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DRILLING JIGS

INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITION OF A JIG:

With mass production and interchangeable assembly being used extensively in industry, it is imperative that components be mechanial and sized to identical standars. To do this, device called jig is employed to hold and locate the work or to guide the tools while machining operations are being performed.

A jig is a device which holds the work and locates the path of the cutting tool, Generally a jig may readily be moved about or repositioned. An example of this would be a drill jig which jmay reposition the work several times when many holdes are required in the work piece, the drill being located each time by a drill bushing located on the jig. Jigs are used extensively for drilling, reaming, tapping and counter boring operations.

When a jig is used in conjunction with a machine tool, its function is to locate the component, hold it firmly, and guide the cutting tool during its operation. The jig need not be secured to the machine. The term thus used usually refers to drilling reaming, tapping and boring operations. The size of the jig in this case is limited by the

proportions of the machine and the handling characteristic required of the jig. This is normally moved about frequently and is stored when not in use.

When a jig is used for assembly purpose, its function is to locate separate component parts and hold them rigidly in their correct relative positions to each other while they are being connected. These parts usually from large structural frame works from which accurate locators are taken.

Frequently it is necessary to do some final drilling and reaming at the assembly stage and this may also be catered for in the assembly jig. In this case, the size of the jig is determined by the proportions of the finished assembly, and in some cases, such as the air craft industry this may be very large ended. This jig is normally fixed in one position, but if it is very small, it may be protable.

Drilling jigs

Drilling jigs are of two general types; open jigs and closed or box type jigs.

Open jigs

The simplest tool used to locate holes for drilling is the plate jig or drill template. It consists of a plate with holes to guide the drills and it has locating pins that locate the workpiece on the jig or the workspiece may be nested on the jig and then both are

turned over for the drilling operation. Jigs of this type are generally without clamping devices. They are used where the cost of more elaborate tools would not be justified. The holes for guiding the drills are frequently bored into the jig plate, and the plate is sometimes hardened for longer wear or the plate may have hardened steel drill bushings pressed into it.

A separate base is often used with the template or top plate, thus forming the sandwich type of jig. The base may have holes or grooves to provide clearance for the end of the drill as it break through the work.

In the drill jig shown in the component is not claped into or on to the jig. The jig rests upon the component since the centre-to-centre distance between the holes is probably more critical and held to closer tolerances than the distance between the holes and the edge of the part, a locking pin is used to ensure the centre to centre hole accuracy. After the first hole is drilled, the locking pin is inserted into the drill jig and work piece.

Closed Jigs:

The closed or box type of drill jgi. Within which the work is clamped is usually used when holes have to be drilled in several direction. Recommended where vibration

is present because it may slacken the clamp. The clamp is operated by sample actuating the handle up as down which locks or unlocks the strap with work. These types of clamps are popular as quick action clamps.

The firmly support the jig, sets of supporting legs or feet must be provided on the side of the box opposite each of the drilling faces. The jig is normally opened by swinging back a leaf or cover. The part to be drilled is placed with in the box and accurately located and clamped with devices which are, as a rule, permanently attached to the jig body.

DRILL JIG COMPONENTS:

The drill jig components are:

1. Jig body: the frame which holds the various parts of a jig assembly is called the jig body. It may be in one piece or bolted or welded together. Rigid construction is necessary because of the accuracy required yet the jig should be light enough to provide ease in handling sharp edges or burrs which may harm the operator should be removed. Supporting liegs-a minimum of four being recommended should be provided on the opposite side of each drilling surface. Standard

shapes have been designed fro jig bodies and are generally more economical than their fabrication in the shop. 2. Dowel Pins and Cap Screws: The purpose of cap screws in jig design is to hold together fabricated parts. Dowel pins provide the necessary alignment between the parts, a minimum of two beign recommended the assembly of two plates with dowel pins and cap screws.

Wherever possible cap screws should be recessed and have socket fillister heads. This type of screw cap can be tightened, with a greater amount of pressure providing better holding power. When thin stock is to be fastened together and counter broing is not possible, a hexagonhead cap screw is used. Flat head machine screws are normally avoided where accuracy in alignment is required because the conical head forces the parts in a definite position. This type of screw may be used when alignment of parts is not critical and when the screw must be reused in then stock.

Dowel pins may be tapered or straight the latter beign used more frequently. A press fit into two parts ensures the proper alignment required in jig design.

3. Locating Devices: The Shape of the object determines the type of location best suited for the part. Pins, Pads and recesses are the more common methods used to locate the workpiece on the jig.

a. Internal Locating Device: A machined recess in the jig plate as shown in and a nesting ring in fig attached to the plate are two methods used to locate a part having a circular projection. The latter method is preferred because the part can be machined more readily and can be replaced when worn. b. External Locating Device: The external locating devices are as locating studs provides and excellent means of locating workpiece with circular holes when it is desirable to clamp the workpiece to the stand, the stud should be lengthened and fastened in place by a nut and washer. This secures the stud to the jig body and also provides for the interchanging of studs when necessary disk-type locators as shown in are used when the locatingdiameter is over 50 mm. dowels and fastening screws, the number determined by the size of eth disk, locate and secure the disk to the plate. 4. Stops: When the workpiece cannot be located by recesses or projections as outlined above, locating stops are used. They are classified as either fixed or adjustable. The commonest types of fixed stops are the stop pin, flatted shoulder plug crowned. Sholer plug and stop pads while stop ppins (dowels) are the most economical, their main disadvantages are rapid wear and marring of the fixished

surface of the work piece. Shoulder plugs, with one side of the head flattened, provide a greater bearing surface and will not wear as readily. The crowned shoulder plug is similar to the flatted shoulder plug except that the pressurexerted on the plug is parallel to the plug axis stop pads provide large bearing surfaces which will not mar the surface of the workpiece. Adjustable fixed stops are used with castings and forgings where variations in size occur on workpieces and where minor adjustment is necessary. 5. Centralizers: Circular workpieces, or flat work pieces with rounded or angled ends, may be located or centered by centralizers. 6. Workpiece supports: The workpiece must be supported as to avoid distortion caused by either clamping or machining.

The surfaces supporting the workpiece are called workpiece supports and are classified as either fixed or adjustable. They should be located, as nearly as possible directly opposite the clamping force. It is recommended that four small work support areas be used in lieu of one large area, because the latter may produce a rocking condition.

The jig body with metal cut away and steel blocks called rest buttons are the more common types of fixed supports used. Rest buttions are preferred because made form

hardened tool steel, they offer on excellent wear-resistant surface. Another advantage is that they raise the workpiece sufficiently to reduce chip problems.

7. Clampign Devices: The clamping components must be designed to securely hold the workpiece but not distort it, to be quickly and easily locked and unlocked, and to swing out of the way during loading and unloading some of the more common types of clamps.

The jig and fixture clamps are operated by ahrd or power hand clamping in employed in small components where the clamping pressure required is limited. The main disadvantage of hand clamping is that the clamping pressure is variable form on component to the other and required more time for clamping on the other hand the power driven damps are operated either by premeiotic or hydraulic power. The power driven clamps are quick acting, controllable, reliable and operated without least fatigue to the operator. The power clamps exert high clamping pressure and are employed for gripping heavy workpiece.

8. Locking pins: A locking pin is used in jig design to lock and hold the workpiece securely to the jig plate while the second or subs quint holes are being drilled. After the first hole is drilled the locking pin is inserted through the drill bushing into the drilled hole in the workpiece, locking the drill jig and the workpiece

together when more than two holes are drilled a second locking pin is used to maintain proper alignment. The use of locking pin.

TYPES OF PILLING JIGS:

The various types of drilling jigs are described below:

(1) Plate Jig: Plate jigs consist mainly of a insgle bush plate with provision for location and clamping of workpiece. A plate type of jig for one shown wrokpiece. The workpiece profile is located by location pins and clamped by two knurled screws against the location pins. It is a open construction, which facilitates part loadings and removal, chip removal and clamping. For this reason it is some times referred to as an open jig. Slip bushes may be used with liner bushes to allow operations other than drilling. The jig may or may not have legs. It is generally in exprensive to construct since it is largely fabricated form standard parts and stock size plates a plate drill jig for drilling holes in flange. (2) Channel Jig: The channel jig having channel like cross-section. The component is fitted with in the channel and is located and clamped by rotating the knurled knob. The drill is guided through the drill bush. (3) Latch Jig: The screw latch clamp jig as shown is frequently used because of its simple design and fast clamping action. All the parts shown, with exception of the

clamp plate, are standard items. The standard cast-cross section used as the jig body. (4) Leaf Jig: This type of jig is distinguished by its hinged cover or leaf, which is swung open to load or unload the jig as. After the workpiece has been located inside the jig the leaf is firmly closed and locked. Leaf jigs can be loaded and unloaded quickly and are suitable for complicated workpieces with irregular contours. Holes may be drilled in more than one surface for a single loading of the jig. Drill bush may be loacated in the leaf and reamer bush in the base. Providing the leaf is rigid enough to with stand the pressure exerted by the reamer. (5) Box: Work piece having holes on a number of side can be drilled economically with box jigs. The jig body is generally shaped like a box with on side open for loading and unloading the workpiece. The open side is provided with a hinged latch which often houses bushes and clamping screws. The jig is fitted with bushes on various sides and suitable jig feet on the opposite sides. A box jig for the workpiece shown in diagram. The workpiece rests on the rest buttons on the jig plate. It is laocated by location pins the workpiece is clamped by the clamp screw.

When a box jig contains bushes on two or more sides for the purpose of drilling holes on different sides of the part it is referred to as a tumble jig. Such a jig has sets of jig feet on opposite sides of the wrok faces. After one face is drilled the next side mya be drilled by simply one face is drilled the next side may be drilled by simply flopping the jig to expose this side to the drill spindle. (6) Indexing Jig: Indexing jigs are used to drill a series of holes in a circle on the face of the workpiece under a single bush. It brings the hole portion under the drill each tiem it is indexed. This jig was developed from a basic indexing fixture with the workpiece held in a chuck. The single drill bush can be adjusted to different heights as well as laterally to allow holes to be drilled on the pitch circle of different sizes.

3.5

Drilling Bushes and their functions:

There are precision tools that guide cutting tools such as drills and reamers into precise locations in a workpiece. They are made of tool steel and are hardened to RC 60 to 64 to provide a wear resisting surface. Bushes are generally finished by grinding and lapping inside diameter and the outside being ground with in 0.01 mm concentricity. The inside diameter is ground precision running fit with drill or reamer to be guided

whereas the outside diameter is made press fit, precession location fit or precision running fit depending upon the function and application of the bush.

A variety of bushing have been developed for a wide range of portable or machine drilling, reaming and tapping operations. They include head-less and head press fit bushings, slip and fixed renewable bushings, headless and head levers, thin wall bushing and a number of embedment bushings for plastic or castable tooling, soft materials and special applications.

The select the proper bushing, it is necessary to consider not only the function of the jig but also the quantity of production. Life of the average bushing is no more than 5000 to 10000 pieces. This varies, depending on the operator, the cutting fluid, sharpness of cutting tools, and whether the operation is on multiple or automatic drilling machines or by hand.

The use of special alloysteels or carbides can increase bushing lifeup to 50 times that of an ordinary steel bushing. Other bushing materials include tool steel, graphitized steel, aluminum , bronze, brass and other alloys that may be selected to fit the customers needs.

1. Fixed Bushes: The fixed bushes are light press fit and directly installed into the bushing plate without the use of a linear and are used for short run production where bushings do not require replacement.

Headed bushes are preferable to headless bushes because the collar provides positive stop against the jig plate. More over, it is found that the chances of the bush getting losse in the jig plate and sliding axially with the drill are lesser in the collared bushes. However, when the spacing of bushes is close, or the top suface of jig plate is required free from projecting collars headless bushes are used.

2. Renewable Bushes: Renewable bushes are for use in bushing liners that have been installed in the bushing plate. They are divided into two classes, fixed and slip.

Fixed renewable bushes are installed in a liner with the intention of leaving them in place until they wear out. Slip renewable bushes are made with a knurled head that is machined for a locking device. They are used when two or more operations such as reaming, tapping, spot facing etc. are perfomred with the same jig.

Thus both types of bushes are installed as slip fits in liners are designed for long production runs and are intended to remain fixed in the jig until worn out. In most application, the liners i.e., head or headless types, are mounted lush with the jig plate.

Lock screws are suitable only for use with flush mounted liners, usually in light duty application. For more heavy duty applications, clamps provide a better means rotation clamps provide a larger bearing surface against the jig plate and are secured by standard socket head cap screws.

Replacement of a fuxed renewable bus hes can be a ccomplis hed simply by removing its lock screw or clamp, without removing, the jgi from the production line. Slip renewable bushes are recommended for production runs of any length where more than one operation is performed in a hole, such as drilling and then reaming or counter boring. This type is respecially designed for fast change by emerly turning and lifting the bushes. Slip renewable bushes may be inter changed in the same liner and lifting the bushes. Slip renewable bushes may be inter changed in the same liner without affecting the centering accuracy. For example suppose you wish to produce a hole in a part between 12 and 12.01 mm in diameter since a drill alone cannot come that close the hole must be reamed. First drill through a 11.5mm I D slip renewable bush. After drilling the hole, remove the bush and replace it with a 12 mm slip renewable bush for the

reaming operation. Both bushes fit perfectly in the same 20 mm ID jig hole liner. This or other sequences may be endlessly repeated.

Since changing slip renewable bushes takes less than a minute, they are invaluable for high speed production where machine down time mut be held to an absolute minimum.

3. Liners or Liner Bushes : Liners are permanently pressed into the jig plate or fixture both to provide precision mounting holes or correct slip fit for renewable bushes and to prevent wear of soft jig plates caused by frequent replacement of renewable bushes.

Headless and headed liner are similar to headless and headed bushes in their advantage and limitations. The liner bush is either press fit in the jig plate or secured by means of screws.

Typical application of bushes:

The some application of bushes are give below:

(1) Multiple Operations: IN performing multiple operations such as drilling and reaming, slip renewable bushes of different lengths may be used to obtain the combined advantages of adequate chip removal and precise accuracy. The slip

renewable buch should be short enough to provide proper chip clearance during the drilling operation while the reamer bush may be long enough to contact or closely approach the workpiece, thus providing maximum guiding effect during the reaming operation. (2) Close Hole Patterns: For many applciations requring close centre to centre placement of bushes asthin wall and miniature head series will prove helpful, however fore especially difficult close-hole patterns, it may be necessary to grined flats on the bushes OD and/;or heads to achieve minimum spacing when this teachnique is used the bushes for flats and mounting holes must be accuately machined. (3) Irregular work surfaces: When bushes are adapted to suit applications invovleing regular work surface the end of the bushes should formed to the contour of the work piece. In many applications of this nature, the drill point does not enter pretend collar to the work surface and has a tendency to skid or wander. For this reason the distance between the bush and the workpiece must be held a minimum so that the full guiding effect of the bush can be obtained. The side load exerted by drill in application of this type is usually concentrated, causing bush wear except in short production runs, the use of fixed renewable bushes simplifies the replacement or worn bushes and facilitates proper orientation of the

bushing with respect to the contoured work surface. When press-fit bushes are used, bush contours should be applied after bushes are installed n the jig plate to ensure proper contour placement with respect to the workpiece.