Anda di halaman 1dari 107

Indian Political System

www.time4education.com

www.time4education.com

Decline in morality or reflection of society ?

What we will cover


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Nation Vs. Country Constitution of India Role of the Judiciary Power of the President/Governor The Semicircle of Economic, Religious and Political Thought Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha and the States Political parties, groupings, fronts and alliances National Parties Regional Parties

Nation Vs. Country


India
One Nation? One Country?

Europe
One Nation? One country?

Two Nation Theory Nationalists Tamil Nation, Bengali Nation, Sikh Nation?

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

The Preamble to the Constitution


WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens: JUSTICE, social, economic and political; LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation; IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty sixth day of November, 1949, do HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION.

The Preamble to the Constitution


WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens: JUSTICE, social, economic and political; LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation; IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty sixth day of November, 1949, do HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION.

Important Terms
Sovreign, Democratic, Republic Socialist, Secular, Integrity
42nd Amendment in 1976

Secure
Justice, Liberty and Equality

Promote
Fraternity

Unity and Integrity

Other features of our country


Representative / Indirect Democracy Universal Adult Franchise Legislature, Executive, Judiciary The three pillars of democracy. The first elected, the other two not. Federal Structure of Government System of Checks and Balances Role of Media Fourth Estate

M E D I A

ROLE OF THE JUDICIARY

Role of the Judiciary


Independent judiciary The power of Judicial Review Judicial Activism
Governance deficit? Interference in policy making?

Ninth Schedule immune from judicial review


OBC Reservation Legislature Supreme

Elected Judges in USA, unlike India

Identify

POWERS OF THE PRESIDENT/GOVERNOR

Powers of the President/Governor


Envisioned as Rubber stamp Power during hung parliament/assemblies Pocket Veto
Zail Singh, Postal Bill 1986 APJ Abdul Kalam, Office of Profit

Coalition/Political Exigencies
Buta Singh HR Bhardwaj Pratibha Patil

Dismissal of opposition led state governments


1966-77 39 times by Indira Gandhi 1977-79 11 times by Opposition

The Semicircle of Religious, Economic and Political Thought

The Leftists

Centrists

Republicans (US) / Congress ConservativesTories (UK) Labour (UK) / Democrats (US) BJP Shiv Sena MNS

The Rightists

Third Front/BSP/SP/Janta Dal

CPI(M)

CPI

VHP/RSS Bajrang Dal

Ranvir Sena

SIMI/AlQaeda/Taliban/Nazi Maoists/Naxalites/MCC

Indian Parliament Lok Sabha


Total Number of seats 545 Elections held for 543, 2 seats reserved for Anglo-Indians Seats to be distributed as per population after each census, however, suspended since 1976 due to population distribution concerns. Delimitation carried out regularly. Reservation for SC and ST candidates.

Lok Sabha Seats and State Govt


UP 80 Maharashtra 48 AP 42 WB 42 Bihar 40 Tamil Nadu 39 MP 29 Karnataka 28 Gujarat 26 Rajasthan - 25

Indian Parliament Rajya Sabha


Council of states 250 Seats Maximum 245 Seats currently, 233 elected, 12 nominated Vice-President Chairperson

POLITICAL PARTIES, GROUPINGS, FRONTS AND ALLIANCES

Members of the Union cabinet of India on 31st January 1950

ALLIANCES

United Progressive Alliance (UPA)


Congress - 206 Trinamool Congress 19 DMK 18 NCP 9 NC 3 Out side supporters: SP 22 BSP 21 RJD - 4

National Democratic Alliance (NDA)


BJP 116 JD (U) 20 Shiv Sena 11

Third Front/United National Progressive Alliance


Floating.!!! CPI + CPM + Forward Bloc TDP AIADMK Others.

Third Front

NATIONAL PARTIES

Indian National Congress

Indian National Congress


GOP Founded 1885 A.O. Hume To serve as a safety valve a pressure release mechanism through dialogue between India and Rulers after 1857 debacle Morphed into demand for more power Moderates and Extremists (Naram Dal & Garam Dal)

The First Indian National Congress

Indian National Congress


Gandhi, Bose, Patel, Nehru led at various times Independence, Nehru, Morarji Desai, Shastri, Indira Gandhi K Kamaraj Kingmaker Samyukt Vidhayak Dal Crisis Split Cong (O) and Cong (I) Left-Right tendencies Garibi Hatao, Soviet Union Cong O Later, merged into Janta Party in 1977 India wins against Pakistan, Birth of Bangladesh Rise of Autocracy and Sanjay Gandhi in the 1970s Widespread poverty, unrest, unemployment Rise of JP Back into politics - Sampoorna Kranti Emergency

Sampoorna Kranti Rally 5th June 1975 - Patna

Indian National Congress


Regrouping during opposition rule Support to Bhindrawale Outside support to Charan Singh Back to power Death of Sanjay Gandhi Khalistan and Punjab problem Assassination of Indira Gandhi

Indira Gandhi

Jarnail Singh Bhindrawale

Assassination of Indira Gandhi

Indian National Congress


Rajiv Gandhi Mr. Clean Scandals, Scams Loses power Backs Chandrashekhar Rajiv Gandhi assassinated PV Narasimha in power Sitaram Kesri

Rajiv, Sonia and ..?

Identify!

Masterchef UP Contest?

Bhartiya Janta Party

Bharatiya Janta Party


Born as Bhartiya Jana Sangha Shyama Prasad Mukherjee 1951 Death of SPM in 1953 in Kashmir Jail Deen Dayal Upadhaya Gen Secy 1953-1968 Aligned with right wing Swatantra Party of C. Rajagopalachari Merged with Congress (O), Bhartiya Lok Dal, Socialist Party of India (Raj Narain), Janta Morcha (of JP and Morarji Desai) Split in 1980 and reborn as BJP

1952

2003

Bhartiya Janta Party


Ram Janmabhoomi Case 1986 Bofors Scam Post-Elections 1989 - Support of VP Singhs Janta Dal from outside Rathyatra 1990 LK Advani Arrested in Bihar by Lalu Yadavs govt in Oct 1990. Support withdrawn Govt. Falls

Elections 1991 In opposition 6th Dec1992 Disputed Structure demolished Advani, Uma Bharti chargedlet offchargedlet off.chargedlet off

Various BJP Leaders

Bhartiya Janta Party


13 day govt(1996) 13 month govt (1998-99) 5 years (1999-2004) Godhara Riots - Gujarat In opposition since 2004

BJP Opinion Polariser


Non-secular credentials make it a pariah in Secular politics Problems with allies like JD(U) - Nitish Kumar, BJD Naveen Patnaik etc. Even within BJP opinion divided on leaders like Narendra Modi.

Sangh Parivar
RSS Ideological Fountainhead Started in 1925 Banned thrice (British Rule, 1948-49, Emergency) Sarsanghchalak
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Dr. Keshav Baliram Hedgevaar (1925-1940) Madhav Sadashiv Golvalkar (1940 1973) Madhukar Dattatreya Deoras (1973-93) Prof. Rajendra Singh (1993-2000) KS Sudarshan (2000-2009) Mohan Bhagwat (March 2009 Present)

3 4

Sangh Parivar
Vishwa Hindu Parishad Bajrang Dal Bhartiya Kisan Sangh Bhartiya Mazdoor Sangh Akhil Bhartiya Vidyarthi Parishad Bhartiya Janta Yuva Morcha Swadeshi Jagran Manch Sewa Bharti Bharat Tibet Maitri Sangh Hindu Swayamsevak Sangh Shiksha Bharati Bhartiya Itihas Sankalna Kendra

Left Front
1925 (or 1920?) Split into two main parts
CPI CPI (Marxist) Supporters of CPSU and CPC respectively in 1960s

CPI(M) Prakash Karat CPI AB Bardhan

Bahujan Samaj Party


BAMCEF All India Backward and Minorities Communities Employees Federation 1973 DS4 Dalit Shoshit Samaj Sangharsh Samiti 1981 Bahujan Samaj Party 1984 Rivalry with SP

BSP Leaders

Nationalist Congress Party


Foreign Origin of Sonia Gandhi Sharad Pawar, PA Sangma, Tariq Anwar Currently 9 MPs in the LS

PROMINENT STATE PARTIES

TAMIL POLITICS

4 3

Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK)


Tamil Nationalism Movement Periyar EV Ramasamy Joined Congress in 1919 but left in 1925 Legacy of Rationalism / Social Reform / Womens liberation / Self-respect movement, Dravidsthan / Dravid Nadu / Anti Hindi / Anti Indo-Aryan cultural imposition / Tamil Language & culture preservation Justice Party Dravidar Kazhagham (Dravidian Association) Split with CN Annadurai Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (Dravid Advancement Association)

Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK)


1967 CN Annadurui is CM of Madras/TN 1969 CN Annadurai dies and script-writerturned politician M. Karunanidhi becomes CM of TN 1972 Cine Star MGR moves out and forms Anna DMK, later All India Anna DMK M. Karunanidhi 1969-71, 1971-76, 198991, 1996-2001, 2006-2011

All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK)


MGR formed in 1972. MGR - First film hero to become CM in 1977 1977-80, 1980-84, 1984-87 Janaki Ramachandran brief spell as CM J Jayalalitha Film heroine turned politician 1991-96, 2002-06, 2011-Present - CM

Relationship with National Parites


Initially, DMK opposed to Congress So, AIADMK aligned with Congress Later, DMK aligned with anti-Hindutva, therefore, aligned with Congress So, AIADMK aligned with BJP However, there are no permanent enemies or friends

MGR with Indira

Jayalalitha with AB Vajapayee

Arrested!!

th 12

Nov, 2011

No permanent enemies or friends!

The Rajinikanth Factor

TELUGU POLITICS

Telugu Desam Party


NTR 1982 Alternative to ruling Congress Govt dismissed Fresh Elections, greater mandate Coup by Son-in-Law N. Chandrababu Naidu Died in 1996 Lakshmi Parvathy - Widow

Trinamool Congress

A quick look at some others


Trinamool Congress Biju Janta Dal Janta Dal (Secular) Janta Dal (United) Asom Gana Parishad Shivsena Maharashtra Navnirman Sena Jharkhanda Mukti Morcha Rashtriya Janta Dal Lok Janashakti Party Samajwadi Party Indian National Lok Dal Shiromani Akali Dal Peoples Democratic Party National Conference

Selected Bibilography
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Emergency_(India) http://www.indiatoday.com/itoday/millennium/100people/narayan.html http://www.economist.com/node/146358 http://www.economist.com/node/146272 http://blogs.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/headon/entry/gov erning-our-governors http://swaminomics.org/?p=2007

Thanks!

www.time4education.com