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Writing I VT & DT

Versie: 2011-2012 Auteur(s) / samensteller(s): W. Driessen, M. den Draak, B. de Vries, R. Howard en C. van Bers

Table of contents
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Our Writing 1 Wiki 1.2 The CAE writing 1 exam

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3 4

CHAPTER 2. THE CAE EXAM TEXTS CHAPTER 3. THE WRITING PROCESS


3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Writing takes time The Prewriting phase Clustering From first draft to final draft

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6 6 7 8

CHAPTER 4. BASIC ENGLISH SENTENCE PATTERNS


4.1 Pattern one: Simple Sentence 4.2 Pattern two: Compound Sentence 4.3 Pattern three: Complex Sentence 4.4 common problems with sentence structure 4.4.1 Fragment Sentences 4.4.2 Run-On Sentences (Run-Ons) and Comma Splices

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10 10 11 12 12 12

CHAPTER 5. THE PARAGRAPHS


5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 What is a paragraph? Elements of a paragraph Adequate development When to start a new paragraph Show versus Tell: Producing Writing with Detail Structuring paragraphs in a complete text Unity and coherence in a complete text Proofreading and editing your product The CAE marking scheme Full stop or period Question mark Exclamation mark Comma Semicolon Colon Brackets or Parenthesis Dash Inverted commas or Quotation Marks Linking words connective phrases lexical connectors pronouns

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16 16 17 17 18

CHAPTER 6. THE COMPLETE TEXT

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21 22 22 30

CHAPTER 7. PUNCTUATION

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37 37 37 38 40 40 42 42 42

CHAPTER 8 COHESION WITH LINKING AND REFERENCE WORDS

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49 52 52 54

CHAPTER 9 VOCABULARY
9.1 false friends (faux amis) 9.2 compound words 9.3 derived words

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60 63 64

CHAPTER 10. PLAGIARISM

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CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
In this course you will be working on your writing skills using the writing assignments in the Cambridge Complete CAE Book . This reader provides additional materials on HOW and WHY you need to write, PUNCTUATION, SENTENCE PATTERNS, COHESION, VOCABULARY and PLAGIARISM. Mastering this difficult language skill usually demands a lot of practice in the form of writing a draft, revising the draft, using the language check on your computer, writing the definitive version, having this checked (by your peers and/or by your teacher) and rewriting it again. Since we often learn from our errors, we think it is best to keep track of all this hard work (writing and revising and rewriting) by putting and keeping it all in a PORTFOLIO. We have created a wiki environment on PB works for this course so that you can manage this portfolio digitally.

1.1 Our Writing 1 Wiki


We have created a wiki on www.pbworks.com. You can sign in using your Fontys email address. This shared working environment has been created for our writing 1 course so that we can share our writing assignments and streamline our feedback. How does it work? Each week you will upload your writing assignment into the folder that has been created for you. Please save your files as a Windows 7 document as follows: NAMEASSIGNMENTVERSION.DOC (your name & assignment name & version of assignment) In class, you will be matched with 1 critical friend who will evaluate your work and upload his/her comments into your folder. In addition, your tutor will also be your critical friend and will comment on your work. On the basis of all the feedback you get, you can, if necessary, rewrite your text and resubmit it. Your tutor will be able to track whether you have been successful in using the feedback to improve your writing. As a critical friend to others, you will also be able to compare your feedback with the feedback of other critical friends and fine-tune your feedback skills.
How to submit your writing assignments? Please indicate at the top of your page: Name of writer: Student number: Group: Use line space 1 and font size 11 or 12. Send essay plan, original version + editors notes, as well as rewritten / final version, in one document, please. Save document in Word with .doc extension; put your name in the file name. Name of editor: Assignment: Number of words:

1.2 The CAE writing 1 exam


At the end of the course, you will sit a CAE writing exam. The exam consists of two parts. You are required to complete two tasks: a compulsory one in Part 1 and one from a choice of four in Part 2. Timing 2 hours Task types: an article, a competition entry, a contribution to a longer piece, an essay, an information sheet, a letter, a proposal, a report, a review. Each task has a given purpose and a target reader. Marks: Each question on this paper carries equal marks. FROM THE CAE HANDBOOK STRUCTURE AND TASKS PART 1: QUESTION 1 Focus: Writing one of the following: an article, a report, a proposal, a letter. Focus on evaluating, expressing opinions, hypothesizing, persuading. Format Candidates are required to deal with input material of up to 150 words. This may include material taken from advertisements, extracts from letters, emails, postcards, diaries, short articles, etc. No. of tasks One compulsory task. length 180220 words. PART 2: QUESTIONS 24 Focus: Writing one of the following: an article, a competition entry, a contribution to a longer piece, an essay, an information sheet, a letter, a proposal, a report, a review. Format A writing task based on a specific situation and specified in no more than 80 words. No. of tasks One task to be selected from a choice of four. Length 220260 words.

CHAPTER 2. THE CAE EXAM TEXTS


Leaflets, info sheets, brochures These text types are mainly meant to inform the reader, although a certain degree of persuasion might be applied. The basic structure of introduction, main part and conclusion does apply here. Furthermore, using a specific lay-out with bullets (leaflet and information sheet) and/or pictures (brochure), can add to the informative success. Formal and informal letters
Many formal letters (e.g. letters of complaints and letters of application) do have a persuasive character which is expressed in style and vocabulary (register); and of course the basic structure of introduction, main part and conclusion will contribute to this (persuasive) aim.

Reviews
Reviews are clearly meant to express an opinion, so the aim is to persuade the reader. Reviews on films, books, and theatre plays have a further structure as follows: In paragraph one some background information is given on the director or author followed by a paragraph in which the plot is briefly described. In the third paragraph the reviewer gives critical comment (e.g. on plot or theatrical structure) and the review is ended by a personal opinion plus recommendation for the reader.

Reports A (general) report looks like the first part of a review namely the factual information; in a report certain proceedings, phenomena or processes are described. For the sake of readability, headings and bullets are often used. The first paragraph introduces the subject and purpose of the report. In the following paragraphs a factual description is given and in the conclusion you summarise and state some recommendations. Articles Articles are informative texts and they usually deal with subjects of human interest; they are often published in weekly or monthly magazines. The reader is often addressed directly as you, the title is often attention-grabbing and the first paragraph thought-provoking. The information is surprising or remarkable and concrete examples are given. Essays In an essay you start with a thesis followed by paragraphs with arguments in favour and arguments against your thesis plus supporting details. You end by summarising your discussion and drawing your final conclusion. The aim is to persuade the reader that your opinion is the ultimate one. Competition entries A competition entry is written for a judge or a panel of judges. You are expected to nominate somebody for something or propose yourself for selection for something (e.g. a grant to study). A competition entry will include some degree of persuasion and give reason(s) why your choice is best. Finish your entry with a strong final paragraph. Again your aim is to persuade the reader that your nomination is the best. Proposals
A proposal is written for a superior (e.g. a boss or college principal) or a peer group (e.g. club members or colleagues). You are expected to make one or more suggestions, supported by some factual information, in order to persuade the reader of a course of action. A proposal should be clearly organised and may include headings. Make polite recommendations and suggestions.

CHAPTER 3. THE WRITING PROCESS 3.1 Writing takes time


Find out when the assignment is due and devise a plan of action. This may seem obvious and irrelevant to the writing process, but it's not. Writing is a process, not merely a product. Even the best professional writers don't just sit down at a computer, write, and call it a day. The quality of your writing will reflect the time and forethought you put into the assignment. Plan ahead for the assignment by doing pre-writing: this will allow you to be more productive and organized when you sit down to write. Also, schedule several blocks of time to devote to your writing; then you can walk away from it for a while and come back later to make changes and revisions with a fresh mind.

3.2 The Prewriting phase


When you are asked to write a certain text, it is advisable to first ask yourself some questions, such as: What type of text is required? Who will the reader(s) be? What am I supposed to achieve? Do I have to inform, persuade, activate or entertain? What register will I have to choose? What must the subject of my text be? A next step is to start thinking about the subject. A well-known method is to just jot down whatever comes to mind (brainstorming; once you have a sheet full of loose ideas it is quite easy to group or combine these ideas by drawing lines between those ideas that you think belong together. What you are actually doing then is collecting ideas for the various paragraphs that you will be writing. This method is called clustering.

Exercise 3A
1. Read the assignment below and answer the questions above (type, reader etc.) 2. Jot down whatever you use the Internet for. 3. And jot down what you consider to be the downsides to the Internet

INTERNET - THE GOOD AND BAD What difference has the internet made to your life? Can you imagine life without email and the world wide web?

Write in giving your views on what you like - and hate about being online, and we will publish the best articles.

3.3 Clustering
Clustering is a nonlinear activity that generates ideas, images and feelings around a stimulus word. As writers cluster, their thoughts tumble out, enlarging their word bank for writing and often enabling them to see patterns in their ideas. Clustering may be a group or an individual activity.

Another way of preparing is to first think what subjects (paragraphs) you think you will be dealing with and write down headings for these with ideas under these headings.

Exercise 3B
1. Read the assignment below and answer the questions of 3.2 Prewriting Phase 2. Then brainstorm and jot down on a blank sheet of paper whatever comes to mind 3. Finally draw lines between the ideas Question You are a member of a committee that is campaigning for an international sports competition to be hosted in your home town. You have received the following memo: To: Committee members From: Chairman I would be grateful if all members could write a short report giving their views on the following points: 1. why our town would be a suitable host for the competition 2. any objections to our campaign and how we can overcome them 3. suggestions as to how we can make the best use of our budget Write your report for the Chairman of the committee. (220-260 words)

3.4 From first draft to final draft


In the prewriting phase you have probably already decided which topics you want to cover and what examples or evidence you have. Now you need to organize all this information into paragraphs and link all these paragraphs together to create a coherent first draft of your text. The first paragraph of your text is an introductory paragraph. It attracts the readers attention and tells him/her what the main point of the text is. The body paragraphs work out the writers main point in logical steps with sufficient support. The final paragraph is a concluding paragraph which summarizes the writers main point. It comes full circle, and though it may leave the reader with food for thought, it shouldnt raise new points. Remember that each type of text, whether it is a letter, a leaflet, a report or an article, makes its own demand on structure, but that the basis for all texts is the paragraph.

Exercise 3C
1. Read the jumbled paragraphs of the article below. 2. Find the introductory paragraph and the conclusion. 3. Then try and figure out what the order of the other paragraphs is and explain why.
Life as one of China's stolen babies A However, in 2003, the head of Hunan's Public Security Bureau, together with officials working in Hunan and Fujian provinces, began working to find my mother. There was a couple who we all thought were my parents - we had seen pictures of them, and I looked so similar to the lady. We went to see them, and they looked so happy - although I still hadn't had any DNA tests. Eventually, through the tests, we discovered that we were not related. I was very disappointed. We don't have the same blood, but I still call her mum, because at least it is a kind of comfort for her - she still has not found her daughter. Sometimes we still call each other. But at this stage, everyone thought it was very unlikely I would find my own biological parents. B I lived with them for a few months, and was then given to another family, living in a rural village in Fujian province. My new family treated me very well, like a daughter - they became like parents to me. But in my heart, I knew I had been abducted and sold to them; in my heart, I always knew I had another set of parents, and I really missed them. I didn't exactly understand what abduction meant. I just knew I had been taken away from my real family. I felt horrible, as if I was a commodity, bought and sold. C Dozens of Chinese babies are believed to be taken from or sold by their families each year, as part of a grim human trade. BBC World Service's Outlook programme spoke to 21-year-old Huang Xiuxiu, who was stolen from her family when she was just three. D As a child, I wasn't very happy. My new family didn't know much about my background all they knew was I was from Hunan province. In 2002, after I moved to the city of Chengdu, I began to search for my real parents. I always had it in my mind to do this. I read a newspaper which had a report about a girl who had a very similar experience to me. I thought, perhaps the paper could help me to find my real parents. 8

E A lady came and asked me to go and play at her house, and she led me away. I was three years old at the time, and this is my only memory of being abducted. She bought me a twisted dough stick. Then she took me to the train station and handed me over to a man who seemed to be her husband. As the train pulled away, I just wanted to go home to my mother. F I called one of their journalists and asked him if he could help me. I think I really shocked him. He asked me to come to his office, and I told him my story. Then he asked me to go home and wait. The next day, his first article was published. I didn't think it would have huge impact, because it was published in Sichuan and my parents were from Hunan. Then the long wait began. For a year, there was a repeated cycle of hope and disappointment. G I recently called to find out about my adopted parents. I was told they are now in prison. I think if you do something wrong, then that person has to pay the penalty for what they did - although I feel sad about their prison sentence, because it must be really difficult for their own children. But I think they brought it on themselves. H It was a long and tedious process, but eventually, through the security people's help, we were able to trace them. When I found my parents, I was quite surprised - there are some things that are never as beautiful as you originally thought. For me, my parents seemed just like strangers. It just felt strange.

(From: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/3997177.stm)

CHAPTER 4. BASIC ENGLISH SENTENCE


FROM: HTTP://OWL.ENGLISH.PURDUE.EDU/OWL/RESOURCE/604/01/

Let us have a look at sentence patterns. There are dependent and independent clauses. Clauses can be combined into longer units and that is when we speak of compound or complex sentences. In compound and complex sentences punctuation plays an important role, as you may see below.

4.1 Pattern one: Simple Sentence


The simple sentence or independent clause contains a subject and a verb and expresses a complete thought. This pattern is an example of a simple sentence: Independent clause [ . ] Example: Doctors are concerned about the rising death rate from asthma.

4.2 Pattern two: Compound Sentence


Compound sentences contain at least two independent clauses. 1. Two independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction: Independent clause [ , ] coordinating conjunction + independent clause [ . ] There are seven coordinating conjunctions: and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet. Note that a coordinating conjunction is preceded by a comma unless the independent clauses are very short and reading is not hindered by leaving the comma out. Example: Doctors are concerned about the rising death rate from asthma, but they don't know the reasons for it. 2. Two independent clauses joined by a semicolon. Independent clause [ ; ] independent clause [ . ] The semicolon indicates that there is an implicit (obvious) close relationship between the two clauses. Example: Doctors are concerned about the rising death rate from asthma; they are unsure of its cause. 3. Two independent clauses joined by a semicolon and an independent marker. Examples of independent markers (also called conjunctive adverbs) are the following: therefore, moreover, thus, consequently, however, also. Independent clause [ ; ] independent marker [ , ] independent clause [ . ] Example: Doctors are concerned about the rising death rate from asthma; therefore, they have called for more research into its causes.
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4.3 Pattern three: Complex Sentence


A complex sentence combines an independent clause and a dependent clause (a clause that does not make sense on its own) 1. The independent clause can be followed by the dependent clause. Note that there is no comma in this sentence. Independent clause + dependent marker + dependent clause [ . ] Examples of dependent markers are as follows: because, before, since, while, although, if, until, when, after, as, as if. Example: Doctors are concerned about the rising death rate from asthma because it is a common, treatable illness. 2. The dependent clause can precede the independent clause. Note that if your sentence starts with a dependent clause, this clause must be followed by a comma. Dependent marker + dependent clause [ , ] Independent clause [ . ] Example: Because doctors are concerned about the rising death rate from asthma, they have called for more research into its causes.

Exercise 4A
Correctly punctuate the following sentences and identify as simple, compound or complex. 1. I had lost my passport I did not worry about it 2. I had lost my passport but I didnt worry about it 3. Although I lost my passport I did not worry about it 4. I will not worry about my passport unless I lose it 5. I never gave my passport a second thought until I lost it 6. When I lost my passport I ordered a new one and I did not worry about it. 7. Although I had lost my passport I did not worry about it because I ordered a new one

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4.4 Common Problems with Sentence Structure 4.4.1 Fragment Sentences


A complete sentence will have at least one subject and one verb. Sentences are considered fragments when they are missing either a subject or a verb. Consider the following two fragment sentences and their corrected versions:

No Subject: Went to the store to buy brownie mix. Added Subject: My dad went to the store to buy brownie mix. No Verb: Brownie mix at the store expensive. Added Verb: Brownie mix at the store was expensive.

In addition to containing a subject and verb, a complete sentence will express a complete thought. Consider the following two sentences and their revised versions.

Incomplete: When he went to the checkout counter to pay for the brownie mix. Complete: When he went to the checkout counter to pay for the brownie mix, he got distracted by a display of cake mixes. Incomplete: The variety of delicious cake mixes. Complete: The variety of delicious cake mixes convinced him that hed rather bake a cake than brownies tonight.

4.4.2 Run-On Sentences (Run-Ons) and Comma Splices


Comma splices and run-on sentences occur when two or more independent clauses are combined without correct punctuation. An independent clause is a complete, simple sentence, meaning that it contains a subject, a verb, and a complete thought. There are a few ways to correct run-on sentences and comma splices. Consider the following incorrect sentences and the following options for revising them. Run-On: The grocery store was really packed with people there must have been a big sale today. (no punctuation at all) Comma splice: The grocery store was really packed with people, there must have been a big sale today. (only punctuated with a comma) Correction 1: The grocery store was really packed with people. There must have been a big sale today. Here, the error has been corrected by simply breaking the sentence into two sentences (independent clauses). Correction 2: The grocery store was really packed with people, so there must have been a big sale today. In this case, the sentence has been corrected by adding a coordinating conjunction and a comma. This is a compound sentence. Correction 3: Because the grocery store was really packed with people, there must have been a big sale. In this example, the sentence has been corrected by adding a subordinating conjunction and a comma. This is a complex sentence.

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Exercise 4B http://owl.english.purdue.edu/exercises/5/18/38
Fragment Sentences Some of the sentences below are fragments. Play editor on the sentences. Could you tell these writers why the fragments are incomplete sentences? Also, how would you tell the writers to fix them?

Then I attended Morris Junior High. A junior high that was a bad experience. In the seventh grade every young boy goes out for football. To prove to himself and his parents that he is a man. She opened the door and let us into her home. Not realizing at the time that we would never enter that door in her home again. Making up his mind quickly. Jim ordered two dozen red roses for his wife. Hoping she would accept his apology. They were all having a good time. Until one of Joe's oldest and best friends had a little too much to drink.

Exercise 4C
ParagraphLevel Editing Exercise The following paragraph has some sentences that are not complete sentences. Underline any sentence that is not complete. Rewrite the paragraph so that there are no sentence fragments. When I was a child. I had three very important dreams. The first one was that I wanted to be an architect. Because I loved I loved nature and I thought that architecture was very connected with nature. The second one was to be a doctor. Because I wanted to help people. The last one was to be a stewardess. Because I like to travel and I thought it was one way I could travel a lot. Now only one of my dreams is a reality. I am an architect now and I really think it was the best choice in my life. Because I enjoy doing my job.

Exercise 4D
Run-On Sentences & Comma Splices Some of the sentences below are run-ons. Play editor on the sentences. Could you tell these writers why the run-ons are incorrect? Also, how would you tell the writers to fix them?

We were really busy at the restaurant tonight. I waited tables straight through from 3:30 to 11:30 I never sat down for even one break. My dog had to go to the vet today. She whined and whined when the vet clipped her toenails, but then she was fine when he gave her a shot! The book we had to read for class was really long my teacher doesnt seem to understand that we have other classes to read for too.

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Exercise 4E
Paragraph-Level Editing The paragraphs below have errors involving compound and complex sentences. Make corrections as necessary. 1. Finally, I decided to come to America, it changed my life. If I had stayed in my country, I would have gotten married, I would be a good wife now. I would be taking care of my younger brother, I would have gotten a job, but I would not be paid much money. Now, however, I am studying in college. I must do the best I can. When I go back to my own country, I will have a better life. 2. Comparing the educational systems of my country and this country is like comparing paradise and hell! In my country, school begins before 8:00 in the morning we get out around 4:30. We usually get tested every two weeks, also we get four serious examinations. Here, you sometimes get quizzes, and only one midterm examination and one final examination, you dont have to worry about having your grades on a sign in the hallway where everyone can see them.

Exercise 4F
Text level editing For each sentence say whether it is a fragment [F], a run-on [R] or correct [C]. Correct any fragments or run-ons. The Rat: Lapdog of the Devil Adapted from the Rat: Lapdog of the Devil, National Geographic, July, 1977 [1 F ]One of mans worst enemies--the rat. [2 ]In a world haunted by threat of famine, rats will destroy approximately 20% of all food crops planted this year. [3 ] Around the world, rats and their abundant parasites will spread at least twenty kinds of diseases.[4 ] From typhus to trichinosis to deadly Lassa fever. [5 ]In Asia, Africa and the Americas, people will die of plague, the dreaded Black Death that destroyed that destroyed a quarter of the population of medieval Europe. [6 ]In several tropical nations, rat populations will explode, rodent hordes will devastate the land.[7 ] Last year they overran vast areas of the Philippines, Venezuela, and

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the African Sahel, ravaging crops, chewing up irrigation pipes, even girdling trees in the reforestation projects.1

[8 ]Except for man, rats are the most numerous and successful mammals on earth, unfortunately, the rats success is almost invariably at our expense. [9 ]Like man, the rat is a generalized animalit is able to eat almost anything and live almost anywherenot specialized like the anteater or the otter.[10 ] The same species that lives in a burrow in America and in an attic in Europe may inhabit the crown of a Pacific island coconut palm and descend to the ground for generations.[11 ] In a West Virginia, trout hatchery, officials found rats diving into the tanks. [12 ]And competing for food with fish! [13 ]Thats adaptation. [14 ]The rat is a formidable enemy, for example, the average rat can wriggle through a hole the size of a quarter, swim half a mile, tread water for three days, gnaw through lead pipes and cinder blocks2, and survive being flushed down a toilet.[15 ] A few years after detonating atomic bombs on the island of Engebi, visiting biologists found the radioactive island abounding with rats.[16 ] Not maimed or genetically deformed creatures, but robust rodents so in tune with their environment that their life spans were longer than average. [17 ]Today man must contend with super rats, these are rats that have developed resistance to common anticoagulant poisons. [18 ]Some can withstand a hundred times the dosage that would kill a normal rat.[19 ] Cats are not the answer.[20 ] The average cat kills from twenty-five to thirty rats a year. A pair of rats could have 15,000 descendants in that time.

To kill a tree or woody shrub by removing or destroying a band of bark and cambium from its circumference.
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a light concrete building block made with cinder aggregate; "cinder blocks are called breeze blocks in Britain" 15

CHAPTER 5. THE PARAGRAPHS


http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/606/01/

5.1 What is a paragraph?


Paragraphs are the building blocks of any text. A paragraph is a collection of related sentences dealing with a single topic. Learning to write good paragraphs will help you as a writer to stay on track during your drafting and revision stages. Good paragraphing also greatly assists your readers in following a piece of writing. You can have fantastic ideas, but if those ideas are not presented in an organized fashion, you will lose your readers and fail to achieve your goals in writing.

The Basic Rule: Keep One Idea to One Paragraph


The rule of thumb with paragraphing is to keep one idea to one paragraph. If you begin to transition into a new idea, that idea belongs in a new paragraph. There are some simple ways to tell if you are on the same topic or a new one. You can have one idea and several bits of supporting evidence within a single paragraph. You can also have several points in a single paragraph as long as they relate to the overall topic of the paragraph. If the single points start to get long, then perhaps elaborating on each of them and placing them in their own paragraphs is the route to go.

5.2 Elements of a paragraph


To be as effective as possible, a paragraph should contain each of the following: Unity, Coherence, and Adequate Development. As you will see, all of these traits overlap. Using and adapting them to your individual purposes will help you construct effective paragraphs. Unity The entire paragraph should concern itself with a single focus. If it begins with a focus or major point of discussion, it should not end with another or wander within different ideas. This focus is presented in the topic sentence of your paragraph. A topic sentence is a sentence that indicates in a general way what idea or thesis the paragraph is going to deal with. Although not all paragraphs have clear-cut topic sentences, and despite the fact that topic sentences can occur anywhere in the paragraph (as the first sentence, the last sentence, or somewhere in the middle), an easy way to make sure your reader understands the topic of the paragraph is to put your topic sentence near the beginning of the paragraph. (This is a good general rule for less experienced writers, although it is not the only way to do it). Regardless of whether you include an explicit topic sentence or not, you should be able to easily summarize what the paragraph is about. Coherence Coherence is the trait that makes the paragraph easily understandable to a reader. You can help create coherence in your paragraphs by creating logical bridges and verbal bridges.

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Logical bridges The same idea of a topic is carried over from sentence to sentence Successive sentences can be constructed in parallel form Verbal bridges Key words can be repeated in several sentences Synonymous words can be repeated in several sentences Pronouns can refer to nouns in previous sentences Transition words can be used to link ideas from different sentences

5.3 Adequate development


The topic (which is introduced by the topic sentence) should be discussed fully and adequately. Again, this varies from paragraph to paragraph, depending on the author's purpose, but writers should beware of paragraphs that only have two or three sentences. It's a pretty good bet that the paragraph is not fully developed if it is as short as that. Some methods to make sure your paragraph is well-developed: Use examples and illustrations Cite data (facts, statistics, evidence, details, and others) Examine testimony (what other people say such as quotes and paraphrases) Use an anecdote or story Define terms in the paragraph Compare and contrast Evaluate causes and reasons Examine effects and consequences Analyze the topic Describe the topic Offer a chronology of an event (time segments)

5.4 When to start a new paragraph


You should start a new paragraph: When you begin a new idea or point. New ideas should always start in new paragraphs. If you have an extended idea that spans multiple paragraphs, each new point within that idea should have its own paragraph. To contrast information or ideas. Separate paragraphs can serve to contrast sides in a debate, different points in an argument, or any other difference. When your readers need a pause. Breaks in paragraphs function as a short "break" for your readers adding these will help to make your writing more readable. You would create a break if the paragraph becomes too long or the material too complex. When you are ending your introduction or starting your conclusion. Your introductory and concluding material should always be in a new paragraph. Many introductions and conclusions have multiple paragraphs depending on their content, length, and the writer's purpose.

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5.5 Show versus Tell: Producing Writing with Detail


Teachers from time immemorial have said to their students, Your essay lacks details and examples or This idea is too general or Show, dont tell. Weve even heard of a teacher who had a special stamp made because he became so tired of writing Give me more examples on student writing. Why is it so hard for students to produce a sufficient level of detail in their writing? It may simply be a lack of vocabulary, but more likely it lies partly in the writers lack of confidence to open up and share, and partly in the writers inexperience with crawling into the skin of his reader . Whatever the reason, there is an easy remedy: write and read! Write about the familiar, so that you can use your own experiences to fill in the details, and learn to read your own writing as a disengaged reader. In other words, learn to read as a reader who doesnt have access to the secret treasures in your mind! These treasures are the details and examples that should end up in your writing, but perhaps have not quite made it to the paper...yet.

Exercise 5A
Discuss the differences between the two pieces of writing below. 1.
My baby sister was the picture of health. She was always getting into anything and everything. The slightest thing could draw her attention away from the task at hand, and smiling at her mother, she would be off to tackle the next thing.

2.
My baby sister was the picture of health. Josie flitted from one thing to another, as if everything in the kitchen was there for her amusement. She had already left a trail of pots, pans, bananas, and crackers behind her. Flashing mom a bright-eyed smile, she reached her dimpled hands toward her juice cup. The juice dribbled down her chin as she drank. A swipe across her plump cheeks with her hand took care of that. She plunked the half empty cup on the counter and started to sing to herself as she marched around the kitchen table. A sound from the yard suddenly caught her attention, and she ran toward the back door on eager, little legs.

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Exercise 5B
Look at the paragraph below and perform the following tasks: 1. Identify the topic sentence. Underline. 2. Determine how the topic sentence is developed in the paragraph. Underline the supporting sentences 3. How is coherence achieved in this paragraph?
In the first grade I learned some of the harsh realities of life. I found out that circuses arent all theyre supposed to be. We were going to the circus for our class trip, and I was really excited about it because I had never been to one before. Our class worked for weeks on a circus train made of shoe boxes, and Carrie Kaske told me her mom had fainted once when she saw the lion trainer. The day of the trip finally came, and my wonderful circus turned out to be nothing but one disappointment after another. I couldnt see why Carries mom had fainted when she saw the lion trainer; I couldnt even see the lion trainer. I couldnt see much of anything, for that matter. I could barely make out some tiny figures scurrying around in the three rings that seemed to be a hundred miles away from my seat. After the first half hour, all I wanted to do was buy a Pepsi and monkey-on-a-stick and get out of there. Of course nothing in life is that easy. We werent allowed to buy anything; so I couldnt have my souvenir, and instead of a cold Pepsi to quench my thirst, I had warm curdled milk that the room mothers had so thoughtfully brought along. I returned to school tired and a little wiser. I remember looking at our little circus train on the window ledge and thinking that Id rather sit and watch it do nothing than go to another circus.

Exercise 5C
Choose one of the three assignments below, write your paragraph and bring to class in printed form (see exercise 5D below). Options 1. Write a short paragraph using one of the show-me sentences below as a starter. i. The morning was disaster. ii. The car was a mess. iii. He was always a little crazy! iv. She was not what I expected. 2. Write a paragraph using a picture as a starting point. 3. Go outside. Choose a scene to describe/ write about. This may be a couple chatting on a bench, a student rushing to the building, or the square meter of grass beneath your
feet. 19

Exercise 5D
Share & learn: In small groups exchange paragraphs choose the best and the worst. Discuss what makes the good paragraph good, then using this insight rewrite the other paragraph together.

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CHAPTER 6. THE COMPLETE TEXT 6.1 Structuring paragraphs in a complete text


In order to decide what goes into the introduction, what in the body and what in the conclusion, you can use the following list to decide on your paragraph organization: FORMAL LETTERS Salutation: Dear . , / Dear : Introductory paragraph: reference to previous correspondence, or an advertisement in the paper, etc. Body: one or more paragraphs discussing the matter at hand Final paragraph: usually one polite sentence expressing a hope or a wish Closing phrase: Yours sincerely, / Yours faithfully, (depending on the salutation) PROPOSALS Title Introductory paragraph: reference to the reason for writing a proposal Body: explain your proposal (supported by some factual information, in order to persuade the reader to take action). Headings may be included. Final paragraph: contains a strong closing sentence. REPORTS Title Introductory paragraph: states the purpose of your report Body: development with facts and details and sections are given headings. Closing paragraph: expresses opinions and recommendations General: Give factual information and make suggestions/recommendations. COMPETITION ENTRY Title (optional) Introductory paragraph: contains a good (catchy) opening sentence, explains reason for entry Body: development with lots of details Final paragraph: contains a strong closing sentence. General: written for a judge or panel of judges. Includes some degree of persuasion and gives reason(s) why the candidates choice is best. REVIEWS Introductory paragraph: indicates the structure of your review and use humour and/or a catchy comment to attract your readers attention Body: development with lots of details Closing paragraph: recommendation General: the reader is assumed to have similar interests to the writer. Main purpose is to express a personal opinion. Includes a recommendation to the reader.

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ARTICLES Title: should be interesting, e.g. in the form of a question Introductory paragraph: states the subject Body: development with lots of details Closing paragraph: expresses an opinion General: the reader is assumed to have similar interests to the writer. Main purpose is to interest and engage the reader, so there should be some opinion or comment. A description or anecdote may be included. Factual and informal. LEAFLETS General: Written for an audience who need instruction or help in some area. Produce factual information/advice on a topic. Organise information clearly. ESSAYS Title Introductory paragraph: scene setter, no details. Body: development with lots of details. Conclusion: one paragraph, no (new) details (personal opinion/fiction).

6.2

Unity and coherence in a complete text

The principles that apply to unity and coherence (cohesion) in a single paragraph also apply to your complete text. In other words, all paragraphs should contribute to the main point of your text. This main point is usually the topic sentence of your introductory paragraph (your thesis statement). In turn, transitions from one paragraph to the next should be clear. You can achieve this with a logical ordering of your paragraphs by: using transitional words or phrases; using sentences that guide the reader through your line of reasoning. achieving coherence through repetition of words or grammatical structures, and with proper pronoun reference and use of synonyms (verbal bridges). Throughout the course we will look at coherence in the sample texts we work with and in your own writing.

6.3 Proofreading and editing your product


Once you have finished, you need to check your work on several aspects and if necessary rewrite or adapt it. These are the categories used to assess CAE exam texts.

Contents Are all elements there? Accuracy Are my vocabulary, spelling, grammar and punctuation OK? (USE
THE LANGUAGE CHECK ON YOUR COMPUTER as well as a dictionary and grammar and punctuation guides) Appropriateness Have I used the lay-out that goes with the type of text? Did I touch upon the appropriate tone (register) towards my reader(s)?

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Organisation and cohesion Does my text form a consistent whole? Do I


have one central idea (thesis)? Are my paragraphs linked properly? Are they organised logically? Range Is my text/style sufficiently informative, persuasive, activating or entertaining? Target reader Will my reader respond in the way I had intended him/her to react?

Exercise 6A
1. Read through the text The 5-paragraph Essay below 2. Underline the topic sentence in each paragraph 3. Underline the supporting sentences 4. Circle the transitional hooks (bridges) 5. Proofread and edit by answering the questions in 6.3
The 5-paragraph Essay Introductory paragraph The introductory paragraph should also include the thesis statement, a kind of minioutline for the essay. This is where the writer grabs the reader's attention. It tells the reader what the paper is about. The last sentence of this paragraph must also include a transitional "hook" which moves the reader to the first paragraph of the body of the essay. Body - First paragraph The first paragraph of the body should include the strongest argument, most significant example, cleverest illustration, or an obvious beginning point. The first sentence should contain the "reverse hook" which ties in with the transitional hook at the end of the introductory paragraph. The subject for this paragraph should be in the first or second sentence. This subject should relate to the thesis statement in the introductory paragraph. The last sentence in this paragraph should include a transitional hook to tie into the second paragraph of the body. Body - Second paragraph The second paragraph of the body should include the second strongest argument, second most significant example, second cleverest illustration, or an obvious follow up the first paragraph in the body. The first sentence of this paragraph should contain the reverse hook, which ties in with the transitional hook at the end of the first paragraph of the body. The topic for this paragraph should be in the first or second sentence. This topic should relate to the thesis statement in the introductory paragraph. The last sentence in this paragraph should include a transitional hook to tie into the third paragraph of the body. Body - Third paragraph The third paragraph of the body should include the weakest argument, weakest example, weakest illustration, or an obvious follow up to the second paragraph in the body. The first sentence of this paragraph should contain the reverse hook, which ties in with the transitional hook at the end of the second paragraph. The topic for this paragraph should be in the first or second sentence. This topic should relate to 23

the thesis statement in the introductory paragraph. The last sentence in this paragraph should include a transitional concluding hook that signals the reader that this is the final major point being made in this essay. This hook also leads into the concluding paragraph. Concluding paragraph The fifth paragraph is the summary paragraph. It is important to restate the thesis and three supporting ideas in an original and powerful way as this is the last chance the writer has to convince the reader of the validity of the information presented. This paragraph should include the following: 1. an allusion to the pattern used in the introductory paragraph, 2. a restatement of the thesis statement, using some of the original language or language that "echoes" the original language. (The restatement, however, must not be a duplicate thesis statement.) 3. a summary of the three main points from the body of the essay. 4. a final statement that gives the reader signals that the discussion has come to an end. (This final statement may be a "call to action" in a persuasive essay.)
http://essayinfo.com/essays/5-paragraph_essay.php

Exercise 6B
Now look at the essay below and analyse how it is built up. 1. Underline the topic sentence in each paragraph 2. Underline the supporting sentences 3. Circle the transitional hooks 4. Proofread and edit by answering the questions in 6.3
1

Stephen King, creator of such stories as Carrie and Pet Sematary, stated that the Edgar Allan Poe stories he read as a child gave him the inspiration and instruction 2 he needed to become the writer that he is. Poe, as does Stephen King, fills the reader's imagination with the images that he wishes the reader to see, hear, and 3 feel. His use of vivid, concrete visual imagery to present both static and dynamic 4 settings and to describe people is part of his technique. Poe's short story "The TellTale Heart" is a story about a young man who kills an old man who cares for him, dismembers the corpse, then goes mad when he thinks he hears the old man's heart beating beneath the floor boards under his feet as he sits and discusses the 5 old man's absence with the police. In "The Tell-Tale Heart," a careful reader can observe Poe's skillful manipulation of the senses.
1 2

The sense of sight, the primary sense, is particularly susceptible to manipulation. In "The Tell-Tale Heart," Poe uses the following image to describe a static scene: "His room was as black as pitch with the thick darkness . . ." Poe used the words "black," "pitch," and "thick darkness" not only to show the reader the condition of the 3 old man's room, but also to make the reader feel the darkness." "Thick" is a word that is not usually associated with color (darkness), yet in using it, Poe stimulates the reader's sense of feeling as well as his sense of sight.
1

Further on in the story, Poe uses a couple of words that cross not only the sense of 2 sight but also the sense of feeling to describe a dynamic scene. The youth in the story has been standing in the open doorway of the old man's room for a long time, 24

waiting for just the right moment to reveal himself to the old man in order to frighten 3 him. Poe writes: "So I opened it [the lantern opening]--you cannot imagine how stealthily, stealthily--until, at length, a single dim ray, like the thread of the spider, 4 shot from out the crevice and fell full upon the vulture eye." By using the metaphor of the thread of the spider (which we all know is a creepy creature) and the word "shot," Poe almost makes the reader gasp, as surely did the old man whose one blind eye the young man describes as "the vulture eye."
1

The reader does not know much about what the old man in this story looks like 2 except that he has one blind eye. In the second paragraph of "The Tell-Tale Heart," Poe establishes the young man's obsession with that blind eye when he writes: "He 3 had the eye of the vulture--a pale blue eye, with a film over it." This "vulture eye" is evoked over and over again in the story until the reader becomes as obsessed with 4 it as does the young man. His use of the vivid, concrete word "vulture" establishes a specific image in the mind of the reader that is inescapable.
1

"Thick darkness," "thread of the spider," and "vulture eye" are three images that 2 Poe used in "The Tell-Tale Heart" to stimulate a reader's senses. Poe wanted the 3 reader to see and feel real life. He used concrete imagery rather than vague abstract words to describe settings and people. If Edgar Allan Poe was one of Stephen King's teachers, then readers of King owe a debt of gratitude to that nineteenth-century creator of horror stories. EssayInfo.com - Essay Writing Center.

Exercise 6C
A review intends to convince the audience either of the high or the low quality of the reviewed item. A review consists of: Background information on author/director/theatre company etc. Example: Women are from Mars too is director Alex Hernandezs second film. A brief account of the plot or description of the performance. Example: The action takes place in Chicago in the late 1980s. Three young people sharing an apartment find themselves taking care of their friends pet puma. A critical comment Example: The author successfully creates an atmosphere of suspense. A personal opinion and recommendation. Example: This is a wonderful adaption of the famous novel Assignment 6C1 Compare the paragraph below with the first paragraph of Anthony Quinns review of White Teeth. How does Quinns language use compare to the language use below? Which of the two is more convincing? Which one sells the book? Zadie Smiths first novel is a mix of voices, tones and textures. Moving through several continents and 150 years of history, White Teeth is a family story which looks at race and identity, makes fun of religious antagonism and cultural confusion.
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You could think that Smith, who began writing the book when still a Cambridge undergraduate, tries to do too much; One might feel that the book is too ambitious for someone so young. But is it fair to criticize her for writing a fat book? Aside from a weak ending, Smith holds it all together with an energy and confidence that couldnt be accidental.

Assignment 6C2 Read Anthony Quinns review. Which of the elements of a review can you find: Background info Plot summary Critical comment Recommendation/personal opinion Indicate in the margin.

The New England


http://partners.nytimes.com/books/00/04/30/reviews/000430.30quinnt.html

A young novelist chronicles two families who bring a patchwork of cultures to the London of the 21st century. By ANTHONY QUINN Zadie Smith's debut novel is, like the London it portrays, a restless hybrid of voices, tones and textures. Hopscotching through several continents and 150 years of history, ''White Teeth'' encompasses a teeming family saga, a sly inquiry into race and identity and a tender-hearted satire on religious antagonism and cultural bemusement. One might be inclined to assume that Smith, who began writing the book when still a Cambridge undergraduate, has bitten off more than she can chew; one might even feel a little huffy that one so young (she is 24) has aimed so high. Is it open season on Henry James's baggy monster? Yet aside from a rather wobbly final quarter, Smith holds it all together with a raucous energy and confidence that couldn't be a fluke. ''White Teeth'' begins as the story of an Englishman, Archie Jones, and his accidental friendship with Samad Iqbal, a Bengali Muslim from Bangladesh. The two men met in 1945 when they were part of a tank crew inching through Europe in the final days of World War II. They missed out on the action, and over the next three decades have continued to do much the same. Archie is something of a sad sack, a dull but decent fellow who tied for 13th in a bicycle race in the 1948 Olympic Games; he has failed at many things, including marriage (he got the Hoover in the divorce settlement) and a suicide attempt that begins the novel. Samad, in spite of looking like Omar Sharif, is now a downtrodden waiter in a West End curry house, and is obsessed by the history of his great-grandfather, Mangal Pande, who allegedly fired the first shot of the Indian Mutiny in 1857 (and missed). By the mid-1970's Archie has married again, this time to a six-foot Jamaican teenager named Clara, a beauty in spite of lacking her top row of teeth; they have a daughter, Irie, who will become the steady center of the narrative. Samad has opted for an arranged marriage with a Bengali, the fiery Alsana, though whatever grief he's endured from his helpmeet is nothing compared with the trials of raising his two sons, Magid and Millat. Both families, the Joneses and the Iqbals, make their home in the tatty but vibrant suburb of Willesden in northwest London, a melting pot of race and color that is maintained by and large at an amiable simmer. Archie's prosaic bloke-in-the-pub outlook could be seen as representative: ''He kind of felt people should just live together, you know, in peace and harmony or something.'' Samad, on the other hand, values difference and craves debate. At a school governors' meeting, for example, 26

he questions the Christian relevance of the Harvest Festival: ''Where in the Bible does it say, 'For thou must steal foodstuffs from thy parents' cupboards and bring them into school assembly, and thou shalt force thy mother to bake a loaf of bread in the shape of a fish?' These are pagan ideals! Tell me where does it say, 'Thou shalt take a box of frozen fish fingers to an aged crone who lives in Wembley?' '' This conflation of the high and the low -- biblical morality juxtaposed with the mundane details of domesticity -- is key to Smith's frisky and irreverent comic attack. At one point Samad is doubtful about disclosing a secret to his friend Zinat, who protests her trustworthiness: ''Samad! My mouth is like the grave! Whatever is told to me dies with me.'' But the passage goes on to point out: ''Whatever was told to Zinat invariably lit up the telephone network, rebounded off aerials, radio waves and satellites along the way, picked up finally by advanced alien civilizations as it bounced through the atmosphere of planets far removed from this one.'' Here it's the ancient solemnity of an oath bumping up against modern technology that strikes off comic sparks. This juxtaposition is related to the larger way in which the novel plays with the gap between expectation and reality, most vigorously dramatized in Samad's offspring, the ''first descendants of the great ocean-crossing experiment.'' Samad demands too much of his twin sons, Magid and Millat, and pays a calamitous price. He packs Magid back home to be educated, but the son returns eight years later with a pukka English accent and a serene atheism. As for Millat, he begins as a superstud and troublemaker, graduates to mobster machismo -- his touchstones are ''The Godfather'' and ''Goodfellas'' -- before pledging himself to the militant fundamentalist Keepers of the Eternal and Victorious Islamic Nation, or KEVIN (they're aware they have ''an acronym problem''), and demonstrating against Salman Rushdie in 1989. The last reference is partly ironic. The dust jacket of ''White Teeth'' boasts a blurb (an ''astonishingly assured debut'') from none other than Rushdie himself, and reviews in the British press were quick to identify Smith's rollicking verbal pyrotechnics as a not too distant relative of Rushdie's own. One of the book's historical set pieces, recounting the simultaneous occurrence of Clara's grandmother giving birth and the Jamaican earthquake of 1907, has a whiff of Rushdiesque playfulness about it. But the younger writer has no reason to linger in her elder's shadow. While there are consonances between the two, Smith's style is lighter and less fantastical; what's more, there is a quality, a spirit, in her novel that is not to be found in Rushdie's work, and it might be called humility. There is something provisional and undogmatic about the way ''White Teeth'' confronts large themes -- migration, cultural identity -- and knows to stop short of haranguing the reader. Smith thickens the cross-cultural stew by introducing a third family into the narrative. Irie and Millat are befriended by the white, middle-class Chalfens, who typify a distinctive strain of North London liberal trendiness. Marcus Chalfen is a university lecturer and scientist who's developing a controversial experiment in rodent genetics called FutureMouse. Joyce, his wife, is an earnest horticulturalist who tells Irie and Millat that they look ''very exotic'' and asks them where they come from ''originally.'' '' 'Oh,' said Millat, putting on what he called a bud-bud-ding-ding accent. 'You are meaning where from am I originally.' ''Joyce looked confused. 'Yes, originally.' '' 'Whitechapel,' said Millat, pulling out a fag. 'Via the Royal London Hospital and the 207 bus.' '' Joyce proceeds to adopt the wayward Millat as her pet cause, inviting him to live chez Chalfen and paying for his analysis; she's too complacent to notice that her eldest son, Joshua, is an animal-rights renegade who's plotting violent retribution on his pioneering father. This underscores one of the book's most salient conflicts -- the need to belong versus the renouncing of patrimony -- which Smith attempts to spell out in a grand finale, a fortuitous meeting of parents and children at Marcus's FutureMouse exhibition on New Year's Eve 1992. By this point the novel has squandered a little of the good will it has been so stylishly accumulating, and one wishes that a firmer editorial hand had steered it away from its overeager braiding of plot lines. (A flashback to the mystery of Archie's wartime test of character is at once pat and faintly 27

ridiculous.) The focus becomes fuzzy, and the writing, hitherto so confident, suddenly feels labored and scrappy. But perhaps this overreaching is a natural consequence of Smith's ambition. ''White Teeth'' is so unlike the kind of comic novel currently in vogue among young British women -- the girl-abouttown Bridget Jones wannabe -- that its very willingness to look beyond the stock in trade of boyfriends and weight problems is a mark of distinction. Smith's real talent emerges not just in her voice but in her ear, which enables her to inhabit characters of different generations, races and mind-sets. Whether it's her notation of Archie's blokish colloquialisms (''Blimey!'' ''I should cocoa''), Clara's Anglo-Jamaican patois ('''Sno prob-lem. If you wan' help: jus' arks farrit''), the banter of two ancient Jamaican grouches or of second-generation Bengali teenagers, the mongrel texture of metropolitan life rises vividly from the page. There is more than virtuosity at work here. Smith likes her characters, and while she is alert to their shortcomings and blind spots, her generosity toward them never flags. That is why ''White Teeth,'' for all its tensions, is a peculiarly sunny novel. Its crowdedness, its tangle of competing voices and viewpoints, betoken a society struggling toward accommodation, tolerance, perhaps even fellowship, and a time in which miscegenation is no longer the exception but the norm: ''It is only this late in the day that you can walk into a playground and find Isaac Leung by the fish pond, Danny Rahman in the football cage, Quang O'Rourke bouncing a basketball and Irie Jones humming a tune. Children with first and last names on a direct collision course.'' There are reasons, so late in the day, to be cheerful, and this eloquent, wit-struck book is not least among them.

Assignment 6C3 Now read the readers review. How does this review compare to Quinns review? What do you notice about language use in this review? Reader review
Review by Claire Mapletoft Now, upon reading this as part of an assessment, I was expecting something with a little, ah how do the French say it? Je ne sa quoi. A little spice to the recipe of tangled lives, tangled characters, and the tangled webs that we weave, and boy, do you get it here. Many readers may find themselves wary of such a popular, mass marketed, money spinner as this, but I say, fear not fickle reader, this book would be just as enjoyable if penned by a starving artiste in a garret (Ok, enough of the Moulin Rough now), instead of a woman who now has a fairly sizey chunk of the British economy in her hands. To enjoy this book fully, to really relish every sentence, my advice is to read with an open mind. Smith's forte in this novel is to construct racial stereotypes, develop them, build them, until there is no choice but for them to come crashing down in spectacular style, in an ending which did not leave me disappointed. She effectively leads by the hand through the streets of East London, tells you a story of immigrants, challenges, mistaken identities and love, before leaving you at the end of the novel to think, 'wow, jolly good show chaps. A word of warning. Smith, in my opinion, is inconsistent. She narrates sparklingly, reeling out adjectives, imagery, verbs with the ease of a practiced novelist and born storyteller. Unfortunately, she often slips into analytical, modernist mode, breaking away from the main thrust of the plot to be circumspect, and often follows what many critics would term, 'a stream of consciousness, where the writing follows no order but instead reverts into a pattern of thought, with little structure or logic. This often left me with the feeling of wishing she would hurry up and bloody well get on with it, and it does not fit with a novel which is at its best when it is simply conveying the plot. Despite the media hype surrounding this book, upon my eyes scanning the last page, I found 28

that I had read better novels which would fit the mould of publicity created by this, which made me feel not only a heathen, but rather stupid for not realising the creation of genius that everyone had been harping about in London for the past decade. Now I realise that that is not only true, but is a wild clutch at straws, as many people who I have spoken to about this book have offered differing claims. 'Pile of rubbish' shouted one confidante, 'brings me out in a hot flush' yelled my mother. What is a reader to do when faced with such polar opposites of opinion? Come on, even Salman Rushdie said it was an alright show. My answer is read, and read again, develop your own opinion. If I could sum up White Teeth in one word, it would have to be flavour. The flavour of this book was astonishing, incorporating race, sexuality, adolescence, prejudice, hatred culminating in love. The characters were loveable, if not infuriating, in particular the patriarch Samad. Think of every older generation stereotype possible, and there could be no better character description. This infuriating quality is what makes the characters more than one-dimensional, without merely existing on the page. We have all met a Samad, at some point. Smith's ability lies in giving her characters more than one personality, portraying them as so vivid they could jump off the page and offer you a cuppa. So my overall advice to you, gentle reader, would be grab a copy, savour it, ignore the prospect of reading 500 pages, and ENJOY. Personally, I revelled in this novel, although feeling such hype could only lead to a disappointment. I finished reading, not disappointed, but somehow feeling that such hype can disguise the nature of a novel, creating preconceptions in the reader which are hard to break down. Do not let the publicity stop you, as you could miss out on what could be your new favourite author. Claire Mapletoft (9th October 2006)

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6.4 The CAE marking scheme (from the CAE Handbook)


General Impression Mark Scheme BAND 5 For a Band 5 to be awarded, the candidate's writing has a very positive effect on the target reader. The content is relevant* and the topic is fully developed. Information and ideas are skilfully organised through a range of cohesive devices, which are used to good effect. A wide range of complex structures and vocabulary is used effectively. Errors are minimal, and inaccuracies which do occur have no impact on communication. Register and format are consistently appropriate to the purpose of the task and the audience. BAND 4 For a Band 4 to be awarded, the candidate's writing has a positive effect on the target reader. The content is relevant* and the topic is developed. Information and ideas are clearly organised through the use of a variety of cohesive devices. A good range of complex structures and vocabulary is used. Some errors may occur with vocabulary and when complex language is attempted, but these do not cause difficulty for the reader. Register and format are usually appropriate to the purpose of the task and the audience. BAND 3 For a Band 3 to be awarded, the candidate's writing has a satisfactory effect on the target reader. The content is relevant* with some development of the topic. Information and ideas are generally organised logically, though cohesive devices may not always be used appropriately. A satisfactory range of structures and vocabulary is used, though word choice may lack precision. Errors which do occur do not cause difficulty for the reader. Register and format are reasonably appropriate to the purpose of the task and the audience. BAND 2 For a Band 2 to be awarded, the candidate's writing has a negative effect on the target reader. The content is not always relevant. Information and ideas are inadequately organised and sometimes incoherent, with inaccurate use of cohesive devices. The range of structures and vocabulary is limited and/or repetitive, and errors may be basic or cause difficulty for the reader. Register and format are sometimes inappropriate to the purpose of the task and the audience. BAND 1 For a Band 1 to be awarded, the candidate's writing has a very negative effect on the target reader. The content is often irrelevant. Information and ideas are poorly organised, often incoherent, and there is minimal use of cohesive devices. The range of structures and vocabulary is severely limited, and errors frequently cause considerable difficulty for the reader. Register and format are inappropriate to the purpose of the task and the audience. BAND 0 For a Band zero to be awarded, there is either too little language for assessment or the candidate's writing is totally irrelevant or illegible.

* Candidates who do not address all the content points will be penalised for dealing inadequately with the
requirements of the task.Candidates who fully satisfy the Band 3 descriptor will demonstrate an adequate performance in writing at CAE level.

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Exercise 6D
1. Look at the two competition entries that were published on Flo-Joe http://www.flo-joe.co.uk/cae/students/writing/makeover/makeover19.htm by CAE. 2. What feedback do you think the adjudicator has given on these texts? Can you identify the mistakes he has marked? (Some comments may be compliments!) 3. Evaluate the two texts in terms of structure, content, level of vocabulary, register, language accuracy, and communicative success. 4. Rewrite one of the texts.

WIN AN ALL EXPENSES PAID TRIP AROUND THE WORLD!

If you could have three wishes what would they be and why? All you have to do to enter our fabulous competition is to write and tell us what three things you would wish for and why. We are offering the holiday of a lifetime to the person who writes the most amusing or original suggestions.

I've seen {1} your competition entry in a magazine and I'm very interested in taking part in this alluring{***} {2} competition. Like everybody (including Cinderella), I surely have three cherished wishes, which I want to write you about. No wonder that{3} my first wish would be to travel around the world. I've always been fond of travelling. I reckon tourism is the most popular attraction for people. This is because only travelling could{4} give you so much experience and could leave a lot of impressions. The desire to travel results from the thirst for discovery, discovery of new people, other cultures, different countries. This is the urge that compeled the pioneers to set off to the unexplored lands. Those have ever tasted of journey{5} will never forget it. Also, I've always wished I could be an outstanding doctor - neither more, nor less{6}. When I was thinking of this profession, I understood that there was no other one which could give you more satisfaction than curing patients who suffered. So it's obvious that working as a doctor is among the nobliest {7} profession in the world. Last year I successfully graduated from the Medical University. And now I consider this occupation as utterly labour-{8} and time-consuming. But on the other hand, everything depends on yourself. And it's a great challenge for me to do my best to make my wish come true. I hope that by {***} {9}age of 35 I will have arrived {10}. And finally, I wish for the most important thing in the life. Being a doctor, I mean{11} health to be of the greatest value. I wish everyone to be healthy..., healthy to be able to fulfil all your plans, to achieve all your aims and to make true everything you've always wished for{***}.
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WIN YOUR SALARY FOR SIX MONTHS! If you could win a prize equal to six months of your salary, what would you choose to do for that time? What benefits would it bring to you and to other people? This fabulous prize could be yours if you write and tell us the most interesting or original idea.

Every day as I commute by train to work, I imagine what it would be like to be living the life of my fantasies. Winning my salary for the next six months would make not one but two of my dreams come true. I have always harboured the ambition to travel around the Mediterranean Sea with a mobile home because you meet a lot of people from dfferent countries on campsites{***} {1} which broadens your horizon and improves language skills. Often I daydream about having complete freedom to stay wherever I want to. Winning this marvellous price {2} would allow me to take a six-month sabbatial and see many different countries. It would help me learn to cope with the unexpected. I would keep a diary of my experiences and studies and take photos as one day I would like to write books, (so this prize could even help launch a brand new career!) As I am a teacher of Religion {3}Studies and History I would have a lot on the agenda for the journey. I would try to learn as much as possible about Islam and the traditions and habits in Muslim countries. In Egypt and Turkey I plan to focus on the Ancient World. I am convinced that my knowledge will help me to enrich my lessons and enable me to interest my pupils in these foreign countries. By talking about my experiences during my travels I can educate the girls and boys to be tolerant of other cultures. Therefore, the opportunity afforded by this prize would not only help me to do something I have always dreamt off {4} but would also improve my skills as a teacher and educator.

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These are the comments of the adjudicator gave [comments/corrections are in square brackets]
Text 1: I've seen [tense: I saw] your competition entry in a magazine and I'm very interested in taking part in this alluring{***} {2} [word choice] competition. Like everybody (including Cinderella), I surely have three cherished wishes, which I want to write you [wordy] about. No wonder that{3} [expression: not surprisingly] my first wish would be to travel around the world. I've always been fond of travelling. [Nice!] I reckon tourism is the most popular attraction for people. This is because only travelling could{4} [grammar:can] give you so much experience and could leave a lot of impressions. The desire to travel results from the thirst for discovery, discovery of new people, other cultures, different countries. This is the urge that compeled [spelling] the pioneers to set off to the unexplored lands. Those have ever tasted of journey{5} [expression] will never forget it. Also, I've always wished I could be an outstanding doctor - neither more, nor less{6}.[ Expression: no more, no less] When I was thinking of this profession, I understood that there was no other one which could give you more satisfaction than curing patients who suffered. So it's obvious that working as a doctor is among the nobliest {7} [spelling] profession [sg/pl] in the world. Last year I successfully graduated from the Medical University. And now I consider this occupation as utterly labour-{8} [labour-intensive] and time-consuming. But on the other hand, everything depends on yourself. And it's a great challenge for me to do my best to make my wish come true. I hope that by {***} {9} [the] age of 35 I will have arrived {10} [expression: reached my goal.] And finally, I wish for the most important thing in the life. Being a doctor, I mean{11}[word choice: consider] health to be of the greatest value. I wish everyone to be healthy..., healthy to be able to fulfil all your plans, to achieve all your aims and to make true everything you've always wished for{***}. [Yes, I agree!]

Text 2: Every day as I commute by train to work I imagine what it would be like to be living the life of my fantasies. Winning my salary for the next six months would make not one but two of my dreams come true.[ Good!] I have always harboured the ambition [nice!] to travel around the Mediterranean Sea with a mobile home because you meet a lot of people from different countries on campsites{***} {1} [Punctuation: ,] which broadens your horizon [nice!] and improves language skills. Often I daydream about having complete freedom to stay wherever I want to. Winning this marvelous price {2}[spelling] would allow me to take a sixmonth sabbatical and see many different countries. It would help me learn to cope with the unexpected. I would keep a diary of my experiences and studies and take photos as one day I would like to write books, (so this prize could even help launch a brand new career!) As I am a teacher of Religion {3} [Religious Studies] Studies and History I would have a lot on the agenda for the journey. I would try to learn as much as possible about Islam and the traditions and habits in Muslim countries. In Egypt and Turkey I plan to focus on the Ancient World. I am convinced that my knowledge will help me to enrich [nice!] my lessons and enable me to interest my pupils in these foreign countries. By talking about my experiences during my travels I can educate the girls and boys to be tolerant of [nice!] other cultures. Therefore, the opportunity afforded by [nice!] this prize would not only help me to do something I have always dreamt off {4} [spelling] of but would also improve my skills as a teacher and educator.

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Exercise 6E
Below you will find two articles written in response to the following CAE assignment and submitted to http://www.flo-joe.co.uk/cae/students/writing/makeover/makeover25.htm

INTERNET - THE GOOD AND BAD What difference has the internet made to your life? Can you imagine life without email and the world wide web? Write in giving your views on what you like - and hate about being online, and we will publish the best articles.

Exercise 6E1 1. Read the article 2. Summarise the structure (what went into which paragraphs?). 3. Asses the article according to the CAE Bands
NOT A DAY WITHOUT THE INTERNET? The internet, one of the latest discoveries of the 20th century, has become part of everyone's vocabulary nowadays. Whether we like it or not, it is turning more and more into a social phenomenon, especially among teenagers. However, it cannot be denied that it provides a lot of facilities. I was a little skeptical towards it at first, but now I'm aware of the positive effect it has proved to have on my life. The internet can be a source of useful information, which you can easily find and download by accessing an appropriate website. For instance, I was very pleased when I discovered just the right website to help me prepare for the CAE exam. Studying online can save you a lot of time and energy, as you don't need to borrow books from public libraries anymore, books which, as we all know, have to be returned in about two weeks time. When you want to send a letter for business interest in short time, or send a message to a friend who is far away for the time being, or simply say "Hello" to someone you love to let him know you are thinking about him, all you have to do is to send all these people an email. I remember that last year, when my boyfriend had to work in France for three months, we used to email each other at least twice a day! Another thing I love about the internet which also has to do with world wide communication are the chat groups. I like talking to people with different social and cultural background from all over the world on various subjects; you can make a lot of friends and gain a whole new perspective on life. Unfortunately, in my country, not many people can afford to own a computer or have accsess to the internet. Others, on the other hand, use it excesively, mostly children, teenagers and introvert persons, which can lead to finding it harder and harder for them to adapt to real world. The e-world is a great one if used properly, but we should pay attention to the fact that "faster" doesn't necessarily mean "better" and a smile or a hug can't be replaced by an email.

I thank the internet for its existence, but I can make it through the day without it. The question is: can you?

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Exercise 6E2
Here is another response to the same CAE assignment. 1. Read the article below and decide how you could improve it. 2. Compare your comments with the feedback on the following page. 3. Now rewrite the article in pairs.
RUNNING OUT OF LIFE IN FRONT OF A MACHINE Wasting time is nearly the synonym for "internet"... Is it worth losing oneself in the web? The number of people who spend time navigating through the net increases astronomically day by day. It is very common to spot young people at cibercafes typing on a computer keyboard on a weekend night.What is astonishing is how they prefer virtual activities than enjoying life: going out with friends, not being isolated with a machine. ...but not at all: On the other hand, the internet has introduced a wide range of facilities in our lives. The email enables to contact any person around the world instantly without having to wait for a month for a reply, websites offer any kind of information you need, moreover, you can make the most of studying online. All these benefits are an important progress for sure, though we are likely to let time fly without realising, sitting in front of the sreen. The disadvantage of this whole new craze is that you can become a "computer nut"; while there might already be millions of them. One other thing is that if you don't own a recently brought out computer, you could wait for ages to download something, since old computers or computers from just two years ago work too slowly. Therefore, it exists a commercial bussiness which forces people to renew their equipment continiously. To sum up, life without internet would make people take part in more social activities, whereas communication an infirmation look up would take more time. Using internet will always be profitable as long as people dont abuse from it.

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FEEDBACK on the article of exercise 6E2

This text is a collection of loose ideas and lacks structure and coherence. The writer needs to consider structuring the text: o A clear introduction, attracting the readers attention and containing a short summary of what he or she is going to write about. (Opening sentence of the text is hardly an introduction and likely to put the reader off reading the rest.) o A body with paragraphs for and against the Internet. ( The advantages and disadvantages seem to be scattered in the text and are not all clearly related to (or written in service to) one central point.) o A conclusion summing up the pros and cons and then taking sides. (The body of the text does not support the concluding remarks and the conclusion does not give a clear answer to the question that is raised.) The writer of this article is advised to make a word map (reader p. 6 clustering) before he or she starts writing. He or she might then have come up with the various items he or she intended to discuss o Wasting time o Failing to enjoy life with friends o Facilities: e-mail, information, study o Time flies(?) o Computers that are out of date o Computer businesses forcing people to buy new computers After drawing up such a word map, the writer might have tried to cluster the items according to whether they are pros or cons and decide on the various paragraphs he or she had wanted to write. Each paragraph could them be fleshed out with supporting evidence or detail. A clear structure and well developed points would have avoided irritation on the side of the reader. In terms of language accuracy this text contains a fair number of spelling and punctuation mistakes that need to be corrected.

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CHAPTER 7. PUNCTUATION
This overview is from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/566/01/ Punctuation is very important. Without it, words would follow each other in an endless stream and the meaning would be lost. The role of punctuation is to make the meaning clear. Just to show you how important punctuation can be: The teacher, said the student, is an ass. does not mean the same thing as: The teacher said, The student is an ass. When speaking, we can pause or change the tone of our voices to indicate emphasis. When writing, we use punctuation to indicate these places of emphasis. This chapter should help to clarify when and how to use various marks of punctuation.

7.1 Full stop or period


1. Use a full stop at the end of a sentence. Remember to start the next word after a full stop with a capital. 2. Three full stops placed one after the other mean that words have been left out in a quotation; Let me tell you I hope you agree or to indicate that the sentence has been left unfinished deliberately. I could go on and on

7.2 Question mark


1. Use the question mark after a direct question. Do you think he is rich? Note that I wonder if he is rich does not take a question mark, because its not a question.

7.3 Exclamation mark


1. Use it very seldom. A good rule is to keep exclamation marks almost exclusively for exclamations. Oh!, What a shame!, What a stupid thing to say! shouted the man. Too many exclamation marks suggest inability to express yourself.
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7.4 Comma
1. Use a comma to join 2 independent clauses by a comma and a coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so). Road construction can be inconvenient, but it is necessary. The new house has a large fenced backyard, so I am sure our dog will enjoy it.
Independent clause: a clause that has a subject and a verb and can stand alone; a complete sentence Dependent clause: a clause that has a subject and a verb but cannot stand alone; an incomplete sentence

2. Use a comma after an introductory phrase, prepositional phrase, or dependent clause. To get a good grade, you must complete all your assignments. Because Dad caught chicken pox, we cancelled our vacation. After the wedding, the guests attended the reception.

3. Use a comma to separate elements in a series. Although there is no set rule that requires a comma before the last item in a series, it seems to be a general academic convention to include it. The examples below demonstrate this trend. On her vacation, Lisa visited Greece, Spain, and Italy. In their speeches, many of the candidates promised to help protect the environment, bring about world peace, and end world hunger.

4. Use a comma to separate nonessential elements from a sentence. More specifically, when a sentence includes information that is not crucial to the message or intent of the sentence, enclose it in or separate it by commas. John's truck, a red Chevrolet, needs new tires.

5. Use a comma between coordinate adjectives (adjectives that are equal and reversible). The irritable, fidgety crowd waited impatiently for the rally speeches to begin. The sturdy, compact suitcase made a perfect gift.

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6. Use a comma after a transitional element (however, therefore, nonetheless, also, otherwise, finally, instead, thus, of course, above all, for example, in other words, as a result, on the other hand, in conclusion, in addition) For example, the Red Sox, Yankees, and Indians are popular baseball teams. If you really want to get a good grade this semester, however, you must complete all assignments, attend class, and study your notes.

7. Use a comma with quoted words. "Yes," she promised. Todd replied, saying, "I will be back this afternoon."

8. Use a comma in a date. October 25, 1999 Monday, October 25, 1999 25 October 1999

9. Use a comma in a number. 15,000,000

10. Use a comma in a personal title. Pam Smith, MD Mike Rose, Chief Financial Officer for Operations, reported the quarter's earnings.

11. Use a comma to separate a city name from the state. West Lafayette, Indiana Dallas, Texas

Avoid comma splices (two independent clauses joined only by a comma). Instead, separate the clauses with a period, with a comma followed by a coordinating conjunction, or with a semicolon.

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7.5 Semicolon
1. Use a semicolon to join 2 independent clauses when the second clause restates the first or when the two clauses are of equal emphasis. Road construction in Dallas has hindered travel around town; streets have become covered with bulldozers, trucks, and cones.

2. Use a semicolon to join 2 independent clauses when the second clause begins with a conjunctive adverb (however, therefore, moreover, furthermore, thus, meanwhile, nonetheless, otherwise) or a transition (in fact, for example, that is, for instance, in addition, in other words, on the other hand, even so). Terrorism in the United States has become a recent concern; in fact, the concern for America's safety has led to an awareness of global terrorism.

3. Use a semicolon to join elements of a series when individual items of the series already include commas.
Recent sites of the Olympic Games include Athens, Greece; Salt Lake City, Utah; Sydney, Australia; Nagano, Japan.

7.6 Colon
1. Use a colon after an independent clause when it is followed by a list, a quotation, appositive, or other idea directly related to the independent clause. Julie went to the store for some groceries: milk, bread, coffee, and cheese. 2. Use a colon to separate a title from a subtitle Math Applications: Using Calculus to Determine the Age of Rock

3. Use a colon to separate the hour and minute(s) in a time notation. 12:00 p.m. 4. Use a colon to join 2 independent clauses when you wish to emphasize the second clause. Road construction in Dallas has hindered travel around town: parts of Main, Fifth, and West Street are closed during the construction.
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The most common mistake with colons is when the colon is placed right in the middle of an independent clause (a complete idea or sentence). A colon should be written after an independent clause or complete idea. Take a look at the following example: * Every repairman must have: a screwdriver, a hammer, and a saw. Although most people would say this sentence is fine, it is incorrect. Look at the part of this sentence before the colon: * Every repairman must have: Is this a complete idea (independent clause)? No. It doesnt make sense and it is meaningless. This is why the colon was not used correctly here. So how do you fix it? Just make the part of the sentence before the colon a complete idea. Take a look at the following sentence: There are three things every repairman must have: a screwdriver, a hammer, and a saw. Now, the part of the sentence before the colon is a complete idea.

Another common misuse of the colon is with quotations. Quotations typically have a comma before them: The football team was tired. The coach said, We can still win.

When the quotation adds information or explains the ideas presented in the clause (part of the sentence) before the quotation, a colon is usually better. This usage requires that the part of the sentence before the quote is a complete idea (independent clause): After feeling discouraged and behind 25 points in the last basketball championship game, the coach was reminded of something Winston Churchill once said: Courage is the first of human qualities because it is the quality which guarantees all others.

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7.7 Brackets or Parenthesis


Parentheses are used to emphasize content. They place more emphasis on the enclosed content than commas. Use parentheses to set off nonessential material, such as dates, clarifying information, or sources, from a sentence. Mohammed Ali (1942-present), arguably the greatest athlete of all time, claimed he would "float like a butterfly, sting like a bee."

7.8 Dash
1. Dashes are used to set off or emphasize the content enclosed within dashes or the content that follows a dash. Dashes place more emphasis on this content than parentheses. Perhaps one reason why the term has been so problematicso resistant to definition, and yet so transitory in those definitionsis because of its multitude of applications.

To some of you, my proposals may seem radicaleven revolutionary. 2. Use a dash to set off an appositive phrase that already includes commas. An appositive is a word that adds explanatory or clarifying information to the noun that precedes it. The cousinsTina, Todd, and Samarrived at the party together.

7.9 Inverted commas or Quotation Marks


1. Use inverted commas to enclose direct quotations. Note that commas and full stops are placed inside the closing quotation mark, and colons and semicolons are placed outside. The placement of question and exclamation marks depends on the situation. He asked, "When will you be arriving?" I answered, "Sometime after 6:30." Use inverted commas to single out words or letters. One could use a comma before the quotation instead of a colon. 2. Use inverted commas to indicate that the words between them are the title of a book, newspaper, etc.: It was reported in The Times that millions 3. Use inverted commas to indicate the novel, ironic, or reserved use of a word. History is stained with blood spilled in the name of "justice."
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4. Use inverted commas around the titles of short poems, song titles, short stories, magazine or newspaper articles, essays, speeches, chapter titles, short films, and episodes of television or radio shows. "Self-Reliance," by Ralph Waldo Emerson "Just Like a Woman," by Bob Dylan "The Smelly Car," an episode of Seinfeld Inverted commas can be single or double. Sometimes it is necessary to use both kinds (e.g. for a quotation within a quotation): The following report appeared in the Guardian: A doctor once described his method of finding out what was wrong with his patients. Well, he would start, What is wrong? Never accepting the first answer, he would continue

Exercise 7A

http://www.myenglishteacher.net/usingcommas.html

Put commas in the sentences below. 1. Ivan the Terrible is considered one of the most feared people in history. 2. If you would like to travel first class Madam that will cost an extra $300. 3. Rebecca asked Can we go to the restaurant? 4. My best friend who comes from Egypt is a very nice guy. 5. Even if it takes all day Im going to fix the roof. 6. It seems that it will snow today because of the cold weather and the red sky. 7. Japanese food is healthy light and not very oily. 8. There was fear that another big war would start so the United Nations was formed. 9. When you meet people for the first time never talk about religion politics and a bad boss. 10. Jim wants to see a movie but Carol wants to stay home.

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Exercise 7B
Combine the sentences using commas or semicolons. If they cannot be combined, write cannot be combined. 1. Franklin is planning on going to Africa this summer. I am going to stay home and relax. 2. Jorge is taking biology this semester. Phil lost his books. 3. It seems that the economy is slowing down. Consequently, Congress needs to lower taxes to get the economy going. 4. I would like to take world history, Physics 101, and English composition this semester. It seems that I cant because of a scheduling error.

Exercise 7C
Are the colons used properly in the sentences below? If not, correct them. 1. Food Marketing: How to Sell Snack Items in a Grocery Store 2. My favourite books are: Huckleberry Finn, Lord of the Rings, and Animal Farm. 3. Advertisers know there are some colour combinations that are very eye-catching. For example: black on a yellow background and white on a dark blue background. 4. When Ricky saw the sad faces of the people who failed the college entrance exam, he was reminded of what Orison Swett Marden (founder of Success Magazine) used to say, There is no medicine like hope, no incentive so great, and no tonic so powerful as expectation of something tomorrow.

Exercise 7D
Punctuate a passage Below is an unpunctuated passage about words. Part of it can be presented in a special display. Punctuate the passage.

many words in most languages have imprecise meanings even ordinary words like man run and hot such words can refer to more than one thing and have more than one use without a clear context we cannot always be sure just what they are meant to convey consider these sentences 1 the woman shouted that the house was on fire 2 the captain ordered his men to fire 3 fire sentences 1 and 2 provide enough
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context to show what is intended by the word fire in each case sentence 3 however presents a problem does it relate to the woman or the captain or to something else completely

Exercise 7E
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/exercises/3/16/14/

Punctuate these sentences Put in semicolons, colons, hyphens, quotation marks, and parentheses where ever they are needed in the following sentences. 1. The men in question Harold Keene, Jim Peterson, and Gerald Greene deserve awards. 2. Several countries participated in the airlift Italy, Belgium, France, and Luxembourg. 3. Only one course was open to us surrender, said the ex-major, and we did. 4. Judge Carswell later to be nominated for the Supreme Court had ruled against civil rights. 5. In last week's New Yorker, one of my favourite magazines, I enjoyed reading Leland's article How Not to Go Camping. 6. Yes, Jim said, I'll be home by ten. 7. There was only one thing to do study till dawn. 8. Montaigne wrote the following A wise man never loses anything, if he has himself. 9. The following are the primary colours red, blue, and yellow. 10. When the teacher commented that her spelling was poor, Lynn replied All the members of my family are poor spellers. Why not me? 11. He used the phrase you know so often that I finally said No, I don't know. 12. The automobile dealer handled three makes of cars Volkswagens, Porsches, and Mercedes Benz. 13. Though Phil said he would arrive on the 9 19 flight, he came instead on the 10 36 flight. 14. Whoever thought said Helen that Jack would be elected class president? 15. In baseball a show boat is a man who shows off. 16. The minister quoted Isaiah 5 21 in last Sunday's sermon.
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17. There was a very interesting article entitled The New Rage for Folk Singing in last Sunday's New York Times newspaper. 18. Whoever is elected secretary of the club Ashley, or Chandra, or Aisha must be prepared to do a great deal of work, said Jumita, the previous secretary. 19. Darwin's On the Origin of Species 1859 caused a great controversy when it appeared.

Exercise 7F
Notice the use of capital letters in the following expressions: 1. Mrs Ashley, Mr Brown, Mr and Mrs Thompson, Lady Grey, Sir Geoffrey Land, Dr James, Professor Ayer, etc. 2. the Foreign Secretary, the Minister of Finance, the Archbishop of York, etc. 3. Oxford Street, Hyde Park, Trafalgar Square, Redhill Gardens, etc. 4. Lake Windermere, the River Thames, Mount Everest, etc. 5. Monday, Tuesday, etc.; January, February, etc.; Christmas, Easter, etc.; Christmas Eve, New Years Day, etc. 6. French, English, Spanish, etc.; Frenchman, Englishman, Spaniard, etc. 7. the Tate Gallery, the Museum of Modern Art, the Ritz Hotel, etc. Now, indicate where you need capital letters in the following sentences. 8. was professor blunt working for the queen of england? 9. the british prime minister met the german foreign minister for talks. 10. is lake geneva near mont blanc? 11. on thursday were going to the museum of natural history. 12. the suggestion was made by captain jones on behalf of general taylor. 13. is dr spock american or canadian? 14. last year good friday was on april 1st.

Exercise 7G
Notice the use of the apostrophe ( ) in the following expressions: Its mine. Marys sister. Youre wrong. He cant come. Wed better wait.

The childrens toys. All the students names.

Put in an apostrophe where one is necessary in the following sentences: 1. I think its an elephant, but its so far away I cant see its trunk. 2. Johns brothers wife went to the grocers for us. 3. The womens changing room is opposite the mens. 4. The Smiths provided the food, and the Jacksons organised the transport. 5. Two wrongs dont make a right. 6. This car cant be my parents because theirs is quite old.
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7. Peter asked Jennys father for all the customers addresses. 8. The girls entrance used to be separate from the boys; now theres only one entrance for everybody. 9. She wont go to the dentists because its too late 10. Whats the sense in saying its Jacks? 11. My skis are new; hers are my mothers old ones. 12. Its exact translation is somewhat difficult, isnt it?
Opdrachten 7E, 7F en 7G zijn overgenomen uit Writing Skills, A Problem-Solving Approach (Coe, Rycroft, and Ernest) Cambridge University Press, 1983

Exercise 7H
Compare the following pairs of sentences, and decide whether (a) or (b) is correct. If both (a) and (b) are possible what is the difference in meaning? 1. a) Everest which is the highest mountain in the world was not climbed until 1953. b) Everest, which is the highest mountain in the world, was not climbed until 1953. a) The river that runs through Paris is called the Seine. b) The river that runs through Paris, is called the Seine. a) They were sent some silk by their cousin who is in the merchant navy. b) They were sent some silk by their cousin, who is in the merchant navy. a) We need someone who can read Chinese. b) We need someone, who can read Chinese. a) Thank you for your letter which arrived today. b) Thank you for your letter, which arrived today. a) Mr Branston who is a rather shy man does not like making speeches. b) Mr Branston, who is a rather shy man, does not like making speeches. a) We got in through the window which somebody had left open. b) We got in through the window, which somebody had left open. a) They accused my father who is scrupulously honest of fraud. b) They accused my father, who is scrupulously honest, of fraud. a) Could you please let us know the dates, which would suit you best? b) Could you please let us know the dates which would suit you best? a) The girls who worked hard were given a bonus. b) The girls who worked hard, were given a bonus.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

Punctuate the following sentences. If there are two possibilities, decide what the different meanings would be. 11. 12. Winston Churchill who was unpopular with many people became Prime Minister. We will have to return the parcel which was delivered today.
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13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

What is the name of the mountains which divide Spain from France? The Pyrenees which divide Spain from France are often covered with snow. The supplies which we kept in the shed rapidly became mouldy. The young lady who served us last time now works in a different shop. Politicians who are dishonest should be punished severely. My brother interviewed all the people who had escaped unhurt. The committee that is responsible includes her mother and father who are both lawyers. The German car which won the race was driven by an Austrian.

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CHAPTER 8 COHESION WITH LINKING AND REFERENCE WORDS 8.1 Linking words
-p = -s = Do not use this word in the first sentence of a new paragraph as logical connector with previous paragraph Do not begin a sentence with this connector (for grammatical or stylistic reasons)

Addition & Specification Again Also (-p) And (-p, -s) And then (-p, -s) Equally (important) By the same token In the same way Similarly Not only but also Further Furthermore (-p) In addition (-p) In addition to Too (-p, -s) As well Even Indeed Besides Moreover (-p) Neither Nor (-p) Either (-p) In particular Particularly Chiefly Mostly EXAMPLE: There are thousands of large animals in the zoo. Similarly, there are thousands of small animals.

Exemplification The role of these terms is to mark an illustration or introduce an explanatory comment: For example (-p) For instance A case in point In particular (-p) Namely (-p, -s) Specifically (-p) That is (-p) That is to say To take (quote, cite) a typical case (instance, example) By way of explanation By way of illustration Such as (-p, -s) An example would be (-p) EXAMPLE: Teenagers are known to be difficult to deal with. Specifically, youngsters in the age-range of 15-18 can drive their parents to madness.

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Reformulation & Replacement These terms announce that some foregoing expression is to be rephrased or mark an idiosyncratic formulation: Or (-p, -s) (Or) rather (-p) Alternatively In other words (-p) Another / a better way of putting it (-p) To put it another way (-p) Differently put On the other hand But (-p, -s) As it were So to speak EXAMPLE: Cats and dogs are social animals. They make great pets, so to speak.

Chronological Order After a short time After a while Afterwards At last Lately Presently Shortly Since the (+ noun) Before the (+ noun) Temporarily In the year Then Previously Before After While Until As soon as And a host of adjectives such as: Early Late Previous Subsequent

Result and Inference (gevolgtrekking) Accordingly (-p) Consequently (-p) In consequence As a consequence As a consequence of Hence (-p) Then (-p) Therefore (-p) thereby (+ Verb-ing) (-p, -s) so (-p, -s)

Thus As a result (-p) As a result of The cause of The reason for results / resulted in in view of because of due to results from the result of in that case in which case Order of Importance Above all First of all More important Most important The most important (+ noun)

Summary In all In brief In short To conclude To summarise In conclusion In summary To sum up

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Transition The term indicates a revised point of view. The writer ostensibly (ogenschijnlijk) detaches him/herself from his/her theme and takes an objective stance; or enlarges his/her argument so that misapprehensions are corrected; or moves forward to a new phase in the exposition. As regards Now As for As far as X is concerned With reference to With respect to With regard to If we turn to Let us now turn to Turning to Incidentally (digression/uitweiding)

Enumeration

Initial: In the first place To begin with To start with First and foremost For one thing Apart from anything else Medial: In the second place Then Next After that To continue Furthermore What is more Moreover In addition (for one thing) for another

Final: Finally Last(ly) All in all Last but not least In short To sum up By way of conclusion In conclusion One final point EXAMPLE: To begin with, monkeys are an intelligent species. Furthermore, they possess many vital functions.

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8.2 connective phrases


In revising a paragraph, you may need more than a common linking word to fill a gap between two sentences. You may need a longer phrase, a clause, or even a full sentence. In the next paragraph, for example, a transitional phrase inserted before the last sentence clarifies the link between restrictions imposed on marijuana and the federal order to reexamine its use: Since the passage of the Controlled Substances Act in 1970, marijuana has been classified as a dangerous drug, its possession subject to federal felony charges. This act has prevented the use of the drug even for medical purposes. A federal court in Washington has ordered a thorough re-examination of marijuana, including its potential for medical use. Since the passage of the Controlled Substances Act in 1970, marijuana has been classified as a dangerous drug, its possession subject to federal felony charges. This act has prevented the use of the drug even for medical purposes. But now, in an attempt to separate fact from fantasy, a federal court in Washington has ordered a thorough re-examination of marijuana, including its potential for medical use.

Using Reference Aside from using linking words and connective phrases, you can create cohesion (samenhang) by making reference to an earlier word or phrase by using lexical connectors and pronouns.

8.3 Lexical Connectors


Lexical connectors are devices that link sentences or parts of sentences. We can distinguish eight types: 1. REPETITION The First World War was the war to end wars. REPETITION PLUS SLIGHT MODIFICATION War is a natural means of population limitation. Wars are therefore a necessary evil. REPETITION OF THE BASE WORD IN A DIFFERENT FORM Hitler decided to invade Poland almost at once. The invasion was timed to perfection. USE OF A SYNONYM OR ANTONYM In the first place, the use of force was inappropriate given the situation, and in the second place, mediation was considered unsuitable. Only the adoption of a waiting policy would have been fitting in the circumstances. (Note also: situation / circumstances)
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2.

3.

4.

Boys are generally unpleasant, girls are not. 5. REPHRASING OF EXPRESSIONS TO AVOID REPETITION The much lower level of employment after the war had serious consequences of the economy. This drop in the employment rate has never been satisfactorily dealt with. 6. USE OF A SUPERORDINATE TERM OR A HYPONYM Tulips are considered to be particularly Dutch. It is difficult to imagine why, since the flower was imported from Turkey. Still, tea is thought of as typically English, but that beverage belongs to China. (Note also: considered / thought of) He finally bought a Jaguar, which he is always cleaning. The car just stands in his drive. 7. VARIATION BY MEANS OF LEXICAL ITEMS WHICH COLLOCATE We heard a hooting outside. An owl sat blinking on a branch, watching us. He walked along, holding the candle carefully. After several minutes, the flame lost its intensity. There was a final flicker, before the corridor was plunged into darkness. 8. VARIATION BY MEANS OF A GENERAL WORD INSTEAD OF A SPECIFIC ONE (Similar to 6 above) people, person, man, woman, child, boy, girl (human) creature (non-human, animate) thing, object (inanimate concrete noun) business, affair, matter (inanimate abstract noun) place (place name) course of action, the thing to do (action) idea (fact) point, point in time, period (time) Everybody wanted the minister to resign, but the man simply refused to go. (Note also: resign / go) The English may be oversensitive about the transport of cattle by lorry, but the poor creatures are clearly neglected. He could tell us all about Amsterdam although he had never seen the place. Note that these general words are usually preceded by the or a demonstrative pronoun. Using animate or human nouns often means personal involvement and a clearly perceptible attitude on the part of the writer.

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8.4 Pronouns
A further kind of reference is the use of pronouns, such as she, he, it, they, this, that, some, or another. A pronoun, too, is a kind of synonym, but it gets its meaning by referring to an earlier word or group of words. In the next example, the pronouns they and their refer to Virgos: Virgos are simple and gentle people, with a need to serve humanity. Careful and precise by nature, they make excellent secretaries and nurses. The warm, shining eyes and the bright appearance of Virgos conceal their deeply burning desire for love. In the next passage, not only does the pronoun he ensure coherence, but its recurrence also links the successive sentences into a forceful and effective pattern. Dont forget that he refers to the Apostle Paul; the last sentence repeats his name and neatly winds up the passage perhaps with a touch of sarcasm: The Apostle Paul may have been an early example of a male chauvinist. He considers women the weaker vessel, inferior to men. He advises wives to obey their husbands, because men are masters over their women just as Christ is master over the Church. He advises men not to marry, although he admits that marriage may be necessary for those who lust after women; for it is better to be married and sexually gratified than to be single and sex-crazed. But to be single and rid of women, says the Apostle Paul, is best of all. Note: do not use the following pronouns and other reference words in the first sentence of each paragraph to refer directly to elements in previous paragraphs or in the title: we he she they it this here us him her their it that now ours his hers theirs their (its) our his her (its)

these those there then

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EXERCISE 8A1
Choose a suitable linking word from the following list to link the two sentences of each pair given below. Dont use the same word twice. a. b. c. d. e. for example yet therefore on the contrary in other words f. g. h. i. j. for one thing also otherwise at the same time in that case

1. Murder has always been the easiest crime to solve. People usually kill someone they know. 2. Its a great mistake to regard this revolution as an appeal to reason. It was a return to the contemplation of brute force. 3. An unglazed clay pot should never be washed. It loses its delicious earthy flavour. 4. In his talk on obesity the speaker served up an indigestible stodge of statistics. We were told that, as a nation, we weigh three and a half million tons. 5. The early capitalism of the 19th century increased the potential of human wealth enormously. It created social injustice and inhumanity on an unprecedented scale. 6. The present policy is explicitly based on the assumption that prices will go on rising. It is based on inflation. 7. The sustained price rise has accompanied a massive increase in the real standard of living. People dont believe that inflation is a good thing. 8. I wouldnt dream of going with you on such an expedition. I couldnt afford it. 9. I hear youre interested in astrology. You ought to read Professor Udalls book The Zodiac and the English Nation. 10. Every time he drove up the snow-covered lane, he skidded. He decided to keep a box in the boot filled with ashes from the log fire.

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Exercise 8B
In this section information is provided about aspects of the sport of parachuting. To obtain it, however, it is necessary first to punctuate, then to re-organize the material. A. parascending has its attractions as a safe and comparatively easy introduction to parachuting generally especially for young people and may one day become the main form of the sport B. by such means the would be parascender can be raised into the air and set down again remarkably gently C. people who want to try this pastime can go for the same kind of weekend training as other more traditional parachutists D. bad weather is the enemy of traditional parachuting and has contributed towards a new activity called parascending E. on saturdays adults and teenagers learn landing rolls and safety drills and for a small sum of money are pulled off the ground on their first flights F. here the parachutist is attached to a car by a cable and runs behind it with open chute until he leaves the ground G. after a series of such flights they are allowed to release themselves and to practise steering the chute as they come down H. he is gradually lifted to about 1000 feet when he can release himself and do a normal descent

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Exercise 8C
The following sentences go together to form a complete letter, but they are in the wrong order. Put them in the right order, and decide how the underlined words and phrases help to link the text together.

Dear Sir, a) I telephoned the council offices, but I was merely told that in the last six months no traffic lights had been installed anywhere, and that this was due to economy cuts. b) However, nothing has been done. c) It would be interesting if someone in authority could try to explain this strange and dangerous order of priorities. d) This crossroads is an accident black spot. e) Now, as you know, the need for these traffic lights has once again been tragically underlined by another death, this time of a young child. f) I am writing to draw your readers attention to the urgent need for traffic lights at the junction of Mars Road and Sale Street. g) This reply is totally unsatisfactory when, as everyone knows, the council has recently spent enormous amounts of money on the installation of new public lavatories in Town Hall Square. h) After a fatal accident some six months ago the council promised to install traffic lights there. i) I do not normally make public protests, but this latest incident made me act. j) It has been the scene of dozens of bad accidents, including several in which people have died. Yours faithfully, Brenda Bradey (Mrs) J.B. Bradey

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Exercise 8D
The following sentences go together to form a complete letter, but they are in the wrong order. Put them in the right order, and decide how the underlined words and phrases help to link the text together.

Dear Dorothy, a) But when we started eating, the noise died down. b) As you may remember, it was Rosemarys birthday last Saturday, and she wanted to do something different. c) (You remember it, dont you? Just beside the old castle.) d) Well, nothing more to tell you just now; hope to see you at Christmas. e) I mean, life goes on as always, and nothing special seems to happen. f) Fortunately, there was a bright moon, so we were able to make our way there without much trouble. g) It was then that we suddenly became aware of the stillness of the night, and although it sounds odd to say so, the silence seemed even louder than the noise we had been making before. h) Thank you very much for your letter, which arrived this morning. i) All in all, it was an unforgettable experience Im sure Rosemarys picnic will be talked about for some time. j) It was really my turn to write, as you say, but I seem to have so little news these days. k) As you can imagine, there was a great deal of messing about when we got there people shouting and chasing each other around, and so on. l) Last weekend was fun, though. m) Well, anyway, we all met at the Red Lion, had a few drinks there, and then went on down to the wood. n) Instead of the usual party at home she decided to have a midnight picnic in Glover Wood. Love, Jenny
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Exercise 8E
In the following sentences the linking words and phrases are missing. Decide which of the words given would be possible. Note that in some cases more than one of the words given may be possible. 1. We are writing to you ..... clarify certain confused points. a) to b) in order to c) so as to 2. Our reply has been delayed ..... the recent postal strike. a) because of b) owing to c) for

d) for

d) by

3. These matters are difficult to deal with in writing. ..... we feel that is would be better for us to have a meeting. a) This is why b) That is why c) This is because d) Consequently 4. I am sending you my curriculum vitae, as well as other information, ..... you will have a chance to study it before our interview. a) so that b) because c) for d) since 5. Unfortunately, your letter arrived after the final date for applications. ..... we cannot consider you for the post. a) As a result b) That is because c) Consequently d) For this 6. ..... you are an import-export company, you will no doubt be pleased to know that I speak several foreign languages. a) For b) Since c) As d) Because of 7. I have had no regular work during the last year ..... a persistent illness. a) because b) owing to c) for d) because of 8. You suggest a visit in the first week of June. ..... June 2 nd is a public holiday in our country, we would like to suggest the second week instead. a) For b) Because c) Unfortunately d) Since 9. Most companies take their holidays in August. ..... there is little chance of much work being completed then. a) So b) Therefore c) Thus d) So that 10. I am enclosing a photocopy of the letter ..... you can judge its tone for yourself. a) so that b) in order for c) because d) since

De opdrachten 8A, 8C, 8D, 8E, en 8E zijn overgenomen uit Writing Skills, A Problem-Solving Approach (Coe, Rycroft, and Ernest) Cambridge University Press, 1983 59

CHAPTER 9 VOCABULARY 9.1 false friends (faux amis)


There are a number of words in Dutch which have an entirely different meaning when translated into English literally. Heres a list of the most important so-called false friends:

Actueel (D) Actual (E) Advocaat (D) Advocate (E) College (D) College (E) Concurrentie (D) Concurrence (E) Concurreren (D) To concur (E) Controleren (D)

To control (E) Consequent (D) Consequent (E) Consequently (E) Eventueel (D) Eventual (E) In een jaar tijd (D) In a years time (E) Interpunctie (D) Interpunction DOES NOT EXIST! Kritiek (op) (D) Critic (E) Menen (D) To mean (E) Overdoen (D) To overdo (E) Overmannen / overmeesteren (D) To overman (overstaff) (E) Particulier (D) Particular (E) Proef (D) Proof (E) Proeven (D) To prove (E)

Up-to-date, of current interest (E) Werkelijk, feitelijk (D) Counsel, barrister, lawyer (E) Voorstander, verdediger (D) Lecture (E) Instituut (D) Competition (E) Overeenstemming (D) To compete with (E) Overeenstemmen met (D) To test (kwaliteit controleren)(E) To overhaul (grondig nazien) (E) To inspect/examine (n.a.v. eisen) To check (oppervlakkig controleren)(E) Bedienen, beheersen, bewaken (D) Consistent (with) (E) Voortvloeiend (D) Daarom/dus (D) Possible / potential / any etc. (E) Uiteindelijk, daaruit voortvloeiend (D) Within / in the space of a year (E) Over een jaar (D) Punctuation (E) Criticism (of) (E) Criticus (D) To think / believe (E) Betekenen / bedoelen (D) To repeat (E) Overdrijven (D) Overpower (E) Overbemannen (D) Private (patient) (E) Bijzonder, speciaal, kieskeurig (D) Experiment, test (E) Bewijs (D) To taste (E) Bewijzen, blijken (D)
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Raar (D) Rare (E) Royaal (D) Royal (E) Solliciteren Solicit (E) Sparen (D) Spare (E) Stof (D) Stuff (E) Taxeren (D) To tax (E) Warenhuis (D) Warehouse (E) Dapper als hij was (D) Brave as he was (E)

Strange / odd (E) Zeldzaam (D) Liberal / generous (E) Koninklijk (D) To apply (for) (E) Vragen, verzoeken, tippelen (D) To save (E) Missen, over hebben (D) Dust, material (E) Spul (D) To value (E) Belasten, veel eisen van (D) Department store (E) Loods / opslagplaats (D) Since he was brave (E) Hoewel hij moedig was (D)

And beware the false Anglicisms, such as: Een smoking (D) Smoking (E) Boxen (luidsprekers) (D) Boxes (E) Een camping (D) Camping (out) (E) Een dancing (D) Dancing (E) Een detective (D) Detective (E) Panties (D) Panties (E) Een pocket (boekje) (D) A pocket (E) Een stretcher (D) A stretcher (E) A dinner jacket (A tuxedo) (E) Roken (D) Speakers (E) Dozen (D) A camp-site (E) Kamperen (D) A ball / disco / dancehall (E) Dansend (D) A detective novel (E) Rechercheur, speurder (D) Tights (een legging) (E) Slipje, kinderbroekje (D) A paperback (E) Een zak (D) A deck chair / reclining seat / camp bed (E) Een brancard (D)

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Exercise 9A
Identify and correct the false friends as well as any other mistakes in the following sentences: 1. The civil war in Yugoslavia features in many television programmes at the moment because it is an actual subject. 2. An economic engine is one that consumes little fuel in proportion to the work done. 3. I am afraid that we lost the contract to our Japanese concurrents. 4. The last ten years have seen a consequent improvement of our economy. 5. I was advised to put the matter into the hands of my advocate. 6. The English Department is definitely not overmanned. 7. It is very rare that she did not reply to our letter. 8. During the summer holidays I worked at V&D, which is a Dutch warehouse. 9. Last week hurricane Andrew caused damage taxed at $10,000. 10.If there is one thing I cannot stand, it is critics from my teacher.

Exercise 9B
Identify and correct the false friends as well as any other mistakes in the following passage: I hate mondays because I have so many colleges that day! I find myself thinking about the marvellous holliday we had in Las vegas this summer We spend a week on a camping there and have had a whale of a time, there were lots of casinos and dancings there. The man had to wear smokings and the women evening dresses. We used to dance all nite, after which we were so exhausted that we fell asleep instantly on our stretchers. Unfortunately, we are a little hard up at the moment, but as we would like to overdo it next year, we are busy sparing for a second trip to Las vegas. If we do not manage to get the money together, we will settle for a holliday at Zandvoort. However, Zandvoort can not concur with Las vegas. I might solicit for a summerjob in order to get the money. Anyway, I should stop day dreaming now and get some work done.
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9.2 Compound Words


Compound words are more than simply two or three words put together. There is always some kind of grammatical relationship between the elements of any compound. This relationship is best expressed by means of paraphrasing (that is, the restatement of the same material in some other way). The exercises that follow provide practice in paraphrasing compounds. 1. Many kinds of ordinary phrases can be turned into compounds by inverting (omkeren) the nouns, verbs or adjectives in these phrases. In this way the phrase is re-expressed in a tighter, more emphatic or concentrated way, usually providing a name for something. Study the examples, then make compounds in the same way. a group which is also a family a person who dwells in a cave football played in a college a coach for football played in a college a family group a cave-dweller college football a college football coach

Exercise 9C
a. b. c. d. e. f. g. a chair which has arms a delay that lasts two hours services in a cathedral a report written in or about London, and the report concerns business the number of a telephone in New York a company that publishes (books, etc.) in Singapore a strike in a factory that makes cars in Birmingham in England

2.

Effectively, when one wants to paraphrase or describe a compound, the simplest thing to do is convert back into the original fuller kind of phrase that was used in the previous exercise. This is done in the examples below. Study them carefully, then paraphrase the listed compounds in similar ways. a cavern waterfall soil erosion a sheepskin a sky-blue coffee pot a waterfall in a cavern / a fall of water in a cavern the erosion of soil the skin of a sheep a pot for coffee, which is blue like the sky (as blue as the sky)

Exercise 9D
a. b. c. d. an exploration team a nylon line the Mas dAzil cave a parachute ripcord e. age barrier f. an underground river g. a snow-clearing operation

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9.3 Derived Words


The compounding of words is important, but the derivation (afkomst, etymologie) of words is also important. Whereas compounds are formed by putting more or less equal elements together (nouns, verbs, adjectives), derivatives (derived words) are formed by adding subordinate elements to a simple base usually a noun, verb or adjective. These subordination elements are known as affixes. If an affix is attached at the beginning of a base, it is a prefix; if it is attached at the end, it is a suffix (sometimes an affix occurs in the middle of a word; then it is called an infix). We will now consider the process of derivation as a whole. Study the following examples carefully: 1. carefully ful 1st suffix ly 2nd suffix

care base 2. over prefix

overlapping ing suffix lap base

3. anti 1st prefix

anti-reactionary re 2nd prefix act base ion 1st suffix ary 2nd suffix

The base is naturally the principal part of the derived word, and almost always has a clear meaning. It is usually a word itself, but not always: 4. sub prefix terr(a) Note that the base here is terr, from the Latin word terra, meaning earth, land. It is not a normal word in English, but since it translates a noun, it has the value of a noun. There are many bases of this type, mostly from Latin and Greek, but sometimes also of AngloSaxon origin.
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subterranean an 1st suffix (e)an 2nd suffix

5. il not prefix

illegal al according to suffix leg (law)

Note that this word is entirely of Latin origin and form, translatable as not according to the law. If one removes all the apparent affixes and is left with something that seems to have no useful present-day meaning, this remainder cannot be considered a base. It is the historical root of the word, something that was a base long ago, perhaps in another language, but only part of the modern base on which new words can be formed. For example: 6. un prefix ly 3rd suffix al ion 2nd suffix 1st suffix unintentionally

in tent base

Note that the root tent comes from a Latin verb meaning to hold. It has no present-day value; the base, therefore, has to be intent, a variation of the verb intend. If you do something unintentionally, you did not intend to do it. This means that the in element, though technically a prefix, has no value in modern English either. In word analysis it is necessary to distinguish constantly between bases that have a meaning and function, and roots that may be interesting but have no present-day value. The problem can be seen clearly in words like receive, combat, prepare, etc., where the elements ceive, bat and pare have no meaning in modern English. Sometimes what looks like a derived word may in fact be a disguised compound (that is, it has two bases, not one). This is common in technical words of Greek origin: 7. ge earth 1st base geologist ist log(y)study 2nd base o connecting vowel meaning: a person who studies the earth The accurate analysis of derivatives is a complex though very useful art, which can often best be practised with the help of a good etymological dictionary. In the exercises which follow, you may or may not need to use such a dictionary to gain fuller control over the words.
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suffix

Exercise 9E
Derivation practice. Analyse the following words: a. Mexican b. pro-Chinese c. unnatural d. nationalistic e. super-tribal f. uncontrollable g. readership h. timelessness i. re-development j. downhill

Exercise 9F
Complete the bases in the first column with the appropriate suffixes in the second column: (L = Latin, G = Greek, adj = adjectives, n = nouns, v = verbs)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

lun (L = moon) pac (L = peace) mathemat (G = learning) athe (G = no god) concentr (L = centre together) urb (L = city) mort (L = dead, death) atom (G, normal word) synthes (G = put together) cal (G = lime)

a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j.

ic (forms adj) al (forms adj) ism (forms n) ite (forms n) ar (forms adj) ize (forms v) ics (forms n) ify (forms v) ate (forms v) an (forms adj)

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Exercise 9G
Below is a list of prefixes commonly used in English, with their approximate meanings in brackets. They are followed by twelve sentences that need to be completed by adapting one word in each sentence to operate with a prefix. Re- (again) Pre- (before) Post- (after) Sub- (under; less) Super- (over; more) Over- (too much) Un- (not) in-, im-, il-, ir- (not) non- (not in any way) dis- (not, with verbs) mis- (badly; incorrectly) under- (too little; not enough) anti- (against; opposed to) pro- (for; in favour of)

a. She agreed with the plan, but he ____________ with it. b. They were told to advertise the post again, so they set about _________ it. c. He is in favour of the Americans but opposed to the British. He is therefore ____________ but ____________. d. The company works its employees too hard. It __________ them. e. The country is badly governed. Its rulers are guilty of ____________. f. This matter has nothing to do with science. It is completely _______________. g. Conditions after the war were no better than before. __________ conditions and ____________ conditions were pretty much the same. h. The workmen do not use the new equipment enough. They are _____________it. i. j. The upper structures of a ship are called its ______________. There is no logic in that statement. It is a thoroughly _____________ statement.

k. She was in no way affected by his remarks. The remarks left her completely _____________. l. Work that is below the expected standard is quite simply __________ (work).

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Exercise 9H Nationality words: Complete the following sentences, using the national name in brackets at the beginning of each sentence in order to form appropriate nouns or adjectives. a. b. c. d. (Norway) (Wales) (Iraq) (Peru) A ______________ship sailed into the port. She is studying _____________ history. They buy only _____________ oil. The envelope bore several _____________ stamps. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. m. n. o. (Denmark) (Turkey) (Portugal) (Netherlands) (Hungary) (Sweden) (Sudan) (Britain) (Canada) (Egypt) (Finland) Her friend is a ___________. Do you speak ____________? She carries a ______________ passport. He works for a ___________ company. I like ____________ wine. ____________ exports do well in this country. He likes _____________ art. Most __________ enjoy seaside holidays. The ____________ flag is red and white. The ____________ pyramids are world-famous. ___________ is very different from other European languages. p. q. r. s. t. (Syria) (Yugoslavia) (Brazil) (Mexico) (Pakistan) The __________ capital is Damascus. His wife is ____________. _____________ coffee is very good. The Aztecs were a __________ people. Most ____________ are Moslems.

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Source: http://www.insidehighered.com/

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10. PLAGIARISM
What is Plagiarism and Why is it Important?
In college courses, we are continually engaged with other peoples ideas: we read them in texts, hear them in lectures, discuss them in class, and incorporate them into our own writing. As a result, it is very important that we give credit where it is due. Plagiarism is using others ideas and words without clearly acknowledging the source of that information.

How Can Students Avoid Plagiarism?


To avoid plagiarism, you must give credit whenever you use

another persons idea, opinion, or theory; any facts, statistics, graphs, drawingsany pieces of informationthat are not common knowledge; quotations of another persons actual spoken or written words; or paraphrase of another persons spoken or written words.

These guidelines are taken from the Code of Student Rights, Responsibilities, and Conduct.

How to Recognize Unacceptable and Acceptable Paraphrases


Heres the ORIGINAL text, from page 1 of Lizzie Borden: A Case Book of Family and Crime in the 1890s by Joyce Williams et al.: The rise of industry, the growth of cities, and the expansion of the population were the three great developments of late nineteenth century American history. As new, larger, steam-powered factories became a feature of the American landscape in the East, they transformed farm hands into industrial laborers, and provided jobs for a rising tide of immigrants. With industry came urbanization the growth of large cities (like Fall River, Massachusetts, where the Bordens lived) which became the centers of production as well as of commerce and trade. Heres an UNACCEPTABLE paraphrase that is plagiarism: The increase of industry, the growth of cities, and the explosion of the population were three large factors of nineteenth century America. As steam-driven companies became more visible in the eastern part of the country, they changed farm hands into factory workers and provided jobs for the large wave of immigrants. With industry came the growth of large cities like Fall River where the Bordens lived which turned into centers of commerce and trade as well as production.

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What makes this passage plagiarism?


The preceding passage is considered plagiarism for two reasons:

the writer has only changed around a few words and phrases, or changed the order of the originals sentences. the writer has failed to cite a source for any of the ideas or facts.

If you do either or both of these things, you are plagiarizing. NOTE: This paragraph is also problematic because it changes the sense of several sentences (for example, "steam-driven companies" in sentence two misses the originals emphasis on factories). Heres an ACCEPTABLE paraphrase:
Fall River, where the Borden family lived, was typical of northeastern industrial cities of the nineteenth century. Steam-powered production had shifted labor from agriculture to manufacturing, and as immigrants arrived in the US, they found work in these new factories. As a result, populations grew, and large urban areas arose. Fall River was one of these manufacturing and commercial centers (Williams 1).

Why is this passage acceptable? This is acceptable paraphrasing because the writer:

accurately relays the information in the original uses her own words. lets her reader know the source of her information.

Heres an example of quotation and paraphrase used together, which is also ACCEPTABLE: Fall River, where the Borden family lived, was typical of northeastern industrial cities of the nineteenth century. As steam-powered production shifted labor from agriculture to manufacturing, the demand for workers "transformed farm hands into industrial laborers," and created jobs for immigrants. In turn, growing populations increased the size of urban areas. Fall River was one of these hubs "which became the centers of production as well as of commerce and trade" (Williams 1). Why is this passage acceptable? This is acceptable paraphrasing because the writer:

records the information in the original passage accurately. gives credit for the ideas in this passage. indicated which part is taken directly from her source by putting the passage in quotation marks and citing the page number.

Note that if the writer had used these phrases or sentences in her own paper without putting quotation marks around them, she would be PLAGIARIZING. Using another
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persons phrases or sentences without putting quotation marks around them is considered plagiarism EVEN IF THE WRITER CITES IN HER OWN TEXT THE SOURCE OF THE PHRASES OR SENTENCES SHE HAS QUOTED.

Plagiarism and the World Wide Web


The World Wide Web has become a more popular source of information for student papers, and many questions have arisen about how to avoid plagiarizing from these sources. In most cases, the same rules apply as to a printed source: when a writer must refer to ideas or quote from a WWW site, she must cite that source. If a writer wants to use visual information from a WWW site, many of the same rules apply. Copying visual information or graphics from a WWW site (or from a printed source) is very similar to quoting information, and the source of the visual information or graphic must be cited. These rules also apply to other uses of textual or visual information from WWW sites; for example, if a student is constructing a web page as a class project, and copies graphics or visual information from other sites, she must also provide information about the source of this information. In this case, it might be a good idea to obtain permission from the WWW sites owner before using the graphics.

Strategies for Avoiding Plagiarism


1. Put in quotations everything that comes directly from the text especially when taking notes. 2. Paraphrase, but be sure you are not just rearranging or replacing a few words. Instead, read over what you want to paraphrase carefully; cover up the text with your hand, or close the text so you cant see any of it (and so arent tempted to use the text as a guide). Write out the idea in your own words without peeking. 3. Check your paraphrase against the original text to be sure you have not accidentally used the same phrases or words, and that the information is accurate.

Terms You Need to Know (or What is Common Knowledge?)


Common knowledge: facts that can be found in numerous places and are likely to be known by a lot of people.
Example:

John F. Kennedy was elected President of the United States in 1960.

This is generally known information. You do not need to document this fact. However, you must document facts that are not generally known and ideas that interpret facts. According the American Family Leave Coalitions new book, Family Issues and Congress, President Bushs relationship with Congress has hindered family leave legislation (6).
Example: 72

The idea that Bushs relationship with Congress has hindered family leave legislation is not a fact but an interpretation; consequently, you need to cite your source. Quotation: using someones words. When you quote, place the passage you are using in quotation marks, and document the source according to a standard documentation style. The following example uses the Modern Language Associations style:
Example:

According to Peter S. Pritchard in USA Today, Public schools need reform but theyre irreplaceable in teaching all the nations young (14). Paraphrase: using someones ideas, but putting them in your own words. This is probably the skill you will use most when incorporating sources into your writing. Although you use your own words to paraphrase, you must still acknowledge the source of the information. Produced by Writing Tutorial Services, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN

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PLAGIARISM EXERCISE Read the following text. Below it you will find six statements from term papers. You can assume that the footnotes (where they exist) are correct. Identify those statements that seem to you to be guilty of plagiarism.
In a little while all interest was taken up in stretching our necks and watching for the "pony-rider"--the fleet messenger who sped across the continent from St. Joe to Sacramento, carrying letters nineteen hundred miles in eight days! Think of that for perishable horse and human flesh and blood to do! The pony-rider was usually a little bit of a man, brimful of spirit and endurance. No matter what time of the day or night his watch came on, and no matter whether it was winter or summer, raining, snowing, hailing, or sleeting, or whether his "beat" was a level straight road or a crazy trail over mountain crags and precipices, or whether it led through peaceful regions or regions that swarmed with hostile Indians, he must be always ready to leap into the saddle and be off like the wind! There was no idling-time for a pony-rider on duty. He rode fifty miles without stopping, by daylight, moonlight, starlight, or through the blackness of darkness-just as it happened. He rode a splendid horse that was born for a racer and fed and lodged like a gentleman; kept him at his utmost speed for ten miles, and then, as he came crashing up to the station where stood two men holding fast a fresh, impatient steed, the transfer of rider and mail-bag was made in the twinkling of an eye, and away flew the eager pair and were out of sight before the spectator could get hardly the ghost of a look. Both rider and horse went "flying light." The rider's dress was thin, and fitted close; he wore a "roundabout," and a skull-cap, and tucked his pantaloons into his boot-tops like a race-rider. He carried no arms--he carried nothing that was not absolutely necessary, for even the postage on his literary freight was worth five dollars a letter. He got but little frivolous correspondence to carry--his bag had business letters in it, mostly. His horse was stripped of all unnecessary weight, too. He wore a little wafer of a racing-saddle, and no visible blanket. He wore light shoes, or none at all. The little flat mail-pockets strapped under the rider's thighs would each hold about the bulk of a child's primer. They held many and many an important business chapter and newspaper letter, but these were written on paper as airy and thin as gold-leaf, nearly, and thus bulk and weight were economized. The stage-coach traveled about a hundred to a hundred and twenty-five miles a day (twentyfour hours), the pony-rider about two hundred and fifty. There were about eighty pony-riders in the saddle all the time, night and day, stretching in a long, scattering procession from Missouri to California, forty flying eastward, and forty toward the west, and among them making four hundred gallant horses earn a stirring livelihood and see a deal of scenery every single day in the year. - Mark Twain, Roughing It.

Are these statements from term papers plagiarism? 1. According to Mark Twain in Roughing It, the rider for the pony express was usually a little bit of a man, brimful of spirit and endurance. 2. The pony express rider had to be, as Mark Twain wrote, "always ready to leap into the saddle and be off like the wind!"1 3. The pony express rider's horse wore a little wafer of a racing-saddle, and no visible blanket.2 4. The rider traveled fifty miles a day, ten miles per horse. 5. The pony express rider generally traveled twice as fast as a stage coach. 3 6. According to Mark Twain in Roughing It, the pony express rider only carried arms that were absolutely necessary.4 Footnotes:
1. Mark Twain. 2. Mark Twain. 3. Mark Twain. 4. Mark Twain. Roughing It. Roughing It. Roughing It. Roughing It. (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1913) 247. (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1913) 248. (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1913) 247. (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1913) 248.
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ANSWERS TO PLAGIARISM EXERCISE

1. According to Mark Twain in Roughing It, the rider for the pony express was usually a little bit of a man, brim-full of spirit and endurance. Plagiarism. The author has quoted Twain without benefit of quotation marks or footnote. 2. The pony express rider had to be, as Mark Twain wrote, "always ready to leap into the saddle and be off like the wind!"[1] Okay. The author has used quotation marks and a footnote. 3. The pony express rider's horse wore a little wafer of a racing-saddle, and no visible blanket. [2] Plagiarism. A footnote is insufficient if you actually quote the text. You need quotation marks as well. 4. The rider travelled fifty miles a day, ten miles per horse. Plagiarism. The author has paraphrased, but has not cited the source of their information with a footnote. 5. The pony express rider generally travelled twice as fast as a stage coach. [3] Okay. The author has paraphrased Twain, and so quotation marks are not needed. 6. According to Mark Twain in Roughing It, the pony express rider only carried arms that were absolutely necessary.[4] Not plagiarism. The author has gotten his/her facts wrong, but that is a different issue.

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