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Part 1 Simple harmonic oscillators Damped oscillators Driven oscillators Resonance covering (more or less) French Chapters 1, 3 & 4

Andy Buffler

Department of Physics University of Cape Town

andy.buffler@uct.ac.za

1

with significant acknowledgment to the notes of Steve Driver, who was brilliant for decades the animated gifs are from Dr. Daniel A. Russell, Kettering University (http://www.kettering.edu/~drussell/)

PHY2014F What to do in this course: 1. Read the relevant sections in the textbook the course notes will guide you. 2. Do all homework and problem sets. 3. Get help early from AB, the course tutor Gary Tupper, 4. As in PHY1004W, there are no shortcuts put effort in to understand things

Problem-solving and homework Each week you will be given a take-home problem set to complete and hand in for marks ... In addition to this, you need to work through the following problems in French, in you own time, at home. You will not be asked to hand these in for marks. Get help from you friends, the course tutor, lecturer, ... Do not take shortcuts. Mastering these problems is a fundamental aspect of this course. The problems associated with Part 1 are: 1-8, 1-11, 1-12, 2-1, 3-1, 3-2, 3-3, 3-4, 3-5, 3-6, 3-8, 3-9, 3-11, 3-14, 3-15, 4-3, 4-4, 4-5, 4-7, 4-10, 4-11, 4-12, 4-13, 4-14, 4-15, 4-16, 4-17 You might find these tougher: 3-7, 3-10, 3-16, 3-17, 3-18, 4-8, 4-9

4

sin ( 2 A ) = cos A

sin ( A ) = sin A cos ( A ) = cos A tan ( A ) = tan A sin ( A B ) = sin A cos B cos A sin B cos ( A B ) = cos A cos B sin A sin B tan A tan B tan ( A B ) = 1 tan A tan B

cos ( 2 A ) = cos 2 A sin 2 A = 1 2sin 2 A 2 tan A tan ( 2 A ) = 1 tan 2 A

A+ B A B sin A + sin B = 2sin cos 2 2 A+ B A B sin A sin B = 2cos sin 2 2 A+ B A B cos A + cos B = 2cos cos 2 2 A+ B A B cos A cos B = 2sin sin 2 2

sin A sin B = 1 cos ( A B ) cos ( A + B ) 2 cos A cos B = 1 cos ( A B ) + cos ( A + B ) 2 sin A cos B = 1 sin ( A + B ) + sin ( A B ) 2 cos A sin B = 1 sin ( A + B ) sin ( A B ) 2

6

Oscillatory Phenomena

observed in many physical systems from the very small(e.g. dipole resonance in nuclei) to the very large (earthquake waves, stars,) Mechanical systems to electrical systems from violin strings to lasers

All periodic phenomena can be represented as the sum of sine and cosine functions: x(t ) = (an cos nt + bn sin nt ) useful to study the simple harmonic oscillator

7

T

3 2

4 2 t

some books use 1 f = T : angular frequency (rad s-1) where f : frequency (Hz)

k

Frestore

compessed

Fexternal

x

Frestore = k x

where x = x x 0

extended

and k is the spring constant [N m-1] x dp Start with the = Fnet x0 x momentum principle: dt dpx For horizontal forces on the mass: = kx dt d dx d (mvx ) = kx or m = kx dt dt dt d 2x k 2 = x 9 dt m

Frestore Fexternal

d 2 x(t ) k = x(t ) 2 dt m ... a second order differential equation ... we know that if we displace a mass-spring system from its rest position and then release it, it will perform SHM ...

2

k and substitute into our DE: A cos(t + ) = A cos(t + ) m k ... which is true provided 2 = m k Therefore our solution is x(t ) = A cos(t + ) where = m10

We will write a particular value of as 0 , as the natural angular frequency of the oscillator the frequency that it wants to oscillate at.

k Mass-spring system: 0 = m

and

m T = 2 k

0

A,

11

x(t ) = A cos(0t + ) dx(t ) = A0 sin(0t + ) v(t ) = dt d 2 x(t ) dv(t ) = = A0 2 cos(0t + ) a (t ) = dt 2 dt acceleration = (constant) . (displacement)

2 = A0 cos(0t + ) 2 = A0 cos(0t + + )

French page 5

Phase difference between acceleration and displacement is Phase difference between v and x (and v & a ) is

2

12

13

t v(t ) = A0 sin(0t + ) t

At t = 0, write x = x0 and v = v0.

Then at t = 0 :

x0 = A cos( ) v0 = 0 A sin( )

2 2

v0 tan = 0 x0

and

v0 x0 + = A2 cos 2 ( ) + A2 sin 2 ( ) = A2 0

v0 A = x0 + 0

2 2

14

m Equilibrium v m x

2 Kinetic energy of mass = 1 mv 2

x x

0 0

There are no dissipative mechanisms in our model (no friction). the total energy of the mass-spring system is conserved.

1 2

mv 2 + 1 kx 2 = constant 2

15

For our mass-spring system:

1 2

mv 2 + 1 kx 2 = constant 2

d 1 2 1 2 ( 2 mv + 2 kx ) = 0 dt dv dx mv + kx = 0 dt dt dv mv + kxv = 0 dt dv m + kx = 0 dt d 2x k 2 = x dt m

as before

16

For the mass-spring system: x = A cos(0t + ) Potential energy = k.e. =

1 2 1 2

French page 42

2 = 1 kA2 cos 2 (0t + ) + 1 mA20 sin 2 (0t + ) 2 2

k 2 v = ( A x2 ) m

1 2

( E A2 )

kx 2 + 1 mv 2 = 1 kA2 2 2 or

v( x) = 0 A2 x 2 (useful)

17

x = A cos(0t + ) 0 t

2 k.e. = 1 kA20 sin 2 (0t + ) 2

18

equilibrium unstretched displaced

L0

Equilibrium: Displaced:

k ( L L0 ) = mg

x

= k ( L L0 ) + kx

= mg + kx (upwards)

Net force on mass: mg (mg + kx) = kx (downwards) d 2x m 2 = kx dt (Same equation as for horizontal case)

19

20

French page 51

frictionless pivot

Displaced:

In displaced position, centre of mass is L L cos above the equilibrium position. Recall cos = 1

2

2!

4

4!

...

2

2

2

2

21

Gravitational potential energy = Kinetic energy =

1 2 1 2

mgL 2

d I dt

2

22

Sometimes we need the moment of inertia about an axis parallel to the axis through the centre of mass (which might be easier to calculate). Then by the parallel axis theorem: I = I CM + mL2 ... where I is the moment of inertia a distance L from the centre of mass, under the condition that the two axes of rotation are parallel. mgL Then for the pendulum: 0 = I CM + mL2 write: Then I CM = mk 2 ... where k is the radius of gyration

gL 0 = 2 2 k +L

and

k 2 + L2 T = 2 gL

23

Simple harmonic systems In general, to show SHM . get an equation of motion of the form:

d 2 2 = 0 dt 2

k 2# = then: 0 = * m

1 2

kx 2

Elasticity and Youngs modulus Floating objects Pendulums Water in a U-tube Torsional oscillations 24 The spring of air

I = mL2 L m

mgL 0 = = 2 mL g L

L T = 2 g

pivot

radius a, mass m

g 0 = 2a

25

md 2 I= + mL2 12

0 =

mgL g = 2 2 1 md + mL d 2 12 L + L 12

radius a, mass m d

ma = ( a 2 w g ) x

get 0 =

g l

26

Elasticity

French page 45

A F L F

L+x

Elastic oscillations

Here F is restoring force in wire

F m

AYx Hence ma = L

and 0 =

AY mL

27

ball radius a, mass m, density b If pressure change in flask is adiabatic:

P, V

= P PV = constant where CV 3 Pa 0 = 4 bV

Water sloshing in a U-tube

U-tube radius a Water volume V use conservation of energy

28

2g a 2 0 = V

tough ?

h

2L

3 gh 0 = L2

radius a, mass m tough ?

0 =

15 g 26a

29

French page 60

k, M m

l 3 l 3

2

l 3

1 M s dx k.e. of element of spring lying between s and ds = ds l dt 2 l 2 2 M dx l 2 M dx Total kinetic energy of spring = 3 s ds = 2l dt 0 6 dt 2 2 1 dx 1 2 M dx Total energy of mass-spring system = m + kx + 2 dt 2 6 dt k giving 0 = 30 m+M 3

x3

2x 3

French page 10

Complex numbers

Consider a vector OP of length r which rotates with angular velocity The point P has coordinates y = r sin t x = r cos t

y r t

O

We see that the x coordinate of P, or the projection of OP onto the x-axis, executes SHM

and write r = x + y i j

r

P y j

31

x i

Complex numbers 2 Modify our notation to z = x + jy ... where x means a displacement in the x-direction and jy means a displacement in the y-direction

z = a + jb z a b

jb b

... really talking about vectors in the complex number plane:

j2b

Imaginary

Hence j2 = 1

z a

z = a + jb b

Real

32

Complex numbers 3

and cos = 1

2

2!

4

4!

+ ... and

j 3 j sin = j + ... 3!

Euler relation

Hence Then

e j = cos + j sin

z = a + jb = z e z = a +b tan = b a

2 2

Imaginary

where

b = z sin

Real

33

a = z cos

e =1

j0

j 4

1 2

+j

1 2

j 2

= j

e j = 1

e j 2 = 1

34

Imaginary

t

x

y

Real

Now write: Ae j (t + ) = A cos(t + ) + jA sin(t + ) ... and remember that the physical quantity x (e.g. a displacement) is the real part of z : i.e. x = Re[z]

35

French page 14

d 2x 2 + 0 x = 0 dt 2

becomes

Using z = x + jy Try z = Ae j (t + )

d 2z 2 + 0 z = 0 dt 2

A( j ) 2 e j (t + ) + 2 Ae j (t + ) = 0

Therefore z = Ae j (t + )

is the most general solution A and are determined from the initial conditions.

x = Re[z] = A cos(0t + )

36

z = Ae j (t + )

dz = j Ae j (t + ) = j z dt

d 2z 2 = ( j ) Ae j (t + ) = 2 z dt 2

d 2z d 2x = Re 2 2 dt dt

37

Let x = Be pt

Substituting into DE:

2 Bp 2 e pt + B0 e pt = 0

How to get B1 and B2 ? need to know the initial conditions

38

continued

x = A cos 0t

[ with a little more effort we could have got the more general solution x = A cos (0t + ) ]

39

Example: 3-phase current Large scale electrical power transmission makes use of 3 phases

I1 V1 V2 V3 I2 I3

Return current

I1 + I 2 + I 3

R1

R2

R3

The three voltages are 120 out of phase with each other

40

V1 = V0 e jt V2 = V0 e j (t +2 3) V3 = V0 e j (t +4 3) V0 e jt t V0 e j (t +2 3)

t = 3

0

t V0 e j (t +4 3) t

41

I 2 = V2 R 2 I 3 = V3 R 3

V0 jt I1 = e R V0 j (t +2 3) I2 = e R V0 j (t +4 3) I3 = e R

Return current I = I1 + I 2 + I 3

V0 jt = e {1 + e j 2 3 + e j 4 3 } R =0

e j 2 3 e j 4 3

42

A short diversion A.C. Consider the heating effect of alternating current in a resistor. At any instant P = VI = I 2 R For I = I 0 cos t , P = I 02 R cos 2 t Then the average power heating: P = I 02 R cos 2 t I

cos t = 0

I 0 cos t t

P

cos 2 t =

1 2

I 02 R cos 2 t t

43

A.C. 2

Then the average power heating: P = I 02 R cos 2 t

1 2 I0 = I0 R = R 2 2

2

a direct current of magnitude I 0 2 would have the same heating power as an alternating current of amplitude I 0 . I 0 2 is known as the effective value of the current, or the root mean square value. With respect to the 50 Hz a.c. mains in South Africa: the r.m.s. voltage is quoted as 220 volts Hence V0

2 = 220

44

back to three phase power What is the maximum voltage between two of the lines? e.g. what is (V1 V2 )maximum ? 2V0

A.C. 3 V1 = V0 e jt V2 = V0 e j (t +2 3) V3 = V0 e j (t +4 3) V1 V2

V2 = V0 e V0

Voltage

j (t + 2 3)

V0 2V0 V1 = V0 e jt t

45

V1 V2 = V0 e jt V0 e j (t +2 3) = V0 e jt {1 e j 2 3 }

2 2 = V0 e 1 cos j sin 3 3 1 3 jt = V0 e 1 + j 2 2

jt

A.C. 4

V1 = V0 e jt V2 = V0 e j (t +2 3)

1 e

e j 2 3

1 e j 2 3

j 2 3

1 3 = V0 e 1 + j 2 2 = V0 e jt 3e j

jt

( )

3 2 2

( )

3 2

= 3

1 e j 2 3 = 3e j

3

= 539 volts

46

Resistor R

V = IR

P = I 2R

Capacitor C

Q V = C

Inductor L

Q2 W=1 2 C

dI V = L dt

where

W = 1 LI 2 2 dQ I= dt

47

Suppose the capacitor is uncharged at t = 0. At some time t > 0, a current I is established and a charge Q builds up on the capacitor. Energy equation for this circuit: or

R

+Q

Q Q = RI = 0 C

Vround trip

Q dQ Q = RI + = R + C dt C Differential equation

48

t RC Solution: Q(t ) = C 1 e

0.63 /R

t RC Q(t ) = C 1 e RC = time constant

dQ(t ) I (t ) = dt t =

VC(t)

RC

VC = ( VR ) = ( IR ) = (1 e )

t

VR(t)

VR = ( VC )

= e

49

Suppose the capacitor has charge Q0 at t = 0. At some time t > 0, a current I is established as the charge drains off the capacitor.

R +Q Q C

Energy equation for this circuit: Vround trip = RI + Q = 0 C or 0 = RI + Q = R dQ + Q C dt C dQ 1 1 = dt Write giving ln Q = t+K Q RC RC or Q(t ) = Q0 e

t RC

K = ln Q0

50

Q(t ) = Q0 e t t

t

Q0 t Q VC = e = C C

VR(t)

t t

Q0/C

RQ0 t VR = IR = e RC Q0 t = e 51 C

52

Suppose the current in the circuit is zero at t = 0. At some time t > 0, a current I is established. I R

dI = RI L = 0 dt

dI R + I = dt L L Differential equation I (t ) =

Solution:

1 e R

R t L

53

I (t ) = 1 e R R/L = time constant

R t L

t

dI (t ) R t = e L dt L

VL = ( VR ) = ( IR ) = e

t

VR(t)

VR = ( VL ) t = (1 e )

t

54

R t I (t ) = C 1 e L R/L = time constant

t t

dI (t ) Rt = e L dt L

R t dI (t ) VL = L = e L dt

VR(t)

VR = IR = e t

55

C Q +Q L

Oscillations in an LC circuit

Capacitor fully charged at t = 0. At t > 0, charge on capacitor decreases, giving current in the direction shown. dQ I = dt

= V

1 LC

d 2Q 1 Hence: = Q 2 dt LC

56

Q2 Energy stored in capacitor: E = 1 2 C Energy stored in inductor: E = 1 LI 2 2 No dissipation (circuit has zero resistance) Q2 1 2 1 + 2 LI = constant 2 C d 1 Q2 1 2 2 + 2 LI = 0 dt C Q dQ dI dQ + LI = 0 I = C dt dt dt Q d dQ L = 0 C dt dt d 2Q 1 = Q as before or 2 dt LC

57

58

Mechanical

displacement x velocity v mass m spring constant k

k 0 = m

Electrical

charge Q current I inductance L 1 1 capacitance C

0 =

1 LC

1 2 2

1 2

Q2 1 2 C LI 2

59

French page 62

Damped oscillations

We have thus far neglected all dissipative mechanisms our oscillations can continue oscillating with the same amplitude forever Various physical damping mechanisms will contribute towards the damping friction between mass and table air resistance internal friction in spring . model these by introducing a damping force which is proportional to the velocity of the oscillator

60

liquid seal piston with small holes

In these systems, the damping force R = bv deals with many damping mechanism but not all talk about viscous damping resistive damping mechanical systems electrical systems

61

b

k m

x

2

ma = kx bv d 2x dx m 2 = kx b dt dt

where

k 0 = m b = m

s-1

life time =

62

d 2x dx + + 0 2 x = 0 dt 2 dt Let x = Be pt dx = Bpe pt Then dt d 2x = Bp 2 e pt dt 2

and

p=

p 2 + p + 0 2 = 0

1 2

2 40 2

}

63

or

p= 2

2

4

0 2

p= 2

2

4

0 2

0 >

2

2

4

Oscillatory behaviour

2

4

Critical damping

2

4

Overdamping

64

Case (i):

0 2 >

2

4

2 4 0 2 = ( 0 2 2 4 )

Put

12 = 0 2 2 4 2 p = 1 = j1

2 2

( x = Be

1

+ j1 t 2

) + B e( 2

j1 t

) = e

leading to x(t ) = Ae

t

2

{B e

1

j1t

+ B2 e j1t

cos(1t + )

This is an oscillatory solution A cos(1t + ) multiplied by a damping factor e t 2 . As 0 we approach our undamped oscillator.

65

no damping

cos(0t + )

e t 2 0 with damping

66

Case (ii):

0 2 =

2

4

2

2t

If 0 2 < 2 4 a system released from rest will oscillate. As is increased the oscillations decay more rapidly, until at 0 2 = 2 4 oscillation no longer occurs. [ many practical applications ]

67

Case (iii):

0 2 < 2

4

2

4

p= 2 = 2

0 2 say

2 2

The condition 0 2 <

2

4

is referred to as overdamping

68

0 = 5

Oscillatory

t

0 = 0.5

t

0 = 0.05

t

69

0 = 5

Oscillatory

t

0 = 0.5 0 = 0.05

t

t

70

Q: quality factor or the Q of the oscillator gives a measure of damping time period

e.g. for Q = 10

Note also 1 < 0 Damping increases the period of the oscillator, as one may intuitively expect.

71

Q=5 t Q = 15 t Q = 50 t

72

The differential equation d 2x dx + + 0 2 x = 0 dt 2 dt

has the general solution x(t ) = Ae where 1 = 0 2 2 4 the two constants A and must be determined by some initial conditions A subtle point:

t

2

cos(1t + )

A Ae

0

t

2

A is not the amplitude it is a constant related to the initial amplitude by (initial amplitude) = A cos

73

For a lightly damped oscillator, the amplitude is slowly varying Total energy of the undamped oscillator: E = 1 kA2 2

2 For the lightly damped oscillator: E = k Ae = 1 kA2 e t 2 E (t )

1 2

E0 E0 e

1

E (t ) = E0 e t

e t t

Then:

dE P= = E0 e t = E dt

74

x(t ) = Ae

displacement

t

2

cos(1t + )

energy

E (t ) = E0 e

t

75

Now write:

Q=

E = 0 P

1 1 1 0 Q = T 2 2

e.g. a oscillator having Q = 10 performs 1.6 cycles in one lifetime which may be regarded as quite significant damping

76

77

French page 78

k b

x

We now look at oscillators which are subject to an externally applied force F (t ) = F0 cos t

F (t )

F

2

= max

F0 cos t kx bv = ma

F0 d x dx 2 + + 0 x = cos t 2 dt dt m

0 2 = k / m

= b/m

78

Equation of motion:

F0 d 2x dx 2 + + 0 x = cos t 2 dt dt m

Two parts observed to the motion of the system: Transient response: while the system continues to oscillate at its natural frequency 0 which dies out with the characteristic 1 decay time. Steady state response: at times >> 1 the response has the same frequency as the applied force Observe also that there might be a phase difference (usually a lag) between the response and the driving force For F (t ) = F0 cos t write x(t ) = A cos(t )

79

Using complex numbers: F (t ) = F0 e jt Then

j (t ) and x(t ) = Ae

dx = j Ae j (t ) dt

and

d 2x = 2 Ae j (t ) dt 2

Substituting into our differential equation of motion: F0 jt 2 j (t ) j (t ) 2 j (t ) Ae + ( j ) Ae + 0 Ae = e m Divide by e jt since this holds for all t : ( + j + ) Ae

2 2 0

j

or

F0 j {( ) + j} A = m e F0 = ( cos + j sin ) m

2 0 2

F0 = m

80

F0 {( ) + j} A = m ( cos + j sin )

2 0 2 2 (0 2 ) A =

F0 cos m

A =

Then tan =

2

2 (0 2 )

2

F0 sin m

2 2 0 2 2 2 2 2

or

A( ) =

F0 m

2 (0 2 ) 2 + 2 2

81

Steady state solution of is where

F0 x + x + 0 x = cos t m

2

x(t ) = A( ) cos(t ) F0 m

2 (0 2 ) 2 + 2 2

A( ) =

and

tan ( ) =

2 (0 2 )

82

Resonance

Note (for now) that A( ) has a maximum at a frequency m slightly less than 0 see later At low frequencies, 0 F0 m F0 m F0 m F0 A( ) = = 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 2 2 k 0 (0 ) + 0 + The amplitude is approximately F0 k which is the amplitude for a steady force the oscillator behaviour is determined essentially by the spring (or the capacitor) i.e. the oscillator is spring limited And

1 2 = tan ( ) = 2 2 (0 ) 0 Q 0

i.e. tan 1 is small the response is almost in phase with the driving force.

83

Resonance 2

At high frequencies, 0 F0 m F0 m F0 m A( ) = 2 2 2 2 2 4 2 2 (0 ) + + 4 + 2 02 Q 2 F0 = m 2 the oscillator is inertia limited And i.e.

0 1 1 0 2 = = = tan ( ) = 2 2 (0 ) Q Q

tan is small and negative

84

Resonance 3

In the resonance region , 0

F0 F0 F0 A( ) = = =Q 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 k 0 m 0 b (0 ) + 0

the oscillator amplitude is strongly dependent on the damping constant b it is resistance limited

F0 m

F0 m

2 the response lags the driving force by

.

85

A(0 ) =

F0 m

0 + 2 2

Resonance 4

2 2 2 Close to resonance, it is the (0 ) term which gives the rapid variation with frequency as we move away from 0 we see 1 that we will get A( ) = A(0 ) 2

when:

1 F0 / m = 2 2 2 2 2 2 0 2 2 (0 ) + 0

2 (0 2 ) = 0

F0 / m

(0 + )(0 ) = 0 20 (0 ) = 0 (0 ) =

2 then = 0

1 When A( ) = A(0 ) 2

2

86

A( ) A(0 ) A(0 )

2

F0 k

( )

3 4

0 +

2 4

0

87

French page 89

Resonance 5

At

= 0 +

and = 0

is decreased by 1

These two frequencies are known as the half power frequencies and is known as the resonance width

Q= can be understood to be

0

resonance frequency

width of resonance curve at half power points as the damping term decreases, i.e. as Q increases, the resonance curve gets sharper

88

e x(t )

t

2

slow decay

A( )

narrow resonance

89

x(t )

t

2

rapid decay

A( )

broad resonance

90

E (t ) E0 E0 e

1

Free vibration

E (t ) = E0 e t e t

Lifetime =

t

A( )

Forced vibration

Resonance width =

91

A( ) = F0 m

2 (0 2 ) 2 + 2 2

Q = 8 , m = 0.9960

92

What is the maximum value of A( ) ? 1 F0 m Substitute m = 0 1 into A( ) = 2 2Q 2 (0 2 ) 2 + 2 2 QA(0) and find Amax = A(m ) = 1 1 4Q 2

A( ) A(m )

m 0

93

Q = 20

Q=5 Q=5 Q = 20

94

French page 92

Transients

Consider a mass-spring system which is at rest at t = 0 when a driving force is turned on.

(no damping)

95

Transients 2 F0 d 2x 2 + 0 x = cos t has solution x1 Say that 2 dt m d 2x and has solution x2 + 0 2 x = 0 2 dt F0 d 2x 2 + 0 x = cos t Then x1 + x2 is also a solution to 2 dt m

The complete solution of the forced-motion equation is F0 m x(t ) = B cos(0t + ) + C cos t where C = 2 (0 2 ) Initial conditions:

x = 0 at t = 0 : dx = 0 at t = 0 : dt

0 = B cos + C

= 0 or

B = C

96

0 = 0 B sin

Transients 3

Then

Beats!

Since cos t 1

2t 2

2 as expected

2 F0 m (0 2 )t 2 1 F0 2 = t then x 2 2 (0 ) 2 2m

97

Transients 4

If damping is present then:

x(t ) = Be

t

2

where:

transient term

1 = 0 2

F0 m

2

4

A( ) =

off resonance:

2 (0 2 ) 2 + 2 2

tan ( ) = 2 (0 2 )

at resonance:

98

t

2 0

2

t

Transient t < 5 Steady state t > 5

99

t

2

x t

Transient

t <5

100

t

2 0 A driving force F with 0

F t

The resulting displacement of the oscillator

x t

Transient beats Steady state

101

F t

switch off F

switch on F x

Initial transient

Steady state

102

French page 96

We now consider the power required to keep an oscillator vibrating with constant amplitude.

F (t ) = F0 cos t

and

x(t ) = A( ) cos(t )

v(t ) = A( )sin(t )

Power P = Fv = A( ) F0 cos t sin(t ) = A( ) F0 cos t {sin t cos cos t sin } = F0 A( ) cos 2 t sin F0 A( ) cos t sin t cos Now 1 cos t = 2

2

and

cos t sin t = 0

Therefore

P = 1 F0 A( )sin 2

103

A( ) = P = F0 A( )sin

1 2

F0 m

2 (0 2 ) 2 + 2 2

tan = 2 (0 2 ) sin = 2 (0 2 ) + 2 2

2 (0 2 ) + 2 2

P = F0

1 2

F0 m

2 (0 2 ) 2 + 2 2

or

F02 2 1 P( ) = 2 2m (0 2 ) 2 + 2 2

2 0

1 0 + 2 0 Q

2

104

A( ) = F0 m

2 (0 2 ) 2 + 2 2

F02 2 1 and P( ) = 2 2m (0 2 ) 2 + 2 2

A( ) drops to 1

P( ) P(0 )

1 2

: Full Width at

2 Half Maximum (FWHM)

P (0 )

0 at = 0

0 + 0

105

2 (0 2 ) 2 = (0 + ) 2 (0 ) 2

F0 m

2 2 40 (0 ) 2 + 0 2

A( ) =

F0 m

20 (0 ) 2 + 2 4

106

Near resonance A( ) =

F0 m

20 (0 ) 2 + 2 4

= 1 m 2 2

2 40 {(0 ) 2 + 2 4}

( F0 m )

F02 2 1 =m 2 8m0 (0 ) 2 + 2 4 this form is encountered in various branches of physics e.g. the Breit-Wigner formula in nuclear physics lineshape 1

( E0 E )

+ 4

2

(E = )

107

Optical resonance

Atoms behave like sharply tuned oscillators in the processes of emitting and absorbing light. Example: Fraunhofer lines in the absorption spectrum of the sun which are the result of resonant absorption processes Doppler broadening of the spectral lines is about 100 times greater than any effect due to the true lifetime of the radiating atom!

intensity

5850

5900

5950

6000

108

wavelength ()

Nuclear resonance

Nuclear cross sections ( E ) display resonances at certain energies, which depend on the particular reaction and incident energy E0 Many of these resonances can be well-described by the equation

(E) =

4 ( E0 E ) +1 2

2

( E0 )

: FWHM

109

Atomic nuclei are limited to only a few discrete orientations when placed in a magnetic field. protons have only two orientations and can be caused to flip from one state to the other, in a magnetic field, by injecting electromagnetic radiation of just the right frequency for protons in a magnetic field of 5000 G, the resonance frequency is about 21 MHz can observe a voltage which varies (resonantly) as a function of frequency and can be described by V ( B) = 4 ( B0 B ) V0

2

( B )

+1

nuclear magnetic resonance Nobel Prize in physics (1952): F. Bloch and E.M. Purcell

110

V0 e I

jt

I0 VR0 t

Phasor:

t

I Re

111

V0 e jt I L V0 e

jt

I0 VL0 t

= VL Im

dI d VL = L = L ( I 0 e jt ) = j LI dt dt

V0 jt V0 VL I = = ( j )e jt e = j L j L L

I0

V0 j(t e I = L

2)

j = e j

VL0 VL

t

I

112

Re

V0 e I

jt

I0 VC0 t

j = e j

2) 2

Im

I0

t

VC VC0 I Re

113

A resistive circuit

An inductive circuit

A capacitive circuit

114

I V0 cos t R L C

V0 cos t = VL + VR + VC

d 2Q dQ 1 L 2 + R + Q = V0 cos t dt dt C I= dQ dt

2

115

1 R + j L + I =V jC

LRC circuit 2

the impedance Z

call R + j L +

1 jC

Circuit element

resistance inductance capacitance

Impendence

R j L j C

116

LRC circuit 3

Write V = IZ Z1 Z1 Z2 Z = Z1 + Z 2 1 1 1 = + Z Z1 Z 2

2 2

Z2

and tan =

( L 1 C )

R

117

LRC circuit 4

I V0 cos t R L C = V0 e jt V I= = Z R + j ( L 1 C ) = V0 e jt R + ( L 1 C )

2 2

e j e

j (t )

V0 R + ( L 1 C )

2 2

V0 R 2 + ( L 1 C ) V0 R 2 + ( L 1 C )

2 2

cos (t )

118

LRC circuit 5

V = IZ VL VL VC

VR = IR VC

At high frequencies the impedance of the inductance is dominant, the phase lag is positive, i.e. the current lags the voltage.

119

LRC circuit 6

I VR = IR VL

V = IZ

VL VC VC At low frequencies the impedance of the capacitance is dominant, the phase lag is negative, i.e. the current leads the voltage.

120

LRC circuit 7

The amplitude and phase lag depend on frequency. as ( L 1 C ) 0 the current amplitude is a maximum. 1 For L = C , 2 = 1 LC

i.e. the amplitude is a maximum when the applied frequency is equal to the natural frequency of the (undamped) oscillator. 1 At resonance L = the circuit behaves like a C pure resistance. V I = 0 cos t =0 R

121

I ( ) I (0 ) I (0 ) 2

phase 2 lag 4 0

( )

0 +

4 2

122

R C L

2 2 dQ d 1 Q 2 1 dQ + 2 L R + 2 =0 dt C dt dt 2 dQ Q dQ dQ d 2Q +L =0 R+ 2 C dt dt dt dt

dQ dt R 1 = and 123 L LC

d 2Q dQ 2 2 + + 0 Q = 0 dt dt

with 0 =

k b

x

R m C V0 cos t

F0 d x dx 2 + + 0 x = cos t 2 dt dt m b = m k = m

2 0

d 2Q dQ 1 + Q = V0 cos t L 2 +R dt dt C R = L

02 =

1 LC

Hence

tan ( ) = 2 (0 2 )

tan ( ) = 2 (0 2 )

124

C VR V0 L Given C (= 0.0914 F) ... find L and R from resonance curve V0 cos t

Frequency (kHz)

125

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