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Copyright 1916. By A. I. E. E.

BY CHARLES P. STEINMETZ

ABSTRACT OF PAPER

integration constants.

wave and a return wave. The return wave is displaced from the

I. TYPES OF CURRENT

A. GENERAL

IF r = resistance

g = shunted conductance

L = inductance

C = capacity

d e . T di ,.,.

L -T- (1)

dl dt

= e + C (2)

Differentiating (1) over dt, and (2) over dl, and combining

gives

Integrating,

= \/bL- r Af-e-t,

=zi

where

. = V*4^ (6)

= (bL - r) (bC - R)

The general solution then is a sum of such terms (4) and (6).

cuit, and every circuit which can be imagined, from the lightning

with the rate of change of i or e, (4) and (6) give the equations

general transients.

the alternating currents and the impulse currents are two co-

by them. i

the following, and also that of the limiting case of the continuous

e = 0 when / = 0

and considering that, by equation (7), a can have two values, for

(8)

<

e -"' = 1 a / (9)

constants,

i = B e-6'

(10)

e = (r - 6L0) B 6~>"

where

B=2A

i=B

(11)

e = r0B

i = B e-<"

= r0 i + L0 ~- (12)

current circuit,

i = Ci cos ct + Ct sin ct

(13)

where

(14)

C2 = j (B, - Bt)

CONSTANTS

b=0

a = Vrg (15)

z = V- (16)

(17)

* /7

laid in the ground, or the current flow in the rail return of the

justified as an approximation.

length, that the current which reaches the end of the conductor,

we have

A-, = 0

This gives

4/7 (19)

e = A V e-'V'i

or

e=\/^i

(20)

ive resistance r', and thus the current flowing into the conductor

Hence, if

A = Ai e~l'v^ = - A* f+''vn

we have

e = A V --

e = V {A, e-fc^I- A*

=0

Hence, if

A=Ai

we have

=A

= A V {e+(fa-o ^ - e- ('-') ^

(22)

point, we have

t = A { e-/v^ + e+'^j

\fr _i ^~ +lvr,

'g

the sign of /

= A (e+IX/v + e-'v/" }

e = X V- |e+'v'' - e-'^!

(23)

= ''o

hence.

[Jan. 14

A! -*

or,

A/I-

A, = .4,6-2

(24)

t=A

r.-V-

JL ,-(2/0-0

(25)

: - (2 I, -

VI,

CONSTANTS

b = jq

b = + j q, a = + h j k

- jq + h +jk

- jq - h - j k

+ jq - h + jk

sion, gives

+ e+u \B3 cos (kl + qt) + B< sin (kl + qt)\ (26)

where

BI = A\ + A B3 = A3 + A\

A / f LI f i J i i J\ , J_t/ / i

where

Z = r + jqL

Y = g+jqC (29)

q = 27T/

These are the usual and well known equations of the alter-

A. GENERAL

values of b:

b = M s (30)

where 5 = V m2 + -^ (31)

(32)

T- \

' * = H -ir ~ -r I

S2 < M2 (34)

a2

JLrf U

a2

i*(

a2

/^ (

complex imaginary.

- a2 < L C m2

The terms " periodic " and " non-periodic " here refer to the

a2 = positive

a = h

=V

+ r (36)

h = VL C (52 - m2)

M2 > S2 > W2

a: b:

+ h u- s

h u s

- h u +s (36)

+hu+s

a'2 = negative

a = j k

jfe2 < ws L C

a: b:

+ jk u- s

- jk u- s (38)

+ jk u + s

- jk u + s

gives :

. J_ I +W ,_ J_ rt I

, c ^3 c ^4 ,

(39)

where

. / r _1_ M

(40)

s m

! = Dt e-wi-"-

3 = Di -*i+" (41)

c = +" (42)

Hence

and / for / l\

+ ZM+W + S/ e-w- ]}

i = e-1" \B! cosh [hi - st(t - ta)] - B-I cosh [hi + s(t -/o)]|

_ (45)

c/

equation (44).

the form

e-((e-W+J/ e+-5l)

ill at

\^

placement to. That is, in the general impulse, voltage e and the

ta is positive, that is, the current lags behind the voltage im-

Y !!

ponderates.

fa

LCgC

is, the voltage impulse and the current impulse are in phase with

and voltage impulses have at any time or at any space the same

(46)

dissipation in the circuit, that is, represents the rate at which the

The first term: e~~("~s)/, dies out at a slower rate than given

u ; inversely, the second term, e ' ("+j) ', dies out more rapidly

with the time, than corresponds to the energy losses, that is, at any

point /, this term abstracts energy and shifts it along the circuit,

pulse, the one drops energy while moving along the line, and the

energy with the time, the terms e*w the dropping and picking

the impulse. The higher s is, the greater then is the rate of

energy transfer, that is, the steeper the wave front, and s thus

where

A = DI Z>2

B = D, + >2.

A,. = B e+w--*"+*

A, = B e-,--* (47)

^1 4 ^C jL/ C

c = +'' (42)

and writing

,r,,i*

I tor I- /i

C*

where

2*

writing

t lor t h + t'

I for l-h +

= sV-4- e'le-1

c - 1 I f +il

I,-eJ^c

(50)

where

0 -e

- (51)

the main impulse, and the reflected impulse. The main im-

the time /' after the start of the main impulse, and decreases

by time /o-

one dropping energy along its path, and thus decreasing with

first one.

that is, /' is the distance traveled by the impulse during time t'.

( (62)

*/- Z>4sin*/]l

oc

where

c = \/J5L_L (54)

m s

Substituting:

c- +" (56)

Thus,

log_c= 1 J (67)

S 25 WZ 5

and writing

/ for < - /i + to

I for / + /o

gives

(58)

Exchanging sin and cos in (66), also exchanges sin and cos

in (68).

impulse.

space, and displaced from each other in time, by the " time dis-

/o is positive, that is, the current lags behind the voltage by-

f I?

L* C

C ' Li

-V-

5 = 0 gives

by (57): st0 = 0.

by (37): k = m \/L C

and by (68),

in space.

s = m gives

k=0

e=

- i --i

i = D! 6 ' + D3 L

where

>,' = Z>,

are separate, and current and voltage are uniform throughout the

entire circuit.

e = -~r

+ (c Dl + -^-^s

(48), (50) and (52) for the non-periodic, and in equations (53)

tion of the electric circuit, read eight years ago. In the previous

sipation.

tion of the electric circuit, and in the second part, various forms

sarily deals with special cases, the synthetic method is the first

any phenomenon which does not obey these laws, would not

be included.

purpose of the first part of the present paper is, by the analytic

wave (or half wave or full wave), and its higher harmonics.

In a few instances this agreed fairly well with the facts, thus

most line disturbances were more local in chaiacter, that is, very

and rapid attenuation with the distance from the origin, and

between 10,000 and 100,000 cycles, and their existence has there-

of current, was the purpose of the first part of the present paper.

case where the circuit is so long, that the disturbance has de-

two main special cases thus are, (a) where the real term of b

is zero, (b) where the imaginary term is zero, (a) gives the al-

of impulse currents.

pronounced or absent.

portance.

L, g and C.

the starting point of the present paper and the previous paper,

Qfl Qflr

the notice of the paper and observed the title "Outline of Theory

When Dr. Steinmetz says that equations (4) and (6) "must

house bell, and from the a-c. transmission line to the telephone

think that after you read this article you need not read any-

against that.

then the following must be the relation between the current and

e.m.f. in any part of the circuit. That is what is called the in-

pression of the current and the e.m.f., and that is called the

integral. That is true for any point of the wire which has

certain constants.

As soon as you pass from one element of the wire with certain

say that he has given you a complete solution for any part

tion, good for any part and for the complete circuit, you have

to take this part, and this part, and this part and build it up.

which have not been discussed at all, and Dr. Steinmetz has

able capacity, and you can get oscillations exactly the same

circuit.

that is to say, the machine has to obey the law of the electrical

the motor reacts, and the result of that action and reaction is

in the paper, but this is not true of many of the symbols appear-

imposed on the circuit, i.e., they depend upon the voltage and

1916]

687

tance between the given circuit and more than one other circuit,

fact that the relations given in the paper apply only to a single

'Source of

Electricity

FIG. 1

lightning discharge to the house bell, and from the a-c. trans-

voltages considered."

tions might not include all cases which are situated between the

tion.

688

[Jan. 14

IMPULSE CURRENTS

elementary circuits.

therefore, not refer to the change of voltage per unit length of line

The length of circuit as such does then not enter into the com-

putation.

If e, the consumed voltage, and the other quantities r\, r2, LI,

e=

dt,

(1)

Source of

Electricity

""from resistance

FIG. 2

= ge + C2 f- + ik X t L' + -

at

r,' C +^

edt+I"1

ft I

(2)

**

e0 1 fe+r,'

to -) I c

r2 r, J

de

finally

i-o

const. -0

(3)

differ materially from equations (1) and (2) of the paper. The

(1) and (2) of the paper must leave this possibility open, which

they do.

in equation (4).

L.

with x

2L, 4Li2

--J3--A/:

2L, 4 L!* Ci Li

and it appears that circuits as per Fig. 2, or similar, will meet the

ings.

are:

fundamental elements.

(2) These equations (4) and (6) of the paper permit of a new

to a permanent regime.

(3)

The paper distinguishes the two last types by the terms " non-

periodic " and " periodic " impulses respectively. But these

to coin the terms " non-spacic " and " spade " for this differen-

tiation?

between the two classes (2) and (3) of the non-oscillatory tran-

discussion.

It is perhaps going too far to say that all impulses with real

if I did, I would not have had any reason to write this paper.

the equations of any circuit which fulfills the condition that every

ductance.

power.

constants, but the case which Prof. Pupin discussed, where the

ning arrester.

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