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Major Themes

Different types and nature of 20th century warfare Civil o

A civil war is a war between organized groups within the same nation state or republic Or, less commonly, between two countries created from a formerly-united nation state. Guerrilla o Conflicts in which a small group of combatants including, but not limited to, armed civilians (or "irregulars") use military tactics Ex. Belgium (during the execution of Von Schleiffen Plan) Limited war, total war o Limited war: A war whose objective is of smaller scope than total defeat of the enemy. Especially one in which nuclear weapons are deliberately not used o Total war: A war where every resource including all civilian and military personnel and entire financial resources of a nation are used to get victory. World War I and World War II are considered total wars.

Material for detailed study

First World War (1914-8) Origins and causes of wars Long-term, short-term and immediate causes o Long-term Militarism Army and military forces are given a high profile by the government Arms race (between the main countries) o Caused by the growing European divide o France and Germanys armies had more than doubled o Competition between Germany and Britain for mastery of the seas Dreadnought: and effective battleship created by the British o Essentially fed on itself The more nations improved their armies, the more others were inclined to do the same Alliances An agreement made between two or more countries to give each other help if it is needed Three Emperors League o Austria Hungary, Germany and Russia Russia and Austria-Hungary have trouble with each other Fighting over the Balkans Causes Germany to have to make a choice Germany picks Austria Hungary (in secret) Closer geographically and just in general Form the Dual Alliance Russia, feeling isolated, joins France Form the Dual Entente Italy joins the Dual alliance Form the Triple Alliance o (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy) Geopolitical reasons for Italy joining the alliance o Italy is completely surrounded by Austria-Hungary and Germany Great Britain joins the Dual Entente Form the Triple Entente o (Russia, France, Great Britain) Doesnt join Germany because of conflicts in the Boer War

If Germany hadn't allied with Austria the war might've been averted. o If Germany hadn't allied with Austria the war might've been averted. For example if a conflict occurred just between Germany and Great Britain the rest of Europe would not be pulled into it. Imperialism When a country takes over new lands or countries and makes them subject to their rule Britain and France, and Germany and France had almost gone to war over clashes in North Africa Italy resented France because they prevented the setting up of Italian colonies British and Russians clashed over who should have control in Persia (modern Iran) As each European country gained colonies, those colonies became committed to helping the 'motherland' in the event of a war. Nationalism Each country tried to prove their dominance and power Franco-Prussian war o French lost Alsace and Lorraine to Germany during this war Wanted it back Led to Assassination of Franz Ferdinand Serbias desire to become its own nation o As opposed to a part of Austria-Hungary Balkan wars o Many ethnic groups of the Ottoman Empire wanted to break away and form their own nation o To prevent war, Great Powers met and formed Montenegro and Serbia (and gave Austria control of Bosnia and Herzegovina) Serbia still wanted to form a new nation, Yugoslavia, out of Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia Austria opposes o After another Balkan dispute, Serbs were not given the land they needed to form Yugoslavia War was inevitable (These raised tempers led to assassination of Ferdinand) Short-term and immediate Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria NATIONALISM Made alliances, imperialism, militarism and nationalism come into play Serbian nationalist, Gavrilo Princip (part of the Black Hand) assassinates Ferdinand

o In protest to Austria-Hungary having control of Bosnia Led to Hungary declaring war on Serbia o With Germany behind them (Blank Cheque) o When Russia began to mobilize due to its alliance with Serbia, Germany declared war on Russia Von Schlieffen Plan (2nd August 1914) MILITARISM Attacking France through Belgium if Russia made an attack on Germany o (To avoid French trenches on the border of Germany and France) Led to Britain declaring war on Germany o Since Belgium was considered a neutral state

Nature of 20th century wars Technological developments, tactics and strategies, air, land and sea o Technological developments Flame-throwers Used by Germans first against the French (1915) o Then against the British Use was not very common until the end of 1917 o Portability and reliability was improved then Chemical warfare Mustard Gas, chlorine and phosgene Extremely effective but only for a short period of time o Once gas masks were invented it was over First used against trenches o Unsuccessfully by British troops (in New Zealand wars) Early WWI gases were unreliable Tear gas o Used by French but only to disable the enemy Chlorine o First used by Germany at the Second Battle of Ypres Phosgene o 18 times more powerful than chlorine Much more difficult to detect Mustard Gas: MOST EFFECTIVE o Introduced by Germany (1917) o Not as fatal as phosgene But hard to detect and lingered on the surface of the battlefield Machine Guns Germans embraced the machine gun from the outset o Elite infantry units British and Russians also begin to use machine guns

BUT, impractical for offensive manoeuvres o Heavy machine guns required teams of up to eight men to move them, maintain them and keep them supplied with ammunition

Aircraft Mostly used for only artillery observation Used to map out trench lines o First with hand drawn diagrams, then photography Also used to monitor enemy troop movements o Tactics and Strategies French Plan 17 (1913) NATIONALISM Trench warfare o Digging a hole in the ground and hiding there from artillery o During the war, elaborate trench and dugout systems opposing each other along a front were created Offensive strategy along the Franco-German border to get Alsace and Lorraine back o German defence proved to be much better than expected Result of loss at Franco-Prussian war Von Schlieffen Plan 1904: France and Britain sign the Entente Cordiale (Friendly understanding) o Encouraged co-operation against the perceived threat of Germany Germany feared the possibility of a combined attack from France, Britain and Russia Home front: economic and social impact (including changes in the role and status of women) o HOME FRONT: to describe the internal fight within a country to better external forces fighting for the war Ex. Workers building weapons etc. in industry within the nation were considered to be fighting on the home front o Economic US Entry into the war in 1917 unleashed massive federal spending o Shifted national production from civilian to war goods Unemployment declined o Workers were drawn in to new manufacturing jobs Total war European countries channelled all of their resources into total war Britain: Defence of the Realm Act (DORA) Labour striking was made illegal o In order to keep a smooth output of produce Bank loans went up o To increase revenue

Majority of wages were lowered Rationing o Limitations were set on the import, production and distribution of foods o This led to farmer grown produce prices to skyrocket Many farmers would sell their produce to the highest bidder, meaning that the working class was the worst off

Social Clothing became uniform and utilitarian Europeans stopped dressing in fancy, elaborate costumes Labour unions The right of workers to organize was new Employers fought to keep union organizers out of their plants and armed forces were often used against striking workers o (A lot of this in Russia) Strikes and protests Reached its highest levels in history just before the war Deals were struck between unions and government to eliminate strikes o To stop strikes and become integrated in the beaurocracy In return, the government would give them more favourable working conditions/better hours Strikes stopped during the first year of the war o But was revived in 1916 Showing that social peace was already wearing thin Since workers on the home front were getting more money Soldiers were becoming demotivated Unskilled young males and junior officers paid with their lives the most o Since skilled workers were sent to work in industry, safe on the home front Women Became more of a part of society than effort Undertook a variety of jobs previously held by men o Part of clerical and secretarial work o Also employed in industrial jobs England: proportion of women work in public transport, banking and commerce rose strikingly Restrictions on women disappeared o Became acceptable for young, employed, single middle-class women to have their own apartments, go out without chaperones, and to smoke in public Government resistance to social unrest

Authoritarian regimes o Tsarist Russia depended on the threat of force Police powers were expanded to control public opinion o Britain Gave police powers wide scope Defence of the Realm Act (DORA) Authorized the public authorities to arrest and punish dissidents (=a person who opposes official policy) under martial law if necessary o France Sharp rise of strikes, mutinies and talk of negotiated peace Led to French political leaders deciding to carry out the war at the cost of internal liberty o Government cracked down on anyone suspected of supporting a compromise peace o Result of war hysteria or calculated political opportunism Censorship of newspapers and personal mail o Regularly used to prevent disclosure of military secrets

Effects and results of wars Peace settlements o Treaty of Versailles (1919) Officially ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers Required Germany to accept responsibility for causing the war Not ratified in the US War Guilt Clauses Germany was forced to disarm Make territorial concessions Pay heavy reparations to certain countries Pushes Germany into The Great Depression o Treaty of Neuilly (sur-Seine) (1919) Dealing with Bulgaria for its role as one of the Central Powers Required Bulgaria to give Western Thrace to the Entente Thereby cutting off its direct outlet to the Aegean Sea o Treaty of Saint-Germain (en-Laye) (1919) Signed between Allies and the new Republic of Austria Declared that the Austro-Hungarian Empire was to be dissolved Include war reparations to be paid by Republic of Austria

Austria could not enter into political or economic union with Germany Without the agreement of the council of the League of Nations o Treaty of Trianon (1920) Between the Allies and Hungary Hungary: One of the successor states to Austria-Hungary Regulated the status of an independent Hungarian state Defined its borders o Treaty of Sevres (1920) Peace treaty between Ottoman Empire and the Allies Never ratified, replaced by Treaty of Lausanne o Treaty of Lausanne (1923) Ended the state of war that existed between Turkey vs. Allies Defined the borders of the modern Turkish state o Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1918) Between Russia and Germany Allowing Russia to exit from WWI Provided relief to the Bolsheviks Tied up in fighting the Russian Civil War Poland: its signing caused riots, protests and end to any support for the Central powers o Locarno Treaty (1925) Developed in fear of German resentment Germans accept the loss of Alsace-Lorraine Britain and Italy guaranteed protection of Western frontiers of France and continued demilitarization of the Rhineland Britain wouldnt aid France if they attacked Germany o Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928) Renounced war as a way to resolve disputes 62 nations signed the treaty Including: US, Italy, Germany, France, Great Britain, Russia and Japan Political repercussions and territorial changes o Russian Russian Revolutions Even before the war they were facing serious social problems Widespread peasant revolts, strikes and widespread poverty and hunger on the country side Allowed the rise of Lenin Bolsheviks took Russia out of the war Seen as a capitalist struggle that required strengthening of domestic government o Socialist ideas boom Britain, France and Germany Rise in socialism to deal with Better working conditions

o o

8 hour work day Collective bargaining Wages Housing Revolution was in the air People began to express their desires for a better way of life Treaty of Versailles Vengeance, not reconciliation, was the treatys dominant tone Allies hated Germany because o Money they had to spend on the war o For starting the war o Causalities/Deaths War Guilt Clause Germany had to accept everything as their fault Reparations Payments for the cost and damage caused by the war Disarmament Reduced their army to only defensive Limited navy US Returns to isolationism Caused them to reject (Woodrow) Wilsons plan to join new international peace-keeping community o Wilsons 14 Points No more secret alliances Free navigation of all seas End to all economic barriers between countries Reduced weapon numbers Decisions regarding colonies should be impartial Germany army is to be removed from Russia (letting Russia develop) Belgium should be independent France should be allowed to recover Alsace0Lorraine All Italians are allowed to live in Italy Self-determination should be allowed for those living in Austria-Hungary Self-determination/independence should be allowed for Balkan states Turkish people should be governed by Turkish government Independent Poland should be created with access to sea

League of Nations should be set up to guarantee political and territorial independence of all states

o Hitlers rise to power Post-war economic problems o The Great Depression Internal solutions Rationing o Lessening food intake o To allocate resources lost in the war External solution Brining food in from other nations Effect on nations Germany o Economy was weakened by Post-WWI settlement (Treaty of Versailles) Inflation of the 1920s Extensive borrowing by central bank Political instability of Weimer government o German government responds by Cutting public services Use of emergency power to maintain order o Caused looking outward to extreme solutions Gave Hitler to opportunity to rise (along with political issues) Britain o Economy was weakened by Persistent economic problems in the 1920s Shipping and banking weakened by collapse in world trade o British government responds by Protecting industries (decreased trade) Resisted calls for spending on services Instead they spent on inputs into industrial sector o To try to keep people working and the industrial structure alive Unemployment Most visible sign of depression o Lines for food relief Statistical evidence of rising unemployment Radical activists called for immediate action to alleviate suffering of the people Demonstrations, Strikes, and Protests Economic conditions provoked collective actions

Collective action resulted in policy responses and political transformation Britain o Wave of strikes and protests o Severe government responses: Arresting protesters and prosecuting organizers Germany o Parties on the extreme right and left organized protests o Challenged the legitimacy of the government o Public disillusionment in government France o Mass protest of both left and right parties in Paris o Seen by many as a failed attempt to overthrow the government Elections and Political Transformations Britain o Formation of National Government based on a coalition Germany o Increasing support for radical left and right o Hitler appointed head of National Socialist Government France o Formation of a Popular Front Government Most calm response Goal is to appease the people as much as much as possible, as fast as they can Good propaganda campaign at the time to keep people calm Were all getting out of this together o Same in the US o Sought economic recovery while avoiding radical solutions By the end of it, there are three completely different governments

Second World War (1939-45) Origins and causes of wars Long-term, short-term and immediate causes o Long-term Anger and resentment in Nazi Germany Played on by Hitler during his rise to power Treaty of Versailles Terrible treatment of Germany High reparations Blamed for the war Unfair to Germany Created unsteady new boundaries

o Were forcefully redrawn in the 1930s Failure of the League of Nations Never really included everyone o Excluded Germany, US and Soviet Union No way to enforce disarmament Membership was a joke o Japan, after the League had instructed it to not allow them to trade, simply just left the League They couldnt do anything to stop them The Great Depression Intensified economic nationalism In Germany: Was the final blow to the Weimar Republic o Nazis came into power and promised national renewal o Fascists states believed public works were the answer to mass unemployment Highways, bridges, railroads were created Also marking the start of a new arms race Short-term and immediate Invasion of Poland by Germany (1939) o Outbreak of the war was triggered by this Appeasement Comes from popular opinion at the time o Regardless of whether or not it was enforced well o Chamberlain British and French policy o France might want to do something but they cant just go and invade Germany (since theyre in the League of Nations and not powerful enough) They go to Britain, who then comes up with a policy Economic, ideological, political, religious causes o Economic The Great Depression Every nation is pretty much completely dirt poor o Changes the government system If this government brought us into the Great Depression then we need a new system Change/Faith o Look to extremes Look inward or outward to assist their own population Either very socialist o Social programs are created within the country to fix their problems,

isolating themselves from the outside Become internalized and selfish You almost have to

Or outward Invade a country, take their resources and use them For example, Japan invaded Manchuria to get resources Communists and Fascists The boring average thing got us into this thing Calls for extreme action Look to commies and fascists

Hitler Ideological Anti-Communism Radical Bolsheviks seized power in Russia (1917) o Europeans and Americans feared a Communist revolution Italian and German fascism were in part a reaction to communist socialist uprisings o In conjunction with nationalist fears of the Slavic empire Imperialism Mussolini invades Albania (early 1939) o Later invades Greece and Ethiopia o Provoked little response from the League of Nations o Germany came to Mussolinis aid on a number of occasions Nationalism Extreme radical groups arise Both fascism and communism Political Fascist aggression The Axis were trying to make all the other countries revolve around them o Italy and Germany League of Nations No power to enforce anything o People werent taking the League seriously Weak o Structurally o Membership o Militarily Voting system was terrible Japan simply left the League o No one can do anything about it o Entered freely, exit freely Treaty of Versailles

Harsh treatment of Germany and unfair interpretation by Great Britain and France German point of view o Not signed by people they want to Very harsh toward Germany o Dont allow them to increase their military Allies actually violate the Treaty of Versailles o Ruhr Crisis Written by Britain and France that are able to amend it whenever they want o Germany is given no opinion or say in it

Nature of 20th century wars Technological developments, tactics and strategies, air, land and sea o Technological developments Weaponry Ships, vehicles, aircraft, artillery, rocketry, small arms, biological, chemical and atomic weapons Logistical support Vehicles necessary for transporting soldiers and supplies o Trains, trucks and aircraft Communications and Intelligence Devices used for navigation, communication and espionage Medical Surgical innovations, chemical drugs Industrial Employed at factories and production/distribution centres o Tactics and strategies Air warfare Use of bombers to destroy an enemys industry, cities and morale Most notably by British and American forces against Germany HOWEVER o Day time missions: Dangerous (getting shot down) o Night time raids: Inaccurate and largely ineffective Pearl Harbour Para troops and glider troops was first demonstrated in WWII o Airborne combat troops could be dropped behind enemy lines to seize or sabotage key positions and installations o Germans were the first to successfully employ this Battle of Flanders Naval warfare Submarines

o Sneakier way o Wolf-pack method of attack o Torpedo Aircraft Carriers o Became the main warship of a fleet o Potential of this as an offensive weapon was shown in Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour Land Warfare Tanks o Improved from WWI o Instead of being used to accompany and protect advancing troops Designed for independent offensive action o Fast, low, heavily armoured Artillery o Adaptation of artillery pieces for easy mobility o Recoilless rifle o Hand-carried rocket launches American bazooka Used especially against tanks o Anti-aircraft weapons Small arms o In general, firepower of an individual soldier in WWII was considered higher than in previous conflicts o Machine guns and semi-automatic weapons used Home front: economic and social impact (including changes in the role and status of women) o Economic Growth in industries Emphasis on food production European economy had collapsed with 70% of industrial infrastructure destroyed Germany experienced a remarkable recovery Italy came out of the war in poor economic condition but by 1950s was stable France rebounded quickly and enjoyed rapid economic growth and modernisation under the Monnet Plan UK, by contrast, was in a state of economic ruin after the war Continued to experience relative economic decline for decades to follow Soviet Union: rapid increase in production in the immediate post-war era Japan: Rapid economic growth China, following the conclusion of the civil war was essentially bankrupt o Social College enrolment increased Home ownership grew dramatically

Suburbs grew Areas outside metropolitan centres expanded Women Europe o Women worked in factories o Some even worked in air raids and supplying Did not change greatly Though during the war they had plenty jobs in industries o When the war ended they went back to being housewives (this was massively advertised) Resistance and revolutionary movements o Just war Fighting against Germany for morally ethical reasons

Effects and results of wars Attempts at collective security pre- and post-Second World War o Pre-Second World War League of Nations Structure o Vetos o Membership problems Not all nations are in it They are free to come and go o Things arent applied consistently When they can throw its weight around and be a little bully it does, but when it cant it doesnt Challenges/early actions and border disputes o Never going to cross France and Britain Successes o Socially do decent things o Distribution of technology in equal fashion Health Combated malaria o Bruce report Theyve never had a structure in Europe to help third world countries before So many calls come in for help that they have to restructure the entire system Then the Great Depression hits Failures o Ruhr Crisis Violation of the Treaty of Versailles They can bully over Greece but they cant do that when France is involved

Unemployment Already France breaking the Treaty of Versailles According to Hitler, theyve already negated the treaty Results Hyperinflation o Germany government was printing more money to get the workers not to work in France o People in Germany were able to pay off their loans o Reaches its height afterwards but Germany was trying to scramble and find its way out Because of the peaceful resistance movement Going to pay workers not to work because when they do, France wins Locarno Pact France gets to keep the land o People start viewing France differently France wants reparations and to feel safe o Stresemann officially signs over Alsace and Lorraine Draw out the borders specifically They get it for 10 years then Germany gets it back But they go to Poland (in Locarno) Promise Poland to protect their borders (from Russia) to sandwich Germany after they lose Russia as an ally Dawes Plan US finds a way to play through this to allow Germany to have some goods Kellog-Briand Pact (1920) o Everyone agrees to be nice o Brinkmanship Threatening war to go back and negotiate at the peace table o Protect each other

o Goes throughout the cold war The Great Depression Nations need to look for solutions o Internal Socialism For example, Communism o External Fascism The pride of the nation Asking from foreign nations For example, Germany gets help from US Break down of collective security o Internal: Back out, dont care about other nations o External: Take over lands Political repercussions and territorial changes o Political Germany With Hitler dead, a government was essentially non existent Military occupation was set up by the victors United Nations was officially established Unlike the League of Nations, they had the full support and leadership of the US Soviet Union and all the most significant nations of the world were members There was determination to avoid the mistakes of the interwar years which had exacerbated the Great Depression New era of international cooperation Nations were exhausted economically, militarily etc. Soviet Union and US became the two superpowers o Territorial The Tehran Conference US, Britain, Soviets o Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin Agree to focus on defeating Hitler first They know they need to know what they want the world to look like Agree that after defeating Hitler they can come back and help American with their war against Japan The Yalta Conference (US, Britain and Soviets) Move Polands boundary westward Priority: Unconditional surrender of Nazi Germany o Germany was split into four occupied zones Berlin was also split (so that no single nation had Berlin)

France was allowed to have the fourth occupation zone in Germany and Austria o Demilitarization and denazification in Germany Open up a second front to relieve some of the stress that Russia is feeling Russia agrees that they will mobilize to open up a front against Japan The Potsdam Conference Germany o Division of Germany and Austria into four occupation zones Splitting Vienna the way Berlin was split o Reversal of all German annexations after 1937 Sudetenland, Alsace-Lorraine, Austria, Poland etc.

Religion Communism Did not agree with religion Its just another classist structure Fascism Religion is another nationalistic structure But must avoid to get it to be overpowering Mussolini deals with this differently than Hitler o Mussolini creates the Vatican Gives them freedom but still keeps power However, stronger Catholics are the ones who end up turning on him o Its not as cool to be religious in Nazi Germany

Germany Hitler
Origins and nature of authoritarian and single-party states Conditions that produced authoritarian and single-party states o Failure of Weimer Republic o The Great Depression Emergence of leaders: aims, ideology, support o Aims Abolishment of Treaty of Versailles, why: Germany had tiny armed forces The Saar was under the Leagues control Rhineland was demilitarised Anschluss (union) with Austria was forbidden Germans were forced to live in Czechoslovakia (the Sudetenland) and Poland Danzig was under League of Nations control It was a constant remind to the Germans of their humiliation in WWI Expand German territory (IMPERIALISM) Determined to get Lebensraum by conquering land in eastern Europe o Lebensraum = Living space Wanted unification of all German speaking people

Connected to his belief that the Aryan race was genetically superior and destined to rule over others To defeat Communism Fascism is the opposite of communism Hitler blamed the Communists for Germanys defeat in WWI o Feared that they were trying to take over Germany Determined to destroy Communism, this meant war with Russia o Ideology Hatred of Jews Anti-democratic/Anti-republican Social Darwinist Process of survival of the fittest by natural selection should be artificially sped up by the government (For example, killing incurables and various undesirables) o Support Within the nation he was considered by many to be a gods send Got them out of the Depression Was going to lead them to a greater Germany People were increasingly becoming worried about him Other nations were taking measures to avoid getting attacked by him o Russia was just kind of screwed because they pissed him off in WWI Totalitarianism: The aim and the extent to which it was achieved o Lacked some required factors to characterize it as totalitarian Totalitarianism: the ability for a political system or society where the individual does not exist, a single party controls every aspect of life o What it did have Government ran and censored the media All forms of communication were liable to interference from the government Removes freedom of speech Enabling government to influence popular opinion via propaganda and false news messages One party only existed Hitler abolished two party democracy in Germany Passed laws to outlaw the formation of all other political parties

Establishment of authoritarian and single party states Methods: Force, legal o Hitler passed laws which outlawed the formation of political parties other than the Nazi party o Many were murdered Undesirables

Anyone who disagreed with the Nazi policies o Subjugate the Slavs (such as Poles and Russians) Use them as slave labour in service of the German Reich Form of government, (left and right-wing) ideology o Totalitarian dictatorship o Left wing Nature, extent and treatment of opposition o Nature o Extent By 1939, about 150,000 communists and social democrats had been interned in concentration camps 40,000 Germans fled the country for political reasons 12,000 convicted of treason, 40,000 imprisoned for political offences During the war 15,000 people were sentenced to death for political offences o Treatment Anyone found in opposition was killed And often times tortured Powerful secret police: Gestapo The only hope of getting rid of the Nazis was a military coup But Nazi rule held many benefits for the army o Increased men and resources o Bound it to the regime By the 1930s, the army was largely Nazified (thanks to the oath of allegiance to Hitler) Air-force had been set up after Hitler came to power o So it was extremely loyal Elites Elites had welcomed the destruction of the party system, the dismantling of the Treaty of Versailles and the mass murder of SA leaders Nazi rule had destroyed traditional places of elite opposition (such as the Reichstag and the bureaucracy) Working class Destruction of trade unions atomised the working class o Robbed them of traditional solidarity Resisters were isolated from other social groups

Domestic policies and impact Structure and organization of government and administration Political, economic, social and religious policies Role of education, the arts, the media, propaganda

Status of women, treatment of religious groups and minorities

Italy - Mussolini
Origins and nature of authoritarian and single-party states Conditions that produced authoritarian and single-party states o Industrial progress was slow o Domestic and foreign affairs were unsuccessful Leads to Italy trying to colonize They also try democracy Fail due to impudent leaders o Treaty of Versailles Italy feels cheated Didnt get the land they were promised by the League of Nations o Poor domestic policy Basically non existence o Italy needed a leader to fix these issues Mussolini Emergence of leaders: aims, ideology, support Totalitarianism: The aim and the extent to which it was achieved

Establishment of authoritarian and single party states Methods: Force, legal Form of government, (left and right-wing) ideology Nature, extent and treatment of opposition

Domestic policies and impact Structure and organization of government and administration Political, economic, social and religious policies Role of education, the arts, the media, propaganda Status of women, treatment of religious groups and minorities