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University of Cape Town Department of Physics

PHY2014F Vibrations and Waves


Part 1 Simple harmonic oscillators Damped oscillators Driven oscillators Resonance covering (more or less) French Chapters 1, 3 & 4

Andy Buffler
Department of Physics University of Cape Town
andy.buffler@uct.ac.za
1

PHY2014F Prescribed textbook:

with significant acknowledgment to the notes of Steve Driver, who was brilliant for decades the animated gifs are from Dr. Daniel A. Russell, Kettering University (http://www.kettering.edu/~drussell/)

PHY2014F What to do in this course: 1. Read the relevant sections in the textbook the course notes will guide you. 2. Do all homework and problem sets. 3. Get help early from AB, the course tutor Gary Tupper, 4. As in PHY1004W, there are no shortcuts put effort in to understand things

Problem-solving and homework Each week you will be given a take-home problem set to complete and hand in for marks ... In addition to this, you need to work through the following problems in French, in you own time, at home. You will not be asked to hand these in for marks. Get help from you friends, the course tutor, lecturer, ... Do not take shortcuts. Mastering these problems is a fundamental aspect of this course. The problems associated with Part 1 are: 1-8, 1-11, 1-12, 2-1, 3-1, 3-2, 3-3, 3-4, 3-5, 3-6, 3-8, 3-9, 3-11, 3-14, 3-15, 4-3, 4-4, 4-5, 4-7, 4-10, 4-11, 4-12, 4-13, 4-14, 4-15, 4-16, 4-17 You might find these tougher: 3-7, 3-10, 3-16, 3-17, 3-18, 4-8, 4-9
4

Some useful (?) trigonometric identities sin 2 A + cos 2 A = 1

sin ( 2 A ) = cos A

sin ( A ) = sin A cos ( A ) = cos A tan ( A ) = tan A sin ( A B ) = sin A cos B cos A sin B cos ( A B ) = cos A cos B sin A sin B tan A tan B tan ( A B ) = 1 tan A tan B
cos ( 2 A ) = cos 2 A sin 2 A = 1 2sin 2 A 2 tan A tan ( 2 A ) = 1 tan 2 A

sin ( 2 A ) = 2sin A cos A

More useful (?) trigonometric identities

A+ B A B sin A + sin B = 2sin cos 2 2 A+ B A B sin A sin B = 2cos sin 2 2 A+ B A B cos A + cos B = 2cos cos 2 2 A+ B A B cos A cos B = 2sin sin 2 2
sin A sin B = 1 cos ( A B ) cos ( A + B ) 2 cos A cos B = 1 cos ( A B ) + cos ( A + B ) 2 sin A cos B = 1 sin ( A + B ) + sin ( A B ) 2 cos A sin B = 1 sin ( A + B ) sin ( A B ) 2
6

Oscillatory Phenomena

observed in many physical systems from the very small(e.g. dipole resonance in nuclei) to the very large (earthquake waves, stars,) Mechanical systems to electrical systems from violin strings to lasers

All periodic phenomena can be represented as the sum of sine and cosine functions: x(t ) = (an cos nt + bn sin nt ) useful to study the simple harmonic oscillator
7

Consider the function x(t ) = A cos(t + )

T
3 2

4 2 t

T = 2 where T : period (s)


some books use 1 f = T : angular frequency (rad s-1) where f : frequency (Hz)

A : Amplitude : phase angle, initial phase or phase constant

k
Frestore
compessed

Mass-spring oscillator Hookes Law: unstretched m Restoring force, x


Fexternal
x

Frestore = k x

where x = x x 0

extended

and k is the spring constant [N m-1] x dp Start with the = Fnet x0 x momentum principle: dt dpx For horizontal forces on the mass: = kx dt d dx d (mvx ) = kx or m = kx dt dt dt d 2x k 2 = x 9 dt m
Frestore Fexternal

Mass-spring oscillator ...2


d 2 x(t ) k = x(t ) 2 dt m ... a second order differential equation ... we know that if we displace a mass-spring system from its rest position and then release it, it will perform SHM ...

Guess a trial solution: x(t ) = A cos(t + ) then d 2x = A 2 cos(t + ) dt 2


2

k and substitute into our DE: A cos(t + ) = A cos(t + ) m k ... which is true provided 2 = m k Therefore our solution is x(t ) = A cos(t + ) where = m10

Mass-spring oscillator ...3


We will write a particular value of as 0 , as the natural angular frequency of the oscillator the frequency that it wants to oscillate at.
k Mass-spring system: 0 = m

and

m T = 2 k

System parameters: m, k Initial conditions:

0
A,

(Note that 0 is independent of A)

11

Simple harmonic oscillator


x(t ) = A cos(0t + ) dx(t ) = A0 sin(0t + ) v(t ) = dt d 2 x(t ) dv(t ) = = A0 2 cos(0t + ) a (t ) = dt 2 dt acceleration = (constant) . (displacement)
2 = A0 cos(0t + ) 2 = A0 cos(0t + + )

French page 5

Phase difference between acceleration and displacement is Phase difference between v and x (and v & a ) is

2
12

x(t ) = A cos(0t + ) A 0 A0 0 A0 2 0 a (t ) = A0 2 cos(0t + )


13

t v(t ) = A0 sin(0t + ) t

Simple harmonic oscillator


At t = 0, write x = x0 and v = v0.
Then at t = 0 :

x0 = A cos( ) v0 = 0 A sin( )
2 2

v0 tan = 0 x0

and

v0 x0 + = A2 cos 2 ( ) + A2 sin 2 ( ) = A2 0
v0 A = x0 + 0
2 2

14

Mass-spring oscillator: an energy approach


m Equilibrium v m x
2 Kinetic energy of mass = 1 mv 2

Suppose that the mass has a speed v when it has displacement x


x x

Fdx ' = kx ' dx ' = 1 kx 2 Potential energy of spring = 2


0 0

There are no dissipative mechanisms in our model (no friction). the total energy of the mass-spring system is conserved.
1 2

mv 2 + 1 kx 2 = constant 2
15

Mass-spring oscillator: an energy approach 2


For our mass-spring system:
1 2

mv 2 + 1 kx 2 = constant 2

d 1 2 1 2 ( 2 mv + 2 kx ) = 0 dt dv dx mv + kx = 0 dt dt dv mv + kxv = 0 dt dv m + kx = 0 dt d 2x k 2 = x dt m

as before

16

Mass-spring oscillator: an energy approach 3


For the mass-spring system: x = A cos(0t + ) Potential energy = k.e. =
1 2 1 2

French page 42

kx 2 = 1 kA2 cos 2 (0t + ) 2

2 mv 2 = 1 m[ A0 sin(0t + )]2 = 1 mA20 sin 2 (0t + ) 2 2

Total energy = p.e. + k.e


2 = 1 kA2 cos 2 (0t + ) + 1 mA20 sin 2 (0t + ) 2 2

= 1 kA2 (= 1 m0 2 A2 ) 2 2 We can now write:


k 2 v = ( A x2 ) m
1 2

( E A2 )

kx 2 + 1 mv 2 = 1 kA2 2 2 or
v( x) = 0 A2 x 2 (useful)

17

Energy of the mass-spring simple harmonic oscillator


x = A cos(0t + ) 0 t

p.e. = 1 kA2 cos 2 (0t + ) 2 0


2 k.e. = 1 kA20 sin 2 (0t + ) 2

0 total energy = 1 kA2 2 0


18

Mass suspended from a light spring


equilibrium unstretched displaced

L0

Equilibrium: Displaced:

k ( L L0 ) = mg

Force on mass due to spring:


x

= k ( L L0 ) + kx

= mg + kx (upwards)

Net force on mass: mg (mg + kx) = kx (downwards) d 2x m 2 = kx dt (Same equation as for horizontal case)

19

20

French page 51

The pendulum: general case


frictionless pivot

Static equilibrium: centre of mass

Displaced:

In displaced position, centre of mass is L L cos above the equilibrium position. Recall cos = 1

2
2!

4
4!

...

For small angles, cos 1

2
2

Gravitational potential energy = mgL(1 cos ) = mgL

2
2
21

The pendulum: general case 2


Gravitational potential energy = Kinetic energy =
1 2 1 2

mgL 2

d I dt
2

d 1 1 + 2 mgL 2 = constant I Total energy = 2 dt d d 2 d I + mgL =0 2 dt dt dt d 2 mgL 2 = = 02 dt I Equation of SHM


22

d true for all dt mgL where 0 = I

The pendulum: general case 3


Sometimes we need the moment of inertia about an axis parallel to the axis through the centre of mass (which might be easier to calculate). Then by the parallel axis theorem: I = I CM + mL2 ... where I is the moment of inertia a distance L from the centre of mass, under the condition that the two axes of rotation are parallel. mgL Then for the pendulum: 0 = I CM + mL2 write: Then I CM = mk 2 ... where k is the radius of gyration
gL 0 = 2 2 k +L

and

k 2 + L2 T = 2 gL

23

Simple harmonic systems In general, to show SHM . get an equation of motion of the form:
d 2 2 = 0 dt 2

Also useful to consider conservation of energy: d 2x ( E = 1 mv 2 + mgh) E = 1 (*) 2 + (#) x 2 2 2 dt


k 2# = then: 0 = * m
1 2

kx 2

Look at French pages 45-59 very carefully:

Elasticity and Youngs modulus Floating objects Pendulums Water in a U-tube Torsional oscillations 24 The spring of air

The simple pendulum


I = mL2 L m
mgL 0 = = 2 mL g L

L T = 2 g

pivot

The oscillating hoop


radius a, mass m
g 0 = 2a
25

mass m d L pivot com

The oscillating rod


md 2 I= + mL2 12

0 =

mgL g = 2 2 1 md + mL d 2 12 L + L 12

The wooden cylinder bouncing (vertically) in water


radius a, mass m d

can show that l

ma = ( a 2 w g ) x
get 0 =
g l
26

Elasticity

French page 45

A F L F

stress strain = constant for small stretching F A =Y Write x L

L+x

Y: Youngs modulus = constant for a particular material


Elastic oscillations
Here F is restoring force in wire

F m

AYx Hence ma = L
and 0 =
AY mL
27

Ball bearing bouncing (vertically) in a cylinder of air


ball radius a, mass m, density b If pressure change in flask is adiabatic:

P, V

= P PV = constant where CV 3 Pa 0 = 4 bV
Water sloshing in a U-tube
U-tube radius a Water volume V use conservation of energy
28

2g a 2 0 = V

Water sloshing in a rectangular pan

tough ?

use conservation of energy

h
2L

3 gh 0 = L2

Rocking solid hemisphere


radius a, mass m tough ?

use conservation of energy

0 =

15 g 26a
29

French page 60

Oscillations involving massive springs

k, M m
l 3 l 3

unstretched stretched (x depends on distance s from fixed end)


2

l 3

1 M s dx k.e. of element of spring lying between s and ds = ds l dt 2 l 2 2 M dx l 2 M dx Total kinetic energy of spring = 3 s ds = 2l dt 0 6 dt 2 2 1 dx 1 2 M dx Total energy of mass-spring system = m + kx + 2 dt 2 6 dt k giving 0 = 30 m+M 3

x3

2x 3

French page 10

Complex numbers

Consider a vector OP of length r which rotates with angular velocity The point P has coordinates y = r sin t x = r cos t

y r t
O

We see that the x coordinate of P, or the projection of OP onto the x-axis, executes SHM

i Can also introduce the unit vectors and j

and write r = x + y i j
r

P y j
31

x i

Complex numbers 2 Modify our notation to z = x + jy ... where x means a displacement in the x-direction and jy means a displacement in the y-direction

z = a + jb z a b

We can also think of j as a rotation through 2 anticlockwise

jb b
... really talking about vectors in the complex number plane:

j2b
Imaginary

Hence j2 = 1

z a

z = a + jb b
Real
32

Complex numbers 3

x 2 x3 e x = 1 + x + + + ... From Taylors theorem: 2! 3! 2 j 3 4 therefore e j = 1 + j + + ... 2! 3! 4!


and cos = 1

2
2!

4
4!

+ ... and

j 3 j sin = j + ... 3!
Euler relation

Hence Then

e j = cos + j sin

z = a + jb = z e z = a +b tan = b a
2 2

Imaginary

where

b = z sin
Real
33

a = z cos

e =1
j0

j 4

1 2

+j

1 2

j 2

= j

e j = 1

e j 2 = 1

34

Complex numbers 4 For our rotating vectors:


Imaginary

z = x + jy = A cos t + jA sin t = A ( cos t + j sin t ) = Ae jt

t
x

y
Real

Now write: Ae j (t + ) = A cos(t + ) + jA sin(t + ) ... and remember that the physical quantity x (e.g. a displacement) is the real part of z : i.e. x = Re[z]
35

French page 14

SHM using complex numbers

d 2x 2 + 0 x = 0 dt 2
becomes

Using z = x + jy Try z = Ae j (t + )

d 2z 2 + 0 z = 0 dt 2

A( j ) 2 e j (t + ) + 2 Ae j (t + ) = 0

Therefore z = Ae j (t + )

is the most general solution A and are determined from the initial conditions.

Take real part of z:

x = Re[z] = A cos(0t + )

36

SHM using complex numbers

x = A cos(0t + ) x = Re[z] dx = A0 sin(0t + ) dt dx dz = Re dt dt d 2x = A0 2 cos(0t + ) dt 2

z = Ae j (t + )

dz = j Ae j (t + ) = j z dt

d 2z 2 = ( j ) Ae j (t + ) = 2 z dt 2

d 2z d 2x = Re 2 2 dt dt

37

d 2 x(t ) 2 Solving + 0 x(t ) = 0 dt 2


Let x = Be pt

dx d 2x Then = Bpe pt and = Bp 2 e pt dt dt 2


Substituting into DE:
2 Bp 2 e pt + B0 e pt = 0

2 This holds true for all t if and only if p 2 = 0 or p = j0

x = B1e j0t + B2 e j0t


How to get B1 and B2 ? need to know the initial conditions

dx = j0 B1e j0t j0 B2 e j0t but consider v = dt

38

d 2 x(t ) 2 Solving + 0 x(t ) = 0 dt 2 dx v= = j0 B1e j0t j0 B2 e j0t dt

continued

At t = 0, v(0) = j B1 j0 B2 Choose v(0) = 0 Since v must be real, then B1 = B2 = B i.e.

x = Be j0t + Be j0t = 2 B cos 0t

x = A cos 0t
[ with a little more effort we could have got the more general solution x = A cos (0t + ) ]

39

Example: 3-phase current Large scale electrical power transmission makes use of 3 phases

I1 V1 V2 V3 I2 I3

long transmission line

Return current

I1 + I 2 + I 3

R1

R2

R3

The three voltages are 120 out of phase with each other

V1 = V0 cos(t ) V2 = V0 cos(t + 2 3) V3 = V0 cos(t + 4 3)


40

3-phase current 2 Use complex numbers:

V1 = V0 e jt V2 = V0 e j (t +2 3) V3 = V0 e j (t +4 3) V0 e jt t V0 e j (t +2 3)

t = 3
0

t V0 e j (t +4 3) t
41

3-phase current 3 The currents are given by: I1 = V1 R1


I 2 = V2 R 2 I 3 = V3 R 3

Consider important case where R1 = R2 = R3 = R Then


V0 jt I1 = e R V0 j (t +2 3) I2 = e R V0 j (t +4 3) I3 = e R

Return current I = I1 + I 2 + I 3

V0 jt = e {1 + e j 2 3 + e j 4 3 } R =0

e j 2 3 e j 4 3

1 Why is this useful ? ... and cost-saving?


42

A short diversion A.C. Consider the heating effect of alternating current in a resistor. At any instant P = VI = I 2 R For I = I 0 cos t , P = I 02 R cos 2 t Then the average power heating: P = I 02 R cos 2 t I
cos t = 0

I 0 cos t t

P
cos 2 t =
1 2

I 02 R cos 2 t t
43

A.C. 2
Then the average power heating: P = I 02 R cos 2 t
1 2 I0 = I0 R = R 2 2
2

a direct current of magnitude I 0 2 would have the same heating power as an alternating current of amplitude I 0 . I 0 2 is known as the effective value of the current, or the root mean square value. With respect to the 50 Hz a.c. mains in South Africa: the r.m.s. voltage is quoted as 220 volts Hence V0
2 = 220
44

V0 = 220 2 = 311 volts

back to three phase power What is the maximum voltage between two of the lines? e.g. what is (V1 V2 )maximum ? 2V0

A.C. 3 V1 = V0 e jt V2 = V0 e j (t +2 3) V3 = V0 e j (t +4 3) V1 V2

V2 = V0 e V0
Voltage

j (t + 2 3)

V0 2V0 V1 = V0 e jt t
45

(V1 V2 )maximum in three phase power ?


V1 V2 = V0 e jt V0 e j (t +2 3) = V0 e jt {1 e j 2 3 }
2 2 = V0 e 1 cos j sin 3 3 1 3 jt = V0 e 1 + j 2 2
jt

A.C. 4

V1 = V0 e jt V2 = V0 e j (t +2 3)

1 e

e j 2 3
1 e j 2 3

j 2 3

1 3 = V0 e 1 + j 2 2 = V0 e jt 3e j
jt

( )

3 2 2

( )
3 2

= 3
1 e j 2 3 = 3e j
3

(V1 V2 )maximum = 220 2

= 539 volts

46

Oscillations in electric circuits


Resistor R

V = IR

P = I 2R

Capacitor C

Q V = C
Inductor L

Q2 W=1 2 C

dI V = L dt
where

W = 1 LI 2 2 dQ I= dt

47

Charging a capacitor through a resistor


Suppose the capacitor is uncharged at t = 0. At some time t > 0, a current I is established and a charge Q builds up on the capacitor. Energy equation for this circuit: or

R
+Q

Q Q = RI = 0 C

Vround trip

Q dQ Q = RI + = R + C dt C Differential equation
48

t RC Solution: Q(t ) = C 1 e

Q(t) C 0.63 C I(t) /R


0.63 /R

Charging a capacitor through resistor 2


t RC Q(t ) = C 1 e RC = time constant

dQ(t ) I (t ) = dt t =

VC(t)

RC

VC = ( VR ) = ( IR ) = (1 e )
t

VR(t)

VR = ( VC )

= e

49

Discharging a capacitor through resistor


Suppose the capacitor has charge Q0 at t = 0. At some time t > 0, a current I is established as the charge drains off the capacitor.

R +Q Q C

Energy equation for this circuit: Vround trip = RI + Q = 0 C or 0 = RI + Q = R dQ + Q C dt C dQ 1 1 = dt Write giving ln Q = t+K Q RC RC or Q(t ) = Q0 e
t RC

K = ln Q0
50

Q(t) Q0 0.63 Q0 I(t) e Q0/RC Q0/RC VC(t) Q0/C

Discharging a capacitor through resistor 2


Q(t ) = Q0 e t t
t

RC = time constant dQ(t ) I (t ) = dt t Q0 RC Q0 t e e = = RC RC


Q0 t Q VC = e = C C

VR(t)

t t

Q0/C

RQ0 t VR = IR = e RC Q0 t = e 51 C

52

Establishing a current in an inductor


Suppose the current in the circuit is zero at t = 0. At some time t > 0, a current I is established. I R

Energy equation for this circuit: Vround trip or

dI = RI L = 0 dt

dI R + I = dt L L Differential equation I (t ) =

Solution:

1 e R

R t L

53

I(t) /R 0.63 /R dI (t ) dt /L 0.63 /L VL(t)

Establishing a current in an inductor 2


I (t ) = 1 e R R/L = time constant
R t L

t
dI (t ) R t = e L dt L

VL = ( VR ) = ( IR ) = e
t

VR(t)

VR = ( VL ) t = (1 e )
t

54

I(t) /R 0.63 /R dI (t ) dt /L /L VL(t)

Decreasing current in an inductor


R t I (t ) = C 1 e L R/L = time constant

t t

dI (t ) Rt = e L dt L
R t dI (t ) VL = L = e L dt

VR(t)

VR = IR = e t

55

C Q +Q L

Oscillations in an LC circuit
Capacitor fully charged at t = 0. At t > 0, charge on capacitor decreases, giving current in the direction shown. dQ I = dt

= V

Q dI d dQ = L = L C dt dt dt d 2x k = x compare with 2 dt m where 0 =


1 LC

d 2Q 1 Hence: = Q 2 dt LC

Solution of the form Q(t ) = Q0 cos(0t + )

56

Oscillations in an LC circuit: an energy approach


Q2 Energy stored in capacitor: E = 1 2 C Energy stored in inductor: E = 1 LI 2 2 No dissipation (circuit has zero resistance) Q2 1 2 1 + 2 LI = constant 2 C d 1 Q2 1 2 2 + 2 LI = 0 dt C Q dQ dI dQ + LI = 0 I = C dt dt dt Q d dQ L = 0 C dt dt d 2Q 1 = Q as before or 2 dt LC

57

58

Mechanical
displacement x velocity v mass m spring constant k
k 0 = m

Electrical
charge Q current I inductance L 1 1 capacitance C

0 =

1 LC

potential energy: 1 kx 2 2 kinetic energy: mv


1 2 2

Electric energy stored in capacitor: Magnetic energy stored in inductor:


1 2

Q2 1 2 C LI 2
59

French page 62

Damped oscillations

We have thus far neglected all dissipative mechanisms our oscillations can continue oscillating with the same amplitude forever Various physical damping mechanisms will contribute towards the damping friction between mass and table air resistance internal friction in spring . model these by introducing a damping force which is proportional to the velocity of the oscillator
60

In mechanical systems, we draw in a dashpot a device similar to a shock absorber in a car


liquid seal piston with small holes

dashpot b: damping coefficient

In these systems, the damping force R = bv deals with many damping mechanism but not all talk about viscous damping resistive damping mechanical systems electrical systems
61

Damped mass-spring system


b

k m
x

For horizontal forces on the mass: or d x dx or + + 0 2 x = 0 dt 2 dt


2

ma = kx bv d 2x dx m 2 = kx b dt dt

where

k 0 = m b = m

: damping constant unit:

s-1

life time =

62

Damped oscillator equation


d 2x dx + + 0 2 x = 0 dt 2 dt Let x = Be pt dx = Bpe pt Then dt d 2x = Bp 2 e pt dt 2

and

Substituting into DE: Bp 2 e pt + Bpe pt + 0 2 Be pt = 0 Thus


p=

p 2 + p + 0 2 = 0
1 2

2 40 2

}
63

or

p= 2

2
4

0 2

Damped oscillator equation 2


p= 2

2
4

0 2

We can distinguish three cases: (i)

0 >
2

2
4

Oscillatory behaviour

(ii) 0 2 = (iii) 0 2 <

2
4

Critical damping

2
4

Overdamping
64

Case (i):

0 2 >

2
4

2 4 0 2 = ( 0 2 2 4 )

Put

12 = 0 2 2 4 2 p = 1 = j1
2 2

The solution will be:

( x = Be
1

+ j1 t 2

) + B e( 2

j1 t

) = e

leading to x(t ) = Ae

t
2

{B e
1

j1t

+ B2 e j1t

cos(1t + )

This is an oscillatory solution A cos(1t + ) multiplied by a damping factor e t 2 . As 0 we approach our undamped oscillator.
65

no damping

cos(0t + )

e t 2 0 with damping
66

Case (ii):

0 2 =

2
4

The two roots coincide: p =

2
2t

The solution will be x(t ) = ( A + Bt )e

2 2 The condition 0 = 4 is referred to as the critical damping condition.

If 0 2 < 2 4 a system released from rest will oscillate. As is increased the oscillations decay more rapidly, until at 0 2 = 2 4 oscillation no longer occurs. [ many practical applications ]
67

Case (iii):

0 2 < 2
4

2
4

p= 2 = 2

0 2 say

2 2

( + )t + B e( )t The solution will be x(t ) = B1e 2


The condition 0 2 <

2
4

is referred to as overdamping

a slower approach to the rest position is observed.

68

0 = 5
Oscillatory
t

Critical damping Overdamping

0 = 0.5
t

0 = 0.05
t
69

0 = 5
Oscillatory
t

Critical damping Overdamping

0 = 0.5 0 = 0.05
t

t
70

Convenient to define a parameter Q =

Q: quality factor or the Q of the oscillator gives a measure of damping time period

2 1 2 2 2 2 Notice that = 0 = 0 1 = 0 1 2 4 4 0 4Q 2 So for Q 1 (light damping) : 1 0 1 1 = 0 1 400 1 0 1 800

e.g. for Q = 10

Note also 1 < 0 Damping increases the period of the oscillator, as one may intuitively expect.

71

Q=5 t Q = 15 t Q = 50 t

72

Damped oscillator: summary


The differential equation d 2x dx + + 0 2 x = 0 dt 2 dt

has the general solution x(t ) = Ae where 1 = 0 2 2 4 the two constants A and must be determined by some initial conditions A subtle point:

t
2

cos(1t + )

A Ae
0

t
2

A the initial amplitude


A is not the amplitude it is a constant related to the initial amplitude by (initial amplitude) = A cos

73

Energy of a damped oscillator


For a lightly damped oscillator, the amplitude is slowly varying Total energy of the undamped oscillator: E = 1 kA2 2
2 For the lightly damped oscillator: E = k Ae = 1 kA2 e t 2 E (t )
1 2

E0 E0 e
1

E (t ) = E0 e t

e t t

Then:

dE P= = E0 e t = E dt

74

x(t ) = Ae
displacement

t
2

cos(1t + )

energy

E (t ) = E0 e

t
75

Energy of a damped oscillator 2


Now write:

Q=

E = 0 P

Oscillator energy = 0 Power dissipation

2 Oscillator energy T Power dissipation

Oscillator energy Q = 2 Energy dissipation per cycle

Number of oscillator cycles in one lifetime =

1 1 1 0 Q = T 2 2

e.g. a oscillator having Q = 10 performs 1.6 cycles in one lifetime which may be regarded as quite significant damping
76

77

French page 78

Forced oscillations and resonance


k b
x

We now look at oscillators which are subject to an externally applied force F (t ) = F0 cos t

F (t )

F (t ) is a periodic force with driving frequency

F
2

= max

F0 cos t kx bv = ma

F0 d x dx 2 + + 0 x = cos t 2 dt dt m

0 2 = k / m
= b/m
78

Forced oscillations in a mass-spring system


Equation of motion:

F0 d 2x dx 2 + + 0 x = cos t 2 dt dt m

Two parts observed to the motion of the system: Transient response: while the system continues to oscillate at its natural frequency 0 which dies out with the characteristic 1 decay time. Steady state response: at times >> 1 the response has the same frequency as the applied force Observe also that there might be a phase difference (usually a lag) between the response and the driving force For F (t ) = F0 cos t write x(t ) = A cos(t )
79

Forced oscillations in a mass-spring system2


Using complex numbers: F (t ) = F0 e jt Then
j (t ) and x(t ) = Ae

dx = j Ae j (t ) dt

and

d 2x = 2 Ae j (t ) dt 2

Substituting into our differential equation of motion: F0 jt 2 j (t ) j (t ) 2 j (t ) Ae + ( j ) Ae + 0 Ae = e m Divide by e jt since this holds for all t : ( + j + ) Ae
2 2 0
j

or

F0 j {( ) + j} A = m e F0 = ( cos + j sin ) m
2 0 2

F0 = m

80

Forced oscillations in a mass-spring system3


F0 {( ) + j} A = m ( cos + j sin )
2 0 2 2 (0 2 ) A =

Equating the real and imaginary parts:

F0 cos m

A =
Then tan =
2

2 (0 2 )
2

F0 sin m

F0 F0 2 2 and cos + sin 2 = A2 (0 2 ) 2 + A2 2 2 m m F0 A {( ) + } = m


2 2 0 2 2 2 2 2

or

A( ) =

F0 m
2 (0 2 ) 2 + 2 2

81

Forced oscillations in a mass-spring systemsummary


Steady state solution of is where

F0 x + x + 0 x = cos t m
2

x(t ) = A( ) cos(t ) F0 m
2 (0 2 ) 2 + 2 2

A( ) =

and

tan ( ) =

2 (0 2 )
82

Resonance
Note (for now) that A( ) has a maximum at a frequency m slightly less than 0 see later At low frequencies, 0 F0 m F0 m F0 m F0 A( ) = = 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 2 2 k 0 (0 ) + 0 + The amplitude is approximately F0 k which is the amplitude for a steady force the oscillator behaviour is determined essentially by the spring (or the capacitor) i.e. the oscillator is spring limited And

1 2 = tan ( ) = 2 2 (0 ) 0 Q 0

i.e. tan 1 is small the response is almost in phase with the driving force.
83

Resonance 2
At high frequencies, 0 F0 m F0 m F0 m A( ) = 2 2 2 2 2 4 2 2 (0 ) + + 4 + 2 02 Q 2 F0 = m 2 the oscillator is inertia limited And i.e.

0 1 1 0 2 = = = tan ( ) = 2 2 (0 ) Q Q
tan is small and negative

the response is out of phase with the driving force.


84

Resonance 3
In the resonance region , 0

F0 F0 F0 A( ) = = =Q 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 k 0 m 0 b (0 ) + 0
the oscillator amplitude is strongly dependent on the damping constant b it is resistance limited

F0 m

F0 m

as 0 And tan ( ) = 2 2 (0 ) i.e.


2 the response lags the driving force by

.
85

A(0 ) =

F0 m
0 + 2 2

Resonance 4

2 2 2 Close to resonance, it is the (0 ) term which gives the rapid variation with frequency as we move away from 0 we see 1 that we will get A( ) = A(0 ) 2

when:

1 F0 / m = 2 2 2 2 2 2 0 2 2 (0 ) + 0
2 (0 2 ) = 0

F0 / m

(0 + )(0 ) = 0 20 (0 ) = 0 (0 ) =

2 then = 0

1 When A( ) = A(0 ) 2

2
86

A( ) A(0 ) A(0 )
2

(ignoring distinction between 0 and m )

F0 k

( )
3 4

0 +

2 4
0

87

French page 89

Resonance 5

At

= 0 +

and = 0

, the oscillator amplitude

is decreased by 1

2 of its maximum (resonance) value.

These two frequencies are known as the half power frequencies and is known as the resonance width

Q= can be understood to be
0

resonance frequency

width of resonance curve at half power points as the damping term decreases, i.e. as Q increases, the resonance curve gets sharper
88

e x(t )

t
2

slow decay

A( )

narrow resonance

89

x(t )

t
2

rapid decay

A( )

broad resonance

90

E (t ) E0 E0 e
1

Free vibration
E (t ) = E0 e t e t

Lifetime =
t

A( )

Forced vibration

Resonance width =

lifetime resonance width = 1

91

Distinction between 0 and m


A( ) = F0 m
2 (0 2 ) 2 + 2 2

3 dA F0 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 = ( 2 ) ( (0 ) + ) {2(0 2 ) ( 2 ) + 2 2 } d m dA 2 2 2 Thus = 0 for (0 ) 2 = d 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 = 0 1 = 0 1 or = 0 2 2 20 2Q 2

1 i.e. m = 0 1 2Q 2 where m is the frequency at which A( ) is a maximum. e.g. for

Q = 8 , m = 0.9960

92

Distinction between 0 and m 2


What is the maximum value of A( ) ? 1 F0 m Substitute m = 0 1 into A( ) = 2 2Q 2 (0 2 ) 2 + 2 2 QA(0) and find Amax = A(m ) = 1 1 4Q 2

A( ) A(m )

2 where A(0) = F0 m0 = F0 k = the static displacement

Note that for Q > 5 ,

Amax QA(0) A(0) = F0 k

m 0

93

Q = 20

Q=5 Q=5 Q = 20

94

French page 92

Transients

Consider a mass-spring system which is at rest at t = 0 when a driving force is turned on.

d 2x Equation of motion: m 2 + kx = F0 cos t dt F0 d 2x 2 + 0 x = cos t or 2 dt m F0 m cos t Then x = 2 2 (0 )

(no damping)

But what are the adjustable constants of integration?

F0 m when the force is switched on, then x jumps from 0 to 2 2 ! (0 )


95

Transients 2 F0 d 2x 2 + 0 x = cos t has solution x1 Say that 2 dt m d 2x and has solution x2 + 0 2 x = 0 2 dt F0 d 2x 2 + 0 x = cos t Then x1 + x2 is also a solution to 2 dt m
The complete solution of the forced-motion equation is F0 m x(t ) = B cos(0t + ) + C cos t where C = 2 (0 2 ) Initial conditions:

x = 0 at t = 0 : dx = 0 at t = 0 : dt

0 = B cos + C

= 0 or
B = C
96

0 = 0 B sin

Transients 3
Then

x(t ) = C ( cos t cos 0t )

Beats!

Since cos t 1

2t 2
2 as expected

2 F0 m (0 2 )t 2 1 F0 2 = t then x 2 2 (0 ) 2 2m

97

Transients 4
If damping is present then:

x(t ) = Be

t
2

cos(1t + ) + A cos (t ) steady state term

where:

transient term

1 = 0 2
F0 m

2
4

A( ) =
off resonance:

2 (0 2 ) 2 + 2 2

tan ( ) = 2 (0 2 )

at resonance:
98

A damped oscillator free oscillations at natural frequency 0

t
2 0

A driving force F with < 0


2

The resulting displacement of the oscillator

t
Transient t < 5 Steady state t > 5
99

A damped oscillator free oscillations at natural frequency 0

2 0 A driving force F with > 0

t
2

The resulting displacement of the oscillator

x t
Transient
t <5

Steady state t > 5

100

A damped oscillator free oscillations at natural frequency 0

t
2 0 A driving force F with 0

F t
The resulting displacement of the oscillator

x t
Transient beats Steady state
101

An oscillator driven at resonance driving frequency = natural frequency 0

F t
switch off F

switch on F x

Initial transient

Steady state

Switch off transient

102

French page 96

The power absorbed by a driven oscillator

We now consider the power required to keep an oscillator vibrating with constant amplitude.

F (t ) = F0 cos t

and

x(t ) = A( ) cos(t )
v(t ) = A( )sin(t )

Power P = Fv = A( ) F0 cos t sin(t ) = A( ) F0 cos t {sin t cos cos t sin } = F0 A( ) cos 2 t sin F0 A( ) cos t sin t cos Now 1 cos t = 2
2

and

cos t sin t = 0

Therefore

P = 1 F0 A( )sin 2
103

The power absorbed by a driven oscillator 2


A( ) = P = F0 A( )sin
1 2

F0 m
2 (0 2 ) 2 + 2 2

tan = 2 (0 2 ) sin = 2 (0 2 ) + 2 2
2 (0 2 ) + 2 2

P = F0
1 2

F0 m
2 (0 2 ) 2 + 2 2

or

F02 2 1 P( ) = 2 2m (0 2 ) 2 + 2 2
2 0

F 0 Can show that P( ) = 2kQ

1 0 + 2 0 Q
2

104

The power absorbed by a driven oscillator 3


A( ) = F0 m
2 (0 2 ) 2 + 2 2

F02 2 1 and P( ) = 2 2m (0 2 ) 2 + 2 2

A( ) drops to 1

2 of its maximum value at = 0 2

so P( ) will drop to 1 2 its maximum value at these frequencies

P( ) P(0 )
1 2

: Full Width at
2 Half Maximum (FWHM)

P (0 )

0 at = 0

0 + 0

105

An alternative form for A( ) for high Q oscillators close to resonance F0 m A( ) = 2 (0 2 ) 2 + 2 2


2 (0 2 ) 2 = (0 + ) 2 (0 ) 2

(20 ) 2 (0 ) 2 near resonance Near resonance, 0 A( ) =

F0 m
2 2 40 (0 ) 2 + 0 2

A( ) =

F0 m
20 (0 ) 2 + 2 4
106

Near resonance A( ) =

F0 m
20 (0 ) 2 + 2 4

2 The energy E = 1 mvmax = 1 m 2 A2 ( ) 2 2

= 1 m 2 2

2 40 {(0 ) 2 + 2 4}

( F0 m )

F02 2 1 =m 2 8m0 (0 ) 2 + 2 4 this form is encountered in various branches of physics e.g. the Breit-Wigner formula in nuclear physics lineshape 1

( E0 E )

+ 4
2

(E = )
107

French page 105

Optical resonance

Atoms behave like sharply tuned oscillators in the processes of emitting and absorbing light. Example: Fraunhofer lines in the absorption spectrum of the sun which are the result of resonant absorption processes Doppler broadening of the spectral lines is about 100 times greater than any effect due to the true lifetime of the radiating atom!

intensity
5850

5900

5950

6000
108

wavelength ()

French page 108

Nuclear resonance

Nuclear cross sections ( E ) display resonances at certain energies, which depend on the particular reaction and incident energy E0 Many of these resonances can be well-described by the equation

(E) =

4 ( E0 E ) +1 2
2

( E0 )

: FWHM

109

French page 109

Nuclear magnetic resonance

Atomic nuclei are limited to only a few discrete orientations when placed in a magnetic field. protons have only two orientations and can be caused to flip from one state to the other, in a magnetic field, by injecting electromagnetic radiation of just the right frequency for protons in a magnetic field of 5000 G, the resonance frequency is about 21 MHz can observe a voltage which varies (resonantly) as a function of frequency and can be described by V ( B) = 4 ( B0 B ) V0
2

( B )

+1

nuclear magnetic resonance Nobel Prize in physics (1952): F. Bloch and E.M. Purcell

110

V0 e I

jt

A.C.: A resistive circuit


I0 VR0 t

R V0 e jt = VR IR = VR 0 e jt VR 0 jt e = I 0 e jt I = R Current in phase with voltage Im I0 VR0 VR

Phasor:

t
I Re
111

V0 e jt I L V0 e
jt

A.C.: An inductive circuit


I0 VL0 t

= VL Im

dI d VL = L = L ( I 0 e jt ) = j LI dt dt
V0 jt V0 VL I = = ( j )e jt e = j L j L L

I0

V0 j(t e I = L

2)

j = e j

VL0 VL

t
I
112

Current lags voltage by 2

Re

V0 e I

jt

A.C.: A capacitive circuit


I0 VC0 t

C V0 e jt = VC Q = CVC = CV0 e jt dQ = jCV0 e jt I= dt dQ j t + = CV0 e ( I= dt


j = e j
2) 2

Im

I0

t
VC VC0 I Re
113

Current leads voltage by 2

A resistive circuit

An inductive circuit

A capacitive circuit

114

I V0 cos t R L C

A.C.: LRC circuit


V0 cos t = VL + VR + VC

French page 102

d 2Q dQ 1 L 2 + R + Q = V0 cos t dt dt C I= dQ dt

d 2I dI 1 dV L 2 + R + I = dt dt C dt I will be of the form I 0 e jt

1 Therefore write ( j ) LI + j RI + I = jV C 1 Rearrange: R + j L + I =V jC


2

115

1 R + j L + I =V jC

LRC circuit 2
the impedance Z

call R + j L +

1 jC

which is the a.c. analogue of resistance. Write Z = R + j L j C

Circuit element
resistance inductance capacitance

Impendence
R j L j C
116

LRC circuit 3
Write V = IZ Z1 Z1 Z2 Z = Z1 + Z 2 1 1 1 = + Z Z1 Z 2

Impedance is complex: 1 Z = R + j L C or Z = Z e j where Z = R + ( L 1 C )


2 2

Z2

can use Kirchhoffs Rules, Thenevins theorem, etc.

and tan =

( L 1 C )
R
117

LRC circuit 4
I V0 cos t R L C = V0 e jt V I= = Z R + j ( L 1 C ) = V0 e jt R + ( L 1 C )
2 2

e j e
j (t )

V0 R + ( L 1 C )
2 2

and the physical current is

V0 R 2 + ( L 1 C ) V0 R 2 + ( L 1 C )
2 2

cos (t )

The current has amplitude

and lags the applied voltage by .

118

LRC circuit 5
V = IZ VL VL VC

VR = IR VC

At high frequencies the impedance of the inductance is dominant, the phase lag is positive, i.e. the current lags the voltage.

119

LRC circuit 6
I VR = IR VL

V = IZ

VL VC VC At low frequencies the impedance of the capacitance is dominant, the phase lag is negative, i.e. the current leads the voltage.
120

LRC circuit 7
The amplitude and phase lag depend on frequency. as ( L 1 C ) 0 the current amplitude is a maximum. 1 For L = C , 2 = 1 LC

i.e. the amplitude is a maximum when the applied frequency is equal to the natural frequency of the (undamped) oscillator. 1 At resonance L = the circuit behaves like a C pure resistance. V I = 0 cos t =0 R
121

I ( ) I (0 ) I (0 ) 2

phase 2 lag 4 0

( )

0 +

4 2

122

R C L

Oscillations in an LRC circuit an energy approach

Power dissipated in resistor = rate of decrease of stored energy d 1 Q2 1 2 I 2R = 2 + 2 LI dt C


2 2 dQ d 1 Q 2 1 dQ + 2 L R + 2 =0 dt C dt dt 2 dQ Q dQ dQ d 2Q +L =0 R+ 2 C dt dt dt dt

dQ dt R 1 = and 123 L LC

d 2Q dQ 2 2 + + 0 Q = 0 dt dt

with 0 =

k b
x

R m C V0 cos t

F0 d x dx 2 + + 0 x = cos t 2 dt dt m b = m k = m
2 0

d 2Q dQ 1 + Q = V0 cos t L 2 +R dt dt C R = L

02 =

1 LC

x(t ) = A( ) cos(t ) x(t ) = A ( ) cos(t ) where F0 m V0 L A( ) = A ( ) = 2 2 2 2 2 2 (0 ) + (0 2 ) 2 + 2 2

Hence

tan ( ) = 2 (0 2 )

tan ( ) = 2 (0 2 )

124

LRC resonance CI laboratory experiment R


C VR V0 L Given C (= 0.0914 F) ... find L and R from resonance curve V0 cos t

Frequency (kHz)
125