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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

1.1 INTRODUCTION Todays dynamic business world and globalization brought constant changes for organizations. The impact of globalization and changing technologies made organizations to adopt innovative methods. This impact directly on the continued needs for a tied connection between individual professional education and organizational development. Professional education can be traced to numerous demands, including maintaining competitively in the marketplace, increasing productivity and enhancing employee skills and knowledge. Training is one of the most pervasive methods for enhancing the productivity of individuals and communicating organizational goals to new personnel. One of the first thing management concerned with is productivity. Therefore the problem of organization regarding employees is also a matter that concerns the production process. The managements focused interest is on the improvement of employees productivity in the areas that are keys to the development of the company. One can assume safely that every organization wants to have the best return from their employees production output. The huge investment by employers in new work processes and technology expect workers to produce error-free output. Theoretically, the employer wants from their workers to try to produce maximum output with minimum level of input. Practically, there is more need for on-the-job training in organizations than before even though competitive pressures put constrains on training budgets. Due to increased international competition, technological change, and high
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customer

expectations,

requires

improving skills of the workers for the achievement of desired goals. One of the key meeting points between managerial concern for smooth production scheduling and employees productivity is to be found in onthe-job training. Therefore On-the-job training is one of the oldest forms of training to make employees able to perform change on how to perform their jobs through guided as well as self-education. OJT has its roots in the apprentice systems of ancient cultures. But in the industrial domain, it has its own history of instructional methodologies.

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Though OJT is rather an old method of employee training, but it is still very much of used among organizations where the development of employee skills at workplaces is a key to the production process. On this account, it covers all manufacturing processes. Today OJT is often associated with training in the crafts demanding high or continuous technical skill. On-the-job training is used to train both novice and experienced employees in organizations During the last three decades, there have been much technological changes and new innovations happened in the production processes and, thereof in the organization of work. The skills of workers become obsolete more rapidly than before. Then both workers and employers find it better to invest in on-the-site training in order to match the specific requirements of production goals. Due to technological changes, the management of the organizations has to invest in human capital. Technological changes bring also uncertainty in the organizations concerning providing on-the-job training to their workers. The purpose of this study is to understand the effects of employer-provided training (OJT) on employees productivity. It will enable us to observe the impact of on-the-job training on employees productivity. According to Black and Lynch (2001) investment in human capital is becoming an important issue for management in organization. Employers want to invest on employees training but they fear unpredictable results. They have little means to verify if the investment on training will be fruitful or not. In this work, we will review what are on- the-job training and employees productivity. It supposes to consider a large quantity of OJT literature and
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empirical studies regarding its impact on employees productivity. From the literature review we have found that many authors have written about to measuring the effect of employer-provided training on productivity using firm-level data. (Barrett, 1999; Holzer et al. 1993; Black and Lynch, 1996). According to Barrett and OConell (1999) the researchers difficulties come from the lack of reliable/complete data. In this thesis, the case study provides the information and the use of existing data necessary to assess the impact of on-the-job training provided by the employer on employees productivity. Therefore the objective of this study is also to see how on-the-job training takes place in the industrial context of manufacturing in India. A case study of a firm (Arul Das Industries) presents a manufacturing example of on-the-job training program and observes the impact on employees productivity; has been done to understand how OJT has impact on employees productivity. It seeks to answer them by focusing on the execution of on-the-job training and sees the impact of on-the-job training on employees productivity at Arul Das Industries Heat Exchangers. Case study has been done to understand practical case of employer-provided on-the-job training in a firm for achieving increasing employees productivity. The analysis is made of a combination of materials. It starts with a literature review was carried out to completely understand the execution of on-the-job training program and resulting impact on employees productivity. Then, the case study allows perceiving the effects of on the job training on employees productivity. The study of Arul Das Industries manufacturing allows to understand practically, how the plants management perceives the
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conducting the on-the-job training and its impacts on employees productivity. Analysis showed in Arul Das Industries that employees productivity is considered very important regarding their production process. It has an impact on following dimensions which are considered as productive e.g. operational efficiency, low stress level, product quality, maintenance reduction of machineries and increase in employee wages. Secondly, on-the-job training conducted by a trainer to educate the employees about how to work on different machines that is used in the production of their products. But there were some shortcomings in the economic evaluation of the productivity of on-the-job employees since the company was reluctant to provide any quantitative evaluation of their onthe-job training program.

1.2 OBJECTIVES

To Identify How on-the-job training program is being executed in Arul Das Industries? To find out what is the effect of On-the-job Training on employees productivity at Arul Das Industries?

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.1 REVIEW OF LITERATURE Training is important to improve employees skills, knowledge and ability to do more complex tasks or complete tasks better and faster. Because during the training, the trainees are able to learn new and important things, which they were not using as before for the completion of their tasks. Organizations consider training a very important factor for the production and innovation of their production lines. Organizations interest is to control the quality of their products. One way to achieve this goal is pay special attention to the training of their workforce. If we look at the literature on on-the-job training, different authors and researchers have defined OJT. Here we will use the definition of DeJong (1997). DeJong has defined (1997: 449) on-the-job training in following words; On-the-job training can be defined as the enhancement of job competence acquisition, involving one or more of the following elements: (I) the actual work processes, (ii) the physical work environment, and (iii) the social work environment. There is further classification of on-the-job training: un-structured and structured on-the-job training. The first category of on-the-job training is a shadowing or sink or swim approach in which one employee follows another around, in hopes of the trainee learning what the trainer is doing. This type of unstructured on-the-job training is an approach in which learners thrown into the work, and the training is based on daily work events rather than the learner/ worker needs.
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The second category is structured on-the-job training. Structured on-thejob training is defined as planned on-the-job training that occurs on the job and in real time. It is based on a job breakdown so that work requirements are systematically reviewed with newcomers (newly-hired workers or those who are new to a position or work duty) based on effective principles of instruction rather than the logic of the subject matter or the convenience or availability of the trainer. OJT provides employees/trainees both general skills which are transferable from one job to another and specific skills as well that are unique to a particular job these skills are non- transferable. History of On-the-job training On-the-job training is one of the oldest forms of training. It has its roots in the apprentice systems of ancient cultures. This provides OJT a distinguished history among industrial methodologies. They state that India was not developed as it is now. After 1875 manufacturing needs expanded rapidly. A new infrastructure was developed and a number of successful These changing trends in

manufacturing companies were established. more skilled labor.

Indian economy and increased manufacturing firms created the need for To fulfill the needs of skilled labor Indian government put their attention to educate and train the Indian people. Indian government has decided with the help of regional vocational training centers to provide technical and professional education to those who are not
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studying, jobless, immigrants and female vocational education. These programs include extensive job training of employees, public sector relief work and recruitment etc... Many studies resulted that on-the-job training has its impact on different factors. These factors are; wages, performance, employability, and productivity. In this chapter we will discuss the impact of OJT on different dimensions. Effects of on-the-job training on wages and employability Regner (2002) did his research to find out the effects of on-the-job training on the wages of employees in India. He states that most of the studies done in this area are from US data (Brown, 1989; Lynch, 1992; Lillard and Tan, 1992; Levine, 1993; Bartel, 1995; Krueger and Rouse, 1998). He finds a significant positive relationship between formal and informal OJT and wages. While on the other hand he states that studies to see the effects of OJT on wages outside US are few. For example Barth (1997; cited in Regnr 2002) conducted his research on a small sample of Norwegian private sector employees to see the impact of OJT on wages of these employees. Goux and Maurin (2000; cited in Regnr, 2002) find the same effects on wages of French employees. Both studies showed positive wage affects of OJT same as the case with US employees. In his study Regnr (2002) used to find out the effects of training on employees wages, he followed the Beckers (1964) Human Capital Theory. In his study Regnr (2002) investigates the effects of two types of OJT i.e. general and specific on wages. According to Regnr (2002: 327), employees who receive specific OJT few of them change their jobs. They stay longer with the
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same employer who provides them training and vice versa those who receive general OJT. The results of Regnrs (2002) study show that OJT has large positive effects on individual wages in India. programs have small effects on wages in India. Bartel (1995) in her study in a large manufacturing organization examines the relationships between formal on-the-job training and wages and performance. She used the personnel records of that firm covering a five years period from 1986-90. It deals with all employees from all the departments of the manufacturing firm. The company offers a wide range of training programs for its employees to keep up to date its work force within the company. These training programs are conducted with the help of training courses; (i) Core Program: the program contains courses designed for individual employees whose job involve supervising other employee(s), course includes how to; evaluate and improve employee performance, effectively manage time, be an effective leader and implement change. (ii) Corporate Employee Development course that includes; learning problem solving skills, decision making, written and oral communication, job improvement and time management. (iii) Computer related skills. All training programs offered on a full-day or half-day basis. Analysis of Bartels study show that firm provided formal training does indeed increase wage growth and job performance, even when selection bias in assignment to training programs is eliminated (Bartel, 1995: 424). Wholey (1990) in his article The Effects of Formal and Informal Training on the Tenure and Mobility analyzed the effects of employer provided
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Apart from the

results of Regnr (2002) study, Forslund et al. (1994) state that job training

formal and informal OJT on job tenure and mobility of male and female workers. To test the results of his study he selected a sample of male and female workers, male supervisors and managers. He drew up three hypotheses to test the effectiveness of formal and informal OJT on job tenure and mobility of workers. For this purpose he gathered data for his study from 140 large manufacturing firms, each firm employed more than 2,000 employees, 52 (37%) of these firms provided relevant data for this study. In total 4,567 employees were responded. Wholey (1990) says, formal and informal OJT to employee may also affect the mobility of the employee within the firm. Employers use mobility as a component in formal OJT. It motivates employees to informally train other employees. He says that formal OJT is important at all levels in the firm to preparing employees to move into tasks and jobs. He states his arguments by referring to previous studies (Weber 1978; Williamson et al. 1975; cited in Wholey, 1990: 39) saying that informal OJT is positively associated with employee mobility. Employer entices employees by offering them job promotions and other benefits i.e. job security to informally train the other employees who are unskilled or less skilled in the firm to enhance their productivity skills. His study is based on two studies mentioned above. Williamson et al., (1975; cited in Wholey, 1990: 37) state that formal OJT is positively associated with employee mobility, while on the other hand informal OJT positively affects employee security. He concluded, results support the formal OJT arguments of Williamson et al., (1975 cited in Wholey, 1990). But in case of informal OJT training, results of his study dont support the arguments. He stated that formal OJT
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positively affects employee tenure in the firm from where they got training. But informal OJT has its effects only on male managers. Because informal OJT is less apparent and salient to employers than is formal. Secondly it implies that managers, would be least likely to have a relationship between informal OJT and security. The fact that the only effect for informal OJT across categories was positive and on managerial firm tenure belies this argument of Williamson et al., (Wholey, 1990:18). Effect of on-the-job Training on productivity Let us now review the studies showing that OJT training has an impact on the productivity of employees and organizations. It will bring us to consider OJT in relation to the number of units produced, increase in profits, increase in the skills of the employees or increase in the knowledge for doing jobs. In terms of the theory on employer-sponsored training (OJT), Becker (1962) in his book Investment in Human Capital states that firm behavior theories have ignored the productive process on employee productivity. He says that many workers increase their productivity by learning new skills and perfecting old ones while on the job (Becker, 1962:17). So according to Becker, on-the-job training has significantly affected employee productivity. Individual productivity can be increased or at least enables employees to bring perfection towards their jobs through OJT. Becker asserts that employers invest in their employees on-the-job training with the expectation that upgrading their employees skills will
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contribute to the firms productivity, quality of its products, and competitiveness. (Becker, 1962) John (2003) claims that the training function is becoming an increasing part of organizational and individual employees success. There is no organizations size limit for providing training in order to improve their employees productivity. Even in the large organization, the production process is continuously changing demanding more on the job training. It is also required for smaller, more traditional organization (John, 2003). Wilson (2005) states the skills that are directly related to the job and are learned in the workplace are assimilated faster, retained longer, and result in greater productivity than those learned in the classroom. One-on-one instruction or on-job-training can be a powerful training tool if used correctly (Wilson, 2005). According to Arthur et al. (2003) training is one of the most important methods for enhancing employees productivity. The constant need for individual and organizational development can be traced to many important demands, including maintaining superiority in the competitive marketplace, improving employee skills and knowledge, and increasing productivity. (Arthur et al., 2003). Many studies are on the productivity of employees having been done in the United States; they have seen impact of human-capital- investment on productivity. Black et al. (1996) can provide education and training for maximizing the employees productivity. In their study the authors examined the relationship between training and productivity. The results
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of their study show that the off-the-job training has a positive impact on employee productivity for manufacturing firms. While for non manufacturing firms OJT has positive impact. An

investment in human capital for the development of the employees productivity has much effect on organization success in the competitive market Bryan (2006: 635) seems to confirm Blacks et al. (1986) study saying that Evidence from the field of labor economics suggests a positive relationship between training and firm productivity. Why should firm give training to their employees? There are lots of reasons. From a macro perspective, the accumulation of human capital drives economic growth. From the micro level perspective, the human capital of employees is considered Z, et to participate al., (2003) to sustained that competitive advantage. Lin, argue the acquisition of

training by employees and providing training by employers usually follow some benefits. The employers provide training to their employees for the sake of improving employees productivity. The employees get training for getting some skills and incentives. But the firms have much interest to provide training than their employees. Since they may expect increases in the productivity of workers, it may increase in their wages. adjustments that increase productivity. Sepulveda (2005) in his research investigated the role of formal training programs in productivity growth. He conducted research on US manufacturing industries from 1988 to 1997 to investigate the effects of
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Wholey (1990)

says that As employees perform jobs they make idiosyncratic

formal training OJT on productivity. He claimed that many studies have been conducted to find out the effects of the formal training programs on workers future wages. But there is very few evidence that training has any effects on firm or industry level performance in terms of productivity or profits. He argued that small literature based on US firms data show productivity effects of training with very limited success. He validated his arguments by saying that some researchers (Bartel, 1994; Black and Lynch, 1995) found that training has no distinct effects on labor productivity. Only firms that implemented new training programs have a significant effect of that training on the productivity of their employees. On the other hand he also pointed out previously researches

(Lowenstein et al., 1998; Barron et al. 1989; & Bishop, 1994) showing that training has positive and significant effects on individual productivity. They said it is a difficult job to measure and interpret the effects of individual productivity because it requires quantitative data from the firms before and after the training to see its effects on the productivity of employees. In their investigation to the effects of training on productivity of employees they found the evidence of positive and decreasing effects of current on-thejob training on current productivity growth. In the cross section, training has larger productivity effects in industries with higher levels of human capital. Finally they concluded that on-the-job training has effects on productivity (Sepulveda, 2005).

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Maglen et al. (2001) conducted their research in Australia on the impact of training on employee productivity. They focused on four different dimensions of businesses which include: footwear manufacture, wire products manufacture, hotel industry and finally supermarkets. Each type of industry business include with between five and eight firms. In relation to our topic on manufacturing, they notice that workers with more training appeared to maintain their machinery better. They have less downtime using production tools. They were more skilled in using computer based technologies as well as traditional production methods. Their views are that there is a relationship between investment in human capital and its return. Reference work in this domain is done by Blundell et at., (1999; cited in Maglen et al., 2001: 3) report that: Employers fully or partially fund the training of workers in the hope of gaining a return on this investment in terms of being a more productive, competitive, and consequently more profitable firm in the future. As other studies quoted above, Blundell et al., (1999) confirm that it is very difficult to measure this return. On the other hand they portrayed training results in workers receiving higher wages. Higher wages are the results of higher productivity after getting training. In the part above, different authors have shown that on-the-job training has direct effects on the productivity of employees. This also affects the productivity at the firm level. In the coming part we will see with the help of literature how to conduct OJT program and what are the steps involved in conducting OJT program.
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Conducting On-the-job training Program The purpose of conducting on-the-job training program is to provide the employee with task-specific knowledge and skills in his or her job/work area. The knowledge and skills presented during on-the-job training are directly related to those they will perform on the job. Bryan (2006) says that the rapid changes in the functions of business activities either business is big or small. There is need to conduct training programs for the maintaining of the employees skills because the knowledge becomes outdated. One more important thing is that competition also forces for the conducting training for the survival of the organizations in such tough completion. Technological innovations in product and business functions also create the need for training in organizations (Bryan, 2006). DeJong (1993) did his research in a large steel works company in Netherlands. The research was a descriptive study of two job training programs at Hoogovens Ijmuiden and raised three dimensions of his study; (a) how training programmes are conducted in Hoogovens, (b) conditions for conducting OJT programs, and finally (c) the effects of the training. Dejong states that there is a growing interest in structured on-thejob training because both classroom/off-the-job training and unstructured on-the-job training have major drawbacks when firms provide training to their personnel for their jobs. It provided a third route for the development of employees and towards their competence. Dejong (1993) found four phases as a result from the
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study of structured OJT program Import phase; in this phase new employees are trained by way of unstructured OJT.
(ii)

(i)

Development phase; a handbook is written in this phase how tasks will be performed in the training program. Handbooks are written by operating staff and training manager.

(iii) Execution

phase; trainees undertake a theoretical explanation of the

training program for two to three days and are told on site how to perform the specified tasks.
(iv)Export

phase; it is compulsory for employees at Hoogovens Ijmuiden

to get OJT before operating at their jobs. He stated that without OJT employees even not in a position to handle material with care, they treat, wrap up and materials carelessly which in not acceptable and shame for the material, answered by one of the mentors at Hoogovens. In the end he reported that OJT program is very necessary and a natural event to affect the functioning of individuals and organization as well. Dejong stated that there are many other authors who reported evaluation studies on structured OJT e.g. (Belbin et al; Cullen et al; Jacobs; Jacobs & McGiffin; Kolkhuis-Tanke) and most of them claimed that structured onthe-job training is more effective than the other two types of training. The DeJongs article relevant to our current study for two main reasons;

It is about a manufacturing organization, and He focused about the execution of OJT program in that firm.

First conducting OJT program it is important to assess the needs of the


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firm for training. That makes the management of any organization to understand which department needs training, which type (on-the-job, off-the-job) of training is to be conducted. Which employees would be the part of the training program and what are the criteria for selecting and providing training to the employees. The assessment of the training needs of any organization guides the management to find out the objective of the training to be conducted for their workforce. So, for conducting a training program many authors have written how to assess the training needs of any organization. Here we will discuss the assessing needs of training. Assessing On-the-job Training Needs According to Arthur et al. (2003) needs assessment or needs analysis is the process that determines the organizational needs to seek training. It seeks to answer the questions whether the organizational needs, objectives and problems can be met or addressed by training. Arthur et al. (2003) described the needs assessment process in their article Effectiveness of Training in Organizations: A Meta-Analysis of Design and Evaluation Features. The process consists of three steps to analyze the training needs of any organization. Studies (Kjellberg et al., 1998) show that the Indian companies use different kinds of measures e.g. (analysis project plan, training audits, line management requests, and performance appraisal and
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employee requests) to analyze training needs in their organizations. Black et al. (1994) analyzed the relationship between employer characteristics, training practices and human capital in their survey. From the analysis they found certain characteristics i.e. establishment (employer) and employee characteristics that raise the probability of formal training. Black et al. (1994) claimed, characteristics with respect to establishment that raise the probability of formal training are large size, high capital/labor ratio and total quality management or benchmarking and characteristics with respect to employee vary in different ways like major or small industry sector for example they stated that in manufacturing firms high average education of employees regarding their jobs, proportion of female employees, increased skills requirements and proportion of workers with relation to production, technical, clerical/sales occupations raise the possibilities of providing training. Only increased skills requirements raise the chances of the training in nonmanufacturing firms they stated. Black et al. (1994) concluded that while providing training offered by the employers there are many differences with the organization and industry as well not only in terms of training, but what type of training and how much training is provided. In the end they suggested that training is a complement rather than a substitute to investments in physical and human capital because the firms or employers who hire more educated workers and invest in their physical capital for their organizations are more likely to provide training.
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The manufacturing part of this article is relevant to our case study because we also are conducting our research on manufacturing company and on those employees who are working in the production department in Arul Das Industries. According to Arthur et al. (2003) in the first step of assessing needs of an organization. Organizational analyses are conducted to seek to know what the organizations needs to conduct on-the-job training. And in which part of the organization needs training. The first step of the process of analyzing the needs for training depicts the objectives behind starting training program and at which particular department needs that OJT. Second step for assessing the needs of an organization to conduct an OJT program is to analyze the tasks that mean which tasks or jobs will be demonstrated through training program. In this step the analysis shows what kind of job training is needed to the employee to perform his or her job effectively for this purpose. Shultz (n.d.) described that employees and supervisor are involved in developing this very type of analysis. The supervisor settles it on low, medium, high or critical priority based on importance and frequency of the task. After OJT. As described, employees are assessed to decide who needs training.
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identifying

the

priorities

supervisor/trainer

together

with

employee(s)/trainee(s) specify the schedule and timings to carry out the

These

analyses

are

conducted

through

observations

of

the

trainer/supervisor relation. Assessing needs for training is a crucial initiative towards designing and implementing training program. When on the job training is needed Rothwell et al. (1994: 43) describe some conditions. They say under these conditions OJT program is appropriate. These conditions are; (i) when employee is new to the post, domestic office or the job; (ii) employee lacks knowledge essential for job; (iii) job functions have changed, or are about to change; (iv) other obstacles in the work place e.g. lack of tools, equipment. In the part above we have seen from literature review how different authors demonstrated the assessing needs of training before starting OJT training program. The next part will let us know the remaining steps of OJT program i.e. planning, developing, executing and evaluation. These steps are explained as under; Planning OJT Program: During planning trainer or supervisor identifies the employees who need training. They (trainer and trainees) establish timeframes for implementing OJT program. They set goals for learning outcomes and instructional objectives. In other words they develop strategies for OJT program. Generally these strategies include selection criteria of training, etc (Shultz, n.d.). employees for

training, period of training, number of employees and frequency of Developing: The trainer and employees
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prepare a task sheet for training program. In developing they translate design decisions into training material. Training material include course material for trainer and trainees, workbooks, visual aids, demonstration props. Execution: The Execution of training program involves instructor providing

procedural rules, emphasizing the steps and sequence for correctly performing the tasks (Rothwell et al., 1994).Evaluation: The outcomes of the training program seeks to depict how effective was the training. The question is to know if the results are in accord to the desired outcomes or not. It also considers whether training program was conducted or implemented according to plan. Evaluation helps trainer to seek if any employee needs further training to perform his/her job. Kirkpatrick (2005) has proposed a four level model to evaluate effectiveness of training. His model has been used widely among firms throughout the world. This model helps firms to see how effective their training was. And what could be the results of that particular training provided by the firms to their employees. These four levels (Kirkpatrick, 2005:21) are; (i) Reactions: represent trainees affective and attitudinal responses to the training program. This level answers the following questions, how trainees feel about training, whether they like it; (ii) learning: measures learning outcomes of training. What trainees have learnt from the training program and what are the outcomes of the learning; (iii) behavioral: the third level measures the behaviors of employees in a sense how they are performing in actual after getting training; (iv) results: the final results or the outcomes of the training in the form of productivity and organizational goals and objectives.
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TRAINING The term training refers to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies. It forms the core of apprenticeships and provides the backbone of content at institutes of technology (also known as technical colleges or polytechnics). In addition to the basic training required for a trade, occupation or profession, observers of the labor-market[who?] recognize today[update] the need to continue training beyond initial qualifications: to maintain, upgrade and update skills throughout working life. People within many professions and occupations may refer to this sort of training as professional development. Some commentators use a similar term for workplace learning to improve performance: training and development. One can generally categorize such training as on-the-job or off-the-job:

On-the-job training takes place in a normal working situation, using the actual tools, equipment, documents or materials that trainees will use when fully trained. On-the-job training has a general reputation as most effective for vocational work.

Off-the-job training takes place away from normal work situations implying that the employee does not count as a directly productive worker while such training takes place. Off-the-job training has the advantage that it allows people to get away from work and

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concentrate more thoroughly on the training itself. This type of training has proven more effective in inculcating concepts and ideas. Types of training Physical training Physical training concentrates on mechanistic goals: training-programs in this area develop specific skills or muscles, often with a view to peaking at a particular time. Some physical training programs focus on raising overall physical fitness. In military use, training means gaining the physical ability to perform and survive in combat, and learning the many skills needed in a time of war. These include how to use a variety of weapons, outdoor survival skills, and how to survive capture by the enemy, among others. See military education and training. For psychological or physiological reasons, people who believe it may be beneficial to them can choose to practice relaxation training, or autogenic training, in an attempt to increase their ability to relax or deal with stress. While some studies have indicated relaxation training is useful for some medical conditions, autogenic training has limited results or has been the result of few studies. one of the things you should know about training is it has different levels: First level is called Guiding. where you are going to create an environment, which is safe and secure. Second level is teaching where you you learn what to do. Third level is Coaching where you learn how to do things. Fourth level is Mentoring where you work on your beliefs and values. Fifth level is Sponser who works on identity of the person mainly acknowledges and encourages.

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Some key points on On-the-Job Training On-the-Job Training is characterized by following points It is done on ad-hoc manner with no formal procedure, or content At the start of training, or during the training, no specific goals or objectives are developed Trainers usually have no formal qualification or training experience for training Training is not carefully planned or prepared The trainers are selected on the basis of technical expertise or area knowledge Formal OJT programs are quite different from informal OJT. These programs are carried out by identifying the employees who are having superior technical knowledge and can effectively use one-to-one interaction technique. The procedure of formal on-the-job training program is: Mentoring Mentoring is an ongoing relationship that is developed between a senior and junior employee. Mentoring provides guidance and clear understanding of how the organization goes to achieve its vision and mission to the junior employee. The meetings are not as structured and regular than in coaching. Executive mentoring is generally done by someone inside the company. The executive can learn a lot from mentoring. By dealing with diverse mentees, the executive is given the chance to grow professionally by developing
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management skills and learning how to work with people with diverse background, culture, and language and personality types. Executives also have mentors. In cases where the executive is new to the organization, a senior executive could be assigned as a mentor to assist the new executive settled into his role. Mentoring is one of the important methods for preparing them to be future executives. This method allows the mentor to determine what is required to improve mentees performance. Once the mentor identifies the problem, weakness, and the area that needs to be worked upon, the mentor can advise relevant training. The mentor can also provide opportunities to work on special processes and projects that require use of proficiency. Some key points on Mentoring Mentoring focus on attitude development Conducted for management-level employees Mentoring is done by someone inside the company It is one-to-one interaction It helps in identifying weaknesses and focus on the area that needs improvement

Job Rotation For the executive, job rotation takes on different perspectives. The executive is usually not simply going to another department. In some vertically integrated organizations, for example, where the supplier is actually part of
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same organization or subsidiary, job rotation might be to the supplier to see how the business operates from the supplier point of view. Learning how the organization is perceived from the outside broadens the executives outlook on the process of the organization. Or the rotation might be to a foreign office to provide a global perspective. For managers being developed for executive roles, rotation to different functions in the company is regular carried out. This approach allows the manger to operate in diverse roles and understand the different issues that crop up. If someone is to be a corporate leader, they must have this type of training. A recent study indicated that the single most significant factor that leads to leaders achievement was the variety of experiences in different departments, business units, cities, and countries. An organized and helpful way to develop talent for the management or executive level of the organization is job rotation. It is the process of preparing employees at a lower level to replace someone at the next higher level. It is generally done for the designations that are crucial for the effective and efficient functioning of the organization. Job Instruction Technique(JIT) Job Instruction Technique (JIT) uses a strategy with focus on knowledge (factual and procedural), skills and attitudes development. Procedure of Job Instruction Technique (JIT)

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JIT consists of four steps:

Plan This step includes a written breakdown of the work to be done because the trainer and the trainee must understand that documentation is must and important for the familiarity of work. A trainer who is aware of the work well is likely to do many things and in the process might miss few things. Therefore, a structured analysis and proper documentation ensures that all the points are covered in the training program. The second step is to find out what the trainee knows and what training should focus on.

Then, the next step is to create a comfortable atmosphere for the trainees i.e. proper orientation program, availing the resources, familiarizing trainees with the training program, etc. Present In this step, trainer provides the synopsis of the job while presenting the participants the different aspects of the work. When the trainer finished, the trainee demonstrates how to do the job and why is that done in that specific manner. Trainee actually demonstrates the procedure while emphasizing the key points and safety instructions.

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Trial This step actually a kind of rehearsal step, in which trainee tries to perform the work and the trainer is able to provide instant feedback. In this step, the focus is on improving the method of instruction because a trainer considers that any error if occurring may be a function of training not the trainee. This step allows the trainee to see the after effects of using an incorrect method. The trainer then helps the trainee by questioning and guiding to identify the correct procedure. Follow-up In this step, the trainer checks the trainees job frequently after the training program is over to prevent bad work habits from developing. It is the responsibility of supervisors and managers to utilize available resources to train, qualify, and develop their employees. On-the-job training (OJT) is one of the best training methods because it is planned, organized, and conducted at the employee's worksite. OJT will generally be the primary method used for broadening employee skills and increasing productivity. It is particularly appropriate for developing proficiency skills unique to an employee's job - especially jobs that are relatively easy to learn and require locally-owned equipment and facilities. Morale, productivity, and professionalism will normally be high in those organizations that employ a sound OJT program. An analysis of the major job requirements (identified in the position description and performance plan) and related knowledges, skills, and

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abilities form the basis for setting up an OJT plan. To be most effective, an OJT plan should include: The subject to be covered; Number of hours; Estimated completion date; and Method by which the training will be evaluated To have a successful OJT program, supervisors need to assign a coach to each employee involved in OJT. It is the responsibility of the coach to plan training carefully and conduct it effectively. On the job training (OJT) is job training that occurs in the work place. The new employee learns the job while doing the job and while earning his or her pay check. On the job training is also called hands on training. On the job training has many advantages, but it can also have a few disadvantages if the OJT is not properly planned and executed. One major drawback of on the job training can be finding the right time for it. The person responsible for giving and evaluating the training has to be sure that his or her other job responsibilities are being met. Another disadvantage of OJT is that it can be difficult to find the right person to conduct it. The person doing the training must have the knowledge and skills with the same equipment that the learner will be working with. Care must also be given not to pass on sloppy work habits or unintentionally teach irrelevant or inefficient work methods to the new worker/learner.

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If these disadvantages are eliminated, however, on the job training can be beneficial for both the company and the new employee. OJT can be costeffective for the business since a separate training program isn't required and the training is part of the actual work shifts. No extra equipment is needed as the new worker learns on the equipment needed for the job anyway. On the job training often works out really well for the new employee since traditional training periods tend to have a training allowance that may be lower than the regular pay scale for the job. Also, there is no need for the new worker to have to travel to one place for the training and another for the job. Many times the person who will be doing the training and evaluation is the new worker's supervisor or manager so this also establishes job expectations right at the start. The feedback during on the job training is also immediate, so the new employee may experience faster growth in the job than he or she would in other types of training situations. Methods of Training There are various methods of training, which can be divided in to cognitive and behavioral methods. Trainers need to understand the pros and cons of each method, also its impact on trainees keeping their background and skills in mind before giving training. Cognitive methods are more of giving theoretical training to the trainees. The various methods under Cognitive approach provide the rules for how to do something, written or verbal information, demonstrate relationships
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among concepts, etc. These methods are associated with changes in knowledge and attitude by stimulating learning. The various methods that come under Cognitive approach are:

LECTURES DEMONSTRATIONS DISCUSSIONS COMPUTER BASED TRAINING (CBT)


o o o

INTELLEGENT TUTORIAL SYSTEM(ITS) PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION (PI) VIRTUAL REALITY

Behavioral methods are more of giving practical training to the trainees. The various methods under Behavioral approach allow the trainee to behavior in a real fashion. These methods are best used for skill development. Training refers to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relates to specific useful skills. It forms the core of apprenticeships and provides the backbone of content at technical colleges and polytechnics. Today it is often referred to as professional development. Training & Development is the field concerned with workplace learning to improve performance. Such training can be generally categorized as on-thejob or off-the-job. On-the-job describes training that is given in a normal working situation, using the actual tools, equipment, documents or materials
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that they will use when fully trained. On-the-job training is usually most effective for vocational work. Off-the-job training takes place away from normal work situation which means that the employee is not regarded as productive worker when training is taking place. An advantage of off-thejob training is that it allows people to get away from work and totally concentrate on the training being given. This is most effective for training concepts and ideas. Training differs from exercise in that exercise may be a one of occasional activity for fun. Training is specific and done to improve one's capability, capacity, and performance. In organizational development, the related field of training and development (T & D) deals with the design and delivery of learning to improve performance within organizations. In some organizations the term Learning & Development is used instead of Training and Development in order to emphasis the importance of learning for the individual and the organization. In other organizations, the term Human Resource Development is used. Importance of Training Training is a very important priority for any organization. Training and developing people in an organization is one of the strategic focuses. Were talking about winning in a highly competitive business. Objective is to drive our competitiveness through this training. Now, its not going to happen unless every person in the division, including the President, makes a
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personal investment in leadership, in learning and in development. We think this is the central concept around building quality of work life. It is the central concept around getting the best people to come to work for you, and it is the central concept around moving to the next level. It cant be overemphasized. As a brief review of terms, training involves an expert working with learners to transfer to them certain areas of knowledge or skills to improve in their current jobs. Development is a broad, ongoing multi-faceted set of activities (training activities among them) to bring someone or an organization up to another threshold of performance, often to perform some job or new role in the future. Q) Meaning and Definition A business' most important asset is often its people. Training and developing them can be one of the most important investments a business can make. The right training can ensure that your business has the right skills to tackle the future. It can also help attract and retain good quality staff, as well as increasing the job satisfaction of those presently with you - increasing the chances that they will satisfy your customers. Training and development refer to the imparting to specific skills ability and knowledge to an employee. A formal definition of training and development is: it is any attempt to improve current or future employee performance by increasing an employees ability to perform through learning, usually by
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changing the employees attitudes or increasing his or her skills and knowledge. The need for training and development is determined by the employees performance deficiency, computed as follows: We can make a distinction among training, education and development. Such distinction enables us to acquire a better perspective about the meaning of the terms. Training, as was started earlier, refers to the process of imparting specific skills. Education, on the other hand, is confined to theoretical learning in the classrooms. THE TRAINING PROCESS ORGANIZATIONAL OBJECTIVES AND STRATEGIES: The first step in the training process in an organization is the assessment of its objectives and strategies. What business are we in? At what level of quality do we wish to provide this product or service? Where do we want to be in the future? It is only after answering these and other related questions that the organization must assess the strengths and weaknesses of its human resources. POPULAR METHODS OF TRAINING On-the-Job Method (OJT): Majority of industrial training is on the job training type. OJT method is mainly adopted while orienting new employees, introducing innovations in products & services and in special skills training. OJT is conducted at the
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work site and in the context of the job. Often, it is informal, as when an experienced worker shows a trainee how to perform the job tasks. Off-the-Job Training Method: Off-the-job training is mainly adopted for orienting new employees, introducing innovations in products and services, special skills training, safety education, creative, technical & professional education and sales, administrative, supervisory and managerial education. The advantages and disadvantages of some of the important techniques of off-the-job methods are listed below: a) Lectures: Lecture is a verbal presentation of information by an instructor to a large audience. This method can be made effective when combined with other means of training. b) Audio-Visuals: These include television slides, overheads, video-types, films and LCD Projectors. c) Programmed Instruction (PI): Training is offered without the intervention of the trainer. Information is provided to the trainee in blocks, either in a book form or through a teaching machine. PI involves: 1. Presenting questions, facts, or problems to the learner. 2. Allowing the person to respond. 3. Providing feedback on the accuracy of his or her answers.
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4. If the answers are correct, the learner proceeds to the next block. 5. Simulations: A simulator is any kind of equipment or technique that duplicates as nearly as possible the actual conditions encountered on the job. It is an attempt to create a realistic decision making environment for the trainee. The advantage of simulation is the opportunity to create an environment similar to real situations the managers incur, but without the high costs involved should the actions prove undesirable. The other techniques of training are: Leadership games: exercises to teach different styles of leadership. Skill Games: Tests to develop analytical skills. Communication Games: exercises to build bias free listening and talking. Strategic Planners: Games to test ability to plan ahead. Team building games: Exercises requiring collaborative efforts. Lateral Thinking: thinking randomly to come up with new ideas. Cross cultural training: Programmes to teach specifics of varied cultures. Motivation: Motivation to learn is the basic requisite of making training and development programmes effective. Motivation comes from awareness that training fetches some rise in status and pay. Internal pressures (self-esteem,
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quality of life, job satisfaction) are the most powerful motivators. At the same time the individual must also have the ability to learn. Individual Differences: Individuals enjoy varying learning stimuli. Ability varies from individual to individual and this difference must be considered while organizing training programmers. Practice Opportunities: People learn best through practice. The trainee should be given the opportunity to practice what is being taught. Practice is also essential after the individual has been successfully trained. Reinforcement: Reinforcement is anything that a) Increases the strength of response b) Tends to induce repetitions of the behavior that preceded the reinforcement. Reinforcement could be positive and negative. Positive reinforcement strengthens and increases behavior by the presentation of desirable consequences. The reinforcement consists of a positive experience for the individual. Example: if an employee does something well and is complemented by the boss, the probability that the behavior will be repeated will be strengthened.
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In negative reinforcement, the individual exhibits the desired behavior to avoid something unpleasant. Example: an employee who does something to avoid incurring a reprimand from his boss. The effect of negative reinforcement is avoidance of learning. Knowledge of Results (feedback): Knowledge of results is a necessary condition for learning. Feedback about the performances will enable the learner to know where he or she stands and to initiate corrective action if any deviation from the expected goal has taken place. Goals: Goal setting can also accelerate learning, particularly when it is accompanied by knowledge of results. Individuals generally perform better and learn more quickly when they have goals, particularly if the goals are specific and reasonably difficult. Schedules of learning: One of the most well established principles of learning is that distributed or spaced learning is superior to continuous learning. Schedules of learning involve: a) Duration of practice sessions b) Duration of rest sessions c) Positioning of rest pauses
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All the three must be carefully planned and executed. Meaning of material: A definite relationship has been established between learning and meaningfulness of the subject learnt. The more meaningful the material, the better the learning process. Transfer of Learning: What is learnt in training must be transferred to the job. The traditional approach to transfer has been to maximize the identical elements between the training situation and the actual job. This may be possible for training skills such as maintaining a cash register, but not for teaching leadership or conceptual skills. Often, what is learnt in a training session faces resistance back at the job. Techniques for overcoming resistance include creating positive expectations on the part of trainees supervisor, creating opportunities to implement new behavior on the job, and ensuring that the behavior is reinforced when it occurs. Though, it is desirable that a training and development programme incorporates all these principles, seldom is such a combination effected in practice. Q) Follow Up of Training Following-up is the last step in the training process. Here, the training
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program is already completed and the trainees go back to their departments or positions and start doing the work assigned. However, the management feels that training / development is a means and not the end in itself. Training is essentially for achieving certain objectives. Management will like to know actual results / benefits of training. For this, follow-up of training in the form of evaluation training is essential. Management spent huge amount of money on training of employees and this expenditure should give positive return in terms of higher efficiency, productivity, high morale, cordial industrial relations and so on. For this, critical evaluation of training program is essential. This indicates the effectiveness of the training. Even suitable modification / improvement in the training program is possible after analyzing the results available from such evaluation. In brief, evaluation helps determine the results of training and development program. Unfortunately, many organizations overlook this important step in the training process. In some companies, suitable facilities required for evolution of training are not available. Follow-up is the key to ensuring that interventions improve performance. Various follow-up approaches in the work place are used to support trainers, supervisors, service providers and others responsible for implementing the performance improvement interventions. The follow up technique will increase the probability that learning and behavior changes will "stick" back on the job. These techniques are easy to use, don't require large amounts of time or organizational integration and

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cost very little. They can be added on to existing training or designed with new training. On the whole, followup action is required to ensure implementation of evaluation report at every stage of training. Q) Importance of Training and Development Training and development programmes help remove performance

deficiencies in employees. This is particularly true when (1) The deficiency is caused by a lack of ability rather than a lack of motivation to perform (2) The individual(s) have the aptitude and motivation needed to learn to do the job better, and (3) Supervisors and peers are supportive of the desired behaviors. There is greater stability, flexibility and capacity for growth in an organization. Training contributes to employee stability in at least two ways. Employees become efficient after undergoing training. Efficient employees contribute to the growth of the organization. Growth renders stability to the work force. Further, trained employees tend to stay with the organization. They seldom leave the company. Training makes the employees versatile in operations. All rounder can be transferred to any job. Flexibility is therefore ensured.
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Growth indicates prosperity, which is reflected in increased profits from year to year. Nobody else but well trained employees can contribute to the prosperity of an organization. Accidents, scrap and damage to machinery and equipment can be avoided or minimized through training. Even dissatisfaction, complaints, absenteeism, and turnover can be reduced if employees are trained well. Future need of employees will be met through training and development programmes. Organizations take fresh diploma holders or graduates as apprentices or management trainees. They are absorbed after course completion. Training serves as an effective source of recruitment. Training and development is an investment in human resources with a promise and it serves as an effective source of recruitment. Training and development is an investment in HR with a promise of better returns in future. A companys training and development pays dividends to the employee and the organization. Though no single training programme yields all the benefits, the organization which devotes itself to training and development enhances its HR capabilities and strengthens its competitive edge. At the same time, the employees personal and career goals are furthered, generally adding to his or her abilities and value to the employer. Ultimately, the objectives of the HR department are also furthered. How to identify training needs? Needs assessment diagnoses present problems and future challenges to be met through training and development. Organizations spend vast sums of money (usually as a percentage on turnover) on training and development.
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Before committing such huge resources, organizations would do well to assess the training needs of their employees. Organizations that implement training programmes without conducting needs assessment may be making errors. For ex- ample, a needs assessment exercise might reveal that less costly interventions (e.g. selection, compensation package, job redesign) could be used in lieu of training. Needs assessment occurs at two levels group and individual. An individual obviously needs training when his or her performance falls short of standards, that is, when there is performance deficiency. Inadequacy in performance may be due to lack of skill or knowledge or any other problem. The problem of performance deficiency caused by absence of skills or knowledge can be remedied by training. Faulty selection, poor job design, uninspiring supervision or some personal problem may also result in poor performance. Transfer, job redesign, improving quality of supervision, or discharge will solve the problem. Figure illustrates the assessment of individual training needs and remedial measures. Assessment of training needs must also focus on anticipated skills of an employee. Technology changes fast and new technology demands new skills. It is necessary that the employee be trained to acquire new skills. This will help him/her to progress in his or her career path. Training and development is essential to prepare the employee to handle more challenging tasks. Deputation to a part-time MBA programme is ideal to train and develop such employees. Individuals may also require new skills because of possible job transfers. Although job transfers are common
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as organizational personnel demands vary, .hey do not necessarily require elaborate training efforts. Employees commonly require only an orientation to new facilities and jobs. Recently, however, economic forces have necessitated significant retraining efforts in order to assure continued employment for many individuals. Jobs have disappeared as technology, foreign competition, and the force of supply and demand are changing the face of our industry. Assessment of training needs occurs at the group level too. Any change in the organizations strategy necessitates training of groups of employees. For example, when the organization decides to introduce a new line of products, sales personnel and production workers have to be trained to produce, sell and service the new products. Training can also be used when high scrap or accident rates, low morale and motivation, or other problems are diagnosed. Although training is not a cure-all, such undesirable happenings reflect poorly trained work force. Employee Training Employee training is the planned effort of an organization to help employees learn the job related behaviours and skills they will need to do their job properly. It is a set of planned activities that the organization will have their employees complete in order to increase their job knowledge and skills and to have them get accustomed to the attitudes and social atmosphere of the company. It will help the employee to be familiar with the goals of the organization and the job requirements. There are typical steps that go into a training program. These are outlined below.
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1) Conduct Needs Assessment: A need is described as a "gap" between what is currently known and what will be needed now and in the future. These gaps in knowledge could be between what an organization expects to happen and what actually does, how employees are performing on the job and how the organization desires them to perform, and existing skills and desired skill level. In order to conduct an assessment there are some analyses that must be done. * An organizational analyses determines the effectiveness of an organization, where training is needed and under what conditions the training will be conducted. * A task analysis is used to provide data about a job or group of jobs, and the knowledge, skills, attitudes and abilities that are needed to achieve optimum performance. This information can come from job descriptions, task analyses, employee questionnaires and interviews, performance evaluation, and observation of the workplace. * Finally - person analysis analyses how well an individual employee is doing their job and determines which specific employees need training and what kind of training. The methods of this kind of analysis include employee questionnaires and interviews, performance evaluation, skill and knowledge testing and the observation of behaviour and results.

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2) Implement Training Methods: Now that the analysis has been done, the training method needs to be chosen. The two most frequently used training methods include: * Lecture: Lecture involves one-way communication, from instructor to learner - the learner is passive in the process. * On-the-job-training: This method involves such methods as apprenticeship and mentoring, where the employee is actively engaged in the type of work they will later be doing on their own. * Programmed instruction: This is a form of instruction that is preprogrammed and then delivered methodologically to an individual. This form of instruction is self-paced - the employee determines how fast they will learn and complete the steps and it is often completed more quickly than group training. It can be delivered via a computer and can be costly to prepare. * Simulations: This sort of training involves an employee being placed into a simulated situation of what may occur in real on-the-job situations. Techniques include: Case studies where trainees analyze a problem outlined in a report and offer solutions; role playing where simulated roles are acted out; and behavioural modelling where trainees observe proper work behaviour and then role play it.

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Part of the implementation of the training is making sure that the training is actually teaching the employees the skills they will need - this is known as the Transfer of Training. A more technical definition is: the extent to which the knowledge, skills or attitudes learned in the training will be used or applied on the job. There are ways to increase the probability of what employees are being trained will really relate to their actual job behaviour. To do this, one can maximize the similarity between the training situation and the job situation, provide a variety of examples when teaching skills and reward trained behaviours and ideas on the job. 3) Training Evaluation: Training evaluation is used to evaluate the reactions of the learners, measure the learning that occurred, assess on-the-job behaviors, identify business results that are due to the training and calculate if the investment in training has had any return in the gains of the company. Business results can be measured in "hard" data and "soft" data. Hard data are measures of productivity, quality, material costs, absenteeism and turnover and customer satisfaction. Soft data is items such as job satisfaction, teamwork, and organizational commitment on the part of the employees. Barriers to OJT? Apart from the benefits of OJT there are many barriers to the implementation of such educative program. These barriers vary in many aspects e.g. firm size, business to business, organizational structure,
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execution method. Barriers for small firms in implementing OJT program Lin et al. (2003) suggested that smaller firms are particularly subject to issues regarding training as compared to bigger firms. Lin et al. (2003) argued by referring to Workplace and Employee Survey (WES) 1999 the participation rates of employees in employer-sponsored training (classroom and on-the- job) range from 45 percent and 53 percent in small and medium firms respectively to 62 percent and 67 percent in large and very large firms, respectively (Lin et al., 2003:3). Another survey, the 1998 Adult Education and Training Survey (AETS) shows the likelihood of an employee participating in employer-sponsored formal training is about twice as high when employed by a firm of 100 employees or more than when employed by a firm of less than 100 employees., probabilities must be adjusted for industry, occupation, type of job, ownership, age and sex. There are several potential explanations to account for this pattern. For example, small firms may face more serious financing constraints, they may be unable to take advantage of economies of scale in training, they may have lower skill requirements because of a lower rate of technology adoption, they may train less because of risk aversion by managers, etc (Lin, et al., 2003:3). We have seen from the literature review that the policies at government level and institution level as well both support OJT in India. Government provides incentives to employers who provide training to their employees within their organizations.
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2.2 COMPANY PROFILE Arul Das Industries was established in 1995 with intension of designing & manufacturing of press tools, press components and material handling system on turnkey basis. Company also provides consultancy in designing press tools. Company has intents to grow the business by continuously upgrading the quality, widening the costumer base and exploring the possibility of exports market. As an initial step company has opted for implementing ISO 9001 2000 quality management system. Company understands changing global market scenario and plan to invest in new systems to improve product variation and increase production capacity by improving efficiency & productivity. The company has built up a strong capability in engineering and execution excellence. The company works closely with customers to meet and surpass their expectation and ensuring Total Customer Satisfaction through excellence in product quality, response time and price competitiveness. In an industry where Precision, Pricing and People are of paramount importance, the company has set stringent benchmarks and works consistently in achieving and improving on it.

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The company is engaged in the engineering works related to Designing and manufacturing of sheet metal, press tool, plastic moulds, Multi cavity plastic moulds, die casting dies, extrusion dies, Vacuum forming machine and so on. With our technical expertise and vast experience in the field, we have been able to establish ourselves a reliable entity in the market. Ours is an ISO 9001: 2000 certified company. The company endeavors at providing maximum satisfaction to its esteemed clients through its range of products and services. Consequently, we are reckoned as one of the most credible Die Casting Products Manufacturers and Suppliers in the market. Arul Das Industries was set up with a mission to manufacture quality Forging and Forming Tools. Within a short period, the company has made rapid strides in growth and excellence. And the company incorporates Quality Assurance Program (QAP), to ensure that the systems and processes are constantly monitored and thus improvements may accelerate the growth of client's business. The Company has a wide product range that caters to various industries ranging from General Engineering, Fasteners, Chain Industry, Brakes, etc.

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Infrastructure and Capability the Company has invested in a state of the art shop floor which are equipped with: Grinding Machines Tool & Cutter Grinders Lathes Milling Machines Drilling Machines EDM Spark Machines Hydraulic Press Support base of EDM wire cut, VMC, JIG boring, CNC Machines, Heat treatment and surface Engineering. The shop floor is also equipped with metrology lab, a dedicated quality assurance section which constantly and consistently focuses on strict adherence to quality norms. Having qualified and dedicated team, who can undertake design and development of Jigs, Fixtures, Moulds and Special Tools based on the applications, supported with customized CAD/CAM programmmes. Quality is a process at Arul Das Industries. To ensure that, the company delivers nothing but the best, the company has a Quality Assurance Program (QAP) in place. This ensures that the systems and processes are constantly monitored and improvement brought in to ensure total satisfaction to customers.

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The company is guided by a set of quality control policy adopted by the management. All our products have to be tested on different parameters with the latest non contact measuring equipment. According to the said policy, we also adhere to the timely delivery of the booked products. Subsequently, we are counted among the major Plastic Moulds Manufacturers and Suppliers in the country. QUALITY POLICY We, at Arul Das Industries, shall aim to achieve and sustain excellence in all our activities. We are committed to Total Customer Satisfaction by providing products and services which meet or exceed the Customers expectations. Modernization of the manufacturing facilities, Stress on technological innovation and training of employees at all levels shall be continuous process in Arul Das Industries. A motivated workforce with a sense of pride in the organization shall lead us towards Total Quality. PRODUCTS We are one of the well reckoned names in the genre of tools that are widely used in various industries. We manufacture precision press tools and precision stamped components. These products manufactured by us are engineered using years of experience and expertise.

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The acme quality raw materials used in manufacturing these products are processed as per international standards. The services offered by us include designing and manufacture of simple, compound and progressive tools. In addition to this, we also undertake job work in optical profile grinding, jig grinding, vacuum heat treatment, etc. Besides, we also offer customized solution of press tools as per the requirements and specifications of the clients. A. Press Components Division 1. Designing & Manufacturing of Press Tools & Press Components. B. Material Handling Division 1. Belt Conveyor for Bulk Material Handling. 2. Bag Handling System. 3. Ash Handling System. 4. Screw Conveyor. 5. EnMass Conveyor. 6. Bucket Elevator. 7. RBC. 8. Bagasse Bale Breaker. 9. Slat Conveyor.
10.

All types of chains & slats.

11. Spares for all conveyors. 2. Specially Press Components applicable for a. Control Panel.
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b. Molded Luggage. c. Power Tools. d. Precision Machinery Spares 3. Walkways and Gratings. C. Heat Exchangers. Bag Handling Equipments : Tool Room Facility Press Components Material Handling Equipments Control Pannels Moulded Luggage Fitting Automobile Press Parts Power Tool Accessories & Fittings

Tool Room Facility

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In house design & development department having experienced die makers. Well Equipped Tool Room machine setup. alibrated measuring instruments. Quality Assurance. Guidance of International Experts. Press Components

Wide rang of press components in various field of engineering application. Material Handling Equipments. Control Pannel. Molded luggage fittings. Automobile Press Parts. Power Tool Accessories & fittings. Capacitors & Power Factor Controlling Fittings. Thermal Equipment Accessories. Material Handling Equipments

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Idler clit & Angle Clits. All Types of Chains. All types of Slats. Bearing Housings for Idlers. Trough set. Control Panels All types of Hinges. Door clamps.

Vertical & Horizontal Support Clamps.

Lock Strips. Fuse Holder. Lifting Angle. Canopies. Moulded LuggageFitting

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All type of back hinges & side hinges. Stay Bracket. Section Covers. Side Lock Hooks & Center Lock Hooks. Handle Strips Automobile Press Parts Upper & Lower Terminals. Reinforcement. Lock Clamps. Clutch Actuating Levers. Other Consumable Accessories. Power Tool Accessories & Fittings

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Brush Holder Inserts. Fan for Armatures. Cap ring Assembly for Coupling. Bearing Plates. Bearing Covers. Safety Cover. Dust Cover. Base plate. Wheel Guards of various sizes. Thrust Bearings. Belt Conveyor Systems

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Belt Conveyors are used for handling bulk material such as Bagasse, Ash, Coal, Stone Crusher, Sand, Salt, Bauxite, Loose Sugar, Mud, etc. our range of manufacturing belt conveyors from 5 ton / hour to 1000 ton / hour, depending upon the customer's requirement. Our belt conveyor systems are more economical and trouble free performance. Return Bagasse Carrier & Elevator

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Return Bagasse carriers & Elevators are used for handling loose bagasse for co-generation and sugar mill. Our range of return bagasse carrier from 5 ton / hour to 200 ton / hour. These systems are used in Sugar Mill, CoGeneration, Starch Plant, processing units & commonly for bagasse feeding to boiler. Bucket Elevator

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Bucket elevators are used for elevating fertilizer, Loose Sugar, Grain, Foundry Sand, Coal, Bagasse, etc. We are manufacturing both belt type (Twin Leg) and chain type (Self Supported) Elevators. Our belt type bucket elevators are modular & compact in design, low power consumption, smooth in operation. Capacity ranging from 5 ton / hour to 100 ton / hour. Screw Conveyor Screw Conveyors are used for handling Sand, Grain, Sugar, Fertilizer, Seeds and Ash etc. Capacity of screw conveyors ranging from 5 ton / hour to 60 ton / hour. Screw conveyors are required in various plants like cattle feed, sugar factory, Starch, Chemical, Fertilizer Plants etc. Our screw conveyors are very efficient and safe in operation.

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Heat Exchangers

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Heat Exchanger basically air cooled heat exchangers are manufactured by quality tubes having spiral wounded SS, MS & CU fins. The fined tubes of different pitch distance fines are utilized as per design factor which directly results in efficiency & smooth running of the light weight. These tubes will be arranged in such a way that the air flow heat less is minimum with maximum face area. The temp of air will be raised using saturated steam i. e. with minimum Advantages : Maximum face area per area of heat exchanger. Compact in designs results light weight & easy handling. Portable Belt Conveyors ReBELL' offers portable belt conveyors of standard belt width of 600 and 650mm. for conveying 50 kg. and 100 kg. bags. Frame is manufactured
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from tabular section and angle. Frame is mounted on ADV tyres fitted to axle. Capacity of belt conveyors is 700 to 800 bags / hour.

Model Length C/C Delivery Height Horse Power Bag Stackers

20 ft. 6000 mm. /20ft 1600 5.25ft 2.0 HP mm.

30 ft. 9200 mm

50 ft. /15500

mm

30ft 50ft /1750 mm. /2000 mm / 5.75ft 2.0 HP 6.5ft 3.0 HP

To and
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Reduce the man power for stacking the bags in

godowns stackers are used. The equipment consists frame fabricated from ISA 40X5 & ISA 25X5 mounted on chassis which is fixed on ADV tyres. Winch system is provided for lifting and lowering the frame. Stacker is used for handling grain, Fertilizer and Sugar bags. Truck loader is specially used for loading the truck. General Specification Model Boom Length C/C 14 ft. 20 ft. 26 ft. 7900 mm. 26ft 5000 mm. 16ft 2000 mm. 33 ft. 45 ft.

4300 mm. /6100 14ft mm. /20ft.

10100 13700 / mm. /33ft mm. /45ft 6700 8800 mm. / mm. /22ft /29ft 2500 mm /3500 mm. / 8ft /11ft 29 Nos. 40Deg 7.5Hp

Delivery Height (Max.) Delivery Height (Min.) No of Bag layers Degree Of Inclination Horse Power Our Mission

2750 mm. /4000 9ft mm. /13ft

1400 mm. /1500 4.5ft 9 Nos. 31Deg 1.5HP mm. /5ft 13 Nos. 40Deg 2.0HP

6.5ft 17 Nos. 22 Nos. 40Deg 3.0Hp 40Deg 5.0Hp

To Be a Reliable, Preferred Global Solution Provider and Supplier of Precision Tooling Stamped Components and Sub Assemblies for Electronics, Electrical, Communication, Instrumentation, Medical & Aviation Sector. Available Machine Facility
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M1 TR Armasrong 900x320x350 Surface Grainding 200*600 Tp 06 Avro Lathe Matcine Medium Duty Drill Matchine -2nos Bench Grainder 30 Ton Power Press (ambika ) 1nos Messuring Instument Verniar Caliper : 150mm,200mm,300mm. 0mm to 600mm. Daile Verniar : 200mm Hight Guge : 300mm Rediuse Guge : 0.5mm to 25mm Thred Guge Man Power Strenth Die Meker 1 Millar 1 Turenr 2 Press Opreter 2 Unskiled 2 Andmin Staff 2 List of Production Machinery Power Press 30 MT Mechanical
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1Nos

hand grinding Drilling M/c Die Grinder Surface Grinder M1TR Lathe M/C List of Instruments Vernier Caliper Vernier Caliper Gauge Vernier Height Gauge Micro Meter Surface Plate Redius Gauges Thread Gauge Magnetik V Block

"

200X600 4.5 Feet Medium duty

1Nos 1Nos 1Nos 1Nos 1Nos 1Nos

0-200mm 0-200mm 0-300mm 0-25mm 600X600mm 0.5 to 25mm Inches And mm

1Nos 1Nos 1Nos 1Nos 1Nos 3Nos 1Nos 1Nos

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Structures of Arul Das Industries 1. Equipment Division: This equipment divisions customers impose

well-defined, regular and recurrent demands on Arul Das Industries. 2. Process Technology Division: This division serves customers

that require specially adapted solutions to boost the efficiency of their process. 3. Operations Division: one that produces and supplies the

companys

products

and solutions. The operations division is further

broken down into three key technologies divisions. Each production unit uses different key technologies (not all key technologies). Each key technology divisions produces line of products which are as follows: Separation Equipments/Separator: This technology is used to separate liquids from other liquids and solid particles from liquids. Fluid Handling Equipment: This is used for fluid handling equipment such as pumps, valves and installation material.

I.

II.

III.

Heat Transfer systems:

In

this

division

different

Heat

transfer systems are manufactured in all manufacturing units of Arul Das Industries these are Air heat exchanger, Plate heat exchangers, scraped-surface heat exchangers, shell and tube Heat exchangers, spiral Heat exchangers.
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Our research focus on the production of on Heat Exchangers (HEs) in one of the manufacturing units of Arul Das Industries based in Ronneby. Heat Exchangers are manufactured by using the Heat Transfer system technology i.e. one of three key technologies used by Arul Das Industries. Heat exchangers are the component of Heat Exchanger Systems which are produced in other department of the company which is also in Ronneby. So we will discuss only information in our study that is relevant to the training of employees who engaged in the production Heat Exchangers. Arul Das Industries Manufacturing Unit Arul Das Industries has its own manufacturing units in Arul Das Industries. The manufacturing unit is engaged in the production of Heat Exchangers e.g. Brazed plate heat exchangers and fusion bonded heat exchangers. This unit is currently manufacturing two products; brazed heat exchangers (used for domestic hot water, radiator heating etc.) and fusion bonded plated heat exchangers (used for Domestic hot water, Radiator heating, Floor Heating, Heat pumps and District cooling). This manufacturing Unit employs 150 employees in total. The employees are divided into two groups, white-collar and blue-collar employees, from which 50 employees are in administrative staff (white-collar). The remaining 100 employees is a mixture of those who directly work or produce units and their helpers in the production department/on the shop floor. There are no specified designations to those who work in the production department; they are just called workers according to production leader. In total 16 persons were interviewed; they include;
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1) HR Manager, 2) Production Manager, 3) Production Leader, 4) Trainer/Project Leader, 5) Workers Here are some terms which are used in the production department of Arul Das Industries. Blue-collar employees/Workers: Our study is focusing is mainly on the blue-collar employees (workers). Especially those who work in production department, notably on the production of Heat exchangers. Flow Group: Flow group is a team of blue-collar workers in production department, the minimum range of a flow group is four employees. The employees we have interviewed were working in a team of 12 persons. Standard Operating Process: Standard operating process (SOP) is a set of formal rules, instructions and methods on how to do a specific job. Operation Responsible: Operation Responsible (OPR) is a skilled employee hold a certificate. This certificate is awarded after six months of intensive training at Arul Das Industries during the job. Before certification the OPR is interviewed by the HR manager, production manager and trainer/supervisor. During interview the skills and competencies of the potential OPR are assessed.
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Production Process at Arul Das Industries Our study took place in a plant where Brazed Heat Exchangers are manufactured. The workers are divided into seven Flow Groups (FG). Each flow group is composed of a minimum of five employees. Employees at the production department work normally in 3 shifts per 24 hours. During the peak season or in the times of large order intakes, workers have been working in 5 shifts. The 5 shifts are composed of 3 daily shifts and two during weekends (i.e. one on Saturday and the other is on Sunday). The role of flow group is to work on one product at a time. It means that the group is responsible of the production of one unit from its basic components to the final product. All the workers are supposed to learn the whole process of production from cutting to testing of HEs. But still there is some kind of expertise or special training needed to operate the pressing machine in a right manner as prescribed in the SOP; more details about the education of this and other machines that are used in production will come in the part of OJT at Arul Das Industries. There are five types of machines that are used to produce these Heat exchangers in the plant; Press Machines (4 in total); Stacking Machines; (4) Vacuum Oven (4); Testing machine (1) and Packing Machines (2). Steel sheets are cut and pressed into the shapes by pressing machine according to the required size of the plate/unit. The process of pressing sheets takes approximately one hour. Then brazed sheets (copper or nickel) are cut from coil and formed to fit the
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plates. These brazing sheets act as seal and to retain pressure, that handle is used to handle high pressures and temperatures. In the next step brazing sheets are assembled together by being stack on top of each other to form a plate pack. The plate pack building process takes 20 minutes to be ready. This plate pack is then fitted with frame plate and connected with contact points (combines the sheets). Workers put those framed packs into a vacuum oven at high temperature. The processing time in the vacuum oven is approximately 8-14 hours. In this process brazing material melts together and collects in the contact points. When the units are cooled down there is a strong bond is put in every contact point, which makes the unit very strong. After the completion of whole production process the final units/products i.e. Heat exchangers are individually leak and pressure tested on testing machine to ensure first-class quality. production process. On-the-job Training Arul Das Industries In this context, Arul Das Industries considers on-the-job training a very important factor for the production and the innovation of their production lines. Arul Das Industries interest is to control the quality of their products. One way to achieve this goal is to pay special attention to the training of their workforce. Training at Arul Das Industries is done in both ways mainly internally i.e. on-the-job training and externally i.e. is off-the-job training. The employees of Arul Das Industries who need off-the-job training are supposed to go to the central university. Our research focuses on planned/ structured On-the-job training at Arul Das Industries. Training is being
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Production leader is the responsible for the whole

tailored for the need of production. Arul Das Industries offers, in Ronneby, a mix of practical and theoretical training. Theoretical training covers include the guidelines, methods and the specific set of rules specified in the SOP. Since Arul Das Industries introduced new products; so every employee is required to get education about their specific production process. They also receive education on how to operate different types of production machines used in the production of Heat exchangers. On-the-job training in Arul Das Industries is provided bi-annually to all the employees. It is performed over 2 days (16 hours) and in special cases training can last up to 10 days (eighty hours). If employees (not sure: feel difficulties depend of the degree of complexity of machines) to learn the task or to operate the machines. There is no specified rule within the company to pick some or selected employees to take part in the training program. In fact the production leader confirms that education of employees at Arul Das Industries is rather a continuous process. Production leader mentioned that more technical job demand employees extra training. For example, pressing and cutting steel sheets and brazed sheets required much expertise than the other machines. Only the employees considered fully skilled can operate the pressing machines. The workers who are unskilled or less skilled to operate that machine work together with those who are skilled (senior workers). The Production Leader is the person who certifies employees skills.

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CHAPTER III CASE STUDY

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In this section we will analyze the two research questions of this study which we asked to the to employees at different positions in Arul Das Industries. Below is the first research question; What is the effect of On-the-job Training on employees productivity at Arul Das Industries? The intensions of the management of Arul Das Industries find ways how to improve their employees productivity at all times. The analyses show that training has its effects on the productivity of the workers in Arul Das Industries in a number of ways. Those are; on-the-job training increases productivity, but not as an increase of produced units. According to managers, productivity takes other forms that are product driven. Notably, managers focus on 1) operational efficiency, 2) low workers stress, 3) product quality, 4) maintenance reduction 5) increase in wages. In terms of (1) operational efficiency, workers in the production department must know how to operate the machines in routine and unusual production cases. Knowing the operational process is not enough. The workers are asked to operate the machines according to SOP. It demands from them to be cost effective and time efficient in the decision they take to produce the unit. To increase operational efficiency of their employees Arul Das Industries during on- the-job training sessions ensures that employees learn and understand the SOP and implement it in their real life. At Arul Das Industries for example new employees face difficulties to operate pressing machine. On-the-job training provides those employees the opportunity to
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learn how to operate pressing machines. Production leader mentioned that workers feel pain in their shoulders while picking up the Heat exchangers in wrong way from stacking machine. He told us that training session include this kind of advices that enable workers to avoid these types of physical damages. They are told techniques to pick up heat exchangers in the right way. In terms of (2) Stress level, product leader demonstrated that newly hired workers hesitates and feel pressured while working on the machines. This is mainly due to the fact that they dont know how to operate it. With the help of on-the-job training they minimize the pressure of operating the machines. In terms of (3) Improved quality, the trainer indicated that onthe-job training is an occasion for employees to improve their professional skills. This serves the production process and the unit production since quality is controlled in such a way. For example he told us that on cutting machine there are chances of wastage of steel sheets. Employees having OJT are told how to use minimum resources in a better way. In terms of (4) Reduction in maintenance, it is another form of increase in productivity of the employees of the Arul Das Industries resulted from OJT. According to the production leader they have invested a huge amount in the production department (machines). Sometimes workers mishandling of these machines may cause damage to employees and machines. He said, more training employees get the lesser the chances of damages of the operating machines.

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This also adds in the productivity of the employees and also in the proper functioning of machines. 5) In terms of (5) Increase in wages, on-the-job training also has an impact on the wages of the employees and their career policy. This can be explained with the help of table 3.1 below; Training Bonus for workers Machine Pressing Stacking Testing Scale 3 2 1 Bonus (SEK) 500 400 300

These figures are provided by Production Leader (regarding workers competence) for the sake of understanding. The production leader explained that he has a scale system developed from 1-3 to assess the competency of the employees, 1 means low, while 3 means higher competency to operate machines which are used in the production of Heat exchangers. Lets suppose if employee X is skilled enough and got scale 3 for the operation of all the machines in the production department (i.e. 5 machines in total) it means he/she will get 2,500 extra for in his/her salary which also means But if worker get lower scale than the wages will be affected accordingly.

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The second research question of this study is: How on-the-job training program is being executed in Arul Das Industries? In this section, we will discuss about training needs in Arul Das Industries. From our interviews with managers of Arul Das Industries we have found some reasons for conducting on-the-job training to their workers. These reasons are; 1) On-the-job training for new hires in Arul Das Industries, 2) Change in production function and, 3) Continuous process. Training Needs in Arul Das Industries, according to HR Manager, All the employees have a competence matrix where we register needed training and ongoing training and we have set levels for the required competence, to be decided by the manager if the employee has reached this level. If so, it will be marked on the competence matrix. According to Production leader and Project leader; workers of Arul Das Industries are take part in OJT sessions in the following ways. 1) On-the-job training for new hires in Arul Das Industries, in Arul Das Industries generally there is six months of on-the-job training for new hires. During these six months the new employed workers are educated by the Project Leader and senior workers about the all the machines used within the plant. These new hires are combined with the one of flow groups. Under the supervision of project leader and other senior employees, the
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new hires get opportunities to learn and work directly on the machines. Their work is watched by the senior employees working with them. These senior employees also report to the Production leader about the current situation of the new hires whether they need more training are they are skilled enough to work by their own. After the period of six months the Production leader assesses the performance of new hires. For this purpose newly appointed workers/workers under training are asked to perform any task specified by the Production Leader and a questionnaire is also given to the employees to get the feed back regarding the training they got. further on-the-job training. 2) Change in Production Function, the workers of Arul Das Industries are also required education if there is any change in the production function or new machinery installed in the company. The training sessions for this purpose last for 2 days (16 hours). The training is given to workers about the best and safe use of these machines (i.e. how it works and how will they operate) in this training session. If the trainer feels that any employee is facing problem to understand the functions and handling of the machine than he/she is entitled to take training for 10 days. 3) New Product, on-the-training is also needed when Arul Das Industries launches new product. New product brings new methods of manufacturing and new technologies as well. According to project leader this type of training need occurred in recent year. When they introduced a new product named Fusion-bonded Heat Exchangers in the family of Heat
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This helps production leader to assess the

competences and skills to perform his/her job or if he/she is needed

exchangers, introduced in 1997. Almost every employee has to participate in training in order to learn all new methods and techniques for the production of new product. 4) Continuous Process, in Arul Das Industries case study, all the employees is supposed to participate in the training program. The training is given to each of the worker working in different flow groups. Trainees/workers are required to learn and implement the Standard Operating Process (SOP) during their job. Once the trainees learnt the SOP they will know what their role is and how they have to perform their tasks assigned to them. Planning is done about how to initiate and implement effectively the desired OJT training program. Participation of workers/trainees is given importance in Arul Das Industries during OJT program because they have to do their routine work no doubt the training is the part of their job but it enhances the work load of employees. This trainer and production leader gets information flows going between them and the workers. This is done in order to keep workers interest in training program. Of course, it is useful to implement the training program. The project leader develops a training manual with the help of local shift production Manager. The training manual is a document that contains the step-by-step procedures involved in performing a job. It is also contains an outlines of the machines and product parameter and specifications. It also used as a reference to assist in training and also as job aid for the project leader. The plant production manager authorizes all the training material. The production manager tries to keep update this training material due to
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continuous technology and procedures changes in production processes. Before one week of OJT session all the employees are provided briefly an introduction about the training session by the trainer and tasks are discussed which will be performed during training session. In the training session trainer first tell the employees what tasks they will perform today during the training session. For this purpose a qualified trainer is appointed to train the employees during OJT sessions/programs. Currently project leader is appointed as a trainer. In the future Arul Das Industries is planning to give this responsibility to OPRs. There will be four OPRs to train the workers. All these trainers will be specialized in their specific area e.g. Mr. Z has his genera (the overall production process of Arul Das Industries) and specialized expertise for pressing machine for this first he will get training for six months at central university of Arul Das Industries i.e. in Lund and than will come to educate the workers within in the plant at Arul Das Industries. In Arul Das Industries, they are not using Kirkpatricks model of evaluation of training (as depicted in literature review). They use their own methods of evaluation for providing On-the-job training to their workers. HR manager reminds that, they evaluate on-the-job training with help of employee competence matrix. According to project leader/ trainer, he evaluates training results with the help of questionnaires. These questionnaires are given to the workers who participated in training program after the one week of the training session.

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CHAPTER IV CONCLUSIONS

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Conclusion According to the literature review there is no unique definition of the productivity phenomenon, Rather it varies from one author to another according to the kind of information they gather and the focus of their study (national level, firm level, and workers studies). For example, some authors see productivity as rise in number of units produced, others view productivity as increase in wages. In our case study interviews with managers allows us to understand that operational efficiency, low workers stress, product quality, maintenance reduction and increase in wages was the standard assessment of productivity on the manufacturing shop floor. Apart from getting acquaintance with a number of definitions of productivity, we show that productivity as a social phenomenon occurs within a specific industrial context. We have review the nature of training in India recalling the main institutions that provide the support and the legal frame in which private industries as well as public organization are dealing with the work force. In a last assessment of on-the job training program, we have selected the following five steps i.e. analysis of the training needs, planning, developing, execution and evaluation of training as an analytical framework of our study. We have searched to assess how it could be employed by private companies such as Arul Das Industries to inspire productivity in relation to a balance employee development. During the collection of information necessary to the understanding of the case study in Arul Das Industries it confirmed that the company was working continuously within the frame of the aforementioned on-the job training program.

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References Anon,(n.d.),The European Social Fund in India 2007-2013,

Available online at: http://ec.europa.eu/employment_social/esf/docs/sv_country_profile_en.pdf, (Accessed on 10 June, 2008). Arthur, W., Jr., Bennett, W., Jr., Edens, P. S., & Bell, S. T. (2003). Effectiveness of training in organizations: A meta-analysis of design and evaluation features, Journal of Applied psychology, 88, 234-245. Barron, J. M., Berger, M. C., & Black, A. D. (1997). On-the-Job training, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research. Bartel, A. P. (1995). Training, Wage Growth, and job performance: Evidence from a Company Database, Journal of Labour Economics, 13, 401-425. Bates, R. (2004). A critical analysis of evaluation practice: the Kirkpatrick model and the principle of beneficence, Evaluation and program planning, 27, 341-347. Becker, G, S., (1962). Human capital: A theoretical and empirical analysis, with special reference to education, 2nd edn, London, The University of Chicago press. Bishop, J, H. (1989). On-the-job training of new hires, Central for Advanced Human
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