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KRITERIA KEGAGALAN 1. MAXIMUM NORMAL STRESS Ketika principal normal stress terbesar mencapai kekuatan uniaxial dari material.

Karena pendekatan ini lebih sukses dalam memprediksi kegagalan pada material brittle maka criteria kegagalan mengabaikan criteria yield. Kegagalan maximum normal stress criteria dapat dinyatakan dalam fungi : u = Max (I 1I, I2I,I3I) Dimana maximum dinyatakan dengan tanda absolute yang berarti diasumsikan ultimate strength dari material compressive dan tensile adalah sama. Stress yang bekerja dapat dinyatakan dalam fungsi : N= Max (I 1I, I2I,I3I) Sehingga fracture terjadi ketika N sama dengan u tetapi tidak terjadi jika kurang dan safety factor untuk menghambat terjadinya kegagalan adalah

2. MAXIMUM SHEAR STRESS YIELD (TRESCA) Yielding pada material yang ductile diperkirakan akan muncul ketika maximum shear stress pada segala bidang datar mencapai nilai kritis o o=max (pada saat yielding) Untuk logam, pendekatan ini secara logis berdasarkann pada fakta bahwa mekanisme dari yielding pada skala microscopic adalah slip cristal pada bidang, dimana merupakan deformasi shear yang diharapkan bisa dikendalikan oleh Shear stress. 3. KRITERIA OCTAHEDRAL SHEAR STRESS YIELD (VON MISES/ KRITERIA DISTORSI ENERGI) Yield criteria yang sering dugunakan pada material ductile adalah yield akan muncul ketika shear stress pada bidang octahedral mencapai nilai kritis. h =ho (pada saat yielding) Dimana ho adalah nilai octahedral shear stress h untuk menjadi yielding.

QUANTITATIVE PROBLEM 13.31 Estimate the roll force, F, and the torque for an AISI 1020 Carbon steel strip that is 200 mm wide and 10 mm thick and rolled to a thickness of 7 mm. The roll radius is 200 mm, and it rotates at 200 rpm.

Answer : AISI 1020 Carbon steel W = 200 mm Ho =10 mm Hf =7 mm R = 200 mm N = 200 rpm F? power? Berdasarkan gambar 2.6 True stress unstrain condition = 100 Mpa True stress pada true strain = 500 Mpa Average true stress (100 + 500 Mpa)/2 = 300 Mpa F = Lw Y avrg = (24.49/1000) x (200/1000)x300 Mpa = 1.47 Mpa

Power = 2FLN/6000 = 2x1.47 . 10 6x (24.49/1000) x (200/60000) = 753.6 Kw 13.32 In example 13.1, calculate the roll force and the power for the case in which the workpiece material 1100 O aluminum and the roll radius R is 250 mm. Material R L Ho Hf N F? power? = 1100 O Aluminum = 250 mm =250 mm =25 mm =20mm =10 rpm

14. 25 Calculate forging force for a solid, cylindrical workpiece made of 1020 steel that is 90 mm high and 125 mm in diameter and is to be reduced in height by 30 %. Let the coefficient of friction be 0.2.

14.26. Using equation 14.2 , estimate the forging force for the workpiece in problem 14.25, assuming that it is a compolex forging and that the projected area of the flash is 40 % greater than the projected area of the forged workpiece. 14.31 A menchanical press is powered by a 23 kw motor and operates at forty stroke per minute. It uses a flywheel, so that the crankshaft speed does not vary appreciable during the stroke. If the stroke is 150 mm, what is the maximum constan force that can be exerted over the entire stroke length? 15.38 Calculate the extrusion force for round billet 200 mm in diameter, made of stainless steel and extruded at 1000 C to the diameter of 55 mm. 15.42 A planned extrusion operation involves steel at 1000C with initial diameter of 120 mm and the final diameter of 20 mm. two presses, one with capacity of 20 MN and other with capacity of 10 MN, are available for the operation, Is the smaller press sufficient for this operation ? If not , what recommendations would make to allow the use of the smaller press? 15.43 A round wire made of perfectly plastic material with yield stress of 200 Mpa is being drawn from diameter 2.5 to 1.5mm in a draw die of 15. Let the coefficient of friction be 0.1. Using both eqs. 15.3 dan 15.4, estimate the drawing force required. Comment on the difference answer, respectively.