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Key aspects and problem areas in the jurilinguistic translation of certain forms of legal contracts in terms of terminology transfer between two different legal systems: Polish and English.
Joanna J. Rek Harrop Translator & Interpreter MA University of Birmingham (UK), DPSI (Law) Chartered Institute of Linguists (UK) Abstract: The translation of legal terminology used for establishing facts in court cases cannot be performed without regard to legal-cultural concepts and differences between legal systems. The level of equivalence of the terms depends on the extent of relatedness of the legal systems and not on that of the languages involved. Official legal translators would therefore benefit from legal training. Key aspects and problem areas in the translation of the legal terminology of contracts that originate from the Polish civil law tradition and the English common law culture remain under-explored. This study analyses this field and is based on five official translations of English contracts that can be accepted for the purpose of evidence in a Polish Court. It first examines relevant theoretical framework and translation practice. Then a chapter on the translation process considers contextual differences between Polish and English law and focuses in detail on terminological issues present in the selected contracts, providing practical examples of how these issues were resolved. On the basis of survey results the paper proposes the most accurate form of legal terminology translation and finally considers whether it is possible for the target language contract to have the same legal effect as the original. Key Words: jurilinguistic transfer, cultural transfer, legal translation, legal discourse, cultural implications, legal meaning, legal terminology, referencing, legal conventionalities, lexis, syntax, context, legal tradition, contract, agreement, equivalence, function, legal systems, civil law, common law, legal function.

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CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 CHAPTER 2 2.1 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.3 CHAPTER 3 3.1 3.1.1 3.2 3.3 3.3.1 19 3.3.2 3.3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.9.1 3.9.2 Semi-technical terms Non-technical terms Latin terms Terms of French and Norman origins Archaic Anglo-Saxon terms Terminological errors Terminological vagueness Names and entities Business entities Names of English institutions and legal acts 21 26 30 31 32 33 34 37 37 39 INTRODUCTION LINGUISTIC THEORY for LEGAL TRANSLATION The theoretical framework The issue of equivalence in legal translation Functional equivalence Alternative equivalents and translating methods The translators agenda THE TRANSLATING PROCESS Polish and English Law contextual differences The function of contracts in two different legal systems ST Reader, TT Reader and Ideal TT Reader Subcategories of legal terminology Purely technical terms 1 4 4 7 8 12 14 16 16 17 18 18

www.harroptranslations.com CHAPTER 4 CHAPTER 5 APPENDIX I APPENDIX II APPENDIX III APPENDIX IV Figure 2.1 Figure 2.2 Figure 2.3 REFERENCES SURVEY CONCLUSIONS Contracts and translations The legal terminology The survey with results Translation of the Polish Court Translator Code Near-functional equivalence Partial functional equivalence Non-equivalence 40 43 45 65 69 71 8 9 10 75

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Legal translation has been described by researchers as a category in its own right (Garzone, 2000: 395). This is mainly due to the complexity of legal discourse that combines two extremes: the resourcefulness of the literary language used for the interpretation of ambiguous meanings and the terminological precision of specialised translation. The translation of legal terminology requires particular attention because it consists primarily of abstract terms deeply and firmly rooted in the domestic culture and intellectual tradition (Chrom, 2004: 48) and thus entails a transfer between two different legal systems, each with its own unique system of referencing. An excellent example of problems relating to the translation of such terms may be found in the official translations of contracts. In this study, I will analyse key aspects and problem areas to be considered by a translator in the translation of the legal terminology of contracts that have their origins in English common law and are translated into Polish civil law. The study is based on five official translations of English contracts that can be used for the purpose of evidence in a Polish Court. Such translations are done by qualified translators who are required to swear to the accuracy of their work. The official translations were prepared on the assumption that the target text reader is a legal professional. However, the proposed translation choices took into consideration the fact that the aforementioned targeted legal professional comes from a different legal tradition and that there is consequently a difference in his/her referential classification. The selected contracts consist of: an Employment Contract, a Cohabitation Agreement, a Tenancy Agreement, a Guarantee Agreement and an Agreement for the Sale of a Vehicle, all taken from 301 Legal Forms, Letters and Agreements (2005) by Lawpack Publishing that I translated into Polish language using five bilingual dictionaries of legal terms and a

www.harroptranslations.com Lexicon of Law Terms, all published after 2004, and recent monolingual material in the form of the Encyclopaedia of [Polish] Law, the Collins English Dictionary, the Oxford Dictionary of [English] Law (listed in the References) and the Birmingham University Bank of English Corpora. The paper consists of five chapters. Chapter 2 will discuss the relevant theoretical

framework and translation practice. It will focus on the issue of equivalence in legal translation, paying particular attention to functional equivalence and a selection of alternative translating methods. The chapter will also assess problem areas and the translator's agenda when dealing with this type of translation. Chapter 3 will analyse the translating process and will thus consider contextual differences between Polish and English law, Polish and English legal languages and, associated with them, the function of contracts in two different legal systems and their target text readers. The chapter will then focus in detail on terminological issues present in the selected contracts, providing practical examples of how these issues were resolved in their proposed official translations. In order to analyse the benefit of legal training for translators when dealing with terminological issues, the paper is supported by a survey of experienced professionals working with the language pair Polish/English. The survey results presented in chapter 4 include proposals, based on their opinions, as to the most accurate form of terminology translation and analyse whether it is possible for the target text to have the same legal effect as the original. Chapter 4 also includes a summary of changes that have influenced official legal translators of contracts working with the aforementioned language pair. conclusions based on the analysis and findings presented in the paper. The four appendices consist of all the aforementioned original contracts and their proposed official translations into Polish, the terminology of all the translated legal documents, the survey questions with results and the Code of Practice of the Polish Society of Sworn and Specialised Translators (TEPIS) that I translated into English. The reference abbreviations used throughout this study are as follows: ST1 (source text 1) = Employment Contract in English common law; ST2 = Co-habitation Agreement in Chapter 5 provides

www.harroptranslations.com English common law; ST3 = Tenancy Agreement in English common law; ST4 = Guarantee Agreement in English common law; ST5 = Agreement for the sale of a vehicle in English common law; 1 = paragraph one; 2 = paragraph two, etc.; TT1 (target text 1) = Employment Contract translated into Polish civil law; TT2 = Co-habitation Agreement translated into Polish civil law; TT3 = Tenancy Agreement translated into Polish civil law; TT4 = Guarantee Agreement translated into Polish civil law and TT5 = Agreement for the sale of a vehicle translated into Polish civil law; SL (source language) = English; TL (target language) = Polish and BT (back translation) = from Polish into English language. My personal comments are added in square brackets.

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CHAPTER 2 LINGUISTIC THEORY FOR LEGAL TRANSLATION Different languages divide semantic space in different ways and this theoretically excludes any possibility of finding full equivalence of Polish and English terms. Additionally, the legal translations analysed here cannot be carried out in isolation from the legal cultural concepts and differences of legal systems. Theory helps to open up a series of possibilities and alternatives to make legal translation a practical possibility. The theoretical framework to be discussed here looks at the researched views of scholars on translation methods used for the transfer of legal language, the translators stance when selecting a relevant method and the issue of equivalence of the main component of the legal language - the terminology. 2.1 The theoretical framework

Sinclair proposes that the advantage of a theoretical framework is that it offers a quick route to sophisticated observation and insight (2005: 13). From the epistemological perspective legal translation stands at the crossroads of legal theory, language theory and translation theory and therefore the scholarly views presented below combine a selection of aspects from these disciplines. The most general view is Schleiermachers distinction that refers to foreignization and domestication of the TT:
The translator can either leave the writer in peace as much as possible and bring the reader to him, or he can leave the reader in peace as much as possible and bring the writer to him. (Schleiermacher von, 1838: 47, as translated in Wilss, 1982: 33)

Bringing the reader to the ST would require the TT reader to process the translation in its original foreign context, while bringing the writer to the reader would mean domesticating the ST in terms of the context familiar to the TT readers and thus making it easy for it to be assimilated by them. Comparable methods are considered in translation theory relating to legal language and terminology. In support of foreignizing strategies, Koller (1979: 89) insists that full adaptation is not an accepted method of translation in

www.harroptranslations.com legal texts as it results in semantic distortion. Nord further maintains that a TT cannot be regarded as a translation if it is not bound to the ST (1988: 31). Eugene Nida proposes a theory of formal equivalence that focuses on gloss translation, resolving all lexical and grammatical differences between ST and TT by remaining as close as possible to the ST:
it is essential that formal equivalence is stated primarily in terms of a comparison of the way in which the original receptors understood and appreciated the text and the way in which receptors of the translated text understand and appreciate the translated text. (Nida, 1993: 116)

Cesana further supports the foreignisation of legal terminology and proposes the use of neologisms and loan words to render new legal concepts: it is fidelity to the original which counts, not the beauty or elegance of the target language (Cesana, 1910: 188, as translated in arevi, 2000: 37). This view is also supported by Weisflog (1987: 194) who advocates formal equivalence, also known as formal correspondence. I believe that on occasion, in official translations of contracts authorised for use in a Polish court of law, direct reference to foreign legal terminology is necessary since a particular legal concept might be totally unknown in the TT legal tradition and the translations should stay faithful to the ST. Examples of such terms, e.g. the contracting-out certificate available to certain civil service pensioners in the United Kingdom and common-law wife, are analysed in section 2.2.1 below. However, the excessive use of loan words without explanation in the translated document can easily render it incomprehensible or unclear to a reader, even one with a great degree of legal background in the TL, such as the judge. For the same reason I do not agree with the use of neologisms in the aforementioned type of documents as these are invented words whose precise meaning has often not been fully established in the TL. TT-oriented methods derive from contrasting views on the translation of legal terms that also have a large group of scholarly supporters. Another of Nidas theories proposes the method of dynamic equivalence, that is the aforementioned domestication of the ST (Hatim and Mason, 1990: 7). Tomek (1990: 113) proposes that legal translation is a procedure based on both linguistic and legal comparative approaches. He supports the

www.harroptranslations.com view of that the focus should be the target language, and divides the translation process into intrasemiotic and intersemiotic (1991: 147). Intrasemiotic translation is the transfer of information from the first to the second semantic level of the SL i.e. transfer from the legal language to the legal metalanguage while intersemiotic translation is the translation of a legal text from the SL to the TL. In my opinion, the legal translator should not aim at the full domestication of contracts that may be used in a Polish court of law for two principal reasons. Firstly, official legal documents should stay faithful to the ST and it is extremely unlikely that the direct and indirect meanings of legal concepts of the ST have precisely the same legal meaning when domesticated in the TL legal culture. Secondly, the judge should know that the document originates from a foreign legal system and thus determine which law or part of the instrument is to be applied when interpreting certain legal terminology. In legal translation, many scholars associate legal equivalence with the extent to which the same legal effect can be produced in the TT while maintaining fidelity to the ST. This technique, often referred to as a functional equivalence, is described by Newmark as a procedure that occupies the universal area between the SL and the TL (2005: 83). I agree with Jean-Claude Gmar who recommends the use of functional equivalence for the purpose of the official translation of contracts (1995-II: 163 166) because it makes the TT both comprehensible to the target reader and faithful to the original ST. equivalence is further analysed in section 2.2.1. Newmark (1981: 47) further suggests that when dealing with legal documents like contracts that are concurrently valid in the TL, the translator should focus on a communicative approach that is TT-orientated. Vermeer agrees with the view that legal criteria should be taken into account when selecting the most appropriate translation strategy since the meaning of legal texts is determined by the legal context:
For instance, in regard to contracts, the decision whether and to what extend target-language formulae should be used is determined primarily by the law governing the contract. This fact is essential because it determines whether the contract will be interpreted according to the source or the target legal system. (Vermeer, 1982: 99, as translated in arevi, 2000: 19)

Functional

www.harroptranslations.com Beaupr also supports the statement and proposes that legal translation should formulate two equal versions of the same instrument, which strive not so much for verbal and grammatical parallelism but:for linguistic purity within the confines of legal equivalence Hence the decision-making process of the legal translator is based primarily on legal considerations. (Beaupr, 1987: 179, as translated in arevi, 2000: 47)

Examples of the practical application of the above theory in the official translation of contracts are presented in chapter 3. I agree with de Beaugrande (in Bell, 1991: 23) who warns that it is inappropriate to expect that a theoretical model of translation should solve all the problems a translator encounters. Instead, it should formulate a set of strategies for approaching problems and for coordinating the different aspects entailed. In official translations of contracts that can be used in a court of law, the strategies used must above all focus on one main principle, which is fidelity to the source text:
Legal translators have traditionally been bound by the principle of fidelity. Convinced that the main goal of legal translation is to reproduce the content of the source text as accurately as possible, both lawyers and linguists agreed that legal texts had to be translated literally. For the sake of preserving the letter of the law, the main guideline for legal translation was fidelity to the source text. Even after legal translators won the right to produce texts in the spirit of the target language, the general guideline remained fidelity to the source text. (arevi, 2000:16)

2.2

The issue of equivalence in legal translation

At the heart of the aforementioned theoretical framework lies the equivalence of terminology that has its origins in different legal traditions. According to de Groot (1998), the first stage in translating legal concepts involves studying the meaning of the sourcelanguage legal term to be translated. Then, after having compared the legal systems involved, a term with the same content must be sought in the target-language legal system. Equivalence aims to give the lexis and terminology of two languages equal meaning and corresponding import and significance, and, as can be seen from some of the research

www.harroptranslations.com presented above, it also strives to achieve the same legal effect based on legal interpretation of the source information. 2.2.1 Functional equivalence

The legal functional equivalent already referred to in subsection 2.1 is defined by arevi (1988: 964; 1989: 278-279) as a term in the target legal system designating a concept or institution, the function of which is the same as that in the ST. Weston further proposes that the technique of using a functional equivalent may be regarded as the ideal method of translation (1991:23). According to arevi (2000: 238-239) functional equivalence can be categorised into three groups: near-equivalence, partial equivalence and nonequivalence. The groups are described below and are graphically represented by figures where the Polish legal concept (P) is marked by a grey circle and the English legal concept (E) is marked by a blue circle: a) Near-equivalence occurs when legal concepts in Polish and English share most of their primary and incidental characteristics or are the same, which is very rare.

P E

Figure 2.1 Near-functional equivalence One example to illustrate near-functional equivalence is the term contractor (ST1). The word contractor translated into Polish is kontrahent or wykonawca. Kontrahent or wykonawca is one of the parties who undertakes a contract (New Dictionary of the Polish Language, 2003: 353) but of a different kind than the permanent employment contract. Kontrahent often relates to one off contracts with a set deadline and clearly defined purpose i.e. construction of a building, professional advice and etc. The word has identical connotations in English language: a person who undertakes a contract especially

www.harroptranslations.com to provide materials, conduct building operations, etc. (Concise Oxford English Dictionary, 2002: 312) as opposed to an employee who is a person who works under the direction and control of another (the employer) in return for a wage or salary (Dictionary of Law, 2003: 170). Another example that demonstrates near-functional equivalence is the term annual bonus in ST1 that is translated into Polish literally as premia roczna. However, it has to be highlighted that the term premia roczna is more often referred to in Poland as trzynastka (thirteen [pay]). Since the term trzynastaka is unknown in English culture and the meaning of premia roczna is equally clear to a Polish reader I have chosen the latter as a safer but equally adequate option. b) Partial equivalence occurs when the Polish and English legal concepts are quite similar and the differences can be clarified, e.g. by lexical expansion.

P E

Figure 2.2 Partial functional equivalence One example that illustrates this type of functional equivalence that calls for attention is the term director. In Poland a director does not have to be a member of the Board of Directors in order to hold that title while in the United Kingdom it is a necessary requirement. The role of the subject of the ST1 is thus that of Financial Director and member of the Board of Directors. To make the reader fully aware of the differences in the responsibilities of a Director or to prompt the reader to seek further legal advice and reassurance that the TT has the same legal effect as the original I have added oraz czonka rady dyrektorw (and member of the Board of Directors) in brackets.

www.harroptranslations.com The next example belonging to this group of equivalents is the term contract (ST1). The Polish concept of contract (kontrakt or umowa) is much broader than its English equivalent as it also incorporates the legal notion of the semi-technical term agreement, which is discussed further in point 3.3.2. The word contract (kontrakt) is also an example of the etymological equivalents that often belong to the group of partial functional equivalents. Since in this case the translation was into Polish the term was translated literally, i.e. umowa, maintaining its intended English meaning. Another term Council Tax (ST2) is a tax levied on households by local authorities in the United Kingdom. This tax shares many similarities with Polish podatek miejski (Town Tax). Nonetheless, these taxes are calculated slightly differently in Poland and in the United Kingdom and thus, for the purposes of translation that can be used in a court of law, after translating the term as podatek miejski it is necessary to add (Council Tax) in brackets for further clarification. c) Non-equivalence occurs when only few or none of the important aspects of Polish or English legal concepts coincide or if there is no functional equivalent in the target legal system for a specific ST concept.

P E

Figure 2.3 Non-equivalence One example that illustrates this type of functional equivalent is a contracting-out certificate complemented by additional information under the Pension Schemes Act 1993 (ST1) that refers to an option given to certain Civil Service employees to contract out of the State Earnings Related Pension Scheme by joining occupational or personal pension schemes in the United Kingdom. The legal concept of the English contracting-out certificate does not exist in the Polish legal tradition. For the purpose of the official

www.harroptranslations.com translation of contracts the legal meaning of this non-equivalent term is most precisely conveyed by the use of a descriptive paraphrase with the original in parenthesis: Zawiadczenie o odczeniu si drog umowy (contracting-out certificate) Certificate confirming contracting-out by way of agreement (contracting-out certificate). Since the Act it refers to follows the term, it is the target readers responsibility to investigate the legal implications regarding the certificate. Another example of a non-equivalent term is severability (ST1). The term does not have a functional equivalent in Polish legal terminology and none of the latest bilingual or monolingual legal or general dictionaries used in the paper attempts to translate it. The translator must thus first understand the implications of the term in English law and then find a corresponding concept in the TL legal terminology. Severability is the title of a contract clause that is intended to condense the meaning of the entire clause and which defines consequences for the entire contract if part of the contract has become impossible to fulfil or is no longer required. The term must not be translated as rozdzielno (separation, divisibility) since then the clause could be interpreted in many ways in a Polish context. Rather, it should be replaced by a neutral paraphrase: rozdzielna interpretacja postanowie umowy (separate interpretation of the contract provisions [in case of annulment]) that has the same legal effect as severability. The ST3 term Assured Shorthold Tenancy has similar implications. Just as in the case of severability discussed above, the term does not have a functional equivalent in Polish legal terminology and none of the latest bilingual legal or general dictionaries used for this paper attempts to translate it. The Assured Shorthold Tenancy provides an instrument whereby the landlord can be certain of his right to repossess his/her property. It is based on English Law, i.e. the Housing Act 1988 as amended by the Housing Act 1996, and the legal concept of the Assured Shorthold Tenancy is therefore unknown in Polish law. The use of the term shorthold tenancy could easily be misinterpreted by a translator unfamiliar with the law as a tenancy agreement for a short period of time. In order to resolve all possible ambiguities in understanding the entire meaning of the Assured Shorthold Tenancy, the alternative equivalent should contain some clarification. Thus the paraphrase Umowa

www.harroptranslations.com Najmu Zabezpieczajca Prawo Wasnoci Waciciela w Wielkiej Brytanii (Tenancy Agreement assuring the ownership rights of the owner / landlord to his/her property in the United Kingdom) followed by the original English term in brackets (Assured Shorthold Tenancy), is in my opinion, the most appropriate way since it also indicates to the judge the legal system according to which the term is to be defined. Determining the acceptability of functional equivalents is, in my view, the most important aspect of the process of legal translation and it frequently depends on the context. arevi (2000: 242) suggests that when assessing the acceptability of a functional equivalent the legal translator should take account of the structure, classification, scope of application and legal effects of both the functional equivalent and its source term. Therefore, when dealing with legal conceptual voids or partial equivalents a legal background can be very helpful for the translator. The legal topic must be well researched in order to provide supporting information in the TL. 2.2.2 Alternative equivalents and translating methods

When the use of a functional equivalent is inadvisable because it could lead to misinterpretation, the translator must select, just like in a case of non-equivalence, an alternative equivalent, which will serve as a signal to judges to indicate the legal system in the framework of which the term is to be defined. The choice of an alternative equivalent can sometimes have a significant effect on the interpretation and application of the entire TT. Take for example the term common-law wife (ST3). The term describes a female cohabiting with a male as his wife without being married to him. On the basis of this description, the term is often translated into Polish legal documents as konkubina (concubine) (Oga, 2006: 116). In English common law a common-law wife has certain rights and in certain aspects of the law she is recognised as equivalent to a married person i.e. for purposes of protection against domestic violence, for some provisions of the Rent Act or inheritance (Dictionary of Law, 2003: 94). In Polish civil law a konkubina (concubine) has no legal rights. Therefore, the term konkubina does not render an accurate legal correspondence for official translations of contracts that can be used in a

www.harroptranslations.com Polish court of law. In my opinion, in this situation a descriptive paraphrase with the original in parenthesis, most precisely conveys the legal meaning, and hence has the same legal effect, indicating to the Judge that the term originates from a foreign legal framework: wspyjca jako ona bez lubu wedug prawa zwyczajowego w Anglii (common-law wife) (cohabiting without marriage with a woman described in English Common Law as wife (common-law wife)). An important translating rule to be borne in mind when using an alternative equivalent is that the legal translator should uphold the principle of language consistency by using the same equivalent everywhere reference is made to a particular legal concept. Akehurst (in arevi, 2000: 254) points out that English courts presume that a difference of terminology implies difference in meaning and thus the use of synonyms is objected to. Polish courts take the same view. For example, the Employment Contract (ST1) defines its subject i.e. Dr Smith, as an employee translated into Polish as pracownik. The term employee must therefore be used throughout the document on all occasions when it refers to the subject. Synonyms such as post-holder, job-holder, worker, etc. (zatrudniony, pracobiorca etc.), would suggest that they refer to another person, as would any other corresponding Polish synonyms. Lawyers agree that from their viewpoint the most effective way of translating legal terms is to use descriptive paraphrases and definitions as these compensate for terminological incongruency by presenting the legal information in neutral language (arevi, 2000: 253). This method, however, requires a certain degree of research, legal training and relevant background knowledge on the part of the translator. Lawyers (arevi, 2000: 255) also recommend retaining the functional equivalent but followed by the borrowing in parenthesis, with the aim of making it clear that the term derives its meaning from a foreign legal system and thus must be interpreted with reference to the relevant foreign law, i.e., taking the terms already analysed in point 2.2.1, Council Tax (ST3) should be translated as Podatek miejski (Council Tax) and Housing Act 1988 (ST3) as Ustawa o Gospodarce Mieszkaniowej 1988 (W Wielkiej Brytanii) (Housing Act 1988 (in the United Kingdom)).

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In a situation where a legal text refers to a specific technical term this lexeme can be used as a borrowing in the TT. Asensio (2003: 56) recommends that borrowings or loan words are necessary when identification is the main concern, as is the case of proper nouns, degrees, grades, etc. I do not agree that this recommendation always ensures the most precise alternative equivalent since, for example, the title of doctor in ST3, abbreviated as Dr. in Anglo-Saxon countries, is not always equivalent to the title of doctor in Poland due to differences in the educational systems. Since it is not the main aspect of the translation and so there is no more contextual information available, the title has not been altered in the TT. Otherwise, an alternative with annotation would be necessary in order to draw the attention of the judges / lawyers to the fact that the term should be interpreted as part of a foreign system. Borrowings without explanation and any naturalisations, modified phonologically or graphologically, derived from them, should be avoided whenever an acceptable equivalent already exists in the target legal system. 2.3 The Translators Agenda

Translators who engage in the official translation of contracts that can be used in courts of law and who, in Poland, are referred to as sworn translators, are subject to legal and sociological factors that condition the way they translate. In the selection of the translating method to be followed for the transfer of legal terminology in official translations, the translators stance has a great degree of significance. I disagree with Venutis view that proposes that translators of legal documents are bound by the conditions of their employment in agencies or clients (2003: 23). In accordance with the principle of ideal equivalence where the translator remains nobody in particular (Belitt, 1978), I endeavour to represent facts in the way they are presented in the ST and not in any other manner requested by a client or his/her solicitor or based on my ideological preferences, in order to produce a TT of the same legal effect as the original. My presence might, when necessary, be signalled by those intrusions into the official translations of contracts that are indicated

www.harroptranslations.com by the use of square brackets, and aim at further clarification of conceptual voids in order to ensure accuracy in understanding the exact meaning of the ST by the target reader. Perhaps the need to certify my own work enhances my self-awareness in pursuit of terminological precision. There are laws and codes of ethics written for the monitoring of translation as a profession, regulating the translator's relations with other translators and with clients. These are imposed by the government (for instance the Polish Ministry of Justice) or by professional translating associations such as the Polish Society of Sworn and Specialised Translators (TEPIS) and, in the United Kingdom, the Chartered Institute of Linguists (CIL) and the Institute of Translation and Interpreting (ITI). The Polish Court Translator Code and Translating Rules for Translating Official and Legal Documents are quite precise and a translation is presented in appendix 4. I believe that the TEPIS Code is useful as a reference and justification for my translation choices presented in this paper. CIL and ITI each have their own Code of Professional Conduct, although neither refers to legal translation in particular.

CHAPTER 3 THE TRANSLATION PROCESS

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Meaning is a plural and contingent relation, not an unchanging unified essence, and therefore a translation cannot be judged according to mathematics-based concepts of semantic equivalence or one-to-one correspondence. (Venuti, 1995: 18)

Venutis concept of meaning highlights the complexity of the process of translating legal terminology between two different legal systems. My translating process and strategy, for instance, are based on several principles: preserving the information content so that the TT has the same legal effect as the ST; preserving the communicative function of the translation, i.e. contracts that can be used in a court of law; determining to whom the text was addressed in the target culture; taking account of the situational factors of the particular communication process; and taking account of the legal considerations and context, e.g. the law governing the document. The key aspects and problem areas in the translating process of the analysed texts, in terms of terminology transfer between two different legal systems, are analysed underneath. 3.1 Polish and English Law Contextual Differences
law remains first and foremost a national phenomenon. Each national or municipal law constitutes an independent legal system with its own terminological apparatus and underlying conceptual structure, its own rules of classifications, sources of law, methodological approaches, and socio-economic principles. (arevi, 2000: 13)

This means that in order to translate the terminology of official contracts written in different legal traditions accurately it is necessary to understand those traditions since the main challenge of the legal translator is the incongruency of legal systems (arevi, 2000: 13). Sandrini adds that the translatability of legal texts depends directly on the relatedness of the legal systems involved in the translation (1999: 17). The Polish legal system is based on Roman law, i.e. on civil law, and has a civil code, the Civil Code of Poland. The supreme law in Poland is the Constitution of Poland. The United Kingdom does not have a written' constitution and its law is made up of four main parts: statute law, common law, conventions and works of authority. Common law that consists of rules

www.harroptranslations.com based on common customs and on judicial (court) decisions has therefore very little relatedness to Polish civil law that is created by statue. Polish and English history and tradition have also little in common and thus the languages of law have been subject to very different influences. English legal terms have their roots in Latin, French and Norman, Greek, Anglo-Saxon and English traditions. Polish terminology originates from Latin and mainly from the western subgroup of the Slavonic languages with some impact from the annexations Poland was subjected to (Prussian, Austrian and Russian). The vast differences in the histories of Polish and English law and the associated incongruency of terminology highlight the many challenges in the official translation of the contracts analysed that are further discussed in this chapter. 3.1.1 The function of contracts in two different legal systems Before contracts are translated as official documents that can be used in a court of law, it should be established how they are defined in the two different legal systems in order to identify their purpose and consequently its possible impact on the translation. The function of the translated contracts is the same in both the civil and the common law frameworks, i.e. formal instruction without option (Bell, 1991: 205), influencing future usage and thus having a regulatory or prescriptive character (Treitel, 2004). The important consideration for a translator is that contracts are legally binding agreements that will serve as normative instruments containing rules of conduct concurrently valid in the TL and that they are interpreted according to the law governing them regardless of the language in which they are written (arevi, 2000: 68). The above should be reflected in translational choices in terms of terminology transfer, which will indicate to judges the legal system according to which the term is to be defined. Polish judges do not know foreign legal systems and would therefore have to seek a relevant expert advice. In the proposed translations, this system is English common law. 3.2 ST Reader, TT Reader and Ideal TT Reader

www.harroptranslations.com The linguistic principle maintains that communication is effective only if the text author achieves interaction with the text reader. According to Sager (1980: 210), legal translation aims at conveying communication between the subject specialists. A similar opinion is expressed by arevi, who defines legal language with all its terminology as specialpurpose communication between specialists (2000: 19). The official translations were prepared on the assumption that the TT reader is a legal professional. However, the proposed translation choices took into consideration the fact that the aforementioned targeted legal professional comes from a different legal tradition and that there is consequently a difference in his/her referential classification. 3.3 Subcategories of legal terminology

Greg Myers proposes that the coining and acceptance of a term is a crucial step in forming a disciplinary concept (2005: 187). Legal terms are dynamic in nature and their meaning alters under the influence of changes in the social and cultural environment and of the development of human knowledge and new technologies. In legal translation, the technical accuracy of these subject-field notions is an essential prerequisite of good justice (Alcaraz and Hughes, 2002: 5). The legal terms analysed in the assignment are symbolic or representational signs that refer to things or ideas found in the world of reality, physical or mental and they may be one-word units or compound units. The concepts can be further divided into three subcategories i.e. purely technical legal terms, semi-technical terms and non-technical legal terminology (Alcaraz and Hughes, 2002: 16). Purely technical words or phrases are restricted to a specific legal framework. The second subcategory of semitechnical terms consists of vocabulary and phrases from everyday language that also have additional meaning relating to their legal context. In terms of translation techniques the semi-technical lexical items are more likely to belong to the group of near and partial equivalents, with certain cases of non-equivalence, already analysed (see 2.2.1). The third group of legal terms consists of non-technical terminology which is the everyday lexis used in legal texts. This section will analyse the translation process for the three groups of terms and will highlight key aspects and problem areas in terms of terminology transfer between

www.harroptranslations.com Polish civil law and English common law. translations of contracts provided in appendix 1. 3.3.1 Purely technical terms The analyses are based on the official

Purely technical terms are monosemic, semantically stable and unambiguous and almost exclusively attached to their legal context. The interpretation of a legal contract largely depends on the correct translation of these terms. This is because they contain a great degree of foreign law content. The terms are often highly culture-bound and thus are easy to distinguish from the rest of the lexical items of any legal text. Alcaraz and Hughes (2002: 17) refer to this group of legal vocabulary as true terms of art that can only be adapted or left untranslated. In the absence of a functional equivalent in the target legal system for system-bound source terms, the translator must select an alternative equivalent as discussed above in points 2.2.1 and 2.2.2 of this paper. Several of the purely technical terms and the problems they pose for translation have already been looked at in chapter 2, i.e. Assured Shorthold Tenancy, Common-law Wife and Contracting-out Certificate. The following examples further highlight the problem areas in the official translation of contracts that can be used in a Polish court of law in terms of terminology transfer between two different legal systems. Tenants in Common This technical legal phrase has a unique meaning in English common law. English law explains tenancy in common as equitable ownership of land by two or more persons (Dictionary of Law, 2003: 493). A tenant in Polish and English legal understanding is one who rents from a landlord. In Polish civil law tenant is further divided depending on the type of rent or lease. One who rents land is dzierawca (tenant) and one who rents a flat or house is lokator, najemca (tenant). However, neither of these meanings is applicable here since the contract refers to ownership and not rental. Bilingual dictionaries attempt to translate tenants in common as wspdzierawcy (joint tenants [of land])

www.harroptranslations.com (Oga, 2006: 725) that, depending on the context, could sometimes be applicable but would be incorrect in the translation analysed. Taking into consideration the fact that the translated text is an official translation that can be used in a court of law and that in the original text the legal phrase has absolutely nothing to do with tenants in the sense of a tenant occupying a property owned by a landlord, I used a non-technical neutral term accompanied by the original term in brackets to indicate to the judge the legal system according to which the term is to be defined.
ST2: TT2: BT: The Parties agree that they shall hold the beneficial interest in the Home as tenants in common in equal shares. (6) Niniejsze Strony zgodnie owiadczaj, i s wspwacicielami Domu (tenants in common) w ktrym posiadaj ten sam udzia interesu beneficyjnego. (6) The Parties agree to announce that they co-own the Home (tenants in common) in which they have the same share of the beneficial interest.

Common law Common law is a general system of law deriving exclusively from common customs and court decisions in England. Some scholars i.e. Alcaraz and Hughes suggest that the term may appear untranslated in the TL, either because it is very well known even to moderately cultivated jurists or because it is extremely complex technically and therefore it is easier to understand [it] conceptually than to translate [it]' (2002: 155). This could be a reason why some Polish/English legal dictionaries avoid providing a translation for the term i.e. Myrczek (2006). Other researchers i.e. Oga (2006) and Jalan, J. and Jalan, H. (2004) provide a selection of propositions on how to translate common law into Polish language. The most popular propositions are: prawo powszechnie obowizujce (law in common use), prawo zwyczajowe (w przeciwiestwie do prawa zawartego w ustawach) (customary law (in contrary to law outlined in statutes)), prawo cywilne (civil law) and prawo precedensowe (case law). A translator with a legal background in both Polish and English law is perhaps more likely to avoid translating 'common law' into prawo cywilne (civil law) without further

www.harroptranslations.com clarification, since this could lead to misinterpretation. The main difference that is usually drawn between the two systems is that common law draws abstract rules from specific cases, whereas civil law starts with abstract rules, which judges must then apply to the various cases before them. The contextual differences between Polish and English law are analysed further in point 3.1 of this paper. In the TT4 the term was translated as prawo zwyczjowe (customary law thus not a civil law that is outlined in statute). The translation was followed by the original term 'common law' in brackets for further clarification. This way the term is easy to read and understand by a Polish legal professional, yet it maintains its precise original meaning.
ST4: TT4: BT: This guarantee is subject to common and criminal laws of England (13) Niniejsza gwarancja podlega angielskiemu prawu zwyczajowemu (common law) oraz cryminalnemu (13) This guarantee is subject to English customary law (common law) and [English] criminal law

3.3.2

Semi-technical terms

The semi-technical legal lexis represents perhaps the most problematic group of terms for a translator between the English and Polish languages, since it can contain terminology with one or many meanings in the everyday language as well as one or many meanings in the specialised legal context. The number of semi-technical terms is also constantly growing, which means that any popular general word might in time acquire a legal meaning in view of the expansion of the law to meet the developing requirements of social evolution. The expansion of meaning is not always obvious, especially at its initial stages. Moreover, semi-technical terms are semantically more complex than the other two groups of legal terms i.e. technical and non-technical, and their translation is therefore complicated by their additional and often connotative meaning, the range of partial synonyms and the context. The following section will provide some examples of such terms present in the translated texts and the way they were translated for the purpose of legal contracts that can be used in a Polish court of law.

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Guarantee The word guarantee and the related English word warranty have a number of legal meanings in both Polish and in English laws. Depending on the context, the English lexis guarantee often has to be translated by a Polish term other than its literal translation gwarancja, i.e. zapewnienie (assurance), or additional words have to be added in order to reflect the original legal guarantee sense in the Polish language, e.g. klauzula gwarancyjna (guarantee clause), gwarancja jakoci (warranty of quality) etc. The most popular meaning of the term is attached to responsibility for the quality of the product or services provided, and in this sense it might be used interchangeably with the term warranty:
ST5: TT5: This warranty is expressly in lieu of all other warranties or conditions, expressed, implied or statutory, including any implied warranty of merchantability or fitness for particular purpose.(6) Niniejsza klauzula gwarancyjna w sposb wyrany wycza stosowanie wszelkich innych warunkw ustanawiajcych odpowiedzialno z tytuu gwarancji jakoci lub postanowie umownych okrelonych, dorozumianych lub ustawowych, wczajc w to jakkolwiek dorozumian odpowiedzialno z tytuu gwarancji jakoci na nadanie si do zbycia albo te nadanie si do celw szczeglnych. (6) BT: This guarantee clause expressly excludes the use of all other warranties of quality or conditions, expressed, implied or statutory, including any implied warranty of quality for merchantability use or fitness for particular purpose.

The term can also refer to someones guarantee of his/her eligibility or authority and in this case it has to be translated by a different Polish term to reflect the English legal meaning:
ST4: TT4: BT: The Guarantor warrants and represents it has full authority to enter into this guarantee. (11) Gwarant zapewnia, e jest w peni uprawniony do zawarcia niniejszej gwarancji zapaty. (11) The Guarantor assures that s/he has full authority to enter into this guarantee of payment.

Another English meaning of the word is the liability for a debt where a third party (Guarantor) provides financial cover for a legal or natural person who takes a loan from a

www.harroptranslations.com creditor. In this case, the word usually has to be complemented by an additional word i.e. gwarancja zapaty (guarantee of repayment) or substituted by another word since its direct translation would render the TT meaning very imprecise, and in the case analysed, simply unacceptable:
ST4: TT4: BT: The guarantee hereunder shall be unconditional and absolute (7) Gwarancja zapaty wymagana na mocy niniejszej Umowy jest bezwarunkowa i cakowita (7) The guarantee of repayment required by this Agreement is unconditional and absolute

Equity This term has many English legal meanings that can in turn be translated into many Polish equivalents of a purely technical, semi-technical and general nature. When approaching the translation of the lexical item equity its context has to be analysed first. The ST2 example refers to general financially viable assets and not to a regulated scheme of legal principles. This assessment narrows the translation choice to several meanings i.e. akcja/e zwyke (ordinary share/s), kapita wasny (own capital), fundusze wasne (own funds), rodki wasne (own means), cz majtku pozostaa po spacie wszystkich zobowiza oraz dugw (residue), udzia w zysku (share of profit), prawo do dywidendy (right to dividends). This list is not exhaustive.
ST2: TT2: Any money in any bank or building society account maintained separately by either Party or any other individual accumulation of equity shall belong to that Party alone. (8) Wszelkie fundusze nalece do oddzielnych kont bankowych lub oszczdnociowej kasy budowlanej lub wszelka inna indywidualna akumulacja rodkw wasnych nale wycznie do Strony, ktra je oddzielnie posiada. (8) BT: All funds that belong to the separate bank or building society accounts or any other individual accumulation of own means shall belong exclusively to that Party that owns them separately.

The example above refers to individual (own) general personal economic assets and therefore, in this case the general term rodki wasne (own means) is, in my opinion, the most accurate translation choice.

www.harroptranslations.com Agreement In general terms this semi-technical lexical item means accordance in opinion or feeling or consistency (Collins English Dictionary, 2007) and thus it can have an array of Polish equivalents that all mean agreement: zgoda, porozumienie, ugoda, uzgodnienie, zobowizanie and ukad. The selection of the correct Polish equivalent relies firmly on the context. When the situation relates to ST1 collective agreements in force directly relating to the terms of the employment, the analysis of parallel corpora shows that there are two equivalents that should be used: uzgodnienie or porozumienie. The term uzgodnienie is more appropriate in this case because of its connotative Polish meaning of result of something:
ST1: TT1: BT: Collective agreement (13) Uzgodnienia zbiorowe (13) Collectively agreed resolutions

In a second example of the normal meaning of the term agreement in English, the correct Polish equivalent is zgoda, because in the Polish language it refers to approval and thus fits the context of the original message:
ST2: TT2: BT: This Agreement shall terminate by written agreement of the Parties (11) Niniejsza Umowa zostanie wypowiedziana poprzez pisemn zgod Stron (11) This Contract shall terminate by written approval of the Parties

The legal meaning of agreement is a less formal term than contract and must therefore be translated with this connotation in mind in the context of the ST. It has to be mentioned that the most widely recognised legal translation of the word agreement into Polish is the term porozumienie, which has a different connotation and often relates to an agreement made between parties with the aim of finishing some conflict, making a business or political deal etc.
ST2: TT2: Cohabitation Agreement (1) Umowa wsplnego poycia (1)

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BT: ST3: TT3: BT: Cohabitation Contract Rental Agreement (1) Umowa czynszowa (1) Rental Contract

Claim The general sense of this semi-technical term is the assertion of a right or demand. In common law claim means a demand for a remedy or assertion of a right, especially the right to take a particular case to court (Dictionary of Law, 2003: 83). In Polish civil law the term has a broader meaning and might relate to situations that can be resolved in court or outside it. The translator thus has to select a Polish equivalent with the same legal effect from a selection of words with their different semantic fields depending on the context, i.e. roszczenie (claim/pleas), danie (demand), uprawnienie (right), skarga (complain), zaalenie (complaint), pretensja (claim), utrzymywanie e (maintaining that), zapewnienie (assurance), owiadczenie (declaration/statement) and wierzytelno (claim/active debt). In the example below the most appropriate equivalent is uprawnionej (rightfully claiming) because the term claim is preceded by the word rightfully, which adds particular significance to the term in Polish legal understanding.
ST3 TT3 The Landlord agrees that the Tenant may live in the Property without unreasonable interruption from the Landlord or any person rightfully claiming under or in trust for the Landlord. (27) Waciciel Lokalu zawiadcza, e niniejszy Najemca moe zamieszkiwa w niniejszej Nieruchomoci bez nieuzasadnionych przeszkodze ze strony Waciciela Lokalu lub jakiejkolwiek osoby legalnie uprawnionej bd w powiernictwie Waciciela Lokalu. (27) BT: The Landlord confirms that the Tenant may live in the Property without unreasonable interruption from the Landlord or any person acting within legal rights or in trust for the Landlord.

Damages

www.harroptranslations.com The word damages has direct one-to-one equivalent in the Polish word szkody. The legal meaning of the term is, in this context, translated into Polish as odszkodowanie (compensation).
ST1: The Employer hereby shall be entitled to apply for an injunction to prevent such disclosure or use and to seek any other remedy including without limitation the recovery of damages in the case of such disclosure or use. (16) TT1: Pracodawca niniejszym upowaniony jest do ubiegania si o nakaz sdowy zabezpieczajcy przed niniejszym ujawnianiem lub uycia bd zabiegania o wszelki inny sposb wczywszy otrzymanie nieograniczonego odszkodowania w wypadku niniejszego ujawnienia lub naduycia. (16) BT: The Employer is entitled to apply for an injunction to prevent such disclosure or use and to seek any other remedy including unlimited compensation in the case of such disclosure or abuse.

3.3.3

Non-technical terms

These terms are general words that have maintained their everyday meaning without acquiring legal import but regularly occur in legal texts. They are usually easier to understand than to translate because they often are contextually bound. The following examples of such lexical items will illustrate some key aspects and problem areas in terms of non-technical terminology translation. Section
ST1: TT1: section 1(1)(a) Employment Rights Act 1996. (4) [section 1 subsection 1 paragraph a] artykuu 1 paragrafu 1 litery (a) Ustawy o Prawach Pracowniczych 1996. (4)

Section might be a problematic term. First of all, there is a Polish homophone, in the word sekcja, that has the outward appearance of an equivalent but is a false friend. Sekcja indeed means section in BT but in Polish relates to a part of something, which is relevant to the context and thus it could be very misleading. The correct legal translation into Polish in the case of the ST1 contract is paragraf. It could also have been translated as rozdzia (division) if the contract was very lengthy or artyku (clause), if it was used in other legal documents, acts or statutes. The Polish word paragraf could be confused

www.harroptranslations.com with its English false friend paragraph that in turn is another division of Anglo-Saxon legal texts that is of lesser importance than section. Symbols marking non-technical terms in Polish and English texts could also be very misleading. The sign in English refers to section and in Polish to paragraf, which, as mentioned above, could be confused with the English paragraph denoted by the sign. Polish translators must be able to distinguish between the English legal nomenclature used to denote textual divisions and sub-divisions, including those contained in the different styles of contracts analysed here, in order to use the correct terminology in their translation. Confidentiality Another example of an everyday word often used in legal documents that imposes stylistic and contextual restraints is confidentiality. The word has a direct one-to-one equivalent in the Polish poufno and this may often be used as an acceptable equivalent:
ST1: After the termination of this Agreement the Employee shall not disclose or use any of the Employers trade secrets or any other information which is of sufficiently high degree of confidentiality to amount to a trade secret. (16) TT1: Po rozwizaniu niniejszej umowy pracownik nie ujawni lub naduyje jakichkolwiek tajemnic dziaalnoci gospodarczej pracodawcy lub wszelkiej innej informacji wystarczajco poufnej by przyczyni si do ustanowienia tajemnicy dziaalnoci gospodarczej. BT: After the unfastening of this Agreement the Employee shall not disclose or abuse any of the Employers trade secrets or any other information which is sufficiently confidential to amount to a trade secret.

Consent Consent is defined as deliberate or implied affirmation, compliance with a course of proposed action (Dictionary of Law, 2003:106). It is therefore congruent with the general definition of the term that refers to giving permission, approving or agreeing to do something (Concise Oxford English Dictionary, 2002: 303). Depending on the context the term must be translated into one of a range of general Polish terms that regularly occur in legal texts to mean permission or approval.

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ST2: TT2: BT: This Agreement shall be varied only by written consent of the Parties. (11) Niniejsza Umowa zostanie zmieniona wycznie poprzez pisemne pozwolenie Stron. (11) This Agreement will be varied only by written permission of the Parties.

ST3: TT3: BT:

consent not to be withheld unreasonably. (18) nie naley bez podstawnie odmwi udzielenia pozwolenia. (18) Giving permission should not be refused without basis.

Dispute In English the term has several meanings and mainly refers to debate, argument, quarrel, calling into question and/or opposition. In Polish it also has a range of meanings but in a legal context it is usually limited to general connotations: spr (dispute), zakwestionowa (argue, oppose). If the problem causing the dispute is not rectified by the responding party then it becomes a legal dispute to be resolved by the Court, as per the example below. In this context the non-technical term has only one Polish equivalent i.e. spr prawny (legal dispute).
ST4: TT4: This guarantee is subject to English law and the parties agree to submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the English courts in connection with any dispute hereunder. (13) Niniejsza gwarancja podlega prawu angielskiemu i strony potwierdzaj oddanie wszelkich sporw prawnych powstaych na mocy niniejszej Umowy wycznej jurysdykcji angielskich sdw. (13) BT: This guarantee is subject to English law and the parties agree to submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the English courts in connection with any legal dispute under this Agreement.

Termination Termination means bringing something to an end and in a general context it is cognate with the Polish term terminacja. The English terms meaning is much broader than that of the Polish term as it might refer to assassination, abortion, end of employment, etc. The Polish language has a more specific vocabulary to describe similar concepts. The literal

www.harroptranslations.com translation of the word 'termination' is therefore rarely used and as shown below, it is strictly related to the context of the text or discourse. In the context of the termination of employment when one party exercises its right to terminate the contract for any reason, the correct Polish term is the semi-technical wypowiedzenie (give notice).
ST1: TT1: BT: The Employer may terminate this Agreement (15) Pracodawca moe wypowiedzie niniejsz Umow (15) The Employer may give notice to this Agreement

However, when the termination refers to the cessation of an agreement or contract when both parties amicably choose to finish it, the correct Polish non-technical term used should be the neutral word rozwizanie (lit. unfasten or undo).
ST2: TT2: BT: VARIATION OR TERMINATION (of contract) (11) ZMIANA LUB ROZWIZANIE UMOWY (11) VARIATION OR UNFASTENING (of contract) (11)

3.4

Latin terms

A significant part of Polish and the English legislation was set down in the Middle Ages when Latin was the lingua franca throughout Europe for legal professionals and scholars. This does not mean, however, that Latin terms used in legal contracts always have the same meaning in each language. This is because they have over the centuries been subject to their unique national influences. Therefore, according to arevi: instead of serving as a reliable source for alternative equivalents, the use of Latin phrases by lawyers generally makes the translators task more difficult (2000: 264). The decision relating to the translation of the type of terms found in the contracts that can be used in a court of law must be made in accordance with the accepted standard practice in Poland, i.e. the target legal system. In Poland, official translators are authorised to translate between certain specific languages. If the English contract includes a term or terms in Latin, that term or terms should be kept unchanged in the translation. This instruction is specifically

www.harroptranslations.com stipulated in the Polish Court Translator Code 2000 that can be viewed at the TEPIS website at <http://www.tepis.org.pl/biuletyn/40/tepis.htm>, which has been translated in the appendix 4, and it is as follows:
The use of one target language in the entire documents translation, i.e. the language of the chosen country or one of the countries within the language zone, with other language inclusions if this was the originals author intention;' 26 (1)

This means that the term must firstly be explained by a lawyer from the relevant legal system. The translator might, if s/he so wishes and if s/he is qualified so to do, add a definition of what the term means in Common law as an annotation. Otherwise, the translator must draw the matter to the attention of the client and leave it to him/her to seek further clarification. Based on the above information I have translated the Latinisms in the texts analysed as follows:
ST2: TT2: BT: Children the alieni juris. (10) Dzieci alieni juris. (1) (10) Children - the alieni juris.

(1) Dotyczy osoby niepenoletniej oraz nie w peni uprawnionej (describing the status of a person who is not of full age and capacity).

ST1: TT1: BT:

The Employer may terminate this Agreement ex parte. (15) Pracodawca moe wypowiedzie niniejsz Umow ex parte (2). (15) The Employer may pronounce this Agreement ex parte.

(2) Latinism odpowiednik angielskiego bez powiadomienia (Latin term that refers to English without notice).

As shown above I have provided annotations as an extra aid to point the interpreting lawyers in the right direction although this is not an official requirement.

www.harroptranslations.com In the official translations of contracts from English into Polish it is also permissible to insert the following phrase and thus avoid any responsibility for the Latin words: The original document contains third-language expressions which have not been translated. 3.5 Terms of French and Norman origins

The presence of French or Norman terms in English contracts and also in other English legal texts is due to the Norman invasion of 1066 and the subsequent French influence. The rules for dealing with these terms in official translations of contracts are essentially the same as the ones used to resolve the problems involved in translating Latinisms, already discussed in point 3.4. Hence, the following translation of the term chose, which could be confused with the past tense of choose:
ST3: TT3: BT: and any other chose (31) oraz wszelkiego innego chose(1) (31) and any other chose(1)

(1) (franc.) przedmiot, rzecz (French for thing).

3.6

Archaic Anglo-Saxon Terms

The Germanic invaders, who spoke Anglo-Saxon, left their stamp on English history in the form of many terms and expressions they introduced that have survived in todays English legal language. In legal contracts and other English legal texts references are constantly being made to very old texts, such as judicial decisions, wills or venerable text-book definitions, which are quoted in support of legal arguments about the continuing validity of rules, doctrine or precedents. Many of these terms belong to the subcategory of purely

www.harroptranslations.com technical legal terminology already discussed in point 3.3. This is, however, not always the case. Some of the terms are examples of everyday vocabulary also present in English legal texts where their meaning might change depending on the context. One example of an archaic term of this kind is the word sound. Unsound is an adjective that in the context of the ST1 means unhealthy and thus in TT1 the term was changed to schorzenie (illness).
ST1: TT1: BT: if the Employee become of unsound mind (15) jeeli Pracownik zachoruje na schorzenie umysowe (15) if the Employee becomes mentally ill

The term sounding in the context of damages means in the ST4 an action brought by an unpaid creditor for damages rather than simply to recover the debt.
ST4: TT4: BT: an action sounding in damages (6) postpowanie sdowe w celu odszkodowania (6) court proceedings in order to receive compensation

The archaic Anglo-Saxon terms are very problematic for the Polish translator and indeed, they often are also very difficult for native English speakers to understand. Hence the Plain English Campaigns repeated efforts to simplify legal language in the face of consistent resistance from lawyers who maintain that:
technical accuracy is an essential prerequisite of good justice and that if linguistic precision is watered down to suit the demands of an uncomprehending majority, legal certainty will all but disappear. (Alcaraz and Hughes, 2002: 5)

3.7

Terminological errors

Another problem area in legal translation is posed by obvious or suspected terminological errors in the legal ST. One example is presented in the Employment Contract that results in a lack of terminological coherence of the ST1 analysed below. arevi proposes (2000: 118) that:

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it has become a golden rule of legal translation that translators must refrain from correcting errors or improving the language of authenticated translations having the force of law.

In contrast to arevis view, Asensio (2003: 102) suggests that errors with respect to facts should be treated with common sense. By this he understands that on some occasions they should be translated literally but on the other occasions this would not contribute anything positive to the translated text and they should be corrected or improved (2003: 63). Thus, errors such as the one described below should, in my opinion, be corrected when translating official documents. However, both views are useful depending on the type of error and the individual context of the authenticated translation. On one occasion in the ST1, I have amended with annotation a source of potential misunderstanding in the TT in the full realisation that any terminological correction in official legal texts is very unwelcome. In this case the Contractor (ST1) was changed to Pracownik (TT1) (the Employee). The word contractor (wykonawca) that is a person who undertakes a contract especially to provide materials, conduct building operations, etc, (Concise Oxford English Dictionary, 2002: 312) is explained above in point 2.2.1 of this paper. Since the entire ST clearly refers to an employee employed on a permanent contract in a professional capacity and also repeatedly uses the term employee when referring to the subject of the ST1, I have broken the aforementioned golden rule and replaced kontrahent (contractor) with pracownik (employee) providing appropriate annotation. In this way, the entire document becomes coherent in terms of the position set out. 3.8 Terminological vagueness

Translation of legal terminology covers two opposite extremes: the importance of achieving precision in translating technical terms, and the preservation of a number of indefinite and vague non-technical concepts that regularly occur in legal texts and aim at increasing their elasticity. Ambiguity in legal documents, referred to as syntactic ambiguity (Holland & Webb, 2003: 115), is usually deliberate (Lewison, 2004). In the

www.harroptranslations.com contracts analysed in this paper, it can be used to reach a compromise or to create uncertainties that one of the parties might subsequently seek to exploit (Doonan, 1995: 9596). The problem of translating ambiguity leads in turn to the question of interpretation. This puts the legal translator into a difficult position since it is generally emphasised that the translator must avoid interpreting legal uncertainty because this is a task for legal professionals. Therefore, Germar (1995a: 143) suggests that it is very important for legal translators to be trained to interpret legal texts. The issue of whether and how an official translator would benefit from legal training when dealing with terminological problems in contracts has been analysed in greater detail in a survey carried out among experienced translators working with the language pair Polish/English. The survey results are presented in Chapter 4. The examples of vague terms analysed below refer to certain standards of conduct relevant to legal practice in England that often have no meaning in Polish legal tradition. My aim therefore is to point out that they sometimes have to be interpreted by the translator on the basis of legal research and/or consultation with a lawyer in order to make the text logical, often preventing misinterpretation by the target reader. When possible, as in some of the examples presented, the interpretation must be left to a legal professional.

Reasonable The word reasonable means rozsdny in Polish. This is a very common term in English contracts whereas it is unknown in Polish civil law and would thus require further clarification. This means that a word other than rozsdny, e.g. justified, appropriate, rightful etc., will usually have to be used in the official translation:
ST3: TT3: BT: reasonable costs reasonably incurred (25) stosowne koszta uzasadnione zajciem (25) appropriate cost justified by the occurrence

www.harroptranslations.com In Polish law the parties to the contract would have to agree between themselves what standards of practice they mutually understand to be reasonable and/or unreasonable and include the definitions in the agreement. Otherwise, the translator has to make sure that the judge / lawyer who interprets the official translation knows that the word reasonable refers to English legal understanding and must therefore be interpreted in this light. The best interest of... In the best interest of is a very ambiguous phrase that might mean many things even in English. In analysing the ST2 example below, the Polish lawyer should seek clarification as to whether the idea of what is the best for a child in English common law is the same as in Polish civil law. In this particular context of the Cohabitation Agreement, the view of the Polish legal tradition, immersed as it is in the Catholic social context, is that it would be in the best interest of the child not to be born outside a marriage. The phrase might therefore have a slightly broader meaning than the English meaning that refers to acting in order to protect the minor in general. After analysing the context of this case, I left its interpretation to the Polish lawyer and translated the phrase literally.
ST2: TT2: BT: 'it is in the Childrens best interest that the legal guardian shall remain in the Home with them...' 'w najlepszym interesie Dzieci ley aby opiekun ustawowy pozosta z nimi w Domu...' 'it lies in the Childrens best interest that the legal guardian shall remain in the Home with them...'

In a tenant-like manner The example above refers not only to differences between civil and common legal systems but also to cultural differences in Poland and in England. In Poland 85 percent of the population lived for 50 years as tenants in governmental flats and each tenant could do as s/he wished e.g. redecorate, or have pets or an unlimited number of flat shares etc. For some, in particular the older Polish generation, this perception of a tenant-like manner

www.harroptranslations.com still applies. Tenants in England are usually more restricted regarding what they are expected or allowed to do in their rented properties. Since the contract is based on English law, I clarified the matter by adding English and the foreign tenant would be probably advised by his/her agent to carry out additional research on this subject.
ST3 TT3 BT Tenant is responsible by virtue of his duty to use the Property in a tenant-like manner (31) Lokator jest odpowiedzialny na mocy swego obowizku do korzystania z nieruchomoci w sposb stosowny dla lokatora [w Anglii] (31) Tenant is responsible by virtue of his duty to use the Property in a [English] tenant-like manner

Fair Another term often used in English legal contracts is the word fair. (honestly / fair). Since the use of word fair is unknown in Polish legal practice, the author of the ST would be requested by a legal professional to define precisely what exactly s/he understood by it.
ST3: TT3: BT: based on fair assessment. (36) w oparciu o uczciwe oszacowanie. (36) based on honest assessment.

Its meaning

depending on the context can be rzetelnie (honestly / properly) or sprawiedliwie

Best practice This phrase does not appear in Polish legal language and its literal translation has no meaning in Polish civil law. It can however be interpreted in such a way as to represent the same meaning in Polish legal tradition, retaining the same degree of ambiguity:
ST1: TT1: BT: represent the companys best practice (18) reprezentuj sposb postpowania uznany przez niniejsz spk za najwaciwszy (18) represent a way of conduct that has been agreed by the company as the most appropriate

3.9

Names and entities

www.harroptranslations.com English business entities and names of institutions and legal acts also come into the category of legal terminology that might cause problems in translation between two different legal systems. 3.9.1 Business entities

The legal classification of business entities appears in all corporate contracts. Differences in common law and civil law result in several degrees of terminological incongruency between Polish and English business entities, varying from almost identical concepts to near and partial equivalents and to terms with no comparable counterparts in the TL. Over recent decades, the Polish national business infrastructure has been changing from communist-type state ownership to privately-run enterprise and company law is consequently subject to ongoing changes. The translator must be aware of all of these legislative developments as they incur ongoing terminological changes. The examples given below highlight some key aspects and problem areas in the translation of this group of legal terms.

Company It should be emphasised above all that the semantic field of company is organised differently under the English common law and Polish civil law systems. The main difference is that English law makes a finer distinction - between unlimited and limited companies, companies limited by guarantee and by shares and private and public companies. By contrast, all Polish companies are limited and are limited only by shares; however, their breakdown into Spka z ograniczon odpowiedzialnoci (Limited Liability Company) and Spka Akcyjna (Public Limited Company / Public Joint Stock Company) is not based on the criterion of whether they are private or public. Thus, the boundaries of the TL and SL concepts will inevitably differ.

www.harroptranslations.com Another difference is that the English system specifically divides entities into two types using two separate terms: individual trader/ partnership corresponding to the Polish spka osobowa (partnership company) and company spka kapitaowa (capital company). This indicates that the Polish term spka does not have an equivalent at the same level of specificity, i.e. Polish uses a more general term while English has more specific lexemes for the same subject. Public Limited Company
ST1, 2 TT1, 2 BT: GlobalMedia plc GlobalMedia Publiczna S.A. GlobalMedia Public Joint - Stock Company

The English entity Public Limited Company (plc) shows a relatively high degree of conceptual similarity to the Polish business entity spka akcyjna abbreviated to S.A. [joint-stock company]. Since the main difference between the two entities is that the S.A. does not have to be a public company while the plc is, I have added. publiczna [public] before S.A and this precisely reflects the meaning of the SL term plc.

Limited Company Limited or Ltd companies are private companies limited by shares or guarantees in the United Kingdom. The entity is highly comparable to the Polish business entity Spka z ograniczon odpowiedzialnoci (Sp. z o.o.), however the Polish Sp. z o.o. is not always private. Consequently, it can be used as a functional equivalent when word private is added.
ST4: TT4: BT: Siemens Ltd (3) Siemens Prywatna Sp. z o.o. (3) Siemens Private Limited Liability Company

www.harroptranslations.com 3.9.2 Names of English institutions and legal acts

Names of English institutions and legal acts are usually translated literally to facilitate their identification (arevi, 2000: 259). Official translations of international institutional terms are available from the terminological departments of the particular organisations and some professional organisations for legal translators such as TEPIS. As a rule, a translator should normally use the official or generally accepted translation of any institutional term (Newmark, 2005: 89), even when the translator believes that s/he can produce a better one. The original name should be provided in brackets in order to indicate the system the name originates from and for the purpose of further clarification.
ST5: TT5: BT: ST1: TT1: BT: DVLA (5) Agencji Prawa Jazdy i Licencji Pojazdw (DVLA) (Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency (DVLA)) (5) Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency DVLA. Employment Rights Act 1996 (4) Ustawy o Prawach Pracowniczych 1996 (Employment Rights Act 1996) (4). Employment Rights Act 1996.

CHAPTER 4 SURVEY Several scholars, e.g. Germar (1995a: 143) and Rayar (1990: 643), suggest that it is imperative for legal translators to be legally trained in order to interpret legal texts. Legal as well as linguistic qualifications are required from all Polish legal translators at the European Court of Justice. The main aim of the survey contained in appendix 3 was therefore to elicit and present opinions, drawn from the practice of experienced legal translators working with the language pair Polish/English, as to whether and/or how legal training is important when it comes to the translation of contracts that can be used in a court of law. The survey conclusions also assess to what degree, in the opinion of the translators, it is possible for a translated contract to have the same legal effect as the original and proposes the most accurate form of terminology translation. The results

www.harroptranslations.com summarise the changes that have influenced official legal translators of contracts working with the aforementioned language pair. According to the 57 replies received, the most favoured way of resolving problems of incongruent legal terminology in official translations of contracts (translators were allowed to select between several methods) are: functional equivalents 100%, followed by neutral terms 98%, descriptive paraphrases 95% and annotations - 35%. All the translators who use annotations stressed that they provide them only when necessary unless their clients require them to do otherwise. This means that experienced translators believe that the best way to translate the terminology of contracts is to choose a method that aims at incorporating all the SL information into the main body of the translated document. None of the translators found legal training or access to it not useful for dealing with terminological issues. Experienced translators of legal contracts therefore agree that they benefit or would benefit from it, with 67% considering it to be necessary. The largest proportion (49%) of the translators claimed that perfection exists, i.e. that it is possible for the translated contracts to have the same legal effect as the originals. This group included 39% (out of the 49%) with no legal training and 10% (out of the 49%) with legal training. The second-largest group (47%) were translators who believed that, on average, it is almost possible for translated contracts to have an identical legal effect to the original. Of this group, 44% (of the 47%) had legal training and 3% (of the 47%) did not. The translators with training in both Polish and English law all belonged to this group. This might mean that a legal background helps translators to understand the complexity of legal contracts and thus increases their sensitivity to their legal content. This in turn, in my opinion, is likely to increase the quality of translation. The second groups higher degree of self-criticism might be misleading. In fact, this group has more representatives with legal experience and thus it might on average provide translations of contracts of more accurate legal effect than the first group, but make a less superficial judgement about their quality. However, this would have to be confirmed by analysing a number of official translations of contracts done by both groups.

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As an additional observation 14% of the translators surveyed pointed out that literal, wordfor-word translation is sometimes required from them by their clients when translating contracts that can be used in a court of law. This observation is relevant to the paper because in this case the emphasis on translators comprehension of legal points decreases since there is no need for interpretation. In fact the logic of the entire translated contract suffers, making it harder to understand for a legal professional from the other legal system. Should the demand for this type of translation continue, then legal training for translators might not be considered worth investing in since it would not add any value to the quality of translation. The translators opinions suggest that requests for literal translations seem to be a decreasing phenomenon with some translators refusing to undertake such assignments. Social and political changes - globalisation, the ongoing expansion of the European Union, the influx of foreign companies into domestic markets, international corporation mergers or franchises, increased mobility of employees and the progress and development of information technology where the main language is English - are already influencing the legal translation professionals working in the Polish/English language pair. This is particularly true of the official translations of contracts since this type of document is exchanged on an everyday basis and thus perhaps represents the most requested type of official translations. All these changes call for greater professionalism in the field. There are already a number of relatively new international examinations, mentioned by translators in the survey, that confirm the level of English legal language skills for translators specialising in legal translation i.e. the International Test of Legal English Skills (TOLES) or the International Legal English Certificate (ILEC). The requirement that a legal translator should have this type of qualification and/or certificate is becoming more and more popular among employers and clients but for the present, as indicated by the results of the survey, sound experience in the legal translation of contracts and thus equally close acquaintance with the legal cultures of both the ST and the TT are the prevailing criteria.

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CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS When translating from one legal system into another the differences between those systems have to be taken into consideration. The level of equivalence of terms depends on the extent of relatedness of the legal systems and not of the languages involved. The study highlights some key aspects and problem areas in the official translations of legal contracts that can be used in a Polish court, in terms of terminology transfer between two different legal systems. The main issues that the study draws attention to in this respect, together with the practical approaches that were taken to resolve them, are: different categories of terminological equivalence in the translation of legal terms, different types of legal terminology, terminological errors, terminological vagueness and the associated problem of interpretation as well as sources for authoritative legal terminology such as the translation of names of English institutions and legal acts.

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Based on the opinion of 96 per cent of the experienced translators questioned in the survey, and the results of the analysis of examples from the proposed translations, it has been demonstrated that official translations of contracts that can be used in a court of law may have the same or nearly the same legal effect as the originals. This is possible despite the conceptual differences between common and civil laws. In theory, the most accurate official translations of legal contracts in terms of legal terminology transfer would be the ones in which nothing was hidden from the reader, all problems were elaborated on and all defects of the original were noted. The analysis confirmed that in practice, the translator is required to make a decision and avoid lengthy explanatory notes by incorporating all the information into the main body of the translated contract. The most successful way to achieve this in terms of legal terminology transfer appears, according to the results of this study, to be an official translation based on functional equivalents. As shown in this paper, legal language is formalised at lexical, syntactic, textual and generic levels. Legal terms are not emotionally charged in English contracts and their official translations into Polish. The essential meaning of many terms is inherently connected with the tradition of the legal culture they originate from and with their context, and thus the terminology always has to be assessed separately in relation to varying circumstances. Therefore, a translator who deals with the aforementioned type of translation would benefit from at least a certain degree of legal training, ideally in both source and target languages, in order to resolve terminological issues. The survey shows that trends in legal translation and the opinions of experienced professionals confirm this view. This is particularly important when translating and, if necessary, also when interpreting the undefined statements, incongruent legal terminology and semi-technical terms of which practical examples have been analysed in this study. In official translations of contracts any such interpretation must be approached with caution since, as highlighted in this assignment, for the translator, the purpose of interpretation is to decide on the closest possible equivalence in the target language, while for the judge it is to match up the resulting propositions against the definitions established in existing law (Alcaraz and Hughes, 2002: 24).

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REFERENCES 301 Legal Forms, Letters and Agreements (2005). London: Lawpack Publishing. Alcaraz, E. and Hughes, B. (2002) Legal Translation Explained. Manchester: St. Jerome Publishing. Asensio, R. M. (2003) Translating Official Documents. Manchester: St. Jerome Publishing. Belitt, B. (1978) Adam's Dream: A Preface to Translation. New York: Grove Press. Bell, R. T. (1991) Translation and Translating: Theory and Practice. London: Longman. Chrom, M. (2004) Legal Translation and the Dictionary. Tbingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag. Colins English Dictionary (8th eds.). (2006) London: HarperCollins. Concise Oxford English Dictionary. (2002) Oxford: Oxford University Press. Dictionary of Law (5th eds.). (2003) Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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Doonan, E. (1995) Drafting. London: Cavendish Publishing. Encyclopeadia of [Polish] Law. (2004) Bielsko-Biaa: Park. Gmar, J. (1995a) Traduire ou lart dinterprter, Fonctions, statut et esthtique de la traduction, tome 1: Principles, Saint-Nicolas (Qubec): Presses de l Universit du Qubec. Garzone, G. (2000) Legal Translation and Functionalist Approaches: a Contradiction in Terms?. In ASTTI/ETI (2000), p. 395-414. Groot de, G.-R. (1998) Language and Law. In Netherlands reports to the fifteenth International Congress of Comparative Law. Antwerp and Groningen: Intersentia, p. 2132. Hatim, B. and Mason, I. (1990) Discourse and the Translator. London: Longman. Holland, J. A. and Webb, J. S. (2003) Learning Legal Rules. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Jalan, J. and Jalan, H. (2004) English - Polish Dictionary of Legal and Economic Terms. Warsaw: Wiedza Powszechna. Koller, W. (1979) Einfhrung in die bersetzungswissenschaft. Heidelberg: Quelle & Meyer. Lewison, K. (2004) The Interpretation of Contract. London: Sweet and Maaxwell Myers, G. (2005) Narratives of science and nature in popularizing molecular genetics. In Coulthard, M. (eds.) (2005) Advances in Written Text Analysis. London: Routledge, p. 179-190 Myrczek, E. (2006) Dictionary of Law Terms English Polish and Polish English (2nd eds.). Warsaw: Beck. Myrczek, E. (2006) Lexicon of Law Terms (2nd eds.). Warsaw: Beck. Newmark, P. (1981) Approaches to Translation. New York: Pergamon. Newmark, P. (2005) A Textbook of Translation. London: Longman. Nida, E. A. (1993) Language, Culture and Translating. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press. Nord, C. (1988) Textanalyse und bersetzen. Heidelberg: Gross.

www.harroptranslations.com Oxford - PWN English Polish and Polish English Dictionary (2004). Oxford: Oxford University Press Oga, E. (2004) Dictionary of Legal Terms Englih Polish (Part 2). Bydgoszcz: Oficyna Wydawnicza Branta. Oga, E. (2006) The Great English and Polish Dictionary of Law and Economics. Warsaw: Beck. Podracki, J. (2003) The Great Dictionary of Orthography and Inflexion. Warsaw: wiat Ksiki. Polskie Towarzystwo Tumaczy Przysigych i Specjalistycznych. 2000. The Polish Court Translator Code. Tepis.org.pl. Biuletyn Tepis on-line nr 40. Sep. 2000 <http://www.tepis.org.pl/biuletyn/40/tepis.htm> Rayar, L. (1990) Law and language Postgraduate Training of Legal Translators. In Translation, a creative profession. XIIth World Congress of FIT. Belgrade: Prevodilac, p. 643 646. Sager, J., Dungworth, D., and McDonald, P. (1980) English Special Languages. Wiesbaden: Oscar Brandstetter. Sandrini, P. (1999) Translation zwischen Kultur und Kommunikation: Der Sonderfall Recht. In Sandrini, P. (eds.) bersetzen von Rechtstexten. Fachkommunikation im Spannungsfeld zwischen Rechtsordnung und Sprache. Tbingen: Narr, p. 9 43. Schleiermacher von, F. (1838). ber die verschiedenen Methoden des bersetzens. In Wilss, W. (1982) The Science of Translation. Problems and Methods. Tbingen: Gnther Narr. Sinclair, J. (2005) Trust the text. In Coulthard, M. (eds.) (2005) Advances in Written Text Analysis. London: Routledge, p. 12-26 Stanisawski, J. (1995) The Great Polish English and English Polish Dictionary. Warsaw: Philips Wilson. Stanisawski, J., Szercha, M., Billip, K. and Chociowska, Z. (2003) New Polish English and English Polish Dictionary. Warsaw: Philips Wilson. arevi, S. (1988a) Bilingual and Multilingual Legal Dictionaries: New Standards for the Future in Meta (1991) 36, 4: 615626. arevi, S. (1989) Conceptual Dictionaries for Translation in the Field of Law in

www.harroptranslations.com International Journal of Lexicography 2, 4: 277293. arevi, S. (2000) New Approach to Legal Translation. London: Kluwer Law International. Treitel, G. H. (2004) An outline of the law of contract. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Tomek, M. (1990) On selected problems in translation of the legal language. Translatologica Pragensia IV, Acta Universitatis Carolinae Philologica 4/1994, 113-120. Prague: Karolinum. Tomek, M. (1991) Law interpretation and translation. In Translatologica Pragensia V, Acta Universitatis Carolinae Philologica 4-5/1991, 147-157. Prague: Karolinum. The New Dictionary of the Polish Language (2003). Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN SA. The New Kociuszko Fundation Dictionary English Polish and Polish English (2003). New York: Kociuszko Fundation. The Oxford English Reference Dictionary. (1995) Oxford: Oxford University Press. Venuti, L. (1995) The Translators Invisibility: A History of Translation. London: Routledge. Venuti, L. (2003) The Scandals of Translation. London: Routledge. Weisflog, W. E. (1987) Problems of Legal Translation. In Swiss Reports presented at the XIIth International Congress of Comparative Law. Zrich: Schulthess, p. 179-218. Weston, M. (1991) An English Readers Guide to the French Legal System. Oxford: Berg.

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APPENDIX I: Contracts and translations The text below are my translations of legal contracts and agreements. All personal information provided in all of the documents is fictional. For the purpose of this assignment all annotations have been written in English language. ST 1. Employment Contract
1. 2. Source text English EMPLOYMENT CONTRACT THIS AGREEMENT IS MADE the 15th day of August 2007 BETWEEN GlobalMedia plc with registered office at 234 Regent Street, London WL13 5MD (the Employer); and Dr John Smith of 19 Dixon Road, London SL13 9JN (the Contractor) This document sets out the terms and Target text Polish UMOWA O PRAC NINIEJSZ UMOW zawarto w dniu 15 sierpnia 2007 roku POMIDZY GlobalMedia Publiczna S.A. z siedzib zarejestrowan przy 234 Regent Street, Londyn WL13 5MD (zwan dalej (Pracodawc); oraz Doktorem Johnem Smithem zamieszkaym przy 19 Dixon Road, Londyn SL13 9JN (zwanym dalej Pracownikiem) (1) Niniejszy dokument przedstawia stosunki i

3.

4.

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conditions of employment which are required to be given to the Employee under section 1(1)(a) Employment Rights Act 1996 and which apply at the date hereof. warunki zatrudnienia Pracownika na podstawie artykuu 1 paragrafu 1 litery (a) Ustawy o Prawach Pracowniczych 1996 (Employment Rights Act 1996), ktre wchodz w ycie w dniu zawarcia niniejszej umowy. DATA ROZPOCZCIA ZATRUDNIENIA I TYTU SUBOWY. Pracodawca wyraa zgod na zatrudnienie Pracownika od 20 sierpnia 2007 roku na pozycji dyrektora finansw (oraz czonka Rady Dyrektorw) w GlobalMedia Publiczna S.A. Do biecego okresu zatrudnienia Pracownika nie wlicza si okresu przepracowanego dla poprzedniego pracodawcy. Obowizki Pracownika mog by w kadym momencie, z wymogu potrzeb przedsibiorstwa Pracodawcy, odpowiednio zmienione. WYNAGRODZENIE ZASADNICZE I WIADCZENIA. Pracodawca zobowizany jest to pacenia Pracownikowi wynagrodzenia zasadniczego w wysokoci 185000 GBP na rok w rwnych, zalegych ratach w odstpach miesicznych. Wynagrodzenie zasadnicze Pracownika jest w odstpach rocznych przedmiotem analizy Komisji do Spraw Wynagrodze wedug uznania Rady Dyrektorw. Od wynagrodzenia zasadniczego odjte zostan ustawowe potrcenia i obejmowa ono bdzie czci skadowe do ktrych wlicza si mog: (A) nieobowizkowe skadki emerytalne; (B) wiadczenia niepienine wybrane przez Pracownika jako cz skadowa jego wynagrodzenia zasadniczego, obejmujce: (a) udostpnienie samochodu; (b) udostpnienie telefonu komrkowego; (c) udostpnienie komputera przenonego; (d) udostpnienie prywatnego ubezpieczenia zdrowotnego dla pracownika i czonkw jego rodziny; oraz (e) coroczny bilet sezonowy na mecze piki nonej. (C) podatek od wiadcze niepieninych.

5.

COMMENCEMENT AND JOB TITLE. The Employer agrees to employ the Employee from the 20th of August year 2007 in the capacity of Financial Director at GlobalMedia plc. No employment with a previous employer shall be counted as part of the Employees period of continuous employment. The Employees duties may from time to time be reasonably modified as necessary to meet the needs of the Employers business. BASE SALARY AND BENEFITS. The Employer shall pay the Employee a base salary of 185,000 per year by equal monthly instalments in arrears. The Employees Base Salary shall be reviewed on an annual basis by the Compensation Committee in the discretion of the Board of Directors. The base salary will be subject to statutory deductions and will comprise a number of elements which may include:

6.

(A) voluntary pension contribution (B) cafeteria benefits which the Employee elected to receive as a component of his base salary that include: (a) provision of car; (b) provision of mobile phone; (c) provision of laptop (d) provision of private medical insurance for the Employee and his family members; and e) seasonal football ticket every year. (C) Fringe Benefits Tax which is payable on the non-cash benefits.

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7. ANNUAL BONUS. In addition to the said Base Salary, the Financial Director shall be awarded, for each fiscal year ending during the Employment Period, an Annual Bonus in cash, determined as a percentage of annual Base Salary. SPECIAL BONUS. In recognition and appreciation of Employees performance, the company may pay the Employee a special discretionary bonus in the amount of up to 30,000 in one instalment to be included with the first regular payroll in August during the Employment Period. The payment shall be subject to standard payroll practices and be subject to applicable withholding taxes.

PREMIA ROCZNA. Dodatkowo do rzeczonego wynagrodzenia zasadniczego przyznana jest dyrektorowi finansowemu, pod koniec roku fiskalnego w czasie okresu zatrudnienia, premia roczna w rodkach pieninych wyznaczona przez procent rocznego wynagrodzenia zasadniczego. PREMIA OKOLICZNOCIOWA. W uznaniu i w podzikowaniu za wyniki pracy Pracownika, przedsibiorstwo zapaci Pracownikowi specjaln premi uznaniow w wysokoci do 30000 GBP patn jednorazowo w sierpniu w czasie okresu zatrudnienia, wczon do najbliszej wypaty wynagrodzenia zasadniczego. Niniejsza patno jest podporzdkowana standardowej praktyce wypaty wynagrodze i podlega obowizujcemu podatkowi pobieranego zaliczkowo. GODZINY PRACY. Podstawowe godziny pracy Pracownika s pomidzy godzin 9:00 a 18:00 od poniedziaku do pitku w czasie ktrych Pracownik moe wzi a do godziny przerw na popoudniowy posiek pomidzy godzin 12 a 14 oraz w kadym momencie moe by wymagana od Pracownika praca w dodatkowych godzinach, bez dodatkowego wynagrodzenia, z wymogu potrzeb przedsibiorstwa Pracodawcy. W czasie trwania zatrudnienia Pracownik jest zobowizany powici cay czas i uwag dziaalnoci gospodarczej GlobalMedia Publiczna S.A. i nie moe wiadczy usug na rzecz jakiegokolwiek innego przedsibiorstwa bez uprzedniej zgody Rady Dyrektorw oraz bezporednio lub porednio angaowa si lub uczestniczy w jakimkolwiek przedsibiorstwie poza dziaalnoci GlobalMedia Publiczna S.A. URLOP. Pracownikowi nale si dwadziecia pi dni penopatnego urlopu na rok kalendarzowy w dodatku do zwykych wit pastwowych. Urlop musi by pobrany w czasie dogodnym dla Pracodawcy i jednorazowo nie mona wykorzysta urlopu

8.

HOURS OF EMPLOYMENT. The Employees normal hours of employment shall be 9am to 6pm on Mondays to Fridays during which the Employee may take up to one hour for lunch between the hours of 12pm to 2pm, and the Employee may from time to time be required to work such additional hours as is reasonable to meet the requirements of the Employers business at no additional payment. During the term of the employment, the Employee shall be expected to devote his full working time and attention to the business of GlobalMedia plc, and he shall not render services to any other business without the prior approval of the Board of Directors or, directly or indirectly, engage or participate in any business outside the operations of GlobalMedia plc. HOLIDAYS. The Employee shall be entitled to twenty five days holiday per calendar year at full pay in addition to the normal public holidays. Holidays must be taken at a time that is convenient to the Employer and no more than two weeks holiday may be taken at any one time.

10

11

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duszego ni dwa tygodnie. 12. SICKNESS. The Employee shall be paid normal remuneration during sickness absence for a maximum of 26 weeks in any period of twelve months provided that the Employee provides the Employer with a medical certificate in the case of absence of more that seven consecutive days. Such remuneration shall be less the amount of any Statutory Sick Pay or Social Security sickness benefits to which the Employee may be entitled. NIEOBECNO W PRACY Z POWODU CHOROBY. Pracownik otrzyma podstawow pac za czas nieobecnoci w pracy z powodu choroby a do 26 tygodni w kadym dwunastomiesicznym okresie pod warunkiem przedstawienia Pracodawcy zawiadczenia lekarskiego w wypadku nieobecnoci duszej ni siedem kolejnych dni. Od niniejszego wynagrodzenia odjta zostanie suma jakiegokolwiek ustawowego zasiku chorobowego lub zasiku chorobowego z tytuu ubezpieczenia spoecznego, ktre mog nalee si Pracownikowi. UZGODNIENIA ZBIOROWE. Nie ma obowizujcych uzgodnie zbiorowych bezporednio nawizujcych do warunkw zatrudnienia Pracownika. WIADCZENIE EMERYTALNE. Pracownik jest upowaniony do przyczania si do systemu emerytalnego Pracodawcy, ktrego szczegy s przedoone w broszurze pracodawcy zatytuowanej System Emerytalny GlobalMedia dostpnej na yczenie. W niniejszym zatrudnieniu obowizuje zawiadczenie o odczeniu si drog umowy zgodnie z Ustaw o Systemach Emerytalnych 1993. WYPOWIEDZENIE. Pracodawca moe wypowiedzie niniejsz Umow poprzez pisemne powiadomienie Pracownika w nastpujcy sposb: (a) z co najmniej tygodniowym powiadomieniem w czasie pierwszych w peni przepracowanych dwch lat; (b) z co najmniej tygodniowym powiadomieniem za kady w peni przepracowany rok, po upywie pierwszych dwch lat, a do w peni przepracowanego dwunastego roku; oraz (c) z co najmniej dwunasto

13. COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS. There are no collective agreements in force directly relating to the terms of the Employee employment. 14 . PENSION. The Employee shall be entitled to join the Employers pension scheme the details of which are set out in the Employers booklet entitled GlobalMedia Pension Scheme which is available on request. A contracting-out certificate under the Pension Schemes Act 1993 is in force in respect of this employment.

TERMINATION. The Employer may 15. terminate this Agreement by giving written notice to the Employee as follows: (a) with not less than one weeks notice during the first two years of continuous employment; (b) with not less than one weeks notice for each full year of continuous employment after the first two years until the twelfth year of continuous employment; and (c) with not less than twelve weeks notice after twelve years of continuous employment.

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tygodniowym powiadomieniem, po upywie w peni przepracowanych dwunastu lat. (d) z natychmiastowym skutkiem z zapat w miejsce powiadomienia jeeli pracownik zachoruje na schorzenie umysowe. Pracodawca moe wypowiedzie niniejsz umow ex parte (2) oraz bez zapaty w miejsce powiadomienia w wypadku powanych i staych wykrocze subowych takich jak spowodowanie istotnych narusze zasad dyscypliny pracodawcy. Pracownik musi wypowiedzie niniejsz umow z tygodniowym powiadomieniem pracodawcy na pimie. 16. CONFIDENTIALITY. The Employee is aware that during his employment he may be party to confidential information concerning the Employer and the Employers business. The Employee shall not during the term of this employment disclose or allow the disclosure of any confidential information (except in the proper course of his employment). After the termination of this Agreement the Employee shall not disclose or use any of the Employers trade secrets or any other information which is of sufficiently high degree of confidentiality to amount to a trade secret. The Employer hereby shall be entitled to apply for an injunction to prevent such disclosure or use and to seek any other remedy including without limitation the recovery of damages in the case of such disclosure or use. ZACHOWANIE POUFNOCI. Pracownikowi wiadomo jest, e w czasie zatrudnienia moe mie dostp do poufnych informacji dotyczcych pracodawcy i jego przedsibiorstwa. Pracownik w okresie zatrudnienia nie ujawni lub nie dopuci do ujawnienia wszelkiej poufnej informacji (z wyjtkiem, kiedy jest to tok postpowania waciwy dla jego zatrudnienia). Po rozwizaniu niniejszej umowy Pracownik nie ujawni lub naduyje jakichkolwiek tajemnic dziaalnoci gospodarczej Pracodawcy lub wszelkiej innej informacji wystarczajco poufnej by przyczyni si do ustanowienia tajemnicy dziaalnoci gospodarczej. Pracodawca niniejszym upowaniony jest do ubiegania si o nakaz sdowy zabezpieczajcy przed niniejszym ujawnianiem lub uycia bd zabiegania o wszelki inny sposb wczywszy otrzymanie nieograniczonego odszkodowania w wypadku niniejszego ujawnienia lub naduycia. ZAKAZ KONKURENCJI. Przez okres dwch lat po wypowiedzeniu niniejszej umowy, Pracownik nie bdzie stara si pozyska, lub nakania do dziaalnoci handlowej, jakichkolwiek klientw

(d) with immediate effect but payment in lieu of notice, if the Employee become of unsound mind. The Employer may terminate this Agreement ex parte or payment in lieu of notice in case of serious or persistent misconduct such as to cause a major breach of the Employers disciplinary rules. The Employee may terminate this Agreement by one weeks written notice to the Employer.

NON-COMPETITION. For period of two 17. years after the termination of this Agreement the Employee shall not solicit or seek business from any customers or clients of the Employer who were customers or clients thereof at any time during the six

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months immediately preceding the termination hereof and therewith the Employee had material dealings. DISCIPLINE AND GRIEVANCE. 18. The Employers disciplinary rules and the grievance and appeal procedure in connection with these rules represent the companys best practice and they are set out in the Employers booklet entitled The Guidelines which is attached hereto. Pracodawcy, ktrzy byli w okresie szeciu miesicy bezporednio poprzedzajcym wypowiedzenie niniejszej Umowy, klientami Pracodawcy oraz z ktrymi niniejszy Pracownik prowadzi transakcje materialne. ZASADY DYSCYPLINY I SKARG. Przepisy dyscyplinarne Pracodawcy wraz z nawizujcymi do nich procedurami rozpoznawania skarg i apelacji reprezentuj sposb postpowania uznany przez niniejsz spk za najwaciwszy i s przedoone w broszurze pracodawcy zatytuowanej Wytyczne doczonej do niniejszej Umowy. POWIADOMIENIA. Wszelka korespondencja, wczajc powiadomienia, wymagana na mocy niniejszej umowy, powinna by prowadzona na pimie i dorczona bd osobicie bd za pomoc poczty priorytetowej na podane adresy stron. ROZDZIELNA INTERPRETACJA POSTANOWIE UMOWY. Jeeli ktrekolwiek z postanowie niniejszej Umowy zostanie uznane za niewane bdzie ono w takim zakresie oddzielone a pozostao pozostawa bdzie w penej mocy prawnej. CAO UMOWY. Niniejsza Umowa obejmuje cao Umowy zawartej pomidzy jej stronami i zastpuje wszelkie wczeniejsze uzgodnienia i porozumienia, czy to pisemne czy ustne, nawizujce do istoty tematu tej Umowy i moe ona jedynie by zmieniona pisemnie z podpisami obu stron niniejszej Umowy. PRAWO WACIWE. Niniejsza Umowa przygotowana jest na podstawie prawa Anglii i Wali i podlega wycznej jurysdykcji angielskich Sdw.

NOTICES. All communications including 19. notices required to be given hereunder shall be in writing and shall be sent either by personal service or first class post to the Parties respected addresses. SEVERABILITY. If any provision of this 20. Agreement should be held to be invalid it shall to that extent be severed and the remaining shall continue to have full force and effect.

ENTIRE AGREEMENT. This Agreement 21. contains the entire Agreement between the Parties and supersedes all prior arrangements and understandings whether written or oral with respect to the subject matter hereof and may not be varied except in writing signed by both parties hereto. GOVERNING LAW. This Agreement 22. shall be construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and shall be subject to the exclusive jurisdiction of the English courts. IN WITNESS WHEREOF the parties 23. hereto have signed this Agreement the day and year first above written. SIGNED 24. Signed by or on behalf of the Employer:

NA DOWD POWYSZEGO strony niniejszej

Umowy podpisay j w dniu wskazanym w postanowieniach wstpnych.

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PODPISANE Podpisane przez lub z ramienia Pracodawcy: w obecnoci (wiadka): Nazwisko i imi: Adres Z DAT Zawd Podpisane przez lub z ramienia pracownika w obecnoci (wiadka): Nazwisko i imi: Adres Z DAT Zawd
The word contractor translated into Polish is kontrahent or wykonawca. Kontrahent or wykonawca is one of the parties who undertakes a contact (The New Dictionary of the Polish Language, 2003: 353) but of a different kind than the permanent employment contract described in the ST. Kontrahent often refers to one off contracts with a set deadline and clearly defined purpose i.e. construction of a building, professional advice etc. According to the Dictionary of Law (2003: 38) word wykonawca means in English executor. Following Polish legal language in the set context the word should be replaced by another word pracownik (Encyclopaedia of [Polish]Law, 2004: 757) which in English means employee. Word contractor has also similar connotations in English language: a person who undertakes a contract especially to provide materials, conduct building operations, etc. (Concise Oxford English Dictionary, 2002: 312) as opposed to an employee a person who works under the direction and control of another (the employer) in return for a wage or salary (Dictionary of Law, 2003: 170). Since the entire ST clearly refers to employee employed on a permanent contract in a professional capacity and also repetitively uses the term employee when referring to Dr. John Smith, I have replaced kontrahent (contractor) with pracownik (employee).
(1) (2). (

in the presence of witness: Name: Address: DATED: Occupation Signed by or on behalf of the Employee: in the presence of witness: Name: Address: DATED: Occupation

ac.) bez powiadomienia. [Without notice]

www.harroptranslations.com ST 2. Co-habitation Agreement


1. 2. 3. Source text English COHABITATION AGREEMENT (for Unmarried Partners) THIS DEED OF AGREEMENT is made the 29 day of May year 2001 BETWEEN: (1) Mr John Paul Smith of 23 Preston Road, Kent KN9 20NT (the First Party); and (2) Ms Jane Pauline Harrison of 23 Preston Road, Kent KN9 20NT (the Second Party). 4.
TAKING INTO CONSIDERATION THAT:

Target text Polish UMOWA WSPLNEGO POYCIA (dla Wspyjcych bez lubu) NINIEJSZY AKT PRAWNY UMOWY zawarto w dniu 29 maja 2001 roku POMIDZY: (1) Panem John Paul Smith zamieszkaym na 23 Preston Road, Kent KN9 20NT (Strona Pierwsza); oraz (2) Pani Jane Pauline Harrison zamieszka na 23 Preston Road, Kent KN9 20NT (Strona Druga) ZWAYWSZY, E: (a) Niniejsze Strony zamieszkuj razem jako wspyjca bez lubu ona wedug prawa zwyczajowego w Anglii (Common-law wife) oraz wspyjcy bez lubu m wedug prawa zwyczajowego w Anglii (Common-law husband) i pragn zawrze niniejsz Umow aby ustali swoje wzajemne prawa i obowizki.

(a)

The Parties live together as a common-law wife and a commonlaw husband and wish to enter this Agreement to set out their rights and responsibilities towards each other.

(b)

The Parties intend that this Agreement will be legally binding on them. Each Party enters this Agreement freely and voluntarily and without coercion or pressure from the other Party or anyone else. OWNERSHIP OF THE HOME

(b) Niniejsze Strony wyraziy zgod aby niniejsza Umowa bya wobec nich prawnie obowizujca. (c) Kada ze Stron zawiera niniejsz Umow dobrowolnie, samowolnie oraz bez przymusu bd presji drugiej Strony lub kogokolwiek innego PRAWO WASNOCI DOMU

(c)

5.

1.

1.

The Parties live at the address given above (the Home) which is a property purchased in their joint names. 6. 2. DIVISION OF PROCEEDS OF

Strony zamieszkuj pod adresem podanym powyej (Dom), ktry jest posiadoci zakupion wsplnie pod ich obydwoma nazwiskami. 2. PODZIA DOCHODU ZE

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SALE OF THE HOME The Parties agree that they shall hold the beneficial interest in the Home as tenants in common in equal shares. 7. 3. CONTENTS AND PERSONAL BELONGINGS SPRZEDAY DOMU Niniejsze Strony zgodnie owiadczaj, i wspwadaj one Domem (tenants in common) w ktrym posiadaj ten sam udzia interesu beneficyjnego. 3. WYPOSAENIE ORAZ DOBYTEK OSOBISTY

Any household and personal items shall be owned by the Party who acquired it alone (whether by inheritance, gift, purchase or otherwise). 8. 4. BANK OR BUILDING SOCIETY ACCOUNTS

Wszelkie przedmioty gospodarstwa domowego i osobiste nale do Strony, ktra je nabya w pojedynk (niezalenie od tego czy w spadku, prezencie, zakupie czy w inny sposb). 4. KONTA BANKOWE BD OSZCZDNOCIOWEJ KASY BUDOWLANEJ

It is agreed that the Parties shall maintain a joint bank account (The Joint Account). The Parties shall pay to the Joint Account sums sufficient to meet their agreed share of common expenses (referred to in clause 5). The money in the Joint Account shall belong to the Parties in equal shares regardless of the actual sums which either of them may have paid into or withdrawn from the Joint Account. Any money in any bank or building society account maintained separately by either Party or any other individual accumulation of equity shall belong to that Party alone.

Strony zgadzaj si na posiadanie wsplnego konta bankowego (Wsplne Konto). Strony wpaca bd do niniejszego Wsplnego Konta kwoty pienine wystarczajce do pokrycia ich czci wsplnych wydatkw (przedstawionych w artykule 5). Fundusze na Wsplnym Koncie nale do Stron w rwnej czci, niezalenie od tego jak kwot pienin wpacia lub wypacia kada ze Stron do niniejszego Wsplnego Konta. Wszelkie fundusze nalece do oddzielnych kont bankowych lub oszczdnociowej kasy budowlanej lub wszelka inna indywidualna akumulacja rodkw wasnych nale wycznie do Strony, ktra je oddzielnie posiada. 5. WSPLNE WYDATKI

5.

COMMON EXPENSES

Common household expenditure including mortgage repayments, mortgage-linked endowment premiums, ground rent, service charges, rental payments, buildings and household insurance premiums, council or other local taxes, charges for water rates, gas, electricity, telephone, television licence and rental, food, decoration and repairs shall be shared equally by the Parties.

Wsplne wydatki domowe wczajc spaty kredytu hipotecznego, skadki hipoteki subwencyjnej, czynsz dzierawczy, opata za obsug, opaty czynszowe, skadki ubezpieczenia budynku i gospodarstwa domowego, podatek miejski (Council Tax) bd inne lokalne podatki, opaty za wod, gaz, elektryczno, telefon, abonament telewizyjny wraz z wynajmem, ywno, koszta wystroju i remontu wntrz oraz napraw musz by rwno podzielone pomidzy Stronami.

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10

6.

CHILDREN

6.

DZIECI

Should the said cohabiting Partners have a child or children (Children) together and subsequently separate it has been decided that it is in the Childrens best interest that the legal guardian shall remain in the Home with the Children and the other parent will assign in trust for his/her Children the alieni juris his or her entire share of the former Home. 11 7. VARIATION OR TERMINATION

W razie gdy rzeczone wspyjce Strony bd miay razem dziecko lub dzieci (Dzieci) a nastpnie si rozejd, zdecydowano i w najlepszym interesie Dzieci ley aby opiekun ustawowy pozosta z nimi w Domu a pozostay rodzic przekae jego / jej ca cz byego Domu pod zarzd powierniczy na rzecz swoich Dzieci alieni juris (1). 7. ZMIANA LUB ROZWIZANIE UMOWY

This Agreement shall be varied only by written consent of the Parties. This Agreement shall terminate by written agreement of the Parties or upon the death or marriage of either one of them or upon the Parties separation without Children for a period exceeding three months following which the Home shall be valued and either sold and the proceeds divided or the Party leaving compensated approximately in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement. 12. SIGNED AS A DEED By the said_________________________ Name_____________________________ In the presence of Signature__________________________ Name_____________________________ Address___________________________

Niniejsza Umowa zostanie zmieniona wycznie poprzez pisemne pozwolenie Stron. Niniejsza Umowa zostanie rozwizana poprzez pisemn zgod Stron lub w razie mierci albo maestwa jakiejkolwiek ze Stron lub w razie bezdzietnego rozstania si na okres przekraczajcy trzy miesice po czym niniejszy Dom zostanie wyceniony i albo sprzedany a dochd podzielony bd Strona opuszczajca zostanie w przyblieniu zrekompensowana w nawizaniu do warunkw niniejszej Umowy. PODPISANO JAKO DOKUMENT PRAWNY Przez rzekomego______________________ Imi i nazwisko _______________________ W obecnoci Podpis_______________________________ Imi i nazwisko _______________________ Adres________________________________
(1) Okrela osob niepenoletni oraz nie w peni uprawnion. [Describing the status of a person who is not of full age and capacity.]

ST 3. Tenancy Agreement
Source text - English Target Text - Polish

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1.

RENTAL AGREEMENT: For a Furnished Flat on an Assured Shorthold Tenancy

UMOWA CZYNSZOWA: dotyczy Umowy Najmu Zabezpieczajcej Prawo Wasnoci Waciciela w Wielkiej Brytanii (Assured Shorthold Tenancy) (1) umeblowanego lokalu mieszkalnego NIERUCHOMO: Apartament 3, The Royals Grove, Chester CR15 9NL WACICIEL NIERUCHOMOCI: Pani Yvette Joan Smith zamieszkaa przy 38 Henderson Road, Chester CR3 7DB LOKATOR: Dr. Grace Elsa Clish TERMIN: Dwanacie (12) miesicy od dnia 19 lutego 2005 CZYNSZ: 550,00 na miesic patne z gry, 19go dnia kadego miesica KAUCJA: 550,00 INWENTARZ: to lista mienia Waciciela Nieruchomoci pozostajca w Nieruchomoci, ktra zostaa podpisana przez Waciciela Nieruchomoci i Lokatora i jest zaczona do niniejszej Umowy jako Zacznik 1. DATA________________________ PODPIS_______________________ (Waciciel Nieruchomoci) DATA________________________ PODPIS_______________________ (Lokator) NINIEJSZA UMOWA NAJMU skada si ze szczegw podanych powyej oraz z warunkw wydrukowanych poniej na podstawie ktrych niniejsza Nieruchomo jest wynajta przez niniejszego Waciciela Nieruchomoci niniejszemu Lokatorowi na niniejszy Termin za niniejszy Czynsz. WARUNKI I POSTANOWIENIA UMOWNE

2. 3.

The PROPERTY: Apartment 3, The Royals Grove, Chester CR15 9NL The LANDLORD: Mrs Yvette Joan Smith of 38 Henderson Road, Chester CR3 7DB The TENANT: Dr. Grace Elsa Clish The TERM: Twelve (12) months beginning on the 19 February 2005 The RENT: 550.00 per month payable in advance on the 19th day of each month The DEPOSIT: 550.00 The INVENTORY: means the list of the Landlords possessions at the Property which has been signed by the Landlord and the Tennant and attached hereto in the Appendix 1. DATED___________________ SIGNED__________________ (The Landlord) DATED___________________ SIGNED__________________ (The Tenant)

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

9.

10.

THIS TENANCY AGREEMENT comprises the particulars detailed above and the terms and conditions printed underneath whereby the Property is hereby let by the Landlord and taken by the Tenant for the Term and the Rent.

11.

TERMS AND CONDITIONS

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12. This Agreement is intended to create an Assured Shorthold Tenancy as defined in the Housing Act 1988, as amended by the Housing Act 1996, and the provisions for the recovery of possessions by the Landlord in that Act apply accordingly. The Tenant understands that the Landlord will be entitled to recover possession of the Property at the end of the Term. Niniejsza Umowa ma na celu ustanowienie Umowy Najmu Zabezpieczajcej Prawo Wasnoci Waciciela (1) zdefiniowanej w Ustawie o Gospodarce Mieszkaniowej 1988 (Housing Act 1988) a poprawionej przez Ustaw o Gospodarce Mieszkaniowej 1996 (Housing Act 1996) w nawizaniu do ktrej potwierdza si zabezpieczenia na odzyskanie mienia przez Waciciela Nieruchomoci. Niniejszy Lokator potwierdza, i Waciciel Nieruchomoci odzyska mienie Nieruchomoci po zakoczeniu niniejszego Terminu. 1. Zobowizania Lokatora: 1.1. Paci Czynsz na czas i w sposb okrelony powyej. 1.2 Paci wszelkie opaty za zuyt lub doprowadzon do Nieruchomoci elektryczno, gaz, wod, telefon i telewizj i inne usugi skorzystane lub dostarczone do Nieruchomoci oraz podatek miejski (Council Tax)lub wszelki inny podatek od nieruchomoci ktry moe by pobrany dodatkowo bd w jego miejsce w czasie niniejszego Terminu. 1.3 Utrzymywa przedmioty Inwentarza oraz wntrza Nieruchomoci w dobrym i czystym stanie oraz formie i nie niszczy lub uszkodzi niniejszej Nieruchomoci lub przedmiotw Inwentarza (oczekuje si normalnego zuycia). 1.4 Zwrci niniejsz Nieruchomo wraz z przedmiotami Inwentarza po zakoczeniu Terminu w takim samym czystym stanie oraz formie w jakim byy one na pocztku niniejszego Terminu. 1.5 Nie dokonywa adnych poprawek lub ulepsze do niniejszej Nieruchomoci jak rwnie nie dokonywa adnych remontw czy malowania Nieruchomoci bez wczeniejszej pisemnej zgody Waciciela Nieruchomoci (nie naley bez podstawnie odmwi udzielenia pozwolenia).

13. 14. 15.

1. The Tenants obligations: 1.1 To pay the Rent at the times and in the manner aforesaid. 1.2 To pay all charges in respect of any electric, gas, water, telephonic, televisual and other services used at or supplied to the Property and Council Tax or any similar property tax that might be charged in addition to or replacement of it during the Term. 1.3 To keep the items on the Inventory and the interior of the Property in a good and clean state and condition and not damage or injure the Property or the items on the Inventory (fair wear and tear expected). To yield up the Property and the items on the Inventory at the end of the Term in the same clean state and condition it was in at the beginning of the Term. Not make any alternations or additions to the Property nor without the Landlords prior written consent (consent not to be withheld unreasonably) do any redecoration or painting to the Property.

16.

17.

1.4

18.

1.5

19.

1.6

Not do anything on or at the

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Property which: 1.6.1 may be or become a nuisance or annoyance to any other occupiers of the Property or owners of adjoining or nearby premises 1.6.2 is illegal or immoral 1.6.3 may in any way affect the validity of the insurance of the Property and the items listed on the Inventory or cause an increase in the premium payable by the Landlord. 1.7 Not without the Landlords prior consent (consent not to be withheld unreasonably) allow or keep any pet or any kind of animal at the Property. Not use or occupy the Property in any way whatsoever other than as private residence. To pay the Landlords reasonable costs reasonably incurred as a result of any breaches by the Tennant of his obligations under this Agreement. 1.6 Nie robi nic na lub w Nieruchomoci co: 1.6.1 moe sta si niedogodne lub dokuczliwe dla wszelkich innych mieszkacw niniejszej Nieruchomoci lub wacicieli przylegajcych lub pobliskich dobytkw 1.6.2 jest nielegalne lub niemoralne 1.6.3 moe w jakikolwiek sposb wpyn na wano ubezpieczenia niniejszej Nieruchomoci oraz przedmiotw Inwentarza lub spowodowa podwyk skadki patnej przez Waciciela Nieruchomoci. 1.7 Nie trzyma lub pozwoli na trzymanie w niniejszej Nieruchomoci, bez wczeniejszej zgody Waciciela Nieruchomoci (brak zgody powinien by uzasadniony), adnych zwierzt domowych lub wszelkich innych. 1.8 Nie uywa lub zamieszkiwa niniejszej Nieruchomoci w aden inny sposb anieli jako prywatne miejsce zamieszkania. 1.9 Zapaci Wacicielowi Nieruchomoci stosowne koszta uzasadnione zajciem w rezultacie naruszenia przez Lokatora jego zobowiza zawartych w niniejszej Umowie. 2. Zobowizania Waciciela Nieruchomoci: 2.1 Waciciel Nieruchomoci zawiadcza, i niniejszy Lokator moe zamieszkiwa w niniejszej Nieruchomoci bez nieuzasadnionych przeszkd ze strony Waciciela Nieruchomoci lub jakiejkolwiek osoby legalnie uprawnionej bd w powiernictwie tego Waciciela. 2.2 Ubezpieczy Nieruchomo wraz z wszystkimi przedmiotami Inwentarza oraz naleycie postara si o pokrycie, jak szybko to tylko moliwe, wszelkich szkd spowodowanych przez ubezpieczone

20.

21. 22.

23.

24.

1.8

25.

1.9

26. 27.

2. The Landlord obligations: 2.1 The Landlord agrees that the Tenant may live in the Property without unreasonable interruption from the Landlord or any person rightfully claiming under or in trust for the Landlord. To insure the Property and the items listed on the Inventory and use all reasonable efforts to arrange for any damage caused by an insured risk to be remedied as soon as possible and to provide a copy of the insurance policy to the Tenant.

28.

2.2

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ryzyko oraz przedoy kopi polisy ubezpieczeniowej Lokatorowi. 29. 30. 2.3 But the Landlord will not be required to: 2.3.1 carry out works for which the Tennant is responsible by virtue of his duty to use the Property in a tenant-like manner 2.3.2 reinstate the Property and any other chose in the case of damage or destruction if the insurers refuse to pay out the insurance money due to anything the Tenant has done or failed to do. 2.3 Waciciel Nieruchomoci nie jest zobowizany do: 2.3.1 dokonywania prac za ktre Lokator jest odpowiedzialny na mocy swego obowizku do korzystania z Nieruchomoci w sposb stosowny dla lokatora [w Anglii]. 2.3.2 przywrcenia Nieruchomoci oraz wszelkiego innego chore (2) do normalnego stanu w wypadku szkody czy zniszczenia, kiedy ubezpieczeniodawcy odmwili wypaty ubezpieczenia w wyniku jakiegokolwiek postpowania Lokatora.

31.

32. 33.

3. Ending this Agreement: 3.1 The tenant cannot normally end this Agreement before the end of the fixed Term unless agreed in writing by the Landlord. 3.2.1 If the Tennant stays on after the end of the fixed Term, her tenancy will continue but will run from month to month (a periodic tenancy). This periodic tenancy can be ended by the Tenant giving at least one months notice to the Landlord.

34.

3. Zakoczenie niniejszej Umowy: 3.1 Lokator, na og nie moe zakoczy niniejszej Umowy przed zakoczeniem okrelonego Terminu chyba, e Waciciel pisemnie wyrazi na to zgod. 3.2.1 Jeeli Lokator pozostanie na miejscu po zakoczeniu okrelonego Terminu, jej najem bdzie kontynuowany z miesica na miesic (okresowy najem). Niniejszy okresowy najem moe zosta zakoczony przez Lokatora z co najmniej miesicznym zawiadomieniem Waciciela Nieruchomoci. 4. Kaucja 4.1 Kaucja bdzie przechowywana przez Waciciela Nieruchomoci i w oparciu o uczciwe oszacowanie, zostanie zwrcona Lokatorowi po zakoczeniu Terminu (zakoczonego w jakikolwiek sposb) na adres podany Wacicielowi Nieruchomoci

35. 36.

4. The Deposit 4.1 The Deposit will be held by the Landlord and will be refunded to the Tenant at the end of the Term (however it ends) at the forwarding address provided to the Landlord based on fair assessment and less any reasonable deductions properly made by the Landlord to cover any reasonable costs incurred or losses

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caused to her by any breaches of the obligations in her Agreement by the Tenant. zredukowana o stosowne kwoty odpowiednio wypacone przez Waciciela Nieruchomoci na pokrycie wszelkich stosownych kosztw bd strat spowodowanych zajciem w rezultacie naruszenia przez Lokatora jego zobowiza zawartych w niniejszej Umowie. Kaucja Lokatora nie podlega oprocentowaniu.

37.

4.2

No interest will be paid to the Tenant in respect of the Deposit money.

4.2

38. 39.

5. Other provisions 5.1 The Landlord hereby notifies the Tenant under Section 48 of the Landlord and Tenant Act 1987 that any notices (including notices in proceeding) should be served upon the Landlord at the address first above stated.

40.

5.2

For stamp duty purposes, the Landlord and the Tenant confirm that there is no previous agreement to which this Agreement gives effect.

5. Inne zapewnienia 5.1 Waciciel Nieruchomoci na mocy niniejszej Umowy zawiadamia Lokatora i na mocy Artykuu 48 Ustawy o Warunkach Dzierawy 1987 (the Landlord and Tenant Act 1987), i wszelkie zawiadomienia (wczajc zawiadomienia o postpowaniu sdowym) powinny zosta dorczone Wacicielowi Nieruchomoci na adres podany w postanowieniach wstpnych. 5.2 Ze wzgldu na opat stemplow Waciciel Nieruchomoci oraz Lokator potwierdzaj i nie istnieje wczeniejsza umowa na ktr niniejsza Umowa ma wpyw. DATA________________________ PODPIS_______________________ (Waciciel Nieruchomoci) DATA________________________ PODPIS_______________________ (Lokator)
(1) Umowa

41.

DATED___________________ SIGNED__________________ (The Landlord) DATED___________________ SIGNED__________________ (The Tenant)

42.

Najmu Zabezpieczajca Prawo Wasnoci Waciciela w Wielkiej Brytanii (the Assured Shorthold Tenancy), provides means whereby the landlord could be certain of his right to repossess his property. It is based on English Law i.e. The Housing Act 1988 as amended by the Housing Act 1996. The property can be let for any period of time but in the Agreement it is a fixed term for 12 months. The legal concept of AST is unknown to Polish law and could be easily misinterpreted as a Tenancy Agreement for a Short Period of Time.

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(franc.) przedmiotu, rzeczy. [(French0 for things]
(2)

ST 4. Guarantee Agreement
1. 2. 3. Source text - English Guarantee Agreement Target Text - Polish Umowa Gwarantujca Zapat

THIS AGREEMENT IS MADE the 14th day NINIEJSZ UMOW zawarto w dniu 14 of May 2006 maja 2006 roku BETWEEN: (1) Mr Roman Bielski of 234 Regent Street, London WL13 5MD (the Guarantor); and (2) Bank plc with registerd office at ul. Makowiecka 19, 00 850 Warsaw, Poland (the Creditor). NOW IT IS HEREBY AGREED as follows: 1. As an inducement for the Creditor, from time to time to extend credit to Mrs Ewa Bielska (the Customer), currently employed as a high school teacher, it is hereby agreed that the Guarantor does hereby guarantee to the Creditor the prompt, punctual and full payment of all monies now or hereinafter due to the Creditor from the Customer and the Guarantor understands that the Creditor might decide upon an action sounding in damages against the Guarantor should the above not be fulfilled. 2. Until termination, this guarantee is unlimited as to amount or duration and shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding any extension, compromise, adjustment, forbearance, waiver, release or discharge of any party or Guarantor, or release in whole or in part of any security granted for the said indebtedness or compromise or adjustment thereto, and the Guarantor waives all POMIDZY: (1) Panem Romanem Bielskim zamieszkalym przy 234 Regent Street, Londyn WL13 5MD (Gwarant); oraz (2) Bank Publiczna S.A. z siedzib zarejestrowan przy ul. Makowiecka 19, 00 850 Warszawa, Polska (Wierzyciel) NINIEJSZYM UZGADNIA si co nastpuje: 1. Jako porczenie dla Wierzyciela aby w kadym momencie przeduy kredyt dla Pani Ewy Bielskiej (Dunik), obecnie zatrudnionej na pozycji nauczycielki w szkole redniej, niniejszym uzgadnia si, e Gwarant gwarantuje t Umow Wierzycielowi bezzwoczn, punktualn oraz pen spat wszelkich nalenoci winnych teraz jak te pniej podanych poniej Wierzycielowi przez Dunika. Gwarant rozumie, e w razie nie wypenienia powyszego Wierzyciel moe rozpocz przeciwko niemu postpowanie sdowe w celu odszkodowania. 2. A do czasu wypowiedzenia Umowy, niniejsza gwarancja zapaty nie jest ograniczona w stosunku do wysokoci bd okresu trwania i pozostaje w penej mocy oraz skutku wbrew wszelkim przedueniom, ustpstwom, uzgodnieniom, powstrzymywaniu si od egzekwowania prawa, zrzeczeniom, zwolnieniom lub odstpieniom przez jakkolwiek ze stron albo Gwaranta, lub

4.

5. 6.

7.

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notices thereto. zaniechaniem caoci bd czci wszelkiego przyznanego zabezpieczenia na rzecz rzekomego zaduenia lub ustpstw bd poprawek do niniejszego zaduenia i zrzeczeniu si przez Gwaranta udzielenia wszelkich powiadomie. 3. Gwarancja zapaty wymagana na mocy niniejszej Umowy jest bezwarunkowa i cakowita i niniejszy Gwarant zrzeka si wszelkich praw do subrogacji oraz rekompensat a do czasu, kiedy wszelkie zalegoci pienine nalene na mocy niniejszej gwarancji zapaty s w peni spacone. 4. W wypadku gdy zalegoci pienine na mocy niniejszej gwarancji zapaty nie s punktualnie spacone w ramach wymogu, Gwarant pokryje wszelkie uzasadnione koszta oraz opaty prawnicze niezbdne do poboru i wyegzekwowania niniejszej gwarancji zapaty. 5. Niniejsza gwarancja zapaty moe by wypowiedziana przez Gwaranta pod warunkiem czternastodniowego (14) pisemnego powiadomienia dostarczonego Wierzycielowi. 6. Gwarant zapewnia, e jest w peni uprawniony do zawarcia niniejszej gwarancji zapaty. 7. Niniejsza gwarancja zapaty obowizuje oraz stanowi korzy na rzecz stron, ich nastpcom i cesjonariuszom. 8. Niniejsza gwarancja podlega angielskiemu prawu zwyczajowemu (common law) oraz cryminalnemu i strony potwierdzaj oddanie wszelkich sporw prawnych powstaych na mocy niniejszej Umowy wycznej jurysdykcji angielskich sdw. NA DOWD POWYSZEGO strony niniejszej umowy podpisay j w dniu wskazanym w postanowieniach wstpnych.

8. 3. The guarantee hereunder shall be unconditional and absolute and the Guarantor waives all rights of subrogation and set-off until all sums due under this guarantee are fully paid.

9. 4. In the event payments due under this guarantee are not paid punctually upon demand, then the Guarantor shall pay all reasonable costs and solicitors fees necessary for the collection and enforcement of this guarantee. 10. 5. This guarantee may be terminated by the Guarantor upon fourteen (14) days written notice of termination being delivered to the Creditor. 11. 6. The Guarantor warrants and represents it has full authority to enter into this guarantee. 12. 7. This guarantee shall be binding upon and inure to the benefit of the parties, their successors and assigns. 13. 8. This guarantee is subject to common and criminal laws of England and the parties agree to submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the English courts in connection with any dispute hereunder. 14. IN WITNESS OF WHICH the parties have signed this agreement the day and year first above written. 15.

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Signed by or on behalf of the Guarantor in presence of (witness) Name____________________________ Address__________________________ Occupation________________________ 16. Signed by or on behalf of the Creditor in presence of (witness) Name____________________________ Address__________________________ Occupation________________________
Podpisane przez bd w imieniu Wierzyciela

Podpisane przez bd w imieniu Gwaranta W obecnoci (wiadka) Imi i nazwisko ___________________ Adres__________________________ Zawd__________________________

W obecnoci (wiadka) Imi i nazwisko ___________________ Adres___________________________ Zawd___________________________

ST 5. Agreement for the sale of a vehicle


Source text English Agreement for the sale of a vehicle (Private sell) 1. Target text Polish Umowa sprzeday samochodu (Sprzeda prywatna)

THIS AGREEMENT IS MADE the 15th day NINIEJSZ UMOW ZAWARTO dnia of August year 2007 15go sierpnia 2007 roku BETWEEN: 1) Mr John Paul Smith of 23 Preston Road, Kent KN9 20NT (the Buyer); and 2) Auto Sell sole trader of 30 Preston Road, Kent KN9 20NT (the Seller) POMIDZY: 1) Panem John Paul Smith zamieszkaym na 23 Preston Road, Kent KN9 20NT (Nabywca); oraz

2) Auto Sell przedsibiorca


indywidualny prowadzcy dziaalno na 30 Preston Road, Kent KN9 20NT (Sprzedawca) NINIEJSZYM UZGODNIA si co nastpuje: 1) W zamian za sum 15 000, otrzymanie ktrej potwierdza Sprzedawca, niniejszy Sprzedawca sprzedaje i przekazuje Nabywcy samochd (Samochd):

2.

NOW IT IS HEREBY AGREED as follows: 1) In consideration of the sum of 15,000, receipt of which the Seller acknowledges, the Seller sells and transfers to the Buyer the vehicle (Vehicle):

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Make: Volkswagen Model: Golf Registration Number: 07NT CAL Year of Manufacture: 2007 Mileage: 250 Colour: Black Extras: Tinted windows 3. 2) The Seller warrants to the Buyer: (i) the Seller is the owner of the Vehicle; (ii) the Seller has the legal right to sell the Vehicle; (iii) the Vehicle is free and clear of all liens and encumbrances; and (iv) the Vehicle is not the subject of a hire purchase agreement. 3) The Seller warrants that while the Vehicle was in the Sellers possession, the odometer was not altered or disconnected and that to the best of the Sellers knowledge the odometer reading above reflects the actual mileage. 4) The Buyer agrees to dispatch the Vehicles Registration Document to DVLA as soon as practicable after signature of this Agreement, informing DVLA of the Buyers ownership of the Vehicle.

Marka: Volkswagen Model: Golf Numer rejestracji: 07NT CAL Rok produkcji: 2007 Ilo mil: 250 Kolor: czarny Dodatki: przyciemnione szyby 2) Sprzedawca gwarantuje Nabywcy, i (i) Sprzedawca jest wacicielem Samochodu; (ii) Sprzedawca ma prawo do sprzeday niniejszego Samochodu; (iii) niniejszy Samochd nie jest zastawiony i jest wolny od obcie; oraz (iv) niniejszy Samochd nie podlega umowie sprzeday ratalnej. 3) Sprzedawca gwarantuje, e podczas gdy niniejszy Samochd by w jego posiadaniu, drogomierz nie zosta zmodyfikowany lub odczony oraz, zgodnie z najlepsz wiedz Sprzedawcy, niniejszy drogomierz pokazuje waciw ilo mil. 4) Nabywca podejmuje si przesania dokumentu rejestracji Samochodu do Agencji Prawa Jazdy i Licencji Pojazdw (DVLA) (Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency jak szybko to tylko moliwe po podpisaniu niniejszej Umowy, informujc DVLA o danych Nabywcy Samochodu. KLAUZULA GWARANCYJNA NINIEJSZA KLAUZULA GWARANCYJNA W SPOSB WYRANY WYCZA STOSOWANIE WSZELKICH INNYCH WARUNKW USTANAWIAJCYCH ODPOWIEDZIALNO Z TYTUU GWARANCJI JAKOCI LUB POSTANOWIE UMOWNYCH OKRELONYCH, DOROZUMIANYCH LUB USTAWOWYCH, WCZAJC W TO JAKKOLWIEK DOROZUMIAN ODPOWIEDZIALNO Z TYTUU GWARANCJI JAKOCI NA NADANIE SI DO ZBYCIA ALBO TE NADANIA SI DO CELW SZCZEGLNYCH.

4.

5.

6.

WARRANTY THIS WARRANTY IS EXPRESSLY IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS, EXPRESSED, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, INCLUDING ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

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7. The exclusive remedy under this warranty shall be the repair or replacement of the defective component at the Sellers option. The Seller reserves the right to require that all applicable failed materials are available and/or returned to the Licensor for review and evaluation. Jedynym rodkiem prawnym przysugujcym z tytuu niniejszej klauzuli gwarancyjnej jest prawo do dania naprawy lub wymiany wadliwego elementu dokonane wedug opinii Sprzedawcy. Sprzedawca zastrzega sobie prawo do dania udostpnienia mu lub zwrotu wszelkich stosownych wadliwych materiaw w celu dokonania ich przegldu i oceny. W adnym przypadku Sprzedawca nie bdzie odpowiedzialny za wszelakiego rodzaju szkody o charakterze wyjtkowym, ubocznym, porednim bd wtrnym, wczajc w to midzy innymi holowanie, okresy przestoju, obnienie produktywnoci, szkody w adunku, podatki, lub jakiekolwiek inne straty lub koszty spowodowane przez wadliwy element objty niniejsz klauzul. Niniejsza umowa stanowi wyczerpujce i kompletne porozumienie pomidzy Sprzedawc i Nabywc odnonie odpowiedzialnoci za wady i aden z pracownikw nie jest upowaniony do skadania w imieniu Sprzedawcy owiadcze odnonie rozszerzenia zakresu tej odpowiedzialnoci. PRAWO WACIWE. Prawem waciwym niniejszej Umowy jest prawo angielskie. NA DOWD POWYSZEGO strony niniejszej umowy podpisay j w dniu wskazanym w postanowieniach wstpnych. PODPIS Sprzedawcy_________________ PODPIS Nabywcy___________________ PODPIS wiadka____________________

8.

In no event shall the Seller be liable for special, incidental, indirect, or consequential damage of any kind, including, but not limited to, towing, downtime, lost productivity, cargo damage, taxes, or any other losses or costs resulting from a defective covered component.

9.

This is the entire agreement between the Seller and the Buyer about warranty and no Sellers employee is authorised to make any additional warranty on behalf of the Seller.

10. 11. 12.

GOVERNING LAW The applicable law of this Agreement is English law. AS WITNESS OF WHICH the parties hereto have signed this Agreement the day and year first written above. SIGNED by the Seller _________________ SIGNED by the Buyer_________________ SIGNED by a Witness_________________

13.

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APPENDIX II: The legal terminology Terminology Employment Contract (ST1)


Source Text Employment contract Commencement Under section Job title Base salary In the capacity of Benefits Compensation Committee Cafeteria benefits Fringe Benefits Tax Annual Bonus in cash Target Text Umowa o prac Data rozpoczcia Na podstawie paragrafu Tytu subowy Wynagrodzenie zasadnicze Na pozycji wiadczenia Komisja do spraw wynagrodze wiadczenia nie pienine Podatek od wiadcze niepieninych Premia roczna w rodkach Back Translation Employment contract / Agreement contract The date of commencement (in accordance to) under section Service title Base reward / principal reward As / In the position of Services Compensation Committee / Remuneration Committee Non cash benefits Non cash benefits tax Annual Bonus paid by the

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pieninych Wypaty wynagrodzenia zasadniczego Podatek pobierany zaliczkowo Podstawowe godziny Urlop Wynagrodzenie Nieobecno [w pracy] z powodu choroby Emerytura Nieobowizkowe skadki emerytalne Zawiadczenie o odczeniu si drog umowy Zgodnie z Ustaw o Systemach Emerytalnych Wypowiedzenie Zapata w miejsce (zamiast) Zachowanie poufnoci Zakaz konkurencji Klient Procedura rozpoznawania skarg / Postpowanie zaatwiania skarg Procedura apelacyjna Powiadomienie Rozdzielna interpretacja postanowie umowy Prawo waciwe Jurysdykcja Pena moc prawna W dowd powyszego Czas trwania zatrudnienia Bdzie przedmiotem analizy Otrzymanie odszkodowania Nakaz sdowy Ubieganie si o nakaz sdowy Uznane za niewane monetary means Base salary pay Tax taken in advance Basic hours / Standard hours Leave [at work] Compensation / Pay / Remuneration Sick leave / Sickness absence [at work] Retirement / Pension Non mandatory pension contributions Contracting out certificate According to Pension Scheme Act Termination / Pronouncement Payment instead of To preserve / keep confidentiality Non-competition / Ban on competition Client Grievance recognition procedure / Grievance resolution procedure Appeal procedure Notification Separate interpretation of agreements (contract) decisions The correct law Jurisdiction Full legal force As a proof for the above The employment period It will be the subject of analysis Receipt of damages The court order Apply for an court order Assessed as not important

Regular payroll Witholding taxes Normal hours Holidays Remuneration Sickness Pension Voluntary pension contribution Contracting out certificate Under Pension Scheme Act Termination Payment in lieu Confidentiality Non-competition Customer / Client Grievance procedure Appeal procedure Notice Severability Governing law Jurisdiction Full force and effect In witness whereof The term of employment Shall be reviewed Recovery of damages Injunction Apply for an injunction Held to be invalid

Terminology Co-habitation Agreement (ST2)


Source Text Cohabitation Agreement Target Text Umowa Wsplnego Poycia Back Translation Living together without

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marriage This deed of Contract Whereas Trust / Zarzd Powierniczy The right to the house ownership Division of income Co-owners of the Home (tenants in common) in which they have the same share of the beneficial interest. Building Society Saving [in the UK] (Paid) subscription for Television Cohabiting without marriage Signed as a legal document Beneficial interest Accumulation of own means (financial)

This deed of Agreement Taking into consideration that Trust Ownership of the home Division of proceeds Tenants in common in equal shares Building Society Television licence Unmarried partners Signed as a deed Beneficial interest Accumulation of equity

Niniejszy akt prawny Umowy Zwaywszy, e Powiernictwo, zarzd powierniczy Prawo wasnoci domu Podzia dochodu Wspwaciciele Domu (tenants in common) w ktrym posiadaj ten sam udzia interesu beneficyjnego Oszczdnociowa Kasa Budowlana Abonament telewizyjny Wspyjcy bez lubu Podpisano jako dokument prawny Interes beneficyjny Akumulacja rodkw wasnych

Terminology Tenancy Agreement (ST3)


Source Text Assured Shorthold Tenancy Target Text Umowa Najmu Zabezpieczajca Prawo Wasnoci Waciciela (Assured Shorthold Tenancy) Umowa Najmu [Lokalu] Umowa Czynszowa Lokator, najemca Wynaj/mowa Wynaj/mowa, Najmowa (Bra w wynajem) Okres, Termin Warunki Warunki i Postanowienia Umowne ma na celu ustanowienie (warunkw) na podstawie ktrych Na mocy niniejszej Umowy Ustawa o Gospodarce Back Translation Tenancy Agreement assuring the ownership rights of the owner / landlord to his/her property. Rent of accommodation Agreement / Lease Agreement [refers only to properties] Residential Rent Agreement Tenant Let, rent Rent, lease Period, term Conditions, terms Terms and Conditions of the Agreement aims at establishing (conditions) based on which Based on the Agreement Housing Act 1988 (in the UK)

Tenancy Agreement Rental Agreement Tenant Let Rent Term Terms Terms and Conditions is intended to create (conditions) whereby Hereby Housing Act 1988

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Mieszkaniowej 1988 Zapewnienie Niniejszy Lokator potwierdza po zakoczeniu niniejszego Terminu. Podatek miejski Zwrci Brak zgody powinien by uzasadniony Nieruchomo, mienie Naleycie postara si Stosowne [uzasadnione] koszta Nieuzasadniona przeszkoda Ustawy o Warunkach Dzierawy 1987 Adres podany w postanowieniach wstpnych Opata stemplowa

Provision The Tenant understands at the end of the Term Council Tax To yield up Consent not to be withheld unreasonably Property Use all reasonable efforts Reasonable costs Unreasonable interruption Landlord and Tenant Act 1987 Address first above stated. Stamp duty

Assurance, provision The Tenant confirms After the end of the Term Town/City Tax (in the UK) Return Refusal should be justified Immovable, real estate, property Try appropriately [well Relevant [appropriate / reasonable] costs Interruption that does not have an explanation Landlord and Tenant Act 1987 (in the UK) Address stated in the provisions at the beginning [of the Agreement] Stamp duty

Terminology Guarantee Agreement (ST4)


Source Text Guarantee Agreement Inducement for the Creditor From time to time It is hereby agreed This guarantee is unlimited as to amount or duration The said indebtedness Guarantor waives all rights Subrogation The Guarantor guarantee and represents it has full authority to enter into this guarantee Shall be binding Inure to the benefit of the parties Assignee Target Text Umowa Gwarantujca Zapat Porczenie dla Wierzyciela W kadym momencie Niniejszym uzgadnia si Niniejsza gwarancja zapaty nie jest ograniczona w stosunku do wysokoci bd okresu trwania Rzekome zaduenie Gwarant zrzeka si wszelkich praw Subrogacja Gwarant zapewnia, e jest w peni uprawniony do zawarcia niniejszej gwarancji Obowizuje Stanowi korzy na rzecz stron Cesjonariusz Back Translation Payment Guarantee Agreement [type of Guarantee must be defined] Inducement for the Creditor At any time [Differently worded
but the same division of time and space]

It is agreed This payment guarantee is unlimited as to amount or duration The said indebtedness Guarantor waives all rights Subrogation The Guarantor reassures that s/he has full authority to enter into this guarantee Is valid, is binding It is of benefit to parties Assignee, cessionary

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Signed by or on behalf of the Guarantor Podpisane przez bd w imieniu Gwaranta Signed by or on behalf of the Guarantor

Terminology Agreement for the sale of a vehicle (ST5)


Source Text In consideration of the sum The Seller warrants to the Buyer Clear of all liens and encumbrances The Vehicle is not the subject of a hire purchase agreement DVLA As witness of which The parties hereto Target Text W zamian za sum Sprzedawca gwarantuje Nabywcy Nie jest zastawiony i jest wolny od obcie Niniejszy Samochd nie podlega umowie sprzeday ratalnej Agencja Prawa Jazdy i Licencji Pojazdw w Wielkiej Brytanii Na dowd powyszego Strony niniejszej umowy Back Translation In exchange of the sum The Seller guarantees to the Purchaser Clear of all liens and encumbrances The Vehicle is not subjected to purchase agreement providing payment by instalments Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency in the United Kingdom As a proof of the above Parties to this Agreement

APPENDIX III: The survey with results 1. Do you translate legal contracts that can be used in the court of law? Yes No 100%* (57)**

2. Do you have a legal training (education, personal research, background or/and experience etc.)? Yes No 59% (33) 41% (24)

3. If yes, what legal system have you received your training at? Polish law 76% (25 from 33) English law 15% (5) Both, Polish and English law 9% (3)

www.harroptranslations.com 4. Based on your experience, how important is the legal training in translation the contracts? Necessary 67% (38) Beneficial, but not necessary 33% (19) Not necessary -

5. Could you provide reasons (if any) for legal training that would support translation of contracts? 6. Do employers/clients enquire about your legal training when requesting translation of contracts? If yes, could you detail what is required/asked for? 7. How do you tend to resolve problems of legal terminological incogruencies in contracts (choose one or more)? Functional equivalents100% (57) Neologisms 9% (5) Descriptive paraphrases 95% (54) Neutral terms sometimes accompanied by definition for additional clarification or original term in brackets 98% (56) Annotations 35% (20) Borrowings 33% (19) Naturalisations11% (6) Literal equivalents 23% (13) Other:

8. How often do you believe that it is possible for the translated contracts to have the same legal effect as the original? 100% 86% - 99% 71% - 85% 56% - 70% 45% - 55% 21% - 44% 0% - 20% 49% (28) 47% (27) 4% (2) -

Your further comments would be greatly appreciated:

www.harroptranslations.com THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR ASSISTANCE. * Percentage of all voters. ** Number of voters out of total of 57.

APPENDIX IV: Translation of the Polish Court Translator Code published by the Polish Society of Sworn and Specialised Translators TEPIS. The text below is my translation of the Polish Court Translator Code published by the Polish Society of Sworn and Specialised Translators TEPIS. The original Polish version is available on http://www.tepis.org.pl/biuletyn/40/tepis.htm THE POLISH COURT TRANSLATOR CODE Respecting the rules of: The Translators Code of the International Federation of Translators FIT; UNESCO requirements regarding the protection of the translators and translations rights and practical means to improve the translators status;

www.harroptranslations.com The professional code of the International Association of Conference Interpreters AIIC; Cooperation with the management of the Sworn Translators section of the Polish Translators Association; The art of legal translation and the opinions of the recognised authorities of Polish translation studies; Polish law regulating the Sworn Translators; The statue of the Polish Society of Sworn and Specialised Translators TEPIS,

As a result of the meeting hold on the 7th June 1991 the Principal Council of the Polish Society of Sworn and Specialised Translators TEPIS, in force of its Statues section 2 paragraphs 1 and 2 agreed the Polish Court Translation Code provided underneath.

ARTICLE II TRANSLATING RULES FOR DOCUMENTS TRANSLATION 22. The document is by the rules of the Code a text that is potentially a subject to domestic and foreign legal turnover as well as the conveyer on which it was recorded. 23. 24. The translation of the document must be faithful. Faithful translation of a document is based on transferring the meaning of the source text into the target language following the rules of the art of legal translation. 25. The rules of the art of legal translation are defined by appointed for this purpose international and domestic regulating bodies also inclusive of the Council of Translators TEPIS, based on the opinions of recognised authorities of translation studies. 26. The fundamental rules of the art of legal translation require: 1. The use of one target language in the entire documents translation, i.e. the

www.harroptranslations.com language of the chosen country or one of the countries within the language zone, with other language inclusions if this was the originals author intention; 2. The use of phraseology and terminology that is appropriate to the relevant legal, specialized or other sublanguage of the chosen target language assuming that the target reader of the translation has basic specialised knowledge in the target language; 3. The use of one equivalent for description of the same concept within the entire translation; 4. The use of different equivalents for varied concepts in the same translation; 5. Give priority of use to the terminology recommended by the international and domestic regulating bodies; 6. The use of appropriate equivalents in the target language that the best convey the meaning of specialised concepts of the source language culture; 7. If there is no target language equivalent that conveys the same meaning or in case of absence of such equivalent in the regulating bodies recommendation, the use of: 1. borrowing from the source language with explanation if the borrowing had not been previously naturalised in the target language, 2. linguistic calque with explanation if the calque had not been previously naturalised in the target language, 3. paraphrasing equivalent that refers to similar concept of a universal character, 4. paraphrasing equivalent that refers to similar concept known in the target language culture, 5. translators notes explaining the chosen equivalent;

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8. To transfer in the target language the culture of the source language text; 9. Based on the abilities of the translator and the need of the reader, maintain in the target language features characteristic to the epoch the source language document was created in; 10. The use of all translating methods that lead to the optimal equivalence of the translation and its adequacy to the function given and thus depending on requirements such as: 1. literal translation of the least contextualised lexical elements i.e. if the linguistic, cultural and situational contexts are not much relevant or if the relevance is similar in the source and target languages and relates to the grammatical structures, if such structures exist in the target language, 2. literal translation i.e. verbatim translation of the lexical elements, such as in the subparagraph 10.1, without retaining the grammatical structures of the source language, if similar structures do not exist in the target language or if their retention would negatively reflect upon the translation, 3. transpositional translation of the text elements that exclude literal translation i.e. replacement in the target text elements of the source text such as: phraseological expressions, idioms, proverbs, situational sayings, slang and others that literal translation would not make sense, by different lexical and grammatical structural elements but of the same or similar meaning and function in the target language; 11. The use of formal and legal rules defined by the Codes regulations; 12. The use of the fundamental translating documents rules also for interpreting in courts and in the Civil Service.

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