Anda di halaman 1dari 45

Arc Welding Processes

Arc Welding Processes


Lesson Objectives When you finish this lesson you will understand: The similarities and difference between some of the various arc welding processes Flux and gas shielding methods Advantages and disadvantages of the arc welding processes Need to select between the processes
Learning Activities 1. Read Handbook Pp 1-16, 2. Look up Keywords 3. View Slides; 4. Read Notes, 5. Listen to 6. lecture 7. Do on-line workbook 8. Do homework

Keywords Welding Flux, Inert Shielding Gas, Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW), Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW), Metal Transfer Mode, Flux Cored Arc Welding FCAW), Submerged Arc Welding (SAW),

Linnert, Welding Metallurgy, AWS, 1994

Arc Welding Processes


Welding processes that employ an electric arc are the most prevalent in industry
Shielded Metal Arc Welding Gas Metal Arc Welding Flux Cored Arc Welding Submerged Arc Welding Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

Electric Arc

These processes are associated with molten metal

Linnert, Welding Metallurgy, AWS, 1994

Protection of the Molten Weld Pool


Molten metal reacts with the atmosphere
Oxides and nitrides are formed Discontinuities such as porosity Poor weld metal properties

All arc welding processes employ some means of shielding the molten weld pool from the air

Welding Flux
Three forms
Granular Electrode wire coating Electrode core

Fluxes melt to form a protective slag over the weld pool Other purposes
Contain scavenger elements to purify weld metal Contain metal powder added to increase deposition rate Add alloy elements to weld metal Decompose to form a shielding gas

Shielding Gas
Shielding gas forms a protective atmosphere over the molten weld pool to prevent contamination Inert shielding gases, argon or helium, keep out oxygen, nitrogen, and other gases Active gases, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide, are sometimes added to improve variables such as arc stability and spatter reduction

Argon

Helium

Oxygen

Carbon Dioxide

Turn to the person sitting next to you and discuss (1 min.): What would happen if there was no flux on the wire to decompose into gas or no inert shielding gas was provided? What would the weld metal look like?

Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)

SMAW Electrode Classification Example

E7018
E indicates electrode 70 indicates 70,000 psi tensile strength 1 indicates use for welding in all positions 8 indicates low hydrogen

E7018-A1-H8R

ANSI/AWS - 5.1 : Specification for Covered Carbon Steel ANSI/AWS - 5.5 : Specification for Low Alloy Steel ANSI/AWS - 5.4 : Specification for Corrosion Resistant Steel

AWS Website: http://www.aws.org

Coating Materials -Partial List


Arc Stabilizers Titania TiO2 Gas-Forming Materials Wood Pulp Limestone CaCO3 Slag-Forming Materials Alumina Al2O3 TiO2 SiO2 Fe3O4 Slipping Agents to Aid Extrusion Clay Talc Glycerin Binding Agents Sodium Silicate Asbestos Starch Sugar Alloying and Deoxidizing Elements Si, Al, Ti, Mn, Ni, Cr

Linnert, Welding Metallurgy AWS, 1994

Linnert, Welding Metallurgy AWS, 1994

Shielded Metal Arc Welding

SMAW Advantages
Easily implemented Inexpensive Flexible Not as sensitive to part fit-up variances

Advantages
Equipment relatively easy to use, inexpensive, portable Filler metal and means for protecting the weld puddle are provided by the covered electrode Less sensitive to drafts, dirty parts, poor fit-up Can be used on carbon steels, low alloy steels, stainless steels, cast irons, copper, nickel, aluminum

Shielded Metal Arc Welding

Quality Issues
Discontinuities associated with manual welding process that utilize flux for pool shielding
Slag inclusions Lack of fusion

Other possible effects on quality are porosity, and hydrogen cracking

Shileded Metal Arc Welding

Limitations
Low Deposition Rates Low Productivity Operator Dependent

Other Limitations
Heat of welding too high for lead, tin, zinc, and their alloys Inadequate weld pool shielding for reactive metals such as titanium, zirconium, tantalum, columbium

Turn to the person sitting next to you and discuss (1 min.): Wood (cellulose) and limestone are added to the coating on SMAW Electrodes for gas shielding. What gases might be formed? How do these gases shield?

Gas Metal Arc Welding

Gas Metal Arc Welding

Gas Metal Arc Welding

GMAW Modes of Metal Transfer


Spray Globular

Short Circuiting

Pulsed Spray

Gas Metal Arc Welding

GMAW Filler Metal Designations

ER - 70S - 6
Electrode Rod (can be used with GMAW) Composition 6 = high silicon Solid Electrode Minimum ultimate tensile strength of the weld metal

AWS Specifications for GMAW Wire AWS A5.18 - Carbon Steel Electrodes AWS A5.28 - Low Alloy Steel Electrodes

Gas Metal Arc Welding

Shielding Gas
Shielding gas can affect
Weld bead shape Arc heat, stability, and starting Surface tension Drop size Puddle flow Spatter

Ar

Ar-He

He

CO2

Gas Metal Arc Welding

GMAW Advantages
Deposition rates higher than SMAW Productivity higher than SMAW with no slag removal and continuous welding Easily automated

Gas Metal Arc Welding

Quality
Spatter
Droplets of electrode material that land outside the weld fusion area and may or may not fuse to the base material

Porosity
Small volumes of entrapped gas in solidifying weld metal

Gas Metal Arc Welding

Limitations
Equipment is more expensive and complex than SMAW Process variants/metal transfer mechanisms make the process more complex and the process window more difficult to control Restricted access
GMAW gun is larger than SMAW holder

Turn to the person sitting next to you and discuss (1 min.): When comparing processes that have spray and globular metal transfer, which type of transfer mode do you thnk results in more spatter? Why?

Flux-Cored Arc Welding

Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW)

Linnert, Welding Metallurgy, AWS, 1994

Flux-Cored Arc Welding

FCAW Electrode Classification

E70 T - 1
Electrode Minimum UTS 70,000 psi Position Type Gas, Usability and Performance Flux Cored /Tubular Electrode

American Welding Society Specification AWS A5.20 and AWS A5.29.

Linnert, Welding Metallurgy AWS, 1994

Flux-Cored Arc Welding

Advantages
High deposition rates Deeper penetration than SMAW High-quality Less pre-cleaning than GMAW Slag covering helps with larger out-of-position welds Self-shielded FCAW is draft tolerant.

Flux-Cored Arc Welding

Limitations
Slag must be removed More smoke and fumes than GMAW and SAW Spatter FCAW wire is more expensive Equipment is more expensive and complex than for SMAW

Turn to the person sitting next to you and discuss (1 min.): What do you suppose would happen if the powder inside the core did not get compacted good?

Submerged Arc Welding

Submerged Arc Welding

Submerged Arc Welding

SAW Flux / Filler Metal Compositions

F7A2-EM12K
F indicates flux
70-95 ksi UTS, 58 ksi minimum yield strength, 22% elongation A - as welded; P - postweld heat treated 2 - minimum impact properties of 20 ft-lbs @ 20F

E indicates electrode (EC - composite electrode)


M - medium manganese per AWS Specifications 12 - 0.12% nominal carbon content in electrode K - produced from a heat of aluminum killed steel

Submerged Arc Welding

Advantages
High deposition rates No arc flash or glare Minimal smoke and fumes Flux and wire added separately - extra dimension of control Easily automated Joints can be prepared with narrow grooves Can be used to weld carbon steels, low alloy steels, stainless steels, chromiummolybdenum steels, nickel base alloys

Submerged Arc Welding

Limitations
Flux obstructs view of joint during welding Flux is subject to contamination porosity Normally not suitable for thin material Restricted to the flat position for grooves - flat and horizontal for fillets Slag removal required Flux handling equipment

Do Homework Assignment 2, Arc Welding Processes from the Assignment Page of the WE300 Website. Turn in next Class Period.