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Specification and Estimation Lecture: 1 Introduction to Estimating

Estimate Definition: An estimate for any construction work is defined as the process of calculating the quantities of work for different items of work required in connection with the work.

Purpose of Estimate: To ascertain the amount of money required to complete the proposed work. To estimate quantities of materials required in order to programme their timely procurement. To calculate the number of different categories of workers those are to be employed. To assess the requirements of Tools, Plants and Equipment required to complete the work. To fix up the completion period from the volumes of work involved in the Estimate. To draw up a construction schedule enabling the arrangement of funds according to programming. To justify the investment from benefit cost ratio. To invite tenders and prepare bill of payments. To estimate taxing on existing property. Prerequisites of an Estimate: Drawings consisting of plans, elevations and sections through important points. Detailed specifications giving specific description of all workmanship, properties and proportion of materials. Different Types of Estimates: 1. Detailed Estimate: This includes detailed particulars for quantities, rates and cost of all the items of involved in the work. This is the best and the most accurate estimate that can be prepared. Documents accompanying a detailed Estimate: Report. Specifications. Detailed drawings. Design Data and Calculations. Basis of rates adopted in the estimate.

2. Rough Estimate/Preliminary Estimate/Approximate Estimate: Primarily prepared to enable the authorities to assess the viability of the project. Such an estimate is prepared after knowing the rate of similar works and from practical knowledge of: Plinth area Rates. Cubic Rates. Service Unit Rate. Bay Rates. Approximate quantities and Bill Rate. Etc.

3. A Quantity Estimate: This is a complete estimate of list of quantities for all items of work. This estimate is very useful to the contractors to submit their tenders for it enables them to find out the cost of an item of work by multiplying the quantities with the rate. 4. Revised Estimate: A revised estimate is a detailed estimate for the revised quantities and rates of items of works originally provided in the estimate without material deviation of a structural nature from the original design. A revised estimate is prepared for the following reasons: When the sanctioned estimate is likely to exceed more than 5% either from the rates being found or from any cause whatsoever except important structural alterations. When the expenditure of work exceeds or likely to exceed by more than 10% of the administrative approval (for works more than 5 Lakhs). When there are material deviations from the original proposal but not due to material deviation of a structural nature. When it is found that the sanctioned estimate is more than the actual requirement. 5. Supplementary Estimate: While a work is in progress, some changes and additional works due to material deviation of a structural nature from the original approved design may be thought necessary. An estimate is then prepared to include all such works and the estimate so prepared is called a supplementary estimate. 6. Revised Estimate and Supplementary Estimate due to reduction of cost (following P.W.D. manual). In cases, where a substantial section of a project costing less not less than 5% of the total sanctioned cost of the project is abandoned or where the material deviations from the original proposals are expected to result in

substantial savings, the estimate is revised by the dept. and intimated to the Engineer in charge for the execution of work. 7. Complete Estimate: This is an estimated cost of all items which are related to the work in addition to the main contract or the detailed Estimate. The ingredients of a Complete estimate are as detailed hereunder: Cost of Land: Actual Cost of Land Cost of Surveying Cost of examination of deeds, title of land and execution of deeds. Defaulting taxes of land, street improvement if any. Cost of Legal Expenses between the owner and contractor. Cost of contract material, labour and supervision. Contingency 5% of the work for extra work. Engineering Fees: Cost for preparation of plan, design, estimate and sanction fee. Cost for supervision of works. Permit Fee for Water and Electricity during construction. Miscelleneous such as transportation cost of owner and his party.

8. Annual Maintenance or Repair Estimate: After completion of work if it is necessary to maintain the same for its proper function, an estimate is prepared for the items which require renewal, replacement, repairs etc. in the form of a detailed estimate. For buildings, such items of work means white washing, colour washing, painting of doors and windows etc. The advantage of preparing such an estimate is that the quantities of various items of work are readily available fro the Measurement Books. For many other items of irregular nature such as replacement of glass panes, repairs of floors, patch repairs, changing of roof tiles etc., a lump sum provision is made.