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Cambridge Examination 2058 Question 1 Paper 2

Q.1. Choose any two of the following passages from the Quran, and: (a) Briefly describe the main theme(s) in each passage. [4] (b) Briefly explain the importance of these themes in a Muslim's life today. [4]

11.

Surah Baqarah (2:30-37) Allahs Messenger

30. Behold, your Lord said to the angels: I will create a vicegerent on earth. They said: Will You place there one who will make mischief there and shed blood?- whilst we celebrate your praises and glorify your holy (name)? He said: I know what you do not know. 31. And He taught Adam the names of all things; then He placed them before the angels, and said: Tell me the names of these if you are right. 32. They said: Glory to You, of knowledge we have none, save what You have taught us: In truth it is You who are perfect in knowledge and wisdom. 33. He said: Adam! Tell them their names. When he had told them, Allah said: Did I not tell you that I know the secrets of heaven and earth, and I know what you reveal and what you conceal? 34. And behold, We said to the angels: Bow down to Adam. And they bowed down. Not so Iblis: he refused and was haughty: he was of those who reject faith. 35. We said: Adam! You and your wife dwell in the Garden; and eat of the bountiful things in it as you wish. But do not approach this tree, or you will run into harm and transgression. 36. Then Satan made them slip from there, and got them out of what they had been in. We said: Go down, with enmity between yourselves. On earth will be your dwelling-place and your means of livelihood, for a time. 37. Then Adam learnt from his Lord words of inspiration, and his Lord turned towards him; for He is oftenreturning, most merciful. Behold your Lord said to the angels: "I will create a vicegerent on earth They said: "Will you place there one who will make mischief there and bloodshed?-Whilst we celebrate your praises and glorify your holy (name)?. [a.1. First and the foremost theme is the start of the Rissalah the channel of communication between Creator & creation. Angels too are part of this

institution of Rissalah but to help man in his mission] [b.1. Importance here is that we must not forget our august status as the vicegerent of Allah and must do our utmost to remain worthy of this status by remaining away from evil in all its manifestations. This is visible from the Arabic word Khalifa used for the one decided to be sent as a vicegerent; The Adam. Reaction of angels also clarifies above theme as angels in their humble knowledge could not reconcile the Great Design of Allah] He said I know what you do not know and He taught Adam the names of all things [a.2. Adam was granted the special faculties and potential to imbibe the special domains of knowledge which even the angels did not have, reminding an important theme that Prophetic knowledge is but a special gift of Allah granted to His selected people picked up to be prophets, Adam was the 1st prophet] [b.2. We must believe in all the prophets and make no distinction amongst them as emphasized by Quran, We make no distinction between any of His messengers (2:285) such a behavior is important to establish brotherly relations amongst all mankind so ardently required today. Prophet(s) alluded toward this by saying, O you servants of Allah be brothers (Mishkat). This is visible from the Arabic word Asma having special connotation that Adams knowledge was an inherent potentiality for acquiring knowledge, a faculty angels did not have, alluded by the Arabic word Asma.] then He placed them before the angels, and said: Tell me the names of these if you are right'. They said: Glory to you, of knowledge we have none, save what You have taught us: In truth it is You who are perfect in knowledge and wisdom He said: 'Adam! Tell them their names. 'When He told them, Allah said: "Did I not tell you that I know the secrets of heaven and earth, and I know what you reveal and what you conceal? And behold, we said to the angels: 'Bow down to Adam.' And they bowed down. [a.3. Theme visible here is that all knowledge is with Allah (2:255) and this is a special favor of Allah that some degree of knowledge is granted to man through the prophets showing the special status of prophets and value of prophetic knowledge. Besides alluding to the great reality that Prophet(s) had all knowledge of Quran from Allah] [b.3. Importance of this theme is that we as Ashraf ul Makhloqat best of creation must try our utmost to keep acquiring and increasing our knowledge to maintain this august status which was bowed down by the angels. Prophet(s) stressed, To acquire knowledge is a duty upon every Muslim male and Muslim female (Mishkat) Visible as the angels bowed down to Adam,

due to this divine element in man, Allah had granted Adam with special faculties to acquire and multiply knowledge] Not so Iblis: he refused and was haughty: he was of those who reject faith. We Said: 'Adam! You and your wife. Dwell in the garden; and eat of the bountiful things in it as you wish. But do not approach this tree, or you will run into harm and transgression. Then Satan made them slip from there, and got them out of what they had been in We said: ' Go down, with enmity b/w your selves. On earth will be your dwelling-place and your means of livelihood, for a time". Then Adam learnt from his Lord words of inspiration, and his Lord turned towards him: for He is oft-returning, most merciful. [a.4. Theme reminded here is importance of following guidance from Allah through Rissalah the channel of communication, a prerequisite for success here & hereafter as abode here is only temporary] [b.4. Importance of this theme is to know the value of Quran, the final revelation in our daily lives. Quran is complete guidance (2:2) so we must not only read Quran but must understand, imbibe and completely mould our lives according to each and every word of Quran. This is visible from Arabic word, Kalamaat Adam learnt from the Lord) 11. Surah Al- Anam ( 6:75-79) Allahs Messenger

75. So also did We show Abraham the power and the laws of the heavens and the earth, so that he might have certainty. 76. When the night covered him over, he saw a star: He said: This is my Lord. But when it set, he said: I do not love things that set. 77. When he saw the moon rising in splendour, he said: This is my Lord. But when the moon set, he said: Unless my Lord guides me, I will surely be among those who go astray. 78. When he saw the sun rising in splendour, he said: This is my Lord; this is the greatest. But when the sun set, he said: O my people! I am indeed free from your giving partners to Allah. 79. For me, I have set my face firmly and truly towards Him who created the heavens and the earth, and never shall I give partners to Allah. 75. So also did We show Abraham the power and the laws of the heavens and the earth, so that he might have certitude. [a.1. 1st theme visible is that all prophets were granted special powers e.g. Abraham was given extraordinary

knowledge & perceptive powers, to develop a stronger sense of conviction, the certitude; (muqeneen) about special realms of the Realities of Truth] [b.1. Importance of this theme is that we must always pay special attention to learning through all such narrations from Quran to develop strong faith and conviction about the continuity of religion from Adam to the last Prophet(s) and the reality of our Creator and limitless powers of Allah. This is visible from the special favors granted to Prophet Abram from the Arabic word Malkoot-us-Samawat meaning special working of heavens and universe shown to Abraham] 6. When the night covered him over, he saw a star: He said: This is my Lord. But when it set, he said: I do not love things that set. 77. When he saw the moon rising in splendor, he said: This is my Lord. But when the moon set, he said: Unless my Lord guides me, I will surely be among those who go astray. 78. When he saw the sun rising in splendor, he said: This is my Lord; this is the greatest. But when the sun set, he said [a.2. Allah has His own way of granting wisdom to his selected people to be prophets. However Abram has the unique honor of going through a special endeavor in search of Truth, as Abraham was to be an arch Prophet, as Quran reminds, And remember that Abraham was tried by his Lord with certain commands, which he fulfilled: He said: "I will make thee an Imam, a leader to the Nations (2:124). Thus Abraham is a common link between all scriptural religions, envisaging great peace & tranquility] [b.2. This theme has special importance in our daily life as Abraham is the arch prophet, as Quran reminds, So follow the religion of Abraham, the upright. He was not of the idolaters. (3:95) as such belief in Abraham provides a common link between all scriptural religions. We must always highlight such common links to establish cordial relations among all mankind especially the people of the book to ensure ardently required peace, the raison d etre of Islam. This is visible from Abrahams constant endeavors to reach the ultimate truth & reality the true Lord of this universe) :O my people! I am indeed free from your giving partners to Allah. 79. For me, I have set my face firmly and truly towards Him who created the heavens and the earth, [a.3. Another theme visible here is that prophets are sinless; Abrahams search was sincere, being Hanif, meaning upright by nature as given in the next verse to this passage, (6:80) thus was free of even an iota of shirk. However a subtle eloquence of Quran is also manifest here. Abrahams searching questions in fact were not for himself as he was firm in his knowledge of the True Reality, made manifest to him by Allah. These question were to awaken his people who were steeped deep in the quagmire of shirk

about Truth of Tuhid.] [b.3. We must also do our utmost to look for the signs leading to the reality of Tuhid, most manifest all around us as reminded in Quran, Pick up your eyes; will come back tired but you will not find a single flaw in the creation of your Lord (67:3-4) A logic further explained, Had there been more then ONE God there would have been chaos (21:22) and develop strong conviction of Tuhid. This is clearly visible from Abrahams words addressed to his people after showing his awe about Allahs creation, ultimately leading to the Reality of the Creator and Tuhid] and never shall I give partners to Allah. (a.4. Abraham reaching the great truth about Tuhid reminds the vital theme that all prophets brought the same message of Tuhid. (21:25)] [b.4. From this theme the important learning is to shun all kind of shirk from our daily life and submit to Allah with complete sincerity and conviction as the Prophet(s) reminded that Religion is sincerity to Allah His Book and to the Prophet(s) (Mishkat) visible from Abrahams resolve to guard against Shirk, the unpardonable sin. (5:48)] 13. Surah Maida (5:110) Allahs Messenger

110. Then will Allah say: Jesus son of Mary! Recount my favour to you and to your mother. Behold! I strengthened you with the Holy Spirit, so that you spoke to the people in childhood and in maturity. Behold! I taught you the Book and Wisdom, the Law and the Gospel. And behold! You make out of clay, as it were, the figure of a bird, by my leave, and you breathe into it and it becomes a bird by my leave, and you heal those born blind, and the lepers, by my leave. And behold! You bring forth the dead by my leave. And behold! I restrained the Children of Israel from you when you showed them the clear signs, and the unbelievers among them said: This is nothing but evident magic. Then will Allah say: Jesus son of Mary! Recount my favour to you and to your mother. [a.1. This passage is depicting the day of judgment when all prophets will be called as a witness against their nations, Ummahs (4:41) and the conversation thus taking place between Allah and the Prophet Jesus. Theme reminded here is that all prophets received special favors of different kinds from Allah, however Jesus was granted biggest blessing being a Miracle Personified however the purpose of all prophets was the same as all brought the message of Tuhid (21:25)] [b.1. The importance is that belief in all the

prophets is part of the articles of faith of Muslims, highlighting the cardinal belief that Islam is the continuation of religion from Adam up to last Prophet Muhammad (s) We should always look for the common links in our daily life to increase the level of coherence between all mankind especially the People of the Book, the only way to achieve ardently required peace. Visible from the very address as son of Mary as that was the biggest miracle in itself i.e. being born of Mary miraculously & great blessings being reminded to him here on the Day of Judgment.] Behold! I strengthened you with the Holy Spirit (Roh-ul-Quduss), so that you spoke to the people in childhood and in maturity. [a.2. All prophets got special help from Allahs e.g. through Arch Angel Gabriel in different forms against opposition of evil forces, especially reminding Jesus of the miracles granted as a child He spoke in the cradle (19:31)] [b.2. The importance here is of the special status of Gabriel as the Arch Angel who brought revelations to all the prophets and helped all prophet in different ways, confirming that Islam is the only religion with Allah (3:19) Strict adherence to such an approach in our daily life can greatly help us move towards universal peace. This is visible as Jesus is been reminded of how all Allah helped him through Gabriel also visible from Arabic word Roh-ul-Quds especially when he was too young to remember.] Behold! I taught you the Book (Kitab) and Wisdom (Al-Hikmah), the Torah, (Law) and the Gospel (Injeel). [a.3. Theme visible is that Prophets, especially the Rassool, had been granted revelations. Jesus was granted knowledge of Torah carrying law, the Book as well as the Bible carrying the wisdom, alluding to a great reality i.e. continuity of religion, all prophets brought same religion. (42:13)] [b.3. Important learning here is that the ultimate source of all knowledge is but Allah alone and all prophets were part of Rissalah, the channel of communication between the Creator and the creation, for the guidance of mankind. We must not make distinction amongst any prophets as Quran clearly emphasizes, We make no distinction between any of His messengers (2:285) Strictly obeying this command in our daily life will ensure peace and great coherence amongst all mankind especially the People of the Book. This is visible through Jesus being reminded that Allah Himself did this special favour to Jesus by teaching him the previous scripture mentioned in the passage, which alone lies within the powers of the Creator.] And behold! You make out of clay, as it were, the figure of a bird, by my leave (beizni), and you breathe into it and it becomes a bird by my leave, and you heal those born blind, and the lepers, by my leave. And behold! You bring

forth the dead by my leave. [a.4. An important theme presented here is, Prophets were granted miracles, a power bestowed on them by will of Allah, not their own power. Besides alluding to the very purpose of miracles, the signs i.e. to know the limitless powers of the Creator, reminded by the Quran, Adore not the signs of Allah but adore Allah who created them; (41:37)] [b.4. We must believe in the miracles granted to the prophets but must never forget it was but the manifestation of the powers of Allah and not the prophets. Most important lesson in our daily life is to submit to the Miracle Maker and not the miracles. This is visible from the Arabic word Be-Izney used 4 times meaning with the will of Allah, as Jesus is reminded the grant of so many miracles emphasizing, were all but the manifestation of the limitless powers of the Creator] And behold! I restrained the Children of Israel from you when you showed them the clear signs, and the unbelievers among them said: This is nothing but evident magic. (a.5. theme is a reminder of the last miracle when Allah saved Jesus from cruel people as Quran says, They thought they slew the Messiah; they slew him not nor crucified but appeared so unto them, (4:157), theme further confirms our belief, cruel people always opposed prophets & the Truth they brought; 14:13) (b.5. Importance of this reality is our belief that Allah alone is the sovereign authority as elaborated in Ayat-ul-Kursi (2:255) and thus Allah alone is worthy of complete submission and all praises are but for Allah as highlighted in Surah Fatiha Last theme is visible through a great reality alluded here, a miracle in itself as to how Allah saved Jesus from the heinous designs of the enemies.) 14. Surah Doha (93) Allahs Messenger

1. By the glorious morning light, 2. And by the night when it is still. 3. Your Lord has not forsaken you, nor is he displeased. 4. And truly the Hereafter will be better for you than the present. 5. And soon your Lord will give you so that you will be pleased. 6. Did He not find you an orphan and give you shelter? 7. And He found you wandering, and He gave you guidance. 8. And He found you in need, and made you independent. 9. Therefore, do not treat the orphan with harshness, 10. Nor drive the beggar away; 11. But tell about the bounty of your Lord!

1. By the glorious morning light, 2. And by the night when it is still, 3. Your Lord has not forsaken you, nor is he displeased. [a.1. This Surah is highlighting the time Prophet(s) was given a break to give him(s) rest as constant exposure to revelation (Noor) could be harmful for his(s) health. Theme reminds Allahs special mercy for His Prophets(s), as Allah takes special care of his selected people as prophets; told Moses fear not, verily you are of those who are secured; 28:31] [b.1. Importance of the theme highlighted here is that what ever happens in our life has some good hidden in it for us which may not be apparently visible to us. However we must have full confidence in what all Allah plans for us. This conviction gives us immense confidence to be contented in all phases of our lives. Allahs mercy is all encompassing (7:156). As Prophet(s) is reminded in this Surah, visible from two times in 24 hours, day symbolizing resuming of revelation whereas night depicts the period of rest i.e. break in revelation. Further visible as Allah assures Prophet(s) that the break was for his(s) own good & not for any other reasons like Prophet(s) was thinking] 4. And truly the Hereafter will be better for you than the present. 5. And soon your Lord will give you so that you will be pleased. 6. Did He not find you an orphan and give you shelter? [a.2. Allah after tests and trials always rewards his selected people, e.g. the prophets; Abraham was tried by his lord and then made Imam-un-Nass 2:124] [b.2. Importance of this theme is that all the tests and trials too have some hidden wisdom of our Lord as Prophet(s) said Allah loves us more then 70 mothers, visible through a glad tiding given to Prophet(s) about his(s) future life in Madina compared to period of trials in Mecca] 7. And He found you wandering, and He gave you guidance. [a.3. theme is grant of Rissalah Prophethood, as Allah always help His selected people in their endeavors to reach the Truth like Abraham 6:75-79, here it is start of revelation, Quran] [b.3. Importance of this theme is to remember in the Prophet(s) of Allah there is the best example (33:21) and following the Prophet(s) in our daily life, in all realms of life will bring peace in our life as well as all around us, visible from the Arabic word Hidayah referring to Quran and so we must look for solutions to all our problems through this panacea.] 8. And He found you in need, and made you independent (fa-aghna). [a.4. Prophets of Allah are not beyond worldly needs, they were all but human beings 21:7-8, however Allah takes care of them in special ways. Prophet(s)

was made independent, free of petty worldly needs, which Prophet(s) translated in human behavior; developing concepts like Zuhad, being indifferent] [b.4. Importance of this vital theme is to develop true Zuhad in our daily lives as Prophet(s) said Be indifferent (Practice Zuhad) to the world Allah will love you and be indifferent to what the people have and the people will love you (Mishkat). This is visible from the Arabic word faaghna derivative of word Ghani] 9. Therefore, do not treat the orphan with harshness, 10. Nor drive the beggar away; 11. But tell about the bounty of your Lord! [a.5. theme visible is a rule (Sunnah) of Allah that addressee outwardly in the revelation have been the prophets however all such normative teachings are sent for whole mankind through them. Same way here also the address is mankind through the Prophet(s), as he was an epitome of mercy, 21:107. Thus reminding mankind to treat needy and destitute with special care and kindness the hallmark of Islam] [b.6. Last theme carries great importance in our daily lives that we must try our utmost to be of service to our fellow beings as Prophet(s) said, Best person is the one who is a source of benefit to other persons (Mishkat) This is visible from last instructions in Arabic word Fahadis, meaning to carry forward all bounties of Allah bestowed upon us by sharing it with our less fortunate fellow brothers, as Allah says you can not attain piety unless you spent from what you love the most, (3:92)] 15. Surah Al-Kausar (108) Allahs Messenger

1. To you have We granted abundance. 2. So pray to your Lord and sacrifice. 3. For he who hates you, he will be cut off. 1. To you have We granted abundance [a.1. Prophets are always granted special bounties from Allah; when Prophet(s) lost two of his sons in infancy, ignorant Arabs started using this too a way to torture the Prophet(s) saying there is no male offspring to carry his name. Allah revealed this Surah giving glad tidings to the Prophet(s) about numerous spiritual blessings granted to him e.g. the grant of a special Fountain Kausar in Paradise beside numerous other unique blessings] [b.1. This theme has great importance for us in our daily life that we must have a great sense of gratitude towards Allah, our only benefactor for the innumerable blessings all around us. This is visible as the Surah was revealed when Prophet(s) lost two of his sons, reminded

through the Arabic word Kausar from word Kasrat meaning here the abundant blessings] 2. So pray to your Lord [a.2. Another theme visible is the rule, (Sunnah) of Allah that addressee outwardly in the revelations have been the prophets however all such teachings are sent for mankind. Rissalah is channel of communication between Allah and mankind hence all Quranic message has normative meanings for all times to come.] [b.2. Importance here is that when we develop a deep sense of gratitude by realization of limitless blessings of Allah, it automatically draws us to the true submission, completing Haqooq Allah through sincere worship, visible from Arabic word Fasalayh meaning Salah and worship in its broader meanings.] and sacrifice. [a.3. Another them is Prophets have been the source of guidance as it is through Prophet(s) Allah reminded the importance of Haqooq-alAbad, the real expression of the realization of limitless blessings of Allah] [b.3. The importance here is that we must be ready to forgo and spend all our resources for the welfare of our fellow beings as Quran reminds, you can not attain to piety unless you spend from what you love the most (3:92) This is visible from Arabic word Wanhar] 3. For he who hates you, he will be cut off [a.4. Last most vivid theme is that those who hate prophets of Allah are bound to be wiped out of the pages of history; this is about those who thought Prophet(s) having lost sons had no one to carry his(s) name. Fact is millions of people are praising him(s) not only Muslims but all educated people around the world. Besides Allah & His angels shower blessings on Prophet(s) and all the believers have been commanded to offer best of salutation onto the Prophet(s) (33:56)] [b.4. Importance of this theme in our daily life today is that we must not be disturbed if any one has negative feelings about us, rather we must extend the message of love and peace as Prophet(s) said, Feed and greet people irrespective of whether you know them or not. This is visible from Arabic word Abtar, meaning one cut off from the roots, which the pagans were calling Prophet(s) in their utter ignorance when he lost two sons in infancy]