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Types of RAM

The two main forms of modern RAM are static RAM (SRAM) and dynamic RAM (DRAM). In static RAM, a bit of data is stored using the state of a flip-flop. This form of RAM is more expensive to produce, but is generally faster and requires less power than DRAM and, in modern computers, is often used as cache memory for the CPU. DRAM stores a bit of data using a transistor and capacitor pair, which together comprise a memory cell. The capacitor holds a high or low charge (1 or 0, respectively), and the transistor acts as a switch that lets the control circuitry on the chip read the capacitor's state of charge or change it. As this form of memory is less expensive to produce than static RAM, it is the predominant form of computer memory used in modern computers. Both static and dynamic RAM is considered volatile, as their state is lost or reset when power is removed from the system. FPM RAM (Fast Page Mode) is a type of Dynamic Ram (DRAM). The term Fast Page Mode comes from the capability of memory being able to access data that is on the same page and can be done with less latency. Most 486 and Pentium based systems from 1995 and earlier use FPM memory. EDO RAM (Extended Data Out) came out in 1995 as a new type of memory available for Pentium based system. EDO is a modified form of FPM RAM which is commonly referred to as Hyper Page Mode. EDO refers to fact that the data output drivers on the memory module are not switched off when the memory controller removes the column address to begin the next cycle, unlike FPM RAM. Most early Pentium based system use EDO. SD RAM (Synchronous Dynamic RAM) is a type of DRAM that runs in synchronization with the memory bus. Beginning in 1996 most Intel based chipset began to support SDRAM which made it a popular choice for new system in 2001. SDRAM is capable of running at 133MHz which is about three times faster than FPM RAM and twice as faster as EDO RAM. Most Pentium or Celeron systems purchased in 1999 have SDRAM. DDR SDRAM (Double Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic RAM) which is a type of SDRAM and appeared first on the market around 2001 but didnt catch on until about 2001 when the mainstream motherboards started supporting it. The difference between SDRAM and DDR RAM is that instead of doubling the clock rate it transfers data twice per clock cycle which effectively doubles the data rate. DDR RAM has become mainstream in the graphics card market and has become the memory standard. Supports data transfers on both edges of each clock cycle (the rising and falling edges), effectively doubling the memory chip's data throughput. DDR-SDRAM also consumes less power, which makes it well-suited to notebook computers. DDR-SDRAM is also called SDRAM I, DDRAM and DRR1.

DDR2 SDRAM. DDR2 was first introduced in 2003 at 200 MHz. It supersedes the original DDR SDRAM specification and has itself been superseded by DDR3 SDRAM. DDR2 is neither forward nor backward compatible with either DDR or DDR3. An evolution from the DDR
SDRAM; it can operate the external data bus twice as fast as its predecessor. This was possible by abandoning the original clock rate of the DDR, and operating the memory cells at half the rate.

DDR3 SDRAM. DDR3 SDRAM improves on DDR2 SDRAM in several significant ways: Higher
bandwidth due to increased clock rate. Reduced power consumption due to 90mm fabrication technology. Pre-fetch buffer is doubled to 8 bits to further increase performance The voltage of DDR3 SDRAM DIMMs was lowered from 1.8V to 1.5V. This reduces power consumption and heat generation, as well as enabling more dense memory configurations for higher capacities.