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DemocracyCrossnationalCodebook(Norris)Updated:1Mar2009

DEMOCRACYCROSSNATIONALCODEBOOK:
TABLEOFCONTENTS
CODINGOFNATIONS...................................................................................................................................................2
STANDARDIZEDDEMOCRACYINDICES2000...................................................................................................3
GOODGOVERNANCEINDICATORSFROMTHEWORLDBANKINSTITUTE.........................................3
CODINGOFREGIMESBYFREEDOMHOUSE......................................................................................................5
MEDIAFREEDOM..........................................................................................................................................................9
CHEIBUBCLASSIFICATION.....................................................................................................................................10
POLITYCLASSIFICATIONS.......................................................................................................................................10
MEDIAACCESS..............................................................................................................................................................10
CLASSIFICATIONSOFETHNICPLURALISM.....................................................................................................10
CLASSIFICATIONOFELECTORALSYSTEM......................................................................................................11
GENDERPOLITICALREPRESENTATION...........................................................................................................11
TURNOUT........................................................................................................................................................................12
LIJPHARTCLASSIFICATIONS..................................................................................................................................13
TYPOLOGYOFEXECUTIVES....................................................................................................................................13
DECENTRALIZATION.................................................................................................................................................13
DATAONCONFLICTFROMOSLO.........................................................................................................................13
HUMAN_RIGHTS...........................................................................................................................................................14
SOCIALINDICATORS..................................................................................................................................................14
ECONOMICVARIABLES.............................................................................................................................................17
ENVIRONMENTALVARIABLES..............................................................................................................................19
WORLDVALUESSURVEY.........................................................................................................................................20
MEDIAVARS..................................................................................................................................................................23
CULTURALEXPORTSUNESCO...............................................................................................................................26

DemocracyCrossnationalCodebook(Norris)Updated:1Mar2009

Variable

Label

Refno

Referencenumberofnation

NATIONCODE

CODINGOFNATIONS

Country

Country

Nation

Nationname

Natcode

Nationnamecodednumerically

Natabrv

Internationalabbreviationfornation

Natlabel

Nationnamelabel(usedforscatterplots)

Natmap

Nation(usedforspssmapping)

ESS

InEuropeanSocialSurvey

CSESI

InCSES1NationinComparativeStudyofElectoralSystemsI

CSES2

InCSES2NationinComparativeStudyofElectoralSystemsII

INWVS

InWorldValuesSurvey,allwaves

WVSWave5

InWorldValuesSurvey Wave520057

NatWVS

NationinWVS integratedcoding20057

v2old

WVSnation(codeformergingdatawiththeoldWorldvaluessurveycodes)

NatFH

NationcodingforFreedomHouse

UNDPCode

UNDPNatcode

UNDPNat

UNDPNationname

TypeDemo2007

Typeofdemocracy2007(fromFreedomHouse2008)

TypeSoc2005

Typeofhumandevelopment,(3cat,classifiedfromHDI)UNDP2008

TypeEcon2006

Typeofeconomy(3catlevelofGDPpercapitainPPP2006)(WorldBank
2007)

HDI2005

Humandevelopmentindex2005100ptscale(UNDP2007)

GDP2006

GDPpercapitappp2006(Worldbank2007)

ZGDP2006

Zscore:GDPpercapitappp2006(Worldbank2007)

CBINDEX

Cosmopolitanismindex(seeNorrisandInglehartCosmopolitan
ComunicationsCUP2009)

Region8a

Region8categories

Region8b

Region8categories(UNDPclassification)(UNDP2000)

Region10

Region10categories

Region11

Region11categories(UNDPclassification)(UNDP2000)

OECD

OECDmemberstate(yes/no)

EU

EUmemberstate(1yes/0no)

Africa

Africadummy

Asia

Asiadummy

CEurope

CentralandEasternEuropedummy

MEast

MiddleEastdummy

Nam

NorthAmericadummy

Sam

SouthAmericadummy

Scan

Scandinaviadummy

DemocracyCrossnationalCodebook(Norris)Updated:1Mar2009

WEuro

WesternEuropedummy

Cultzone

Culturalzoneinglehartclassification

Religion

Religiousculture(classifiedfrompredominantreligion,CIAworldfactbook)

Protestant

PredominantProtestantnationdummy(CIAfactbook)

Catholic

PredominantCatholicnationdummy(CIAfactbook)

Muslim

PredominateMuslimnationdummy(CIAfactbook)

Orthodox

predominantorthodoxnationdummy(CIAfactbook)

Relcat

Typeofsecularorreligioussociety(NorrisandInglehartWVS)

Relfree

ReligiousFreedomindex(20ptscale)(NorrisandInglehartWVS)

fhrelfr

ReligiousFreedomscale(FreedomHouse)

Lang

Combined1stand2ndofficiallanguages

Lang1

Numberofofficiallanguages(UNESCO)

Lang2

1stofficiallanguage(UNESCO)

Lang3

2ndofficiallanguage(UNESCO)

Lang4

Otherofficiallanguage(UNESCO)

Lang5

Morethan50languagesspoken(UNESCO)

foreignborn

Proportionforeignbornpopulation19901995(UNESCO)

Colony

Colonyofwhatcountry?(fromCIAWorldFactbook)

Britcol

PreviousBritishcolony/not(fromCIAFactbook)

Independence

Yearofindependence(fromCIAWorldFactbook)

Peacebuild

MajorUNpeacebuildinginitiative

Fragile2006

Classificationoffragilestates(3cat)(RecodedfromStable2006)

STAND_DEMOCRACY

STANDARDIZEDDEMOCRACYINDICES2000

FHstand1975

FHLiberalDemocracystandardizedscale100pts1975(FreedomHouse)

Fhstand2000

FHLiberalDemocracystandardizedscale100pts2000(FreedomHouse)

FHstand2006

FHLiberalDemocracystandardizedscale100pts2006(FreedomHouse)

FHstand2007

FHLiberalDemocracystandardizedscale100pts2007(FreedomHouse)

FHstand2008

FHLiberalDemocracyStandardizedscale100pts2008(FreedomHouse)

Vanstand2000

Vanhanenstandardizedscale100pts2000

Cheibubstand2000

Cheibubstandardizedscale100pts2000

Politystand2000

PolityIVConstitutionalDemocracystandardizedscale100pts2000

Politystand2006

PolityIVConstitutionalDemocracystandardizedto100pts2006(PolityIV)

KAUFMANN_KRAY

GOODGOVERNANCEINDICATORSFROMTHEWORLDBANKINSTITUTE

Voice1996

Kaufmannvoiceandaccountability1996

Voice1998

Kaufmannvoiceandaccountability1998

Voice2000

Kaufmannvoiceandaccountability2000

Voice2002

Kaufmannvoiceandaccountability2002

Voice2003

Kaufmannvoiceandaccountability2003

Voice2004

Kaufmannvoiceandaccountability2004

Voice2005

Kaufmannvoiceandaccountability2005

Voice2006

Kaufmannvoiceandaccountability2006

Stable1996

Kaufmannpoliticalstability1996

DemocracyCrossnationalCodebook(Norris)Updated:1Mar2009

Stable1998

Kaufmannpoliticalstability1998

Stable2000

Kaufmannpoliticalstability2000

Stable2002

Kaufmannpoliticalstability2002

Stable2003

Kaufmannpoliticalstability2003

Stable2004

Kaufmannpoliticalstability2004

Stable2005

Kaufmannpoliticalstability2005

Stable2006

Kaufmannpoliticalstability2006

Effect1996

Kaufmanngovernmenteffectiveness1996

Effect1998

Kaufmanngovernmenteffectiveness1998

Effect2000

Kaufmanngovernmenteffectiveness2000

Effect2002

Kaufmanngovernmenteffectiveness2002

Effect2003

Kaufmanngovernmenteffectiveness2003

Effect2004

Kaufmanngovernmenteffectiveness2004

Effect2005

Kaufmanngovernmenteffectiveness2005

Effect2006

Kaufmanngovernmenteffectiveness2006

regul1996

Kaufmanngovernmentregulatoryquality1996

regul1998

Kaufmanngovernmentregulatoryquality1998

regul2000

Kaufmanngovernmentregulatoryquality2000

regul2002

Kaufmanngovernmentregulatoryquality2002

regul2003

Kaufmanngovernmentregulatoryquality2003

regul2004

Kaufmanngovernmentregulatoryquality2004

regul2005

Kaufmanngovernmentregulatoryquality2005

regul2006

Kaufmanngovernmentregulatoryquality2006

law1996

Kaufmannruleoflaw1996

law1998

Kaufmannruleoflaw1998

law2000

Kaufmannruleoflaw2000

law2002

Kaufmannruleoflaw2002

law2003

Kaufmannruleoflaw2003

law2004

Kaufmannruleoflaw2004

law2005

Kaufmannruleoflaw2005

law2006

Kaufmannruleoflaw2006

corrup1996

Kaufmanncorruption1996

corrup1998

Kaufmanncorruption1998

corrup2000

Kaufmanncorruption2000

corrup2002

Kaufmanncorruption2002

corrup2003

Kaufmanncorruption2003

corrup2004

Kaufmanncorruption2004

corrup2005

Kaufmanncorruption2005

corrup2006

Kaufmanncorruption2006

goodgov2006

Summarygoodgovernance2006(KaufmannKray)

goodgov1996

Summarygoodgovernance1996(KaufmannKray)

goodgovch

Changeingoodgovernance19962006(KaufmannKray)

DemocracyCrossnationalCodebook(Norris)Updated:1Mar2009

cpi8085

TIcorruptionperceptionindex19801985

cpi8892

TIcorruptionperceptionindex19881992

cpi1996

TIcorruptionperceptionindex1996

cpi2001

TIcorruptionperceptionindex2001

cpi2002

TIcorruptionperceptionindex2002

cpi2003

TIcorruptionperceptionindex2003

cpi2004

TIcorruptionperceptionindex2004

cpi2005

TIcorruptionperceptionindex2005

cpi2006

TIcorruptionperceptionindex2006

cpi2007

TIcorruptionperceptionindex2007

FREEDOM_HOUSE

CODINGOFREGIMESBYFREEDOMHOUSE

fhcat72

Freedomhousecategoryofdemocracy1972

fhcat73

Freedomhousecategoryofdemocracy1973

fhcat74

Freedomhousecategoryofdemocracy1974

fhcat75

Freedomhousecategoryofdemocracy1975

fhcat76

Freedomhousecategoryofdemocracy1976

fhcat77

Freedomhousecategoryofdemocracy1977

fhcat78

Freedomhousecategoryofdemocracy1978

fhcat79

Freedomhousecategoryofdemocracy1979

fhcat80

Freedomhousecategoryofdemocracy1980

fhcat81

Freedomhousecategoryofdemocracy1981

fhcat82

Freedomhousecategory ofdemocracy1982

fhcat83

Freedomhousecategoryofdemocracy1983

fhcat84

Freedomhousecategoryofdemocracy1984

fhcat85

Freedomhousecategoryofdemocracy1985

fhcat86

Freedomhousecategoryofdemocracy1986

fhcat87

Freedomhousecategoryofdemocracy1987

fhcat88

Freedomhousecategoryofdemocracy1988

fhcat89

Freedomhousecategoryofdemocracy1989

fhcat90

Freedomhousecategoryofdemocracy1990

fhcat91

Freedomhousecategoryofdemocracy1991

fhcat92

Freedomhousecategoryofdemocracy1992

fhcat93

Freedomhousecategoryofdemocracy1993

fhcat94

Freedomhousecategoryofdemocracy1994

fhcat95

Freedomhousecategoryofdemocracy1995

fhcat96

Freedomhousecategoryofdemocracy1996

fhcat97

Freedomhousecategoryofdemocracy1997

fhcat98

Freedomhousecategoryofdemocracy1998

fhcat99

Freedomhousecategoryofdemocracy1999

fhcat00

Freedomhousecategoryofdemocracy2000

fhcat01

Freedomhousecategoryofdemocracy2001

fhcat02

Freedomhousecategoryofdemocracy2002

DemocracyCrossnationalCodebook(Norris)Updated:1Mar2009

fhcat03

Freedomhousecategoryofdemocracy2003

fhcat04

Freedomhousecategoryofdemocracy2004

fhcat05

FreedomHousecategoryofdemocracy2005

fhcat06

FreedomHousecategoryofdemocracy2006

fhcat07

FreedomHousecategoryofdemocracy2007

FHCat08

FreedomHouseCategoryofdemocracy2008

fhrate72

FreedomHouseratingofdemocracy1972

fhrate73

FreedomHouseratingofdemocracy1973

fhrate74

FreedomHouseratingofdemocracy1974

fhrate75

FreedomHouseratingofdemocracy1975

fhrate76

FreedomHouseratingofdemocracy1976

fhrate77

FreedomHouseratingofdemocracy1977

fhrate78

FreedomHouseratingofdemocracy1978

fhrate79

FreedomHouseratingofdemocracy1979

fhrate80

FreedomHouseratingofdemocracy1980

fhrate81

FreedomHouserating ofdemocracy1981

fhrate82

FreedomHouseratingofdemocracy1982

fhrate83

FreedomHouseratingofdemocracy1983

fhrate84

FreedomHouseratingofdemocracy1984

fhrate85

FreedomHouseratingofdemocracy1985

fhrate86

FreedomHouseratingofdemocracy1986

fhrate87

FreedomHouseratingofdemocracy1987

fhrate88

FreedomHouseratingofdemocracy1988

fhrate89

FreedomHouseratingofdemocracy1989

fhrate90

FreedomHouseratingofdemocracy1990

fhrate91

FreedomHouseratingofdemocracy1991

fhrate92

FreedomHouseratingofdemocracy1992

fhrate93

FreedomHouseratingofdemocracy1993

fhrate94

FreedomHouseratingofdemocracy1994

fhrate95

FreedomHouseratingofdemocracy1995

fhrate96

FreedomHouseratingofdemocracy1996

fhrate97

FreedomHouseratingofdemocracy1997

fhrate98

FreedomHouseratingofdemocracy1998

fhrate99

FreedomHouseratingofdemocracy1999

fhrate00

FreedomHouseratingofdemocracy2000

fhrate01

FreedomHouseratingofdemocracy2001

fhrate02

FreedomHouseratingofdemocracy2002

fhrate03

FreedomHouseratingofdemocracy2003

fhrate04

FreedomHouseratingofdemocracy2004

fhrate05

FreedomHouseRatingofdemocracy2005

fhrate06

FreedomHouseRatingofdemocracy2006

fhrate07

FreedomHouseRatingofdemocracy2007

DemocracyCrossnationalCodebook(Norris)Updated:1Mar2009

fhrate08

FreedomHouseRatingofdemocracy2008

meanpr

Meanpoliticalrightsscore19802008

meancl

Meancivillibertiesscore19802008

fhchange1970s_2000s

ChangeinFHratings1970sto2000s

fh75rev

Freedomhouseratingofdemocracyreversed19751976

fh05rev

FreedomHouseRatingofDemocracyreversed2005

fh06rev

FreedomHouseratingofdemocracyreversed2006

fh07rev

FreedomHouseratingofdemocracyreversed2007

fh08rev

FredomHouseratingofdemocracyreversed2008

fhmean1972_1979

FHratingsmean1970s(FreedomHouse)

fhmean1980_1989

FHratingsmean1980s(FreedomHouse)

fhmean1990_1999

FHratingsmean1990s(FreedomHouse)

fhmean2000_2008

FHratingmean2000s(FreedomHouse)

fhmean1972_2005

FHratingsmean19722005(FreedomHouse)

fhmean1972_1979r

FHratingsmean1970s(reversed)(FreedomHouse)

pr72

Politicalrights1972(FreedomHouse)

cl72

Civilliberties1972(FreedomHouse)

pr73

Politicalrights1973(FreedomHouse)

cl73

Civilliberties1973(FreedomHouse)

pr74

Politicalrights1974(FreedomHouse)

cl74

Civilliberties1974(FreedomHouse)

pr75

Politicalrights1975(FreedomHouse)

cl75

Civilliberties1975(FreedomHouse)

pr76

Politicalrights1976(FreedomHouse)

cl76

Civilliberties1976(FreedomHouse)

pr77

Politicalrights1977(FreedomHouse)

cl77

Civilliberties1977(FreedomHouse)

pr78

Politicalrights1978(FreedomHouse)

cl78

Civilliberties1978(FreedomHouse)

pr79

Politicalrights1979(FreedomHouse)

cl79

Civilliberties1979(FreedomHouse)

pr80

Politicalrights1980(FreedomHouse)

cl80

Civilliberties1980(FreedomHouse)

pr81

Politicalrights1981(FreedomHouse)

cl81

Civilliberties1981(FreedomHouse)

pr82

Politicalrights1982(FreedomHouse)

cl82

Civilliberties1982(FreedomHouse)

pr83

Politicalrights1983(FreedomHouse)

cl83

Civilliberties1983(FreedomHouse)

pr84

Politicalrights1985(FreedomHouse)

cl84

Civilliberties1984(FreedomHouse)

pr85

Politicalrights1985(FreedomHouse)

DemocracyCrossnationalCodebook(Norris)Updated:1Mar2009

cl85

Civilliberties1985(FreedomHouse)

pr86

Politicalrights1986(FreedomHouse)

cl86

Civilliberties1986(FreedomHouse)

pr87

Politicalrights1987(FreedomHouse)

cl87

Civilliberties1987(FreedomHouse)

pr88

Politicalrights1988(FreedomHouse)

cl88

Civilliberties1988(FreedomHouse)

pr89

Politicalrights1988(FreedomHouse)

cl89

Civilliberties1989(FreedomHouse)

pr90

Politicalrights1990(FreedomHouse)

cl90

Civilliberties1990(FreedomHouse)

pr91

Politicalrights1991(FreedomHouse)

cl91

Civilliberties1991(FreedomHouse)

pr92

Politicalrights1992(FreedomHouse)

cl92

Civilliberties1992(FreedomHouse)

pr93

Politicalrights1993(FreedomHouse)

cl93

Civillibertoes1993(FreedomHouse)

pr94

Politicalrights1994(FreedomHouse)

cl94

Civilliberties1994(FreedomHouse)

pr95

Politicalrights1995(FreedomHouse)

cl95

Civilliberties1995(FreedomHouse)

pr96

Politicalrights1996(FreedomHouse)

cl96

Civilliberties1996(FreedomHouse)

pr97

Politicalrights1997(FreedomHouse)

cl97

Civilliberties1997(FreedomHouse)

pr98

Politicalrights1998(FreedomHouse)

cl98

Civilliberties1998(FreedomHouse)

pr99

Politicalrights1999(FreedomHouse)

cl99

Civilliberties1999(FreedomHouse)

pr00

Politicalrights2000(FreedomHouse)

cl00

Civilliberties2000(FreedomHouse)

pr01

Politicalrights2001(FreedomHouse)

cl01

Civilliberties2001(FreedomHouse)

pr02

Politicalrights2002(FreedomHouse)

cl02

Civilliberties2002(FreedomHouse)

pr03

Politicalrights2003(FreedomHouse)

cl03

Civilliberties2003(FreedomHouse)

pr04

Politicalrights,2004Freedomhouse

cl04

Civilliberties,2004Freedomhouse

pr05

PoliticalRights2005(FreedomHouse)

cl05

CivilLiberties2005(FreedomHouse)

pr06

PoliticalRights2006(FreedomHouse)

DemocracyCrossnationalCodebook(Norris)Updated:1Mar2009

cl06

Civilliberties2006(FreedomHouse)

pr07

PoliticalRights2007(FreedomHouse2008)

cl07

CivilLiberties2007(FreedomHouse2008)

PR08

FHPoliticalRights7ptscale2008(FreedomHouse)

CL08

FHCivilLiberties7ptscale2008(FreedomHouse)

MEDIA_FREEDOM

MEDIAFREEDOM

RSB2004

PressFreedom2004(Reporterswithoutborders)

RSB2004rev

PressFreedom2004(ReporterswithoutBorders)

RSB2005

PressFreedom2005(Reporterswithoutborders)

RSB2005Rev

PressFreedom2005reversed(ReporterswithoutBorders)

ZRSB2005Rev

Zscore:PressFreedom2005reversed(ReporterswithoutBorders)
(standardized)

FreePress2004

PressFreedom2004(Low=free)(FreedomHouse)

FreePress2005

PressFreedom2005(Low=free)(FreedomHouse)

FreePress2006

PressFreedom2006(Low=free)(FreedomHouse)

FreePress2004rev

PressFreedom2004reversed(FreedomHouse)

Freepress2005rev

PressFreedom2005reversed(FreedomHouse)

Freepress2006rev

PressFreedom2006reversed(FreedomHouse)

ZFreepress2006rev

Zscore:PressFreedom2006reversed(FreedomHouse)(standardized)

GLOBALIZATION

GLOBALIZATIONINDEXANDCULTURALTRADE

GlobIndex2005

Globalizationindex2005(KOF)

ZGlobIndex

Zscore:Globalizationindex2005(KOF)(standardized)

EconGlob

Economicglobalization2005(KOF2008)

SocGlob

Socialglobalization2005(KOF2008)

PolGlob

Politicalglobalization2005(KOF2008)

GlobIndex1972

Globalizationindex1972(KOF)

EconGlob_mean

Economicglobalizationindex1972(KOF)

SocGlob_mean

Socialglobalizationindex1972(KOF)

PolGlob_mean

Politicalglobalizationindex1972(KOF)

audiotrade

Audiovisualtrade(imports+exportsincurrent$)as%ofGDP(WTO)

Flows

Tradeflows2005(KOF2008)

Restrict

Traderestrictions2005(KOF2008)

PerContact

Personalcontact2005(KOF2008)

InfoFlows

Informationflows2005(KOF2008)

CultProx

Culturalproximity2005(KOF2008)

Tele_out

OutgoingTelephonetraffic2005(KOF2008)

Tourism

Internationaltourism2005(KOF2008)

Trans_GDP

Transfersas%ofGDP2005(KOF2008)

Migration_pop

Foreignpop(as%oftotalpop)2005(KOF2008)

Letters

Internationalletterspercapita2005(KOF2008)

Internet

InternetUsersper1000people2005(KOF2008)

CableTV

CableTVper1000people2005(KOF2008)

DemocracyCrossnationalCodebook(Norris)Updated:1Mar2009

NewsFlow

TradeinNewspapers2005(as %ofGDP)(KOF2008)

Radio

Radiosper1000people2005(KOF2008)

CulturalTrade2

Culturaltrade2002as%ofGDP

CHEIBUB

CHEIBUBCLASSIFICATION

Cheibub2Type

Cheibubtypeofregime2000

Cheibub2TypeRev

Ceibiubtypeofregimewithreversecoding2000

Cheibub4Type

TypeofinstitutionsCheibub2000

Cheibub6Type

SixfoldclassificationofregimesCheibub2000

Van_Index

VanhanenIndexofDemocratization2000

Van_Comp

VanhanenCompetition(%seatslargestparty)2000

Van_Part

VanhanenParticipation(electoralturnout)2000

POLITY_CODINGS

POLITYCLASSIFICATIONS

Polity

PolityCombined20ptscore2000

Polity2

PolityCombined20ptscorewithmeansubsforspecialconditions2000

Polity3

PolityCombined20ptscorerecodedtoapositivescale,2000

Democracy

PolityDemocracy10ptscore2000

Autocracy

PolityAutocracy10ptscore2000

Durable

Numberofyearssincethelastregimetransition(3ptorgreater)Polity2000

XRReg

RegulationofexecutiverecruitmentPolity2000

XRComp

CompetitivenessofexecutiverecruitmentPolity2000

XROpen

OpennessofexecutiverecruitmentPolity2000

XConst

ExecutiveconstraintsPolity2000

ParReg

RegulationofparticipationPolity2000

ParComp

CompetitivenessofparticipationPolity2000

ExRec

Executiverecruitment(combinedXRReg,XRComp,XROpen)Polity2000

ExConst

ExecutiveconstraintsPolity2000

Competition

Politicalcompetition(ParReg+ParComp)Polity2000

Prior

RegimepolityscorepriortoregimechangePolity2000

Polity1960_1990

ChangeinthemeanAutocracyDemocracyindex1960s1990sPolity

MEDIA_ACCESS

MEDIAACCESS

TotPop2007

ITUTotalPopulation2007

PopDensityPersqkm2007

ITUPopulationDensityPersqkm2007

TotGDPTotal2006

ITUTotalGDP(US$)2006

PerCapGDP2006

ITUPerCapitaGDP(US$)2006

ETHNICITY

CLASSIFICATIONSOFETHNICPLURALISM

frac_eth

Ethnicfactionlization(combinedlinguisticandracial)(alesina2002)

frac_lan

Linguisticfractionalization(alesina2002)

frac_rel

Religiousfractionalization(alesina2002)

Plural

Typeofpluralsociety(categorizedfromAlesina)

lingplural

Typeoflinguisticpluralism(categorizedfromAlesina)

relplural

Typeofreligiouspluralism(categorizedfromAlesina)

ethnplural

Typeoflinguisticracialpluralism

DemocracyCrossnationalCodebook(Norris)Updated:1Mar2009

PREG

PREGEthnoPoliticalfractionalization(Posner)

ELF

Ethnolinguisticfractionalization(Posner)

Fearon

Fearon(ELFweightedforlinguisticsimilarities)(Posner)

Roeder

EthnicfractionalizationinAfricaRoeder(Posner)

Bah

EthnicfractionalizationinAfricaBah(Posner)

SDI

SocialDiversityIndex,primarydatasource2001(Okediji2005)

ELECTORAL_SYSTEM

CLASSIFICATIONOFELECTORALSYSTEM

Elecfam04

Electoralfamily(4majorcategories)(IDEA2004)

Elecsyst04

Typeofelectoralsystem(9minorcategories)(IDEA2004)

Elecfam97

Electoralfamily(4majorcategories)(IDEA1997)

Elecsyst97

Typeofelectoralsystem(9minorcategories)(IDEA1997)

Elecfam

ElectoralFamily(5majorcategories)2004

Elecmaj

Majoritarianelectoralsystem2005(dummy)

Eleccomb

Combinedelectoralsystem2005(dummy)

ComInd

CombinedIndependentElectoralSystem2005(dummy)

ComDep

CombinedDependentElectoralSystem2005(dummy)

Elecpr

PRelectoralsystem2005(dummy)

Openlist

Openorclosedpartylists(RichardRoseEncyclopediaofelections,CQ
Press)

Prop

Indexofproportionality(RichardRoseEncyclopediaofelections,CQPress)

Dm

Meandistrictmagnitude(RichardRoseEncyclopediaofElections,CQPress)

Seats

Numberofseatsinthelowerhouseofparliament(RichardRose
EncyclopediaofElections,CQPress)

Seats2003

Numberofseatsinthelowerhouseofparliament,2003
(InterParliamentaryUnion)

Distsize

Averagepopulationsizeperrepresentative

GENDER_POLITICS

GENDERPOLITICALREPRESENTATION

Women1990

Percentageofwomeninlowerhouseofparliament,1990(IPU2004)

Women2000

Percentagewomeninlowerhouseofparliament,2000(IPU2000)

Women2003

Percentageofwomeninlowerhouseofparliament,2003(IPU2003)

Women2004

Percentageofwomeninlowerhouseofparliament,2004(IPU2004)

Women2005

PercentageofwomenintheLowerHouseofparliament,2005(IPU2005)

Women2008

PercentageofwomenintheLowerHouseofParliament,2008(IPU)

Wom9008

Changein%ofwomen1990to2008

Womrank2000

Rankin%ofwomeninparliament,2000(InterParliamentaryUnion)

Nwom2000

numberofwomeninthelowerhouse,2000(InterParliamentaryUnion)

Nwom2003

numberofwomeninlowerhouse,2003(InterParliamentaryUnion)

Womvote

Yearwomenwerefirstenfranchised(InterParliamentaryUnion)

Womtype

Categorizedlengthofwomen'senfranchisement

WVSWomPol

Supportforwomeninpolitics(WVS19952005)

WomGov2001

Womeningovernmentatministeriallevel(as%oftotal)2001(UNDP2004)

WomGov2005

Womeningovernmentatministeriallevel(as%oftotal)2005(UNDP2007)

WomLead2006

Womanpresidentorpremier,2006

DemocracyCrossnationalCodebook(Norris)Updated:1Mar2009

resseatdum

Reservedseatsusedforwomen(dummyyes=1,0=no)

Resseat

Proportionofanyreservedseatsforwomen(quotasproject)

Lquotadum

Legalquotasusedforwomen(dummyyes=1,0=no)(quotasproject)

Lquota

Proportionofanylegalgenderquotaforwomen(quotasproject)

PQuota

Voluntaryquotausedbyatleastoneparty

Fasttrack

Anyfasttrackgenderpoliciesused(4categories)

Turnover

Legislativeincumbencyreturnrate(MatlandandStudlar)

GDIRank2002

Genderrelateddevelopmentindex(GDI)Rank2002(UNDP2004)

GDIValue2002

Genderrelateddevelopmentindex(GDI)Value(%)2002(UNDP2004)

GDIValue2005

Genderrelateddevelopmentindex(GDI)value2005(UNDP2007)

GEM2000

Genderempowermentmeasure2000(UNDP)

GEM2004

Genderempowermentmeasure(GEM)Value(UNDP2004)

GEM2005

Genderempowermentmeasure(GEM)value2005(UNDP2007)

TURNOUT

TURNOUT

Votevp50

Turnoutmeanvote/vap1950s(InternationalIDEA)

votevp70

Turnoutmeanvote/vap1970s(idea)

votevp90

Turnoutmeanvote/vap1990s(idea)

vote5090

Turnoutchangevote/vap1950s90s(idea)

vote7090

Turnoutchangevote/vap1970s90s(idea)

totvote

Totalvotescastduring1990s(idea)

n_reg

Registeredvotesduring 1990s(idea)

votereg

Votescast/registeredvotesduring1990s(idea)

n_vap

Voteragepopduring1990s(idea)

votevap

Vote/vapduring1990s(idea)

invalid

invalidvotesduring1990s(idea)

Agevote

Minimumvotingage

Compulse

Compulsoryvotingused

Contact

%contactwithelectedrepresentative(CSESWaveI)

Knowcand

%knowatleastonecandidate(CSESWaveI)

ptyfirst

partyfirst,%voteinelectionsduringthe1990s(idea)

vtrg4599

meanvote/reg194599(idea)

vtvap459

meanvote/vap194599(idea)

nelc4599

numberofelections19451999(idea)

noelec

nocompetitiveelections19451999(idea)

INCampSpend

CountryincludedinIDEACampaignSpendingDatabase

Regulate

Isthereasystemfortheregulationofpoliticalfinance?

donatecap

Isthereaceilingoncontributionstopoliticalparties?

ban

Isthereabanoncertaintypesofdonationstopoliticalparties?

disclosedonate

Arethereprovisionsfordisclosureofcontributionstopoliticalparties?

spendcap

Isthereaceilingonpartyelectionexpenditures?

disclosespend

Arethereprovisionsfordisclosureofexpendituresbypoliticalparties?

directfund

Dopoliticalpartiesreceivedirectpublicfunding?

DemocracyCrossnationalCodebook(Norris)Updated:1Mar2009

indirectfund

Dopoliticalpartiesreceiveindirectpublicfunding?

summaryregulate

Summarypartyregulation

LIJPHART

LIJPHARTCLASSIFICATIONS

Elecdem

Lijphart'scategoryofelectoraldemocracy19451990s

Execpty

Lijphart'sindexexecutivepartiesdimension(Lijphart1999)

Fedunit

Lijphart'sindexforfederalunitarydimension(Lijphart1999)

disprpop

Lijphart'sindexfordisproportionality(Lijphart1999)

Enpplip

Lijphart'sindexforenpp(Lijphart1999)

Enpp

Effectivenumberofparliamentaryparties,june2000(Agora)

Totnpty

Totalnumberofparliamentaryparties,june2000(Agora)

Ptysyst

Typeofpartysystem(classifiedfromENPPJune2000)

EXECUTIVES

TYPOLOGYOFEXECUTIVES

TypeExec

Classificationofexecutive(formalHoGBanks)

parlmon

Parliamentarymonarchies

presrep

Presidentialrepublics

monarch

Rulingmonarchies

milstate

Militarystates

Militaryrule

TypeofCivilianorMilitaryRegime(Banks)

HeadofState

FormalHeadofState(Banks)

BanksExec

TypeofEffectiveExecutive(Banks)

oldexec

Typeofexecutive presidentialorparliamentary

DECENTRALIZATION

DECENTRALIZATION

fedtype

Typeofunitaryfederalstate(Norris'DrivingDemocracy')

Watts

Typeoffederalism(Watts)

Watts2

Typeoffederalism(Watts)

Geering

Federalismindex(GerringThacker)

Fiscal

Fiscaldecentralization68nations(Schneider)

SubNatExp

FiscalDecentralization(WorldBank)

Brancati

Decentralization(DawnBrancati)

Admin

Administrativedecentralization68nations(Schneider)

Political

Politicaldecentralization68nations(Schneider)

CONFLICT

DATAONCONFLICTFROMOSLO

Location

Locationof conflict(2000)

Conflictups

Numberofconflicts(2000)

extra

Extrasystemicarmedconflict(stateandnonstategroupoutsideitsterritory
egcolonialwar)2000

interstate

Interstatearmedconflict(betweentwoormorestates)2000

internal

Internalarmedconflict(civilwarbetweenstateandgroupwithinits
territory,withoutexternalintervention)2000

internationalized

Internationalizedinternalarmedconflict(civilwarbetweenstateandgrou
withinitsterritory,withexternalintervention)2000

Minor

Minorconflict(25999deathsperyear)2000

Major

Majorconflict(1000+deathsperyear)2000

DemocracyCrossnationalCodebook(Norris)Updated:1Mar2009

lag1CONFLICT

Conflictlaggedbyoneyear(Banks)

lag1internal

Internalarmedconflictlaggedbyoneyear(Oslo)

HUMAN_RIGHTS

HUMAN_RIGHTS

Phyint

PhysicalIntegrityRightsIndex(CIRI)

lag1psysrt

Physicalintegrityindexlaggedoneyear(CIRI)

Dissap

Disappearance(CIRI)

Kill

Extrajudicialkilling(CIRI)

PolPris

PoliticalImprisonment(CIRI)

Torture

Torture(CIRI)

EmpInx

EmpowermentRightsIndex(CIRI)

Assoc

FreedomofAssociation(CIRI)

Move

FreedomofMovement(CIRI)

Speech

FreedomofSpeech(CIRI)

PolPar

PoliticalParticipationRights(CIRI)

Relfre

FreedomofReligion(CIRI)

Worker

Worker'sRights(CIRI)

WEcon

Women'sEconomicRights(CIRI)

WPol

Women'sPoliticalRights(CIRI)

WSoc

Women'sSocialRights(CIRI)

SOCIAL_INDICATORS

SOCIALINDICATORS

Pop1900

Population,1900

Pop1970

Population,1970

Pop2000

Population,2000(WorldBank2002)

Pop2002

Population,2002(WorldBank2002)

Pop2003

Population,2003(WorldBank2004)

Pop2004

Population2004(worldbank2007)

Pop2005

Population2005(worldbank2007)

Pop2006

Population2006(worldbank2007)

Pop1975_2002

AnnualpopulationgrowthRate19752002(UNDP2004)

Pop2000_2015

AnnualpopulationgrowthRate20022015(UNDP2004)

Urban1975

Urbanpopulation(%oftotal)1975(UNDP2004)

Urban1998

Urbanpopulation(%oftotal)1998(UNDP2000)

Urban2002

Urbanpopulation(%oftotal)2002(UNDP2004)

Urban2003

Urbanpopulation(%oftotal)2003(WorldBank2004)

Urban2004

Urbanpopulation(%oftotal)2004(worldbank2007)

Urban2005

Urbanpopulation(%oftotal)2005(worldbank2007)

Urban2006

Urbanpopulation(%oftotal)2006(worldbank2007)

Urban2015

Urbanpopulation(%oftotal)2015(UNDP2004)

Rural2002

Ruralpopulation(%oftotal)2002(WorldBank2002)

Rural2003

Ruralpopulation(%oftotalpopulation)2003(WB2004)

Rural2004

Ruralpopulation(as%oftotalpopulation)2004(worldbank2007)

Rural2005

Ruralpopulation(as%oftotalpopulation)2005(worldbank2007)

DemocracyCrossnationalCodebook(Norris)Updated:1Mar2009

Rural2006

Ruralpopulation(as%oftotalpopulation)2006(worldbank2007)

Yng2000

Populationages014(%oftotal)(worldbank2002)

Yng2003

Populationages014(%oftotal)2003(WB2004)

Yng2004

Populationages014(%oftotal)2004(worldbank2007)

Yng2005

Populationages014(%oftotal)2005(worldbank2007)

Yng2006

Populationages014(%oftotal)2006(worldbank2007)

Mid2003

Populationages1564(%oftotal)2003(worldbank2007)

Mid2004

Populationages1564(%oftotal)2004(worldbank2007)

Mid2005

Populationages1564(%oftotal)2005(worldbank2007)

Mid2006

Populationages1564(%oftotal)2006(worldbank2007)

Old2000

Populationages65andabove(%oftotal)(worldbank2002)

Old2003

Populationages65andabove(%oftotal)2003(WB2004)

Old2004

Populationages65andabove(%oftotal)2004(worldbank2007)

Old2005

Populationages65andabove(%oftotal)2005(worldbank2007)

Old2006

Populationages 65andabove(%oftotal)2006(worldbank2007)

Depend1997

Dependencyratio(%),1997

Depend2015

Dependencyratio(%),2015

HDI1975

Humandevelopmentindex,1975(undp)

HDI1980

Humandevelopmentindex,1980(undp)

HDI1985

Humandevelopmentindex,1985(undp)

HDI1990

Humandevelopmentindex,1990(undp)

HDI1995

Humandevelopmentindex1995(UNDP)

HDI1998

Humandevelopmentindex,1998(UNDP)

HDI2000

Humandevelopmentindex2000(UNDP2004)

HDI2001

Humandevelopmentindex2001(UNDP2003)

HDI2002

Humandevelopmentindex2002(UNDP2004)

HDI2004

Humandevelopmentindex2004(UNDP2007)

Girl2000

Infantmortalityrate,adult,female(per1,000femaleadults)(worldbank
2002)

Girl2005

Infantmortalityrate,adult,female(per1000femaleadults)2005(world
bank2007)

Boy2000

Infantmortalityrate,adult,male(per1,000maleadults)(worldbank2002)

Boy2005

Infantmortalityrate,adult,male(per1000maleadults)2005(worldbank
2007)

Mort1970

Infantmortalityrate(per1,000livebirths)1970(UNDP2004)

Mort7075

Infantmortalityrate(per1000livebirths)19701975

Mort1990

Infantmortalityrate(01year)per1,000livebirths1990

Mort1995

Infantmortalityrate(01year)per1,000livebirths1995

Mort2000

Infantmortalityrate(01year)per1,000livebirths2000

Mort2001

inflantmortalityrate(per1000livebirths)20002005

Mort2002

Infantmortalityrate(per1,000livebirths)2002(UNDP2004)

Mort2003

Infantmortalityrate(per1,000livebirths)2003(WB2004)

Mort2005

Infantmortalityrate(per1000livebirths)2005(worldbank2007)

DemocracyCrossnationalCodebook(Norris)Updated:1Mar2009

Mort2004

Infantmortalityrate(01year)per1,000livebirths2004

Mort9004

Changeininfantmortalityper1000livebirth19902004

ChildMort1970

Childmortality1970

ChildMort2000

Childmortality2000

Life1970

Lifeexpectancyatbirth(inyears)1970(UNDP)

Life1975

Lifeexpectancyatbirth(inyears)1975(UNDP2004)

Life1998

Lifeexpectancyatbirth,(inyears)1998(UNDP)

Life2000

Lifeexpectancyatbirth,(inyears)2000(UNDP)

Life2001

lifeexpectancyatbirth(inyears)(UNDP2003)

Life2004

Lifeexpectancyatbirth(years)2004(UNDP2007)

Life2005

Lifeexpectancyatbirth(inyears)20002005(UNDP2008)

LifeF2002

Lifeexpectancyatbirth,female(years)2002(UNDP2004)

LifeM2002

Lifeexpectancyatbirth,male(years)2002(UNDP2004)

SurviveF2005

Probabilityatbirthofsurvivingtoage65(females%cohort)20002005

SurviveM2005

Probabilityatbirthofsurvivingtoage65(males%cohort)20002005

Fert1970

Totalfertilityrateperwoman,19701975

Fert2000

Totalfertilityrateperwoman,2000(WorldBank2002)

Fert2005

Totalfertilityrateperwoman,20002005

Contrac9505

Contraceptiveprevalencerate(%)19952005(UNDP2004)

Contrac9098

Contraceptiveprevalencerate(%),199098

Births

Birthstomothersunder20(%),199197

Divorce1996

Divorces(as%ofmarriages),1996

Doctors1993

Doctors(per100,000people),1993

Schools04

Combinedgrossenrolmentratioforprimary,secondaryandtertiaryschools
(%)2004(UNDP2007)

AIDS

AIDS/HIVcases(per100,000people),1997

HIV2003

PrevalenceofHIV,total(%ofpopulationaged1549)2003(WB2004)

f_admin

Femaleadministratorsandmanagers(as%oftotal)

f_prof

Femaleprofessionalandtechnicalworkers(as %oftotal)

f_unpaid

Femaleunpaidfamilyworkers(as%oftotal),199097

f_lit1997

Femaleadultliteracy,rate(%),1997(UNESCO)

F_LIT2002

Femaleadultliteracyrate,2002(UNDP2004)

M_LIT2002

Adultliteracyrate,male(%ages15andabove)2002(UNDP2004)

FM_Lit2002

Adultliteracyrate(femalerateas%ofmalerate)2002(UNDP2004)

F_PRIME2001

Femaleprimarynetenrolmentratio(%)2000/01(UNDP2004)

F_SEC2001

Femalesecondarynetenrolmentratio(%)2000/01(UNDP2004)

F_TER2001

Femaletertiarygrossenrolmentratio(%)2000/01(UNDP2004)

F_Work2002

Femaleeconomicactivityrate(%ages15andabove)2002(UNDP2004)

FM_Work2002

Femaleeconomicactivityrate(%ofmalerate,ages15andabove)2002
(UNDP2004)

f_prime1

Femaleprimarynetenrolment,as%ofmaleratio,1997

f_prime3

Femaleprimarynetenrolment,ratio(as%ofrelevantagegroup),1997

f_sec1

Femalesecondarynetenrolment,as%ofmaleratio,1997

DemocracyCrossnationalCodebook(Norris)Updated:1Mar2009

f_sec3

Femalesecondarynetenrolment,ratio(as%ofrelevantagegroup),1997

f_ter1

Femaletertiarystudents,as%ofmales,1996

f_ter3

Femaletertiarystudents,per100,000women,1996

f_educ97

Combinedfirst,second andthirdlevelgrossenrolmentratio(%),female,
1997

F_Educ02

Combinedgrossenrolmentratioforprimary,secondaryandtertiarylevel
schools,female(%)2001/02(UNDP2004)

m_educ97

Combinedfirst,second andthirdlevelgrossenrolmentratio(%),male,
1997

M_Educ02

Combinedgrossenrolmentratioforprimary,secondaryandtertiarylevel
schools,male(%)(UNDP2004)

Read1998

Adultilliteracyrate1998

Read2000

Adultilliteracyrate,(%ofpeopleages15andabove)2000(UNDP2000)

Read2001

Adultliteracyrate2001(UNDP2003)

Read2002

Adultilliteracyrate(%ages15andabove)2002(UNDP2004)

Read2004

Adultliteracyrate(15+)2004(UNDP2007)

Educ1970

Combinedgrossenrollmentratioforprimary,secondaryandtertiary
schools(%)1970

Educ2001

Combinedgrossenrollmentratioforprimary,secondaryandtertiary
schools(%)2001

Educ2002

Combinedgrossenrollmentratioforprimary,secondaryandtertiary
schools(%)2002(UNDP2004)

KidsEduc1991

Childrenreachinggrade5(%)1990/91(UNDP2004)

KidsEduc2001

Childrenreachinggrade5(%)2000/01(UNDP2004)

TB2002

OneyearoldsfullyimmunizedagainstTB(%)2002(UNDP2004)

LowWt02

Childrenunderweightforage(%underage5)19952002(UNDP2004)

LowHt02

Childrenunderheightforage(%underage5)19952002(UNDP2004)

Measles2002

Oneyearoldsfullyimmunizedagainstmeasles(%)2002(UNDP2004)

Sanitation1990

Populationwithsustainableaccesstoimprovedsanitation(%)1990(UNDP
2004)

Sanitation2000

Populationwithsustainableaccesstoimprovedsanitation(%)2000(UNDP
2004)

Water1990

Populationwithsustainableaccess toanimprovedwatersource(%)1990
(UNDP2004)

Water2000

Populationwithsustainableaccesstoanimprovedwatersource(%)2000
(UNDP2004)

ECONOMICS

ECONOMICVARIABLES

GDP1975

GDPpercapita(1987us$),1975

GDP1980

GDPpercapita(1987us$),1980

GDP1985

GDPpercapita(1987us$),1985

GDP1990

GDPpercapita(1987us$),1990

GDP1997

GDPpercapita(1987us$),1997

GDP2000

GDPpercapitappp2000(worldbank2002)

GDP2002

GDPpercapita(US$)2002(UNDP2004)

DemocracyCrossnationalCodebook(Norris)Updated:1Mar2009

GDP2003

GDPpercapitappp2003(worldbank2007)

GDP2004

GDPpercapitappp2004(worldbank2007)

GDP2005

GDPpercapitaPPP2005(WorldBank2007)

GDP7502

GDPpercapitaannualgrowthrate(%)19752002(UNDP2004)

GDP9002

GDPpercapitaannualgrowthrate(%)19902002(UNDP2004)

GDPchg

GDPpercapita(1987us$),averageannualrateofchange(%),197597

GDP75

GDP1975

GDP80

GDP1980

GDP85

GDP1985

GDP90

GDP1990

GDP98

GDP1998

GDP02

GDP2002(UNDP2004)

GDP2002Total

GDP2002PPP(Millions)incurrentUS$(WB)

GNP2003

GNPpercapitaAtlasmethod(currentUS$)2003(WB2004)

GNI2004

GNIpercapitaAtlasmethod(currentUS$)(worldbank2007)

GNI2005

GNIpercapitaAtlasmethod(currentUS%)(worldbank2007)

GNI2006

GNIpercapitaAtlasmethod(currentUS%)(worldbank2007)

Gini2002

GINIcoefficient(Worldbank2002)

Gini2004

GINIcoefficient(UNDP2004)

HPI5

Humanpovertyindex(HPI1)Value(%)(UNDP2004)

HPI4

Humanpovertyindex(HPI1)Rank(UNDP2004)

HPI2004

Humanpovertyindex(HPI2)Value(%)(UNDP2004)

Inflat1985

Averageannualrateofinflation(%),198596

Inflat1996

Averageannualrateofinflation(%),1996

Tax2001

Taxrevenue(%ofGDP)2001(WB2004)

Tax2002

Taxrevenue(as%ofGDP)2002(worldbank2007)

Tax2003

Taxrevenue(as%ofGDP)2003 (worldbank2007)

Tax2004

Taxrevenue(as%ofGDP)2004(worldbank2007)

Tax2005

Taxrevenue(as%ofGDP)2005(worldbank2007)

Cengov1997

Centralgovernmentexpenditure(as%ofGDP),1997

Cengov1998

Centralgovernmentexpenditure(as%ofGDP)1998(worldbank2007)

Cengov1999

Centralgovernmentexpenditure(as%ofGDP)1999(worldbank2007)

Cengov2000

Centralgovernmentexpenditure(as%ofGDP)2000(worldbank2007)

Cengov2001

Centralgovernmentexpenditure(as%ofGDP)2001(worldbank2007)

Cengov2002

Centralgovernmentexpenditure(as%ofGDP)2002(worldbank2007)

Cengov2003

Centralgovernmentexpenditure(as%ofGDP)2003(worldbank2007)

Cengov2004

Centralgovernmentexpenditure(as%ofGDP)2004(worldbank2007)

Cengov2005

Centralgovernmentexpenditure(as%ofGDP)2005(worldbank2007)

Cengov2006

Centralgovernmentexpenditure(as%ofGDP)2006(worldbank2007)

Public$1998

Publicsocialexpenditureas%ofgdp,1998(OECD)

Educ$2001

Publicspendingoneducation,total(%of GDP)2001(WB2004)

Health$2001

Publichealthexpenditure(%ofGDP)2001(UNDP2004)

DemocracyCrossnationalCodebook(Norris)Updated:1Mar2009

Army$1990

Militaryexpenditure(%ofGDP)1990(UNDP2004)

Army$2000

Militaryexpenditure(%ofGDP)2000(UNDP2004)

Sav2003

Grossdomesticsavings(%ofGDP)2003(WB2004)

Sav2004

Grossdomesticsavings(%ofGDP)2004(worldbank2007)

Sav2005

Grossdomesticsavings(%ofGDP)2005(worldbank2007)

Sav2006

Grossdomesticsavings(%ofGDP)2006(worldbank2007)

Export1990

Exportofgoodsandservices(as%ofGDP)1990(UNDP2004)

Export1997

Exportofgoodsandservices(as%ofgdp)1997(UNDP)

Export2000

Exportofgoodsandservices(as%ofGDP)2000(worldbank2007)

Export2001

Exportofgoodsandservices(as%ofGDP)2001(worldbank2007)

Export2002

Exportofgoodsandservices(as%ofGDP)2002(worldbank2007)

Export2003

Exportofgoodsandservices(as%ofGDP)2003(worldbank2007)

Export2004

Exportofgoodsandservices(as%ofGDP)2004(worldbank2007)

Export2005

Exportofgoodsand services(as%ofGDP)2005(worldbank2007)

Export2006

Exportofgoodsandservices(as%ofGDP)2006(worldbank2007)

Aid1990

Officialdevelopmentassistance(ODA)recevedasnetdisbursements(as%
ofGDP)1990(UNDP2004)

Aid2002

Officialdevelopmentassistance(ODA)recevedasnetdisbursements(as%
ofGDP)2002(UNDP2004)

Debt1985

Externaldebt,as%ofgnp,1985

Debt1990

Totaldebtservice(as%ofGDP)1990(UNDP2004)

Debt1997

Externaldebt,as%ofgnp,1997

Debt2002

Totaldebtservice(as%ofGDP)2002(UNDP2004)

ENVIRONMENT

ENVIRONMENTALVARIABLES

CO2Tot1996

CO2emissions,shareofworldtotal(%),1996

CO2Tot2000

CO2emissionsshareofworldtotal(%)2000(UNDP2004)

Co2_1980

CO2emissionspercapita(metrictons)1980(UNDP2004)

Co2_1996

CO2emissions,percapita(metrictons),1996

Co2_1997

CO2emissions,percapita(metrictons),1997(worldbank2007)

Co2_1998

CO2emissions,percapita(metrictons),1998(worldbank2007)

Co2_1999

CO2emissions,percapita(metrictons),1999(worldbank2007)

Co2_2000

CO2emissions,percapita(metrictons),2000(worldbank2007)

Co2_2001

CO2emissions,percapita(metrictons),2001(worldbank2007)

Co2_2002

CO2emissions,percapita(metrictons),2002(worldbank2007)

Co2_2003

CO2emissions,percapita(metrictons),2003(worldbank2007)

Energy1980

Commercialenergyuse(oilequivalent),percapita(kilograms),1980

Energy1996

Commercialenergyuse(oilequivalent),percapita(kilograms),1996

Energy2002

Commercialenergyuse(oilequivalent)percapita(kilograms)2002(WB
2004)

Energy2003

Commercialenergyuse(oilequivalent),percapita(kilograms)2003(world
bank2007)

Energy2004

Commercialenergyuse(oilequivalent),percapita(kilograms)2004(world
bank2007)

DemocracyCrossnationalCodebook(Norris)Updated:1Mar2009

Power1980

Electricityconsumptionpercapita(kwh)1980(UNDP2004)

Power1996

Electricityconsumption,percapita(kilowatthours),1996

Power2001

Electricityconsumptionpercapita(kwh)2001(UNDP2004)

WORLD_VALUES_SURVEY

WORLDVALUESSURVEY

imp_rel

importanceofreligion(fromWVS)

vi_rel

%religion'very'important(WVS)

imp_god

importanceofgod10ptscale(WVS)

sexequal

genderequalityscale(5item)(menpol,menjob,boyeduc,needkid,sglmum)
WVS

menpol

WVSmeanApprove'Menbetteratpolitics'(WVS)

menjob

WVSmeanmenjob

boyeduc

WVSmeanboyeduc

needkid

WVSmeanneedkid

sglmum

WVSmeansglmum

left

meanleftrightideology(WVS)

dutywork

dutytoworkscale(WVS)

ecequal

economicequalityscale(WVS)

freemark

freemarketscale(WVS)

soctol

socialtolerancescale(WVS)

eqincome

economicequalityscaleWVS

compet

economiccompetitionscaleWVS

owner

businessownershipscale(WVS)

govres

governmentresponsibilityscale(WVS)

suicide

Disapproveofsuicidemean10ptscale(WVS)

gays

Disapproveofhomosexualitymean10ptscale(WVS)

euthan

Disapproveofeuthanasiamean10ptscale(WVS)

prostion

Disapproveofprostitutionmean10ptscale(WVS)

abortion

Disapproveofabortionmean10ptscale(WVS)

suicdum

Disapproveofsuicidemeandummy(WVS)

euthdum

Disapproveofeuthanasiameandummy(WVS)

prostdum

Disapproveofprostititionmeandummy(WVS)

abordum

Disapproveofabortionmeandummy(WVS)

gaysdum

Disapproveofhomosexualitymeandummy(WVS)

divdum

Disapproveofdivorcemean dummy(WVS)

claim

OKtoclaimbenefitsforwhichnotentitled(WVS)

fare

OKtododgefare(WVS)

tax

OKtododgetax(WVS)

bribe

OKtopaybribe(WVS)

soctrust

Socialtrust(WVS)%trusting

church1

Belongtochurchorganization(WVS)

church2

Dovoluntaryworkforchurchorganization(WVS)

unions

Uniondensity1995(ILO)

DemocracyCrossnationalCodebook(Norris)Updated:1Mar2009

unionchg

changeinuniondensity19851995(ILO)

welfare1995

Belongtoawelfaregroup(WVS1995)

welfare2000

Belongtowelfaregroup(WVS2000)

art1995

Belongtoanarts/culturalgroup(WVS1995)

art2000

Belongtoarts/culturalgroup(WVS2000)

union1995

Belongtoaunion(WVS1995)

union2000

Belongtounion(WVS2000)

party1995

Belongtoaparty(WVS1995)

party2000

Belongtoaparty(WVS2000)

local2000

Belongtolocalcommunitygroup(WVS2000)

devel2000

Belongtodevelopment/humanrightsgroup(WVS2000)

green1995

Belongtoanenvironmentalgroup(WVS1995)

green2000

Belongtoenvironmenalgroup(WVS2000)

prof1995

Belongtoaprofessionalassociationgroup(WVS1995)

prof2000

Belongtoprofessionalassociation(WVS2000)

youth2000

Belongtoyouthgroup(WVS2000)

sports1995

Belongtoasportsgroup(WVS1995)

sports2000

Belongtosportsgroup(WVS2000)

women2

Belongtowoman'sgroup(WVS2000)

peace2000

Belongtopeavemovement(WVS2000)

health2000

Belongtohealthgroup(WVS2000)

other2000

Belongtoothervoluntaryorianization(WVS2000)

volorg1995

Totalnumberofvoluntaryorganizationalmembership(mean)(WVS1995)

volorg2000

Totalnumberofvoluntaryorganizationmembership(mean)(WVS2000)

conparl1995

Confidenceinparliamentmean(WVS1995)

conparl2000

Confidenceinparliamentmean(WVS2000)

congov1995

Confidenceingovernmentmean(WVS1995)

congov2000

Confidenceingovernmentmean(WVS2000)

conparty1995

Confidenceinpartiesmean(WVS1995)

conpart2000

Confidenceinpartiesmean(WVS2000)

concivil1995

ConfidenceinCivilservice(WVS1995)

conciv2000

ConfidenceinCivilservice(WVS2000)

conbus1995

Confidenceinbusiness(WVS1995)

conbus2000

Confidenceinbusiness(WVS2000)

UNCon2000

ConfidenceintheUN(WVS2000)

instcon1995

InstitutionalConfidencescale(WVS1995)

instcon2000

InstitutionalConfidencescale(WVS2000)

petit1995

Havesignedpetition(WVS1995)

petit2000

Havesignedpetition(WVS2000)

boycot1995

Haveboycottedgoodsforpoliticalreasons(WVS1995)

boycot2000

Haveboycottedgoodsforpoliticalreasons(WVS2000)

demon1995

Havedemonstratedlegally(WVS1995)

DemocracyCrossnationalCodebook(Norris)Updated:1Mar2009

demon2000

Havedemonstratedlegally(WVS2000)

strike1995

Havejoinedunofficialstrike(WVS1995)

strike2000

Havejoinedunofficialstrike(WVS2000)

occupy1995

Haveoccupiedbuilding(WVS1995)

occupy2000

Haveoccupiedbuilding(WVS2000)

protact1995

Summarymeanprotestactivity(WVS1995)

protac2000

Summarymeanprotestactivity(WVS2000)

protest

Protestpotentialscale(WVS19812000mean'woulddo'demonstrate,sign
petitio

demperf1995

Approvedemocraticperformance(v168)(WVS1995)

demper2000

Approvedemocraticperformance(v168)(WVS2000)

stlead1995

Approveofstrongleaders(v164)(WVS1995)

stlead2000

Approvestrongleaders(v164)(WVS2000)

demideal1995

Approveofdemocraticideals(v172)(WVS1995)

demidea2000

Approvedemocraticideals(v172)(WVS2000)

relead2000

Approvereligiousleaders(WVS2000)

civil1995

Civilizationalcategoryofnationtotesthuntington(WVS1995)

civil2000

Civilizationalcategorytotesthuntington(WVS2000)

govnt1995

Confidenceingovernment(WVS1995)

govnt2000

Confidenceingovernment(WVS2000)

govnt2005

Confidenceingovernment(WVS2005)

un1995

Confidenceinunitednations(WVS1995)

un2000

Confidenceinunitednations(WVS2000)

nato2000

Confidenceinnato(WVS2000)

pmat4

postmaterialism4cat(WVS1995)

pmat12

postmaterialism12cat(WVS1995)

pmat4_2

postmaterialism4cat(WVS2000)

pmat12_2

postmaterialism12cat(WVS2000)

prodemo2005

Prodemocraticattitudes(WVS2005)

owndemo

Evaluationofdemocracyinowncountry(WVS)

humrights

Evaluationofhumanrightsinowncountry(WVS)

taxcheat

OKcheatontaxes(WVS)

takebribe

OKtotakebribe(WVS)

mediause_mean

Regularuseofthenewsmediascale(WVS2005)

Newspaper_mean

Regularusenewspaper(WVS2005)

Radio_TV_Mean

Regularuseofradio/TVnews(WVS2005)

internet_mean

Regularuseofinternet(WVS2005)

magazine_mean

Regularuseofmagazine(WVS2005)

books_mean

Regularuseofbooks(WVS2005)

nomedia_mean

Noregularuseofnewsmedia(WVS2005)

conpress_mean

Confidenceinthepress

conTV_mean

ConfidenceinTV

DemocracyCrossnationalCodebook(Norris)Updated:1Mar2009

nationalist100_mean

NationalistscaleWVS2005

globgov100_mean

GlobalGovernancescaleWVS2005

trustothers100_mean

TrustinothersscaleWVS2005

socconform100_mean

SocialconformityscaleWVS2005

Success100_mean

SuccessscaleWVS2005

markets100_mean

MarketsscaleWVS2005

socconform_mean

Socialconformityscale

SUCCESS_mean

Individualsuccessscale

ECONCOMP_mean

Economiccompetitionscale

INCENTIVES_mean

Economicincentivesscale

LEFTRIGHT100_mean

LeftRightscale

genderequality_mean

GenderequalityscaleWVS2005

imprel2005

Importanceofreligion2005

impgod2005

ImportanceofGod2005

MEDIAVARS

MEDIAVARS

INTERNET_VARS

INTERNETVARS

Broadband2007

TotalBroadbandSubscribers2007(ITU)

BroadbandPer2007

Broadbandsubscribersper100people2007(ITU)

hosts1991

Internethosts1991(ITU2004)

hosts1995

Internethosts1995(ITU2004)

hosts2000

Internethosts2000(ITU2004)

hosts2003

Internethosts2003(ITU2004)

netsub1997

TotalInternetsubscribers1997(ITU2004)

netsub2000

TotalInternetsubscribers2000(ITU2004)

netsub2007

TotalInternetSubscribers2007(ITU2007)

netusers1991

TotalInternetusers1991(ITU2004)

netusers1995

TotalInternetusers1995(ITU2004)

NetUsers2007

TotalInternetUsers2007(ITU2007)

netusers1998

TotalInternetusers1998(ITU2004)

netusers2000

TotalInternetusers2000(ITU2004)

netusers2003

TotalInternetusers2003(ITU2004)

netusersper100@1990

Internetusersper100inhabitants1990(UNDP2004)

netusersper100@1995

Internetusersper100inhabitants1995(ITU2004)

netusersper100@2000

Internetusersper100inhabitants2000(ITU2004)

netusersper100@2005

Internetusersper100inhabitants,2005(ITU)

netusersper100@2007

Internetusersper100inhabitants2007(ITU2007)

pc1988

Total#personalcomputers1988(ITU2004)

pc1990

Total#Personalcomputers1990(ITU2004)

pc1995

Total#Personalcomputers1995(ITU2004)

pc2000

Total#Personalcomputers2000(ITU2004)

pc2003

Total#Personalcomputers2003(ITU2004)

PCS1998

Personalcomputers(per1000people)1998(ITU)

DemocracyCrossnationalCodebook(Norris)Updated:1Mar2009

PCs2005

Personalcomputers(per1000people)2005(worldbank2007)

RADIOS

RADIOVARS

radioHH1991

Radioequippedhouseholds1991(ITU2004)

radioHH1995

Radioequippedhouseholds1995(ITU2004)

radioHH2000

Radioequippedhouseholds2000(ITU2004)

radioHH2003

Radioequippedhouseholds2003(ITU2004)

radio1970

#Radiosets1970(ITU2004)

radio1975

#Radiosets1975(ITU2004)

radio1980

#Radiosets1980(ITU2004)

radio1985

#Radiosets1985(ITU2004)

radio1990

#Radiosets 1990(ITU2004)

radio1995

#Radiosets1995(ITU2004)

radio2000

#Radiosets2000(ITU2004)

radio2003

#Radiosets2003(ITU2004)

TVHH1989

Percentofhouseholdswithatelevision1989(ITU2004)

TVHH1990

Percentofhouseholdswithatelevision1990(ITU2004)

TVHH1995

Percentofhouseholdswithatelevision1995(ITU2004)

TVHH2000

Percentofhouseholdswithatelevision2000(ITU2004)

TVHH2002

Percentofhouseholdswithatelevision2002(ITU2004)

tvhouse@1990

Televisionequipmenthouseholds1990(ITU2004)

tvhouse@1995

Televisionequipmenthouseholds1995(ITU2004)

tvhouse@2000

Televisionequipmenthouseholds2000(ITU2004)

tvhouse@2003

Televisionequipmenthouseholds2003(ITU2004)

TVs@1970

TVSets1970(ITU2004)

TVs@1975

TVSets1975 (ITU2004)

TVs@1980

TVSets1980(ITU2004)

TVs@1985

TVSets1985(ITU2004)

TVs@1990

TVSets1990(ITU2004)

TVs@1995

TVSets1995(ITU2004)

TVs@2000

TVSets2000(ITU2004)

TVs@2003

TVSets2003(ITU2004)

TV19751979

%ofhousehldswithTV,average19751979,2008(WorldBank)

TV19801984

%ofhousehldswithTV,average19801984,2008(WorldBank)

TV19851989

%ofhousehldswithTV,average19851989,2008(WorldBank)

TV19901994

%ofhousehldswithTV,average19901994,2008(WorldBank)

TV19951999

%ofhousehldswithTV,average19951999,2008(WorldBank)

TV20002004

%ofhousehldswithTV,average20002004,2008(WorldBank)

TELEPHONES

TELEPHONES

Mobiles1989

Cellularmobiletelephonesubscribersper100inhabitants1989(ITU2004)

Mobiles1990

Cellularmobiletelephonesubscribersper100inhabitants1990(ITU2004)

Mobiles1995

Cellularmobiletelephonesubscribersper100inhabitants1995(ITU2004)

Mobiles2000

Cellularmobiletelephonesubscribersper100inhabitants2000(ITU2004)

DemocracyCrossnationalCodebook(Norris)Updated:1Mar2009

Mobiles2005

Cellularmobiletelephonesubscribersper100inhabitants,2005(ITU)

call@1996

Internationalincomingtelephonetraffic,calls1996(ITU2004)

call@2000

Internationalincomingtelephonetraffic,calls2000(ITU2004)

cal@1995

Internationaloutgoingtelephonetraffic,calls1995(ITU2004)

cal@2000

Internationaloutgoingtelephonetraffic,calls2000(ITU2004)

cal@2001

Internationaloutgoingtelephonetraffic,calls2001(ITU2004)

Tel1970

Totaltelephonesubscribers1970(ITU2004)

Tel1975

Totaltelephonesubscribers1975(ITU2004)

Tel1980

Totaltelephonesubscribers1980(ITU2004)

Tel1985

Totaltelephonesubscribers1985(ITU2004)

Tel1990

Totaltelephonesubscribers1990(ITU2004)

Tel1995

Totaltelephonesubscribers1995(ITU2004)

Tel2000

Totaltelephonesubscribers2000(ITU2004)

Tel2007

Totaltelephonesubscribers2007(ITU2007)

Phones2000

Telephonemainlinesper1000people,2000(WorldBank2008)

Phones2005

Telephonemainlinesper1000people,2005(WorldBank2008)

phonesubscribersper100@1970Totaltelephonesubscribersper100inhabitants1970(ITU2004)
phonesubscribersper100@1975Totaltelephonesubscribersper100inhabitants1975(ITU2004)
phonesubscribersper100@1980Totaltelephonesubscribersper100inhabitants1980(ITU2004)
phonesubscribersper100@1985Totaltelephonesubscribersper100inhabitants1985(ITU2004)
phonesubscribersper100@1991Totaltelephonesubscribersper100inhabitants1990(ITU2004)
phonesubscribersper100@1996Totaltelephonesubscribersper100inhabitants1995(ITU2004)
phonesubscribersper100@2001Totaltelephonesubscribersper100inhabitants2000(ITU2004)
phonesubscribersper100@2007Totaltelephonesubscribersper100inhabitants2007(ITU2007)
NEWSPAPERS

NEWSPAPERS

Papers2000

Dailynewspapers:numberoftitles,2000(UNESCO2008)

Papers2004

Dailynewspapers:numberoftitles,2004(UNESCO2008)

Papers1996

Dailynewspapers:totalaveragecirculationper1000inhabitants,1996
(UNESCO)

Paperratio2000

Dailynewspapers:totalaveragecirculationper1000inhabitants,2000
(UNESCO2008)

Paperratio2004

Dailynewspapers:totalaveragecirculationper1000inhabitants,2004
(UNESCO2008)

MEDIAOWNER

MEDIAOWNERSHIPDJANKOV

Statepressbycount

Stateownednewspapersbycount;Djankov(2008)

Privatepressbycount

Privatelyownednewspaperbycount;Djankov(2008)

Otherpressbycount

Otherowned,pressbycount;Djankov(2008)

Statepressbyshare

Stateownednewspapersbyshare;Djankov(2008)

Privatepressbyshare

Privatelyowned newspapersbyshare;Djankov(2008)

Otherpressbyshare

Otherowned,pressbyshare;Djankov(2008)

StateTVbycount

Stateownedtelevisionbycount;Djankov(2008)

PrivateTVbycount

Privatelyowned,televisionbycount;Djankov(2008)

OtherTVbycount

Otherowned,televisionbycount;Djankov(2008)

DemocracyCrossnationalCodebook(Norris)Updated:1Mar2009

StateTVbyshare

Stateowned,televisionbyshare;Djankov(2008)

PrivateTVbyshare

Privateowned,televisionbyshare;Djankov(2008)

OtherTVbyshare

Otherowned,televisionbyshare;Djankov(2008)

CULTURAL_EXPORTS

CULTURALEXPORTSUNESCO

Heritageexport2002

Heritagegoods,export2002,UNESCO(2008)

Booksexport2002

Books,export2002,UNESCO(2008)

Newspapersexport2002

Newspapersandperiodicals,export2002,UNESCO(2008)

Otherprintedexport2002

Otherprintedmatter,export2002,UNESCO(2008)

Recordedexport2002

Recordedmedia,export2002,UNESCO(2008)

Visualartsexport2002

Visualarts,export2002,UNESCO(2008)

Audiovisualmediaexport2002

Audiovisualmedia,export2002,UNESCO(2008)

Totalcoreculturalexport2002

Totalcoreculturalgoods,export2002,UNESCO(2008)

Heritageimport2002

Heritagegoods,import2002,UNESCO(2008)

Booksimport2002

Books,import2002,UNESCO(2008)

Newspapersimport2002

Newspapersandperiodicals,import2002,UNESCO(2008)

Otherprintimport2002

Otherprintedmatter,import2002,UNESCO(2008)

Recordedimport2002

Recordedmedia,import2002,UNESCO(2008)

Visualimport2002

Visualarts,import2002,UNESCO(2008)

Audiovisualimport2002

Audiovisualmedia,import2002,UNESCO(2008)

Totalcoreculturalimport2002

Totalcoreculturalgoods,import2002,(UNESCO)

Imports

Culturalimports2002(UNESCO)

Exports

Culturalexports2002(UNESCO)

Trade

Culturaltradebalance2002(UNESCO)