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# Z-TRANSFORM PROPERTIES Solution 7.

1
(a) (iii) (b) (c)
-

(i) (ii)

Solution 7.2

## Region of convergence |z| > a t circle

Figure S7.2-1
(b)

circle

Figure S7.2-2
Shown above is the appropriate vector diagram, which we expand out below:

d6
Figure S7.2-3

d5 d

S7.1

Let di, d2 , d3 and d4 denote the lengths of vectors respectively. We wish to determine
.

D
=

and

is

## at an angle of w to the horizontal axis and that di

d6 = cos W

Therefore:

d3 = sin w d 5 = a - d 6 a cos W

then
2 d2 Also, d (d 6 - a) 2 6 2 2 + d3 1 + a 2
- 2a cos w

12 2 =d 2 + d 2 =1 + (C) a 5 4 3

-cos a

12 ) a

1 + a-

21

2a cos w

J~

Thus

d_

d2

1 a

Solution 7.3
(i) X(z) = n=-o X(') =Zx(n)zn n=-co With the substitution of variables m
m

x(n)z-n

= -

X()

x(-m)z

m=-O

## which we recognize as the z-transform of x(-n).

(ii) X(z) = x(n)z n

n=-co
dX(z) dz
-z +
-

-nx-(n)zn-1 n~~
=

n=-o
dX(z)

dz

nx(n)z-n

S7.2

## We recognize the right-hand side as the z-transform of n x(n).

Solution 7.4
Letting X(z)

And Y(z) denote the z-transforms of x(n) and y(n), and using

## the properties of z-transforms, the z-transform of the difference equation

results in

z Y(z) -

10 Y(z) + z Y(z) 3

= X(z)

H(z)
= Y(z)

X(z)

z~=___

+ z z~ -1

z-2

10 -l 3

+ 1

(1 -3z

)H(

- Tz~

## To determine the unit-sample response we can obtain the inverse

transform of H(z) using any of the methods that we have discussed. example, using contour integration,
For

x(n) =

21#
(1 -r 3'

- l
) ( 1

1z

-l

dz

## Since the system is stable, the region of convergence includes the

unit circle. Thus for n > 0

x(n) =

Res

(z

3)(z

at

z _

For n < 0

x(n)

- 27Tj 1 c
=

(1

p 3p) (1 -n

-n-1 dP
-

)
at p ) 3 (1)-n

L(1(

9) (1

83

therefore,

x(n) =
-

Solution 7.5
(a)
is -z

S7.3

-z

dX(z)

az

-l

dz

(1 -az1

a (1
-

az

is

-a(a)n u(n).
_i

)
-az (1i-az

## property, then, the inverse z-transform of Therefore

n x(n)
= -an

is

u(n u(n

i)
1) n

or
x(n)
= -

n
-

Note that since we obtain nx(n) from the differentiation property, this For this problem, however, we could does not allow us to obtain x(O). obtain x(0) from problem 5.7. Specifically, since x(n) is causal,
x(0) = lim log(1 az~)
= 0

z+ (b) For
log (1 - p)

Sn

n=1
thus,
log(i az

- -

n=i

## thus we identify x(n) as

an
i) n x(n) =
-u(n

Note this problem is strongly related to the discussion in chapter 12 of the text. You may wish to look through some of the discussion in
that chapter.
Solution 7.6

Xi(z) = n=-o

x i(n)z-n

n=-o

x(n)z-nM

For M = 2 X (e

= X(e j2w

S7.4

X (ej)

F7r
Figure S7.6-1

S7.5

## Resource: Digital Signal Processing

Prof. Alan V. Oppenheim

The following may not correspond to a particular course on MIT OpenCourseWare, but has been provided by the author as an individual learning resource.