. Motor is using lot of power even there is no load on the motor. Cannot accelerate fast. Motor speed is slow.
Figure 3 : Stepper DC motor

5.1.3 Casing Casing functions is to house the motor, bearing, shaft, water pump and other parts of the machine. There is to main casing for the drain cleaning machine, one is for brush gun part and bag part. The handle part is to house the motor, bearing, shaft and motor. The handle casing must rigid enough to withstand the torque produce by the motor. The casing also must have and ergonomic and suitable weight to ease the operator to use. The bag casing is to house the water pump, water tank, battery and inverter. The bag casing also must be design to light and strong enough to house the equipment and comfort for the operator to carry on their back.

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DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 5.1.4 Bearing

Figure 4 : Bearing

Bearing is a type of mechanism that has rotating element to separate moveable parts inside the bearing. The use of bearing is to reduce rotating friction and withstand the axial and radial loads. The common bearing is being used is the ball bearing. Ball bearing functions by using two rings that have balls in the middle, and the load will distributed through the balls. One of the rings is in fixed position. When a ring is rotated, other balls will also rotate. When the balls rotate, it has less friction coefficient. The advantages of this bearing are it can support the axial and radial loads with less friction. Ball bearing also still can operate even the load alignment is not precise. It has less cost compared to other types of bearing.

5.1.5 Brush Brush idea is taken from the concept from the polishing machine. The concept is the rotating brush is used to polish the work item by hitting the side and the surface of the brush to the work item.

5.1.6 Battery Battery in general is a tin that filled with chemical that can produce electron. Chemical reaction that create electron is called electrochemical reaction. There is

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DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 two terminals on the battery, which positive and negative terminal. Electron are collected on the negative terminal, where is if load are connected to the battery such as light bulb or motor, electron will flow from negative terminal to positive terminal. Inside the battery, chemical reaction produces electrons. The speed of producing electron by this chemical reaction controls the volume of electrons that flow between the terminals. Electrons that will flow inside the wire must through from negative to positive terminal to make the chemical reaction happen. This is the cause where battery that had been kept for so long still has power. In order to produce a cordless machine, battery is needed to generate the machine. Battery had to be rechargeable and can supply power for sufficient period of time before it needs to be recharge. There is two types of battery that being used on the cordless machines, Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) and lead acid battery.

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5.1.7 Study Result After conducting research, analysis and calculation had been made, finally one final design has been agreed. The design features are explained in this topic.
1

2 14

3 13 4 12 11 10 9

7 5 6

Figure 5 : design features of prototype of drain cleaning machine

Descriptions:
Table 3 : The table below shows descriptions for numbering inside the figure above.

1) Brush ` 4) Switches 7) Bag casing 10) Battery 13) Nozzle

2) Shaft 5) Power window motor 8) Inverter 11) Water pump

3) Casing 6) Handles (middle and upper) 9) Hose 12) Pipe

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DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 5.1.8 Design Features

1.Handles After conducting several researches, handles design concept are taken from the handle of the cordless drill machine and grass cutter machine. The design is chosen because support the repulsive force from hand while operator using this machine. The switches also are positioned next to the upper handle, so it can easily reach by finger. Next to the upper handle is the housing of the power window motor so it can keep away the motor from moisture or soaking of water from the drain. The middle handle concept is taken from grass cutter machine because this type of design can give comfortable grip and can support the body of the machine making it easy to lift or sway. 2.Body (brush gun part) The concept of body is taken from the grass cutter machine. Body is consist of square hollow tube and joint to it is the housing of the power window motor to prevent the motor to rotating along with the shaft. This body construction is rigid enough support the repulsive force by operators hand. The difference of this design is inside the body there is shaft to transmit the kinetic energy from motor to brush. Connected to the shaft are power window motor, ball bearings, screw, and brush. 3.Battery Battery that been chosen to power this machine is the lead acid type battery. The main reason this battery is chosen because of the price is cheap and its availability. Other advantages is self discharge rate is less compared to other rechargeable battery. Power it can produces last longer.

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DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 4.Brush Brush is the most critical part where it is the cleaning mechanism. Brush concept is taken from the polishing machine. As discussed before, this type of design is the most efficient for rotating brush. The design can give more cleaning power and the round shape of the design can cover the curvature most types of drain.

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6.THEORY
The theory that had been used for this Engineering Team Project (Drain Cleaning Machine) was dynamics, fluid mechanics and basic electrical theory. 6.1 Dynamics Dynamics is defined as a moving particle or object which subjected to displacement, velocity and acceleration. Dynamic is an opposite component of static, where it varies with time compare to static, which does not vary with time. The dynamic component used in this project is angular motion. Angular motion is a movement that increases or decreases the angle between two points. It also can be defined as movement in circular or movement that has curve. This angular motion concept is used in this project especially in constructing the brush and shaft component. The brush system for this project needed circular motion in order to clean the drain, so angular theory is used to develop the design and also the analysis for the brush. 6.2 Fluid Mechanics Fluid is defined as is a substance that continually deforms under an applied shear stress. Fluid can be classified as liquid, gas and plasmas. Meanwhile fluid mechanics is defined as the study of fluid and force on them. Fluid mechanics can be categorized into three different studies, which are fluid statics, fluid kinematics and fluid dynamics. Fluid static is defined as fluid at rest; fluid kinematics is study of fluid in motion and fluid dynamic is defined as study of the effect of forces on fluid motion. Fluid also can be classified as compressible and non-compressible fluid. In this Drain Cleaning Machine project, fluid (water) has been used as on cleaning agent to wash away the dirt after the cleaning process. In order to provide water that

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DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 has sufficient pressure and velocity to wash away the dirt, Pascal Law is inherited in the project. Pascal Law used especially in this project to design the water compartment. Pascal Law states that pressure exerted anywhere in a confined incompressible fluid that is transmitted equally in all directions throughout the fluid such that the pressure ratio remains the same. The important Pascal equation that used in the project is P = pgh. This equation is used to determine the size and the height of the water bottle to be used in the project. Other theory that is used is Bernoulli Equation. This equation is used to calculate and to determine the velocity of water needed and what kind of pump needed to fulfil the requirement. 6.3 Electrical Electrical theory that had been used in this project is basic equation such as V = IR and P = voltage x current. These equations are used to determine the power needed for the pump and the motor to operate. These equations also used to determine the appropriate battery voltage needed and how many battery needed.

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7.PROCEDURE/METHODOLOGY
Current problems Problem Definition Identify needs

Identify potential problems and solutions

Supervisors advice

Research on topic

Internet, Library

Data Analysis

Identify alternatives

Decision Making

Confirmation of topic

Conceptual Design

Design Sketches

Feasibility studies

Practicability of design

Detailed design

Fabrication of design

Specification, Testing

Finalization /Experimentation

Working prototype

Presentation

Group presentation

Compilation of final report

Figure 6 : Methodology of project

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DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 1. Identify need make the current drain cleaning machine as reference and improve them in terms of price, size, weight and agronomical view. 2. Define problem Survey about the current drain cleaning machine that still not available in certain area in Malaysia and its disadvantages by discussing with experts in the field of construction, lecturers together with sources from the internet. 3. Research Conduct research to find the most suitable type of material needed for the overall design. 4. Set constraint Time given to complete the project, and cost needed to purchase the equipments. 5. Set criteria Cost efficient, able to be completed within time allocated, marketable, practical, user friendly and portable. 6. Specification specification of the prototype is made for detailed project report once everything has been finalized and confirmed. 7. Analysis All the advantages and disadvantages of the project has been analyzed, together with its modification and recommendation. 8. Decision A final decision and initiative has been set, based on the constraints and criteria of the project to present and produce the proposed project.

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DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 In assembling the prototype, we divide into two tasks. One task is for making brush gun and the other is for making water pump carrier. Next is the procedure of the process. 7.1 Brush Gun

plastic brush was dismantled and combined into round shape

the brush was attached with the round plate and tightened by cable tight

A hollow round bar is welded with bearing and the plate as jointer to shaft casing

At the end of the hollow round bar, there was a bolt been welded to connect the brush with the plate

a casing to power window is made to overcome torque steer

then, the power window is attached by welding to the hollow square. The round plate is welded to ease loosen up the tightened

Figure 7: Procedure of making brush gun

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DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 7.2 Water pump carrier

A 5.5L bottle cap is being drilled according to the diameter of water pump nozzle

rear bottle been drilled to insert the water filter

the bottle cap and water pump nozzle were glued together

bag frame for the carrier was made.

plywood been rivetted on the surface of the bag frame

battery, inverter and water pump were placed in the frame

a recycle bag was cut and fixed on the vertical side of the frame and being tight by bolt and nut. This bag was used for give comfort to users.

a cover zinc was resize and been cut to make a hole at the center of the bottle for water inlet

the zinc and bottle been placed and rivetted

the bottle was tightened by a wire net to prevent it from moving

a steel pipe was desgned to attach together with sink pipe valve

at the end of the steel pipe, a nozzle was attached and tightened

Figure 8: Procedure of making water pump carrier

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8.ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
8.1 Data Gathering and Analysis
Table 4 : The table below shows hardware used and its specification

No.
1

Tools/Hardware
Battery

Specification
Brand : GP Rechargeable Voltage : 12 V Current :9A Power, P = Current x Voltage = 9 x 12 = 117 W Brand : Mitsuba Voltage : 12 V Current : 1.51 A Torque : 3 N.m (with load) By calculation: Power, P = Current x Voltage = 1.51 x 12 = 18.12 W Battery life when the machine is operating: Life = Power of battery / Power of motor = 117 / 18.12 = 6.45 = 6 hours and 45 minutes.

Motor

Brush

Big brush diameter Small brush diameter Torque Force Force for big brush

= 20m = 8m = Force x Radius = Torque / Radius = 3 / 10 = 0.3 N Force for small brush =3/4 = 0.75 N Angular velocity = Power / Torque =P/T = 18.12 / 3 = 6.04 rad/s Brush rotation speed, N = ( x 60) / 2 = (6.04 x 60) / 2 = 57.67 rpm Brand Voltage Current Power : Shanda SD-3200 : 12 V : 2.5 A = Current x Voltage = 2.5 x 12 = 30 W Battery life when the machine is operating: Life = Power of inverter / Power of motor = 150 / 30 =5 = 5 hours. Qmax = 2000 l/h Hmax = 1.5 m

Water pump

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DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 8.2 Tools required


Table 5 : The table below shows tools and hardware used in this project and their descriptions.

No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35

Tools/Hardware Hand grinder Hand driller Riveter Pliers Multi tools Solder Metal saw Bottle Aquarium water pump Battery On/off switch Power inverter DC to AC Square hollow bar Plywood Washing machine nozzle Sink valve Epoxy metal glue Hot wire PVC glue Screw and nut Hollow round bar Clipper Rivet Power window Bearing Round plate Brush Handle (bicycle handle) Steel plate Recycle bag Shaft casing Aluminium cover Plastic rope Cable tight Disk cutter

Description To cut or remove extra metal after the metals are cut with disk cutter. It is also used for tidying up welded metal. For drilling 5.5 L 220 V, 30 W, 2000L/h H = 1.5 m 6V 4.5 aH 150 W 45 cm x 25 cm 25 cm x 25 cm 45 cm x 25 cm 25cm x 25 cm -

2.5 cm 1.5 inch 3.0 m 12 V Steel brush and plastic brush 1 ft x 2 ft To cut metals like mid steel. Can be use for cutting metals of rectangular shape, angle Page 28

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iron shaped, hollow bar and etc. It is also used for cutting metals at angle of 45, 60 and 90. For assembling this drain cleaning machine, we used disk cutter for cutting hollow pipe stainless steel and round bar. In the MIG process, electrode will melt and mixed with melted metal to produce weld pool. This machine is used for welding work piece according to the thickness of our work piece. In this project, this MIG was used to weld motor housing, battery housing and shaft.

36

MIG welding machine

8.3 Software
Table 6 : The table below shows software used in this project

No 1 2 3

Name of software Microsoft Office Word Microsoft Office Power Point Solid Work 2007

Description For documentation purposes For preparing slides shows for presentation To design 2D and 3D schematic diagram of prototype

8.4 Specification of project


Table 7 : The table below shows the specifications of the drain cleaning machine

Specification Aesthetical value Cost Design Function Material

Description Attractive and interesting Cheap and affordable to all people Easy to handle by man and woman Cleaning and unclogged drain Easy to deal with, cost effective, high availability, lightweight

In contrast to the normal drain cleaning machine in the market nowadays, our project provides some good features. Below are the features comparisons between a normal drain cleaning machine and our project.

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DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 8.5 Project benefits The benefits of our machine are, it is safe to use for adults. It does not contain any harmful material or dangerous tools attached. Furthermore, it is cheap and affordable because of low cost of production. Therefore, people would be afforded to have the drain cleaning machine. The machine is also easy to handle for adults both man and woman because the weight is lighter than other machines like grass cutter machine. Therefore, it is very practical to women.

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9.BUSINESS / ECONOMIC ANALYSIS


9.1 Capital Cost Considerations The cost of a unit drain cleaning machine is approximately RM 199.60. Below is the cost breakdown for a unit of drain cleaning machine.
Table 8 : The table below shows the cost of project

No. 1

Item Aquarium water pump 1

Quantity

Price per item (RM) 28.00

Total (RM) 28.00

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Rechargeable battery Power inverter Switch Portable plug Battery charger Light socket PVC glue Steel brush Plastic brush

2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

18.00 90.00 1.80 1.80 26.00 3.00 5.00 6.00 2.00 TOTAL

36.00 90.00 1.80 1.80 26.00 3.00 5.00 6.00 2.00 199.60

The other parts of the machine are available in laboratory and our own material. 9.2 Operational Cost Consideration Since we have access to the laboratory provided by university, we fabricated most of the body parts of our prototype by our own. The equipments needed to fabricate our prototype are available in the lab and also we used our own equipments. However, there were still other operational costs during making this prototype as the breakdown listed below:

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Table 9 : The table below shows the cost of operational

Amount No. 1 2 3 4 Installation Labors Service (per year) Transportation TOTAL Description (RM) 150 50 100 50 RM 350

9.3 Alternative Materials For our current project, we just used the available materials provided in the laboratory and materials that can be obtain near Uiversiti Teknologi PETRONAS only. This is due to time constraints and the price of our required materials was higher. Therefore, we listed the alternative material for the project in the future so that it will have a better performance and more effective.
Table 10: The table below shows the alternatives of materials

No

Part of machine

Materials used now

Alternative material Alloy/ carbon fibre

Advantages

Plate for brush gun casing

Steel

More lightweight

2 3

Bag frame Power supply

Steel Battery

Carbon fibre/ alloy Solar power

More lightweight Save energy (green concept)

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10.RESULTS AND CALCULATION


10.1 RESULTS 10.1.1 Less time taken to clean the drains compared to conventional method When using this machine, the time taken to clean a 5 meter drain only takes 5 minutes. To completely clean the drain, we only need 30 minutes. Compared to conventional method, which we used an ordinary brush manually to scrub the drains, it takes about 1 hour to completely clean but still, the result was not the same as using this drain cleaning machine. The cleaner will need to put out dirt from the drains manually while when using this drain cleaning machine, the water supply will straight away wash the particular area to clean it.

Figure 9 : the result of experiment on dirty drain

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Figure 10 : A man scrub dirt in the drain by suing conventional method (ordinary brush)

Figure 11: the man trying to put out the dirt from drain after scrubbing it

Figure 12: The dirt (contain of moss) was put out manually by hand

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10.1.2 Suitable for all people especially women

Figure 13: A woman can easily handle the machine

As we can see in the picture, the girl could easily handle the machine. This is proven that the machine is lightweight and easy to handle. 10.1.3 Features of the machine In contrast to the normal drain cleaning machine in the market nowadays, our project provides some good features. Below are the features comparisons between a normal drain cleaning machine and our project.

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DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 Features Mobility Normal drain cleaning machine Wheel-type machine. Difficult to move in a small area User friendly Suitable for man only Yes. Both man and woman can use it easily Weight Safety Price More Safe Expensive Less Safe Cheap The prototype Portable, just carry on the back

10.2 DISCUSSION Based on the result on specifications, we can see that the machine could last for approximately 5 hours .In this machine 12 V batteries are used with 1.51 Ampere current .The batteries need 4 hours to be fully charged. The torque calculated from the power window motor is 3 N.m. and the power produced is approximately 18.12 Watt. From the result shown, the motor rotation which is 57.67 rpm is not high enough because the power window motor used is not design for the drain cleaning machine but to move car window. On the water pump part, the flow rate is 2000L/h with minimum head. The water pump diameter is approximately equal to the nozzle so we calculate the flow rate from the water pump . The actual flow rate at the nozzle would slightly differ from the result because of friction inside the pipe. As drain size could vary from small to big, alteration of brush size is needed depending on the drain size. For this machine we are focusing on small drain size. A bigger drain size will need bigger brush .Others equipments such as motor and water pump may also differ. The length of the machine brush is also depends on the drain

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DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 depth. There are also two types of brush which are steel brush and fiber brush. Steel brush is more suitable to be used on tough stain. While fiber brush can be for normal cleaning. Secondly, the effect of using brush and machine is observed. When using brush there are still some dirt and moss left on the side of the drain, while when using machine with steel brush the moss is cleaned completely .Both activities are conducted in constant time. We also compare the time required to clean 5 meters drain with brush and drain cleaning machine. The machine takes less time to complete the job, which is 15 minutes faster and with better result. The more time allocate to clean the drain the better the result observed. The total weight of the machine is around 8kg , but the weight of the water tank part is around 3kg.So this machine can be carry easily even by woman. This machine is also ergonomic due to the sponge installed at the backpack. Long duration of using the machine will not cause any harm to the user. The machine is design fully portable to ease the user. Instead of limitations caused by hose connected to water supply and continuous electric supply, this design overcomes these limitations and user can now clean their drain wherever they want. This portability is our main advantage over other machines such as water jets. However it might have some disadvantages such as need to carry heavy batteries and water tank at the back, but this design ensures the weight does not exert extreme pressure on the user.

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11.CONCLUSION
Drain cleaning machine provides efficient way to clean the drains and lower cost in operating and purchasing. We have found that by using two main functions which is consist of water jet and brush gun to clean the drain is more achievable and successful. By doing some improvements such as continuously water supply and using solar power for this machine will enhance the progress of the systems. This drain cleaning machine uses two 12V rechargeable batteries which can stay about 3 hours for combination of brushing and water jet. By using battery that can stay longer much better for this machine such as 2 24V rechargeable batteries or more than that to make it portable and stay longer. For the shafts casing and backpack frame, we used hollow square bar which is heavier. We suggesting that aluminium is used for lighter material that increased the handling also to overcome the torque steer. Since our project used limited amount of water which is 5.5L, for better future we recommend continuously water supply that make the flow rate moves continuously and reduce the weight of the machine. Meanwhile in order to get the variable speed of power window rotation, servo motor is suggested because we used constant speed for power window which is 6.04 rad/s. Furthermore by using other means such as solar power to run the system would be more eco-friendly. Suggested improvements are a long-life battery, lighter materials, continuously water supply, a servo motor and solar power.

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12. REFERENCES
Robert L. Mott, 2006, Applied Fluid Mechanics, 6th ed, chapter 6, flow of fluids and bernoullis equation, pp 153 R.C. Hibbeler, 2011, Mechanics of Material, 8th ed in SI units. David H. Myszka, 2005, Machines and Mechanisms, 3th ed. Chapter 6,Velocity Analysis,pp 171 Drain cleaning available in Malaysia , 2000, retrieved on 15th March 2012, from http://www.tradekey.com/product_view/id/2055869.htm

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14. APPENDICES
I. Drawing of the drain cleaning machine

Figure 14: drawing of parts of the machine

Figure 15: : drawing of parts of the machine

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Figure 16: : drawing of parts of the machine

Figure 17 : the isometric, top and side view of prototype of drain cleaning machine

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Figure 18: description of drain cleaning machine

Figure 19: description of drain cleaning machine

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Figure 20: Figure 17 : the isometric, top and side view of prototype of drain cleaning machine (with optional brush)

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