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APUSH Ch.

13 terms

1. corrupt bargain-After Clay voted for Adams instead of Jackson in 1824 presidential
election, winning him the presidency, John Quincy Adams gave Henry Clay the coveted Speaker of the House position, often regarding as a stepping stone to the role of president. Jackson and others accused the two of corruption, saying that Clay only voted for Adams in exchange for the position.

2. Democratic-Republicans -Once shortened to "Republicans", when Andrew Jackson


came into power he renamed the party "Democrats". The Jacksonian Democrats were very democratic and were opposed to the Whigs. Jackson was a real common man and believed in the common man. Opposed to very strong national bank. When he was president the Whigs called him "King Jackson". This party is the present day Democratic party.

3. spoils system - "To the victor go the spoils" Starting with Andrew Jackson, the
incoming president would fill their cabinet with allies that had helped them in the election

4. Tariff of Abominations-A tariff put forth by Jacksonians in 1828 in order to


embarrass John Quincy Adams. Mean to fail, the tariff passed by a fluke, causing anger in the south, who said that this was simply more favoritism for the northern states over the south.

5. John C. Calhoun-Vice President under Andrew Jackson, 1829 - 1833 Founding


member of Whig Party n 1834, Calhoun joined with Henry Clay against President Jackson

6. The Exposition-A pamphlet published by the South Carolina legislature, written by


John C. Calhoun. It spoke against the "Tariff of Abominations," and proposed nullification of the tariff. Calhoun wished to use nullification to prevent secession, yet address the grievances of sectionalist Southerners. These sectionalist ideas helped lead to the Civil War.

7. Nullifiers- was a short-lived political party based in South Carolina in the 1830s.
Started by John C. Calhoun, it was a states' rights party that supported the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, holding that States could nullify federal laws within their borders. They had several members in both houses of the United States Congress between 1831 and 1839.

8. Henry Clay-Ran against Andrew Jackson and John Quincy Adams in 1824, was
eliminated after electoral college. Cast deciding vote for Adams due to hatred for Jackson. A National Republican and chief gladiator in the presidential contest of 1832. Threw himself behind the Senate's move to re-charter the bank. Was able to pass a compromise bill that would slowly reduce the 1832 Tariff.

9. Force Bill- passed by the Congress in 1833. (aka "Bloody Bill" to the southerners) This
bill allows the US president to use the Army and the Navy to collect federal tariff duties. (If necessary) It is an attachment to the Nullification Crisis during this time.

10. Five Civilized Tribes-Five Indian tribes or nations (the Cherokees, Chickasaws,
Choctaws, Creeks, and Seminoles); that lived in the Southeastern United States until the 1820s, most of whom were removed to the Indian Territory from 1830-42; they were called "civilized" because most of them had set up formal governments before removal modeled after the U.S. government

11. Indian Removal Act-provided funds for President Andrew Jackson to conduct landexchange, or removal treaties. An estimated 100,000 American Indians eventually relocated in the West as a result of this policy, most of them emigrating during the Trail of Tears during the 1830s, settling in what was known as the, "Indian territory" or the present state of Oklahoma. The Removal Act was strongly supported in the South, where states were eager to gain access to lands inhabited by the Five Civilized Tribes.

12. Black Hawk- The leader of the Illinois tribes of Indians in the 1830's. When the Indians
were uprooted, and forced out of their homes, Black Hawk led the Indians in resisting the move. However, he wasn't powerful enough, because in 1832 they were brutally defeated, and forced to move into Oklahoma.

13. the Bank War - controversy over the Second Bank of the United States and the
attempts to destroy it by President Andrew Jackson. At that time, it was the only nationwide bank and, along with its president Nicholas Biddle, exerted tremendous influence over the nation's financial system. Jackson viewed the Second Bank of the United States as a monopoly since it was a private institution managed by a board of directors, and in 1832 he vetoed the renewal of its charter.

14. Anti-Masonic Party -The Anti-Masonic Party was a third political party that developed
during the campaign of 1832 because of the fierce debate between Henry Clay and Andrew Jackson. This party also developed as opposition to the Masons (secret societies). It gained support from evangelical Protestant groups and people who were neglected by Jackson; however, it never took a majority position in elections.

15. Specie Circular- decree which stated that all public lands must be purchase with gold
or silver money, because the BUS was collapsing and the paper money floating around was almost worthless. This decree caused a run on the banks for gold and silver and, in turn, ignited the Panic of 1837.

16. Whigs-The Whig party was a party that formed for those who opposed Jackson's views.
It was created in the 1830s and the 1840s. When Jackson was elected, Clay and Calhoun formed a party for those who opposed Democratic views. The first Whig to become president was Harrison in the 1840 election. Whigs thought that Jackson's views were selfish.

17. Panic of 1837-Nations first economic depression. Banks loaned too much money out
for Western expansion and they began to fail one by one. Hardship was acute and

widespread and hundreds of banks collapsed. Martin Van Buren (who was president at the time) tried to "divorce" the government from banking altogether. This idea was not highly supported but the Independent Treasury Bill passed congress in 1840. Although the Whigs repealed it the next year, the scheme was reenacted by the democrats in 1846.

18. Divorce Bill-Martin Van Buren passed the "Divorce Bill" in 1840 which created an
independent treasury that took the government's funds out of the pet banks that Jackson created and put them in vaults in several of the largest cities. This way the funds would be safe from inflation and denied to the state banks as revenue.

19. the Alamo-erected for a mission building in 1744; used for religious purposes till 1793,
when, on account of the great strength of its walls, it was converted into a fort. In the struggle by Texas for independence, the most sanguinary and heroic conflict of the border warfare, which merged into the Mexican War, occurred therea conflict which for years was familiar to Americans as the Thermopylae of Texas