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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 25, NO. 5, MAY 2010

1275

An AC Processing Pickup for IPT Systems

Hunter Hanzhuo Wu, Student Member, IEEE, John T. Boys, and Grant Anthony Covic , Senior Member, IEEE

Abstract —This paper presents a new type of inductive power transfer (IPT) pickup that directly regulates the power in ac form, hence producing a controllable high-frequency ac source suitable for lighting applications. The pickup has significant advantages in terms of increasing system efficiency, reducing pickup size, and lowering production cost compared to traditional pickups that also produce a controlled ac output using complex ac–dc–ac conversion circuits. The new ac processing pickup employs switches operating under zero-voltage-switching conditions to clamp parts of the res- onant voltage across a parallel tuned LC resonant tank to achieve power regulation over a wide load range. The operation of the pickup is analyzed and the circuit waveforms have been verified by experimental results. A complete IPT system using the ac process- ing pickup was tested on a 500-W lighting system and an efficiency of 96% was obtained when delivering 500 W to multiple resistive light bulbs.

Index Terms —AC-AC power conversion, lighting, magnetic fields, phase control, power electronics, resonant power conversion.

C 2

I L

I Lc

I Lr

I Lpn

I Lqn

L 2

Q

R

t

t

V c

V cr

V cpn

2

c

r

2

V cqn

V oc

NOMENCLATURE

Tuning capacitance. Pickup inductor current. Pickup inductor current in clamp mode. Pickup inductor current in resonant mode. In-phase component of the fundamental or harmonic of the pickup inductor current. Quadrature component of the fundamental or har- monic of the pickup inductor current. Pickup inductance. Quality factor of secondary resonant circuit. Load resistor. Time circuit stays in the clamp mode. Time circuit stays in the resonant mode. Tuning capacitor voltage. Tuning capacitor voltage in resonant mode. In-phase component of the fundamental or harmonic of the tuning capacitor voltage. Quadrature component of the fundamental or har- monic of the tuning capacitor voltage. Pickup induced voltage.

φ Controlled phase delay.

ω Angular frequency of primary track current.

Manuscript received August 2, 2009; revised October 26, 2009. Current version published May 7, 2010. Recommended for publication by Associate Editor S. Williamson. H. H. Wu is with the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineer- ing, The University of Auckland, Auckland 0602, New Zealand (e-mail:

hwu063@aucklanduni.ac.nz).

J. T. Boys and G. A. Covic are with the Department of Electrical and Com- puter Engineering, The University of Auckland, Auckland 1142, New Zealand (e-mail: j.boys@auckland.ac.nz; ga.covic@auckland.ac.nz). Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPEL.2009.2037002

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPEL.2009.2037002 Fig. 1. IPT system. I. I NTRODUCTION I NDUCTIVE power

Fig. 1. IPT system.

I. I NTRODUCTION

I NDUCTIVE power transfer (IPT) systems are widely used in many applications to deliver power to both mobile and sta-

tionary loads without any physical contact [1], [2]. Such systems have a number of advantages, as they are unaffected by dirt, ice, water, and other chemicals and, are thereby, environmentally inert and maintenance free [3]. In addition, these systems can also operate in very clean environments such as clean rooms. Since there is galvanic isolation when delivering electric power, the operating environment is kept very clean compared to a metallic bus–bar system, where unacceptable levels of carbon residue are generated due to the frictional contact between the carbon brushes and the metallic platform [4]. High-power appli- cations of this technology include continuous power transfer to public transport systems [5], materials handling systems [1], and contact-less battery charging of electric vehicles [3], [6]. Typical low-power applications include contact-less battery charging of cell phones [7], [8] and biomedical implants [9]–[11]. An IPT system comprises a resonant power converter operat- ing at very low frequencies (VLF) in the range of 10–100 kHz and maintains a constant track current in the order of 10–200 A in a track loop, as shown in Fig. 1. One or more secondary pickup loads may be placed in proximity to the track and receive power inductively. In each pickup, an inductor, comprising a magnetic core with a high-frequency winding, is magnetically coupled to the track, and tuned for resonance at the track frequency using compensation capacitors [4]. A switch-mode controller controls the power received by the pickup coil, and thereby, regulates the output voltage to the desired value to drive the load. Presently, most IPT systems produce a controlled dc output for recharging batteries or driving motors. In these applications, the most common secondary pickup controller rectifies the ac power, which is then regulated using a dc shorting (decoupling) switch. Such a pickup controller has the advantage of simple control circuitry and the ability to operate over a wide load range [1], [6], [12]. The detailed operation of the pickup controller can be found in [1]. In order to power high-frequency ac loads such as fluorescent lights or stage lights, an extra resonant converter

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1276 Fig. 2. AC–DC–AC conversion topology. or dc–ac pulsewidth modulation (PWM) inverter is required to produce

Fig. 2. AC–DC–AC conversion topology.

or dc–ac pulsewidth modulation (PWM) inverter is required to produce a controllable ac source. One method of achieving this is simply cascading the IPT pickup controller with a push– pull converter, as shown in Fig. 2. However, the addition of a second converter is not ideal because of the large number of components required, which in turn increase cost. In addition, the two-stage conversion process has losses in each stage, which reduce efficiency. Likewise, a dc–ac PWM inverter also has a high component count and even more switching losses than the resonant converter, due to a hard switching operation at these high frequencies. Another technique is to use primary-side control to implement power regulation of the IPT system. This method sends feed- back signals such as output voltage and current of the secondary pickup back to the primary converter via a wireless communica- tion channel. Generally, primary-side control has two possible methods of realization—frequency control [13], [14] or pri- mary current control [15], [16]. However, primary-side control can only be applied to applications, where a single secondary pickup is used. For lighting systems with multiple secondary pickups, power regulation on the primary-side cannot be used, since regulating power on one pickup will affect the operation of other pickups, which may be operating at different power levels. Other secondary-side-control techniques directly regulate power on the ac side to deliberately tune or detune the reso- nant tank circuit by adding extra reactance. One method used to realize a variable reactance component is to use a capacitor bank and switch capacitors in and out of the resonant circuit to control output power [17]. But this system requires a bulky capacitor bank that increases both cost and size of the overall system. A different technique to realize a variable reactance component is to use a magnetic amplifier to produce a variable inductor [18]. Although this may vary the ac power directly, the use of a variable inductor in the nonlinear region of the BH curve can limit the efficiency of the overall system. In addition, the variable inductor is expensive to manufacture because it has to manage the high resonant current without fully saturating and also take into account sensitivity issues in the system. One other method to produce a variable reactance component is by switching a fixed inductor under soft-switching conditions with a certain duty cycle, and hence, producing an equivalent variable inductor [19]. However, this method lacks the ability to regulate power over a wide load range, as the minimum output voltage it can deliver at no load conditions is the open-circuit voltage of the pickup. Moreover, all the pickups that use tuning/detuning controllers for power regulation reflect a poor power factor (PF)

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 25, NO. 5, MAY 2010

TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 25, NO. 5, MAY 2010 Fig. 3. AC processing pickup. to

Fig. 3. AC processing pickup.

to the primary track of the IPT system and the primary power supply has to handle the poor PF. In this paper, a simple ac-processing-pickup controller that can provide controlled ac power over a wide resistive load range is proposed. The pickup is used as a light dimmer to control the power delivered to a bank of multiple incandescent light bulbs while achieving high-frequency soft-switching conditions, contactless energy transmission, electric isolation, and high efficiency. The organization of this paper proceeds as follows. Section II describes the circuit operation of the proposed pickup. In Section III, an exact analytical analysis is given using a combi- nation of piecewise linearized operating states. The normalized graphs on the pickup operating characteristics are outlined in Section IV. A design procedure and the experimental results on a 500-W lighting system are given in Section V. Finally, Section VI gives conclusions based on key contributions of the paper.

II. CIRCUIT OPERATION

The proposed ac processing pickup is shown in Fig. 3. Here, capacitor C 2 is tuned to inductor L 2 at the frequency of the primary track current ( I 1 ) to form a resonant tank. The diodes ( D 1 and D 2 ) and switches ( S 1 and S 2 ) form an ac switch. From standard IPT theory, a pickup coil placed on the primary track will have an open-circuit voltage ( V oc ) induced in it as follows:

V oc = jωMI 1

where ω is the operating angular frequency, M is the mutual inductance, and I 1 is the primary track current. To illustrate the circuit’s operation, Fig. 4 shows the one- period operation of the ac processing pickup as a sequence of linear circuit stages with each corresponding to a particular switching interval, as illustrated in Fig. 5. V g1 and V g2 are the PWM gate signals that are driving switches S 1 and S 2 at 50% duty cycle with the same switching frequency as the IPT track frequency. Consider the situation where waveforms V g1 and V g2 are controlled with a phase delay φ relative to the phase of V oc to clamp parts of the resonant capacitor voltage, as shown in Fig. 5. In mode 1 ( M 1 , 0 < t t 1 ), S 1 is turned off and S 2 is turned on. The series diode D 2 blocks any current flowing through S 2 , as it is reverse biased. Under this condition, capacitor C 2 resonates with pickup inductance L 2 like a parallel resonant tank and the

(1)

WU et al. : AC PROCESSING PICKUP FOR IPT SYSTEMS

WU et al. : AC PROCESSING PICKUP FOR IPT SYSTEMS Fig. 4. Operating modes of ac

Fig. 4. Operating modes of ac processing pickup.

capacitor voltage reaches a peak value and returns back to zero. When the capacitor voltage reaches zero, the circuit enters mode 2 ( M 2 , t 1 < t t 2 ). Diode D 2 and switch S 2 start to conduct and prevent the capacitor voltage building up in the negative direction, as they ideally begin to conduct at zero volts, thereby clamping the output voltage at near zero. This causes S 2 to clamp V c for a phase known as the clamp phase (t c ) at the point where V c changes from a positive to a negative voltage. In the beginning of mode 3 ( M 3 , t 2 < t t 3 ), S 1 is turned on and S 2 is turned off. Similar to M 1 , the circuit operates like a parallel resonant tank and current flows into the load resistor. In mode 4 ( M 4 , t 3 < t T ), similar to M 2 , the resonant cycle is terminated and the capacitor voltage is clamped. In this mode, the inductor current flows through the switch S 1 and no current flows through the load. After this mode, the circuit returns back to M 1 , and thus repeating the switching process. In summary, the clamping action from the equivalent ac switch generates a phase shift between the open-circuit voltage and the capacitor voltage waveform. The ac processing pickup achieves zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) conditions. From Fig. 5, the resonant inductor current starts to flow through S 2 at t 1 , when there is no voltage across it, hence ZVS is achieved at turn on. When S 2 is turned off at t 2 , the resonant capacitor in parallel with S 2 forces the voltage across S 2 to increase slowly in the negative direction, while the current through it decreases to zero. For most practical switches, the turn off is much faster than the rate of increase of the ca- pacitor voltage, so the dv/ dt across the switch is relatively small and ZVS is obtained at the switch- OFF condition. Switch S 1 operates in a similar manner and also achieves ZVS at turn on, while achieving a low dv/ dt at turn off. Likewise, for diodes D 1 and D 2 , low dv/ dt is achieved at turn on, and ZVS is achieved at turn off. In summary, the switches and diodes in the ac process- ing pickup achieve soft switching. This gives the pickup desir- able characteristics such as low switching losses, low switching stress, and reduced electromagnetic interference (EMI) levels.

III. PICKUP ANALYSIS

From the previous section, it can be seen that the phase shift between V c and V oc can be controlled by adjusting the controlled

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o c can be controlled by adjusting the controlled 1277 Fig. 5. Operating waveforms of ac

Fig. 5. Operating waveforms of ac processing pickup.

phase delay φ . In this section, the phase delay φ is used in an exact analysis in the time domain to determine the character- istics of the circuit under steady-state operation. The basis of the analysis method is that the conditions existing in the circuit

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1278 Fig. 6. Waveform showing two operating states. at the end of a particular switching period

Fig. 6. Waveform showing two operating states.

at the end of a particular switching period must be the initial conditions for the start of the next switching period, and these

conditions must be identical, thus allowing for steady-state res- onant operation. The analysis procedure is greatly simplified based on the following three assumptions. 1) The equivalent series resistance (ESR) of both capacitor C 2 and inductor L 2 are very small and are neglected. (This is because the resistive losses dissipated by the load are usually much larger.) 2) The switching action of the transistors and diodes are instantaneous and lossless.

3) Capacitor C 2 and inductor L 2 are perfectly tuned forming a parallel resonant tank with the load.

Assuming the resonant tank is perfectly tuned

C 2 =

1

ω 2 L 2 .

(2)

With reference to Fig. 6, the waveform can be separated into two operating states known as the resonant state and the clamp state.

A. Resonant State

During the resonant state, the capacitor voltage may be de- scribed as

d 2 V cr

dt 2

+

1

dV

cr

V

cr

V

oc

R 2 C 2

dt

L 2 C 2

L

2

+

=

C 2 sin(ωt + φ)

(3)

where the subscript “r ” of V cr denotes the capacitor volt- age in the resonant mode. Considering the initial condition V cr (t)| t=0 = 0 and (dV cr /dt)| t=0 = (i L (0)/C 2 ), the com-

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 25, NO. 5, MAY 2010

plete solution of the (3) is

V cr (t) = Q 2 V oc cos (φ)

sin(θ v )

e σt sin(ω f t θ v )

Q 2 V oc cos(ωt + φ)

(4)

where

and

Q 2 =

σ =

R 2

ωL

2 ;

2R 1 2 C 2 ;

ω f = ω 1

1

4Q 2

2

;

(5)

(6)

(7)

θ v = tan 1

ω f cos (φ)

) σ cos (φ) + ω sin (φ) .

i L (0)/ (Q 2

2 V oc

(8)

In a similar way, considering the initial condition

the

i Lr (t)| t=0 = i L (0) and (di Lr /dt)| t=0 = (V oc sin φ/L 2 ),

complete solution to the inductor current is as follows:

i Lr (t) = i L (0) + β 2

sin(θ i )

e σt sin(ω f t θ i )

+ Q 2

R

2 V oc

2

sin(ωt + φ)

Q 2 V oc

Q 2 V oc

R

2

cos(ωt + φ) (9)

where

β 2 = Q 2 V oc R 2

β 3 = Q 2 V oc R 2

(Q 2 sin(φ) cos (φ)) ;

(10)

(Q 2 cos(φ) + sin (φ)) ;

(11)

and

θ i = tan 1

V oc sin(φ)/L 2 + 3 + σ(i L (0) + β 2 ) .

ω f (i L (0) + β 2 )

(12)

To investigate how long the circuit stays in the resonant state,

V cr (t)=0 can be substituted in (4), resulting in the following expression:

(13)

where t r is the time the circuit operates in the resonant state.

V cr (t r )=0

B. Clamp State

During the clamp state, the inductor L 2 and the voltage source is shorted and the current depends on V oc . By Kirchhoff’s volt- age law (KVL), the inductor current equation can now be written as

i Lc (t) =

V

oc

L

t

t z

sin(ωt + φ) dt + i L (t r ).

(14)

Solving (14), the inductor current can be expressed as

i Lc (t) = V oc cos(ωt + φ) ωL 2

+ i

L

(15)

WU et al. : AC PROCESSING PICKUP FOR IPT SYSTEMS

where

i

L

= i L (t r ) + V oc cos(ωt r + φ)

ωL 2

.

(16)

Because the resonant state and the clamp state are repeated each half cycle (with only a polarity change), the relationship i L (0) = i L (T /2) must hold. Hence, the capacitor voltage and inductor current may be represented as piecewise functions from modes M 1 to M 4 as

V c (t) =

i L (t) =

t 0 t<t 1

0

V cr (t)

0 t 3 t<T

i Lr (t)

t 1 t<t 2

V cr (t)

t 2

t 0

t<t

3

t<t

1

i Lc (t)

i Lr (t)

i Lc (t)

t 1

t 2

t 3 t < T.

t<t

t<t

2

3

(17)

(18)

Fourier analysis can be performed on both the capacitor volt- age and inductor current waveforms to compute the harmonics. The in-phase and quadrature components of both the fundamen- tal and harmonics are given by

V cpn = 2ω

π

V cqn = 2ω

π

I Lpn = 2ω

π

I Lqn = 2ω

π

π/ω

0

π/ω

0

π/ω

0

π/ω

0

V c (t) cos (nωt) dt

(19)

V c (t) sin (nωt) dt

(20)

I L (t) cos (nωt) dt

(21)

I L (t) sin (nωt)

dt.

(22)

By obtaining the in-phase and quadrature components of the fundamental inductor current amplitude with respect to the phase of V oc , the displacement PF (DPF) may be computed using the formula

DPF = cos φ + arctan I Lp1 .

I

Lq1

(23)

IV. PICKUP CHARACTERISTICS

The output voltage (or capacitor voltage) characteristics of the pickup is shown in Fig. 7 for different values of Q 2 . The normalized output voltage is defined as the ratio of the output voltage over the open-circuit voltage. It can be seen that the output voltage asymptotically decreases as the controlled phase delay φ increases from zero. The normalized output voltage can be controlled from a maximum value of a parallel tuned pickup ( Q 2 ) to zero as φ increases for all load ( Q 2 ) conditions. The normalized output current is shown in Fig. 8 for a range of Q 2 values. It can be seen that the output current of the pickup can

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can be seen that the output current of the pickup can 1279 Fig. 7. Normalized rms

Fig. 7.

Normalized rms output voltage versus controlled phase delay φ .

rms output voltage versus controlled phase delay φ . Fig. 8. Normalized rms output current versus

Fig. 8.

Normalized rms output current versus controlled phase delay φ .

be controlled by φ as a controllable current source. Fig. 8 shows that the output current stays approximately constant (or has very

little variation) as the load resistance changes for pickups at high Q 2 (5–10). Hence, this pickup demonstrates controllable current source behavior. For low Q 2 values, the circuit is no longer considered as a current source, as the output current changes with load (or Q 2 ). The output current–voltage characteristic is shown in Fig. 9. The current source behavior is again demonstrated, as the output current stays approximately constant for a given phase delay, irrespective of output voltage, as long as the output voltage is reasonably high. The normalized DPF characteristic is shown in Fig. 10 at different values of Q 2 . For pickups with a Q 2 above 4, it can be seen that the DPF is nearly at unity under full-load con- ditions. The DPF drops rapidly for lower Q 2 values even at full-load conditions and this conforms with the traditional the- ory of parallel LC resonant circuits [1]. It can be seen that the

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1280 Fig. 9. Pickup output voltage current characteristics. Fig. 10. DPF versus per-unit Power. DPF decreases

Fig. 9. Pickup output voltage current characteristics.

1280 Fig. 9. Pickup output voltage current characteristics. Fig. 10. DPF versus per-unit Power. DPF decreases

Fig. 10. DPF versus per-unit Power.

DPF decreases as the per-unit power decreases. The per-unit power is defined as the ratio of the output power to the maxi- mum power of the pickup at each Q 2 value. The DPF becomes more lagging as φ increases to decrease output power. The lag- ging DPF corresponds to an increasing capacitive load reflected onto the primary track, and the reflected var’s have to be sourced by the primary power supply. Even if the pickup has low DPF at lower power levels, the primary power supply is not necessarily overstressed, as the overall power delivered has decreased sig- nificantly. Consequently, if a 500-W pickup with an efficiency of 90% is assumed, the primary converter has to source 550 W and 50 var’s to deliver 500 W to the load. To deliver 100 W, the primary converter only has to source 110 W and 200 vars at reduced DPF. As such, the overall power that needs to be sourced has decreased significantly and the stress on the power supply is lower despite reduced DPF. Figs. 11 and 12 show the first four harmonics for the ac processing pickup operating at a Q 2 = 5 obtained from Fourier

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 25, NO. 5, MAY 2010

TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 25, NO. 5, MAY 2010 Fig. 11. Harmonic components of output

Fig. 11. Harmonic components of output voltage as percentage of the maxi- mum fundamental value at Q 2 = 5 .

of the maxi- mum fundamental value at Q 2 = 5 . Fig. 12. Harmonic components

Fig. 12. Harmonic components of input current as percentage of the maximum fundamental value at Q 2 = 5 .

analysis for the capacitor (or output) voltage and inductor (or input) current. In these figures, the amplitude of the harmonics is expressed as a function of the fundamental component under full-load conditions. It can be seen that the amplitudes of the harmonic components are relatively low as compared to the fundamental. The highest harmonic component for the output voltage and inductor current does not exceed 6.5% and 2% of the maximum fundamental component, respectively.

V. DESIGN PROCEDURE AND RESULTS

In this section, the design of an ac processing pickup for a 500-W lighting system is described. The desired output voltage is 220 V and the equivalent load resistance of the light at the maximum power condition is 84 . An asymmetrical S-shaped magnetic inductor was chosen for the prototype pickup because

WU et al. : AC PROCESSING PICKUP FOR IPT SYSTEMS

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WU et al. : AC PROCESSING PICKUP FOR IPT SYSTEMS 1281 Fig. 13. Numerically calculated waveforms

Fig. 13. Numerically calculated waveforms for (a) 100% power, (b) 50% power, and (c) 20% power.

TABLE I

VOLTAGE AND C URRENT OF C OMPONENTS AT R ATED L OAD

V OLTAGE AND C URRENT OF C OMPONENTS AT R ATED L OAD of its higher

of its higher output power with the same ferrite volume/length compared to traditional magnetic pickup structures [20]. This pickup has a measured V oc of 44.5 V and an inductance value of 72.6 µH. The primary IPT converter uses an LCL topology operating at a fixed frequency of 38.4 kHz [21].

A. Design Procedure

The first step is to determine the tuning capacitance of the circuit. From (2), the nominal tuning capacitance is 239 nF. In the prototype, the tuning capacitance is chosen to closely match the ideal nominal tuning capacitance. Using (5), Q 2 of the circuit is 4.8 at maximum power. Equations (17) and (18) are then used to solve for steady-state operating waveforms. Fig. 13 shows the calculated waveforms for the circuit under 100%, 50%, and 20% output power. From the top trace to the bottom trace, in descending order, the traces are the capacitor voltage, inductor current, capacitor current, and S 1 current, respectively. It can be seen that the capacitor voltage and inductor current waveform decrease as the controlled phase delay is increased to decrease output power. To calculate the maximum rating conditions for the components, the controlled phase delay φ has to be set slightly above zero degrees in order to observe the peak current through the switches and maximum rms rating for the capacitor and inductor. The calculated peak and rms value of the voltage and current for the capacitor, inductor, and switch are listed in Table I. It can be concluded from Table I that the switches and diodes have to be rated for both 310 V and 18 A at normal operation.

to be rated for both 310 V and 18 A at normal operation. Fig. 14. Block

Fig. 14. Block diagram for controller.

B. Controller

The practical system setup and controller for the ac process- ing pickup are shown as a block diagram in Fig. 14. The phase of V oc is measured using a separate phase sense coil L 3 placed on the primary track to detect the phase of the track current, which is exactly 90 out of phase with the open-circuit volt- age ( V oc I 1 90 ). The controlled phase delay φ is set by a computer interface, while a microcontroller accordingly ad- justs the switch gate drive waveforms. The gate-control wave- forms are generated, as shown in Fig. 5. The pickup also op- erates with a closed-loop controller, where the output voltage is set to a desired value by the microcontroller. The micro- controller is configured to maintain the desired load voltage by adjusting φ in accordance with measurements of the output voltage.

C. Experimental Results

The ac processing pickup, as described earlier, was coupled to a small section of track (see Fig. 14) and used to drive an ac load comprising a 500-W incandescent light bulb bank. Fig. 15 shows the circuit waveforms for the ac processing pickup at

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 25, NO. 5, MAY 2010

TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 25, NO. 5, MAY 2010 Fig. 15. Measured waveforms for (a)

Fig. 15.

Measured waveforms for (a) 100% power, (b) 50% power, and (c) 20% power with light bulb load.

(b) 50% power, and (c) 20% power with light bulb load. Fig. 16. Output power versus

Fig. 16. Output power versus φ .

with light bulb load. Fig. 16. Output power versus φ . Fig. 17. DPF versus per-unit

Fig. 17. DPF versus per-unit power.

100%, 50%, and 20% power when φ is set to 0 , 49 , and 75 , respectively. From the top trace to the bottom trace, in descend- ing order, the traces are the capacitor voltage, inductor current, capacitor current, and switch current. The inductor current and capacitor voltage are both sinusoidal having low distortion at 100% power. The measurements as shown have very good cor- relation with the calculated waveforms in Fig. 13. The ampli- tudes of the measured waveforms are within 10% of the values calculated by (17) and (18). The capacitor and switch current waveforms each have square pulses either missing or present, as predicted by theory, with significant high-frequency compo- nents. Due to the 100-kHz bandwidth limitation of the current probe, the filtering effect results in oscillations in the capacitor and switch current, which do not exist in practice. Despite this, it is evident that the correlations between the calculated and experimental waveforms are very good. Fig. 16 shows that the output power can be controlled over a wide load range by adjusting φ . Note that, although the control range is from 0 to 180 , the phase controller only needs to change between 0 and 120 to regulate power over the entire operation range. The analytical results using (17) and (18) are also plotted on the same figure for comparison purposes. Since the analytical analysis ignores the ESR losses in both the pickup

inductor and tuning capacitor, and the losses in the switches and diodes, the output power is higher than that obtained from experimental measurements. Despite this, the controller is quite efficient and the difference between the two is not greater than

10%.

Fig. 17 shows the DPF for both the calculated and measured waveforms. Similar to before, the DPF is measured at the ter- minals of the short length of track, as shown in Fig. 14. It can be seen that both the measured and calculated DPF values are near unity at high power levels. The measured PF is also added for comparison purposes. This PF is only marginally below the DPF at high output powers and starts to reduce faster than the DPF at lower output powers, as the harmonics in the inductor current waveform increase. Although this pickup has low DPF and substantial harmonics at low power levels, the overall stress imposed on the primary power supply is relatively small at light load. An efficiency versus output power plot is shown in Fig. 18 for both the overall IPT system and the ac processing pickup by itself. Referring to Fig. 14, the overall IPT system efficiency is determined using measures of the dc input power to the pri- mary power supply and the ac output power from the secondary pickup. Similarly, the pickup efficiency is calculated using the

WU et al. : AC PROCESSING PICKUP FOR IPT SYSTEMS

WU et al. : AC PROCESSING PICKUP FOR IPT SYSTEMS Fig. 18. Efficiency versus output power.

Fig. 18. Efficiency versus output power.

ac input power delivered to a short length of primary track that the secondary pickup is coupled upon and the ac output power from the secondary pickup. The pickup efficiency measurement neglects the supply ( LCL converter) power losses and gives a more meaningful measure of the conversion efficiency of the pickup itself. It can be seen that the efficiency of the pickup re- mains above 90% when the output power is more than 125 W to the load. With a 500-W load, the efficiency of the ac processing pickup and the overall IPT system can reach as high as 96% and 89%, respectively.

VI. CONCLUSION

This paper presents a new IPT pickup that has significant advantages compared to traditional pickups that use ac–dc–ac conversion topologies for producing a controllable ac output voltage. The output voltage of the ac pickup can be fully con- trolled while achieving ZVS conditions. At high Q 2 value, the ac pickup demonstrates controllable current source property, which may be desirable in lighting applications. Although this pickup has low DPF and substantial harmonics at low power levels, the overall stress imposed on the primary power supply is relatively small. The ac processing pickup can be controlled over a wide load range for a 500-W lighting system and a max- imum efficiency of 96% was obtained.

REFERENCES

[1] J. T. Boys, G. A. Covic, and A. W. Green, “Stability and control of inductively coupled power transfer systems,” Inst. Electr. Eng. Proc. Electr. Power Appl., vol. 147, no. 1, pp. 37–43, 2000. [2] S. Valtchev, B. Borges, K. Brandisky, and J. B. Klaassens, “Resonant contactless energy transfer with improved efficiency,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 685–699, Mar. 2009. [3] T. Chun Sen, S. Yue, S. Yu Gang, N. Sing Kiong, and A. P. Hu, “De- termining multiple steady-state ZCS operating points of a switch-mode contactless power transfer system,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 416–425, Feb. 2009. [4] G. A. Covic, J. T. Boys, A. M. W. Tam, and J. C. H. Peng, “Self tuning pick-ups for inductive power transfer,” in Proc. IEEE Power Electron. Spec. Conf. (PESC 2008), pp. 3489–3494.

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[5] G. A. Covic, G. A. J. Elliott, O. H. Stielau, R. M. Green, and J. T. Boys, “The design of a contact-less energy transfer system for a people mover system,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Power Syst. Technol. (PowerCon 2000), pp. 79–84.

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Asymmetrical pick-ups for inductively coupled power transfer monorail systems,” IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 42, no. 10, pp. 3389–3391, Oct. 2006. M. L. G. Kissin, C. Y. Huang, G. A. Covic, and J. T. Boys, “Detection of the tuned point of a fixed-frequency LCL resonant power supply,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 1140–1143, Apr. 2009.

Electron. , vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 1140–1143, Apr. 2009. Hunter Hanzhuo Wu (S’05) received the

Hunter Hanzhuo Wu (S’05) received the B.E. de- gree (Hons.) in electrical and electronic engineering from the University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand, in 2008, where he is currently working to- ward the Ph.D. degree. His research interests include inductive (contact- less) power transfer systems and resonant power converters.

1284

John T. Boys received the Ph.D. degree from the University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand, in

1962.

He was with SPS technologies for five years before returning to academia as a Lecturer with the Univer- sity of Canterbury, New Zealand. Since 1977, he has been with the University of Auckland, where he is currently a Professor of electronics with the Depart- ment of Electrical and Computer Engineering, and is engaged in teaching and research. He has authored or coauthored more than 100 papers in international journals and holds more than 20 U.S. patents. His research interests include power electronics and inductive power transfer. Dr. Boy is a Fellow of the Royal Society of New Zealand and a Distinguished Fellow of the Institution of Professional Engineers New Zealand.

of the Institution of Professional Engineers New Zealand. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 25, NO.

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 25, NO. 5, MAY 2010

Grant Anthony Covic (S’88–M’89–SM’04) re- ceived the B.E. (Hons.) and the Ph.D. degrees from The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand, in 1986 and 1993 respectively. He was was a Full-time Lecturer in 1992, a Senior Lecturer in 2000, and an Associate Professor in 2007 with the Department of Electrical and Computer En- gineering, The University of Auckland, where he is currently the Head of the power research cluster in the Faculty of Engineering. He has authored or coau- thored more than 80 papers in international journals and conferences and holds a number of patents in the field of inductive (con- tactless) power transfer (IPT). His research interests include power electronics and IPT.

the field of inductive (con- tactless) power transfer (IPT). His research interests include power electronics and