Anda di halaman 1dari 4

A2 Psychology

OCR G544

Laboratory
What is it?
An experiment which is conducted under highly controlled conditions. The variable which is being manipulated by the researcher is called the independent variable and the dependent variable is the change in behaviour measured by the researcher.

Quasi
What is it?
An experiment where the independent variable is not manipulated by the experimenter but occurs naturally. These experiments are often called natural experiments.

Strengths
Allows research to be carried out where it would be unethical to manipulate the Independent Variable manually

Strengths
Manipulation of IV indicates cause and effect relationship Increased control and accurate measurement Standardised procedure = replication is possible

Weaknesses
It is difficult to control your experimental conditions because you are not able to manipulate things yourself the risk that a quasi-experiment becomes a correlational study if it is not very aptly designed

Weaknesses
Total control over all variables is not possible Artificial conditions may produce unnatural behaviour that lacks ecological validity Results likely to be biased by sampling, demand characteristics, experimenter expectancy May raise ethical problems of deception

Studies
Savage-Rambaugh

Studies
Loftus & Palmer Gaab et al

Approaches & Research Methods

Page 1

A2 Psychology

OCR G544

Field
What is it?
The application of a psychological research in the real world Participants are usually not aware that they are taking part in an experiment The IV is still manipulated

Correlation
What is it?
Statistical analysis used to quantify the strength of relationship between two variables

Strengths
Calculates the strength of relationships between two variables Useful as a pointer for further more detailed research

Strengths
People may behave more realistically therefore higher realism Easier to generalise results to the wider population

Weaknesses
Cannot assume cause and effect, strong correlation between variables may be misleading Lack of correlation many not mean there is no relationship, it could be non-linear

Weaknesses
Often only weak control of extraneous variables difficult to replicate Can be time consuming and costly

Studies
Piliavin

Studies
Becker et al.

Approaches & Research Methods

Page 2

A2 Psychology

OCR G544

Observation
What is it?
Watching the behaviour of humans in a natural environment Researcher does not manipulate variables and does not interfere

Interview
What is it?
Face to face conversations that can be unstructured or structured dependent on situation Interviews are recorded for later in depth analysis

Strengths
More natural behaviour occurs if people are unaware of observation study of situations cannot be artificially set up

Strengths
Detailed information can be obtained and avoids oversimplifying complex issues Greater attention to individuals point of view important in clinical psychology Unstructured, causal interviews may encourage openness in answers

Weaknesses
observer may affect behaviour if detected difficult to replicate cannot control extraneous variables need for more than one observer

Weaknesses
Difficult to analyse if unstructured and qualitative in nature Time consuming and expensive Possible interviewer effects.

Studies
Rosenhan Reicher & Haslam Savage - Rambaugh

Studies
Becker

Approaches & Research Methods

Page 3

A2 Psychology

OCR G544

Questionnaire
What is it?
The use of closed and open questions to gain insight into what a person is thinking

Strengths
Many people can be tested quickly. Easy to generate quantitative data and easy to analyse Used to collect large amounts of data about what people think as well as what they do Convenient researcher does not need to be present as answers can be mailed so respondent has time to consider answers Can quickly show changes in attitudes ore behaviour before and after specific events

Weaknesses
Social desirability people say what they think looks good People may not tell the truth, especially on sensitive issues If researcher is present then this may affect answers. Postal surveys may also have a low response rate Difficult to phrase questions clearly, may obtain different interpretations of questions

Studies

Approaches & Research Methods

Page 4