Anda di halaman 1dari 49

TOPIC: Introduction to First Degree Equations and Inequalities in One Variable OBJECTIVES: 1.

Distinguish between mathematical phrases and sentences 2. Distinguish between expressions and equations 3. Distinguish between equations and inequalities WARM UP: a. Encircle the expression that expresses a complete thought. 1. x + 4 2. 4x = 12 3. 10 > x 4. 5x 8 5. 4y 0 b. Box the equation and encircle the inequality. 1. 3x + 4 10 2. 7 x = 0 3. 12x 4 20 4. 12 > x 5. 3y = 12 A mathematical sentence is a group of mathematical symbols which expresses a complete mathematical thought. A mathematical sentence whether numerical or algebraic, expresses either an equality or inequality between numbers. Equations 2x + 4 = 10, x > 4 and 4 < 10 are examples of mathematical sentences. On the other hand, 2x + 4, x 10 and 4x are examples of mathematical phrases. 2x + 4 = 10, 4 = -x +3, and 7m 1 = 3m + 5 are examples of equations in one variable. Equations are mathematical sentences which use the equality sign (=). It is a statement of equality of two algebraic expressions which have the same numerical value. Inequalities are mathematical sentences which use the relation symbols , < or > and or . Examples of these are 2 > 3x + 1, 5x - 10x x + 1 , 1 y < 0, 5x > 2 and x < -3. They are mathematical statements which state that two qualities are not equal.

EXERCISES A. Read each expression carefully. Encircle P if it is a mathematical phrase and encircle S if it is a mathematical sentence. P S P S P S P S P S 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 12 - x 4y = 24 2(x + 5) 5x > 10 3x = 0 P P P P P S S S S S 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 7x 9y + z 6y 4 =25 4x < 7y + 5 15 3x- 5y

B. Write E if the mathematical sentence is an equation and I if it is an inequality. ______ 1. 4 y 10 ______ 2. 5 + 7x = 35 ______ 3. 4y > 12 ______ 4. 4 2x ______ 5. 3x + 2 = 4x - 6 ______ 6. ______ 7. ______ 8. ______ 9. ______ 10. 3 (2x+ 6) = 15 4x x - 6 x = 5x - 12 7y + 4 = 15 6 < y <2

C. Give your own examples of the following: Mathematical Sentence 1. ___________________ 2. ___________________ 3. ___________________ 4. ___________________ 5. ___________________ Equation 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ Mathematical Phrase 1. ___________________ 2. ___________________ 3. ___________________ 4. ___________________ 5. ___________________ Inequality 1. ___________________ 2. ___________________ 3. ___________________ 4. ___________________ 5. ___________________

TOPIC: Translation of Verbal Statements into Equations and Inequalities OBJECTIVE: Translate verbal statements into mathematical sentences and vice-versa
Observe how the equality or inequality symbols are used to translate the following verbal statements into mathematical sentences. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The sum of a number and ten is fifteen. 5y is greater than or equal to 40. 6 is increased by 2 times x is equal to 24. The difference when 4 is subtracted from n is greater than 12. The product when 4 is multiplied by the sum of m and 1 is less than or equal to 20. 6. x less 5 is 15. 7. x less than 5. 8. 4x diminished by 10 is 20 x + 10 = 15 5y 40 6 + 2x = 24 n 4 > 12 4(m + 1) 20 x 5 = 15 X<5 4x 10 = 20

EXERCISES A. Translate the following verbal expressions into mathematical phrases or sentences. Use x to represent the unknown and write your answers in the space provided at the right. 1. The product of 18 and z 2. Thrice the difference of x and y 3. A number is at most 7. 4. A number is at least 25 . 5. x subtracted from 9 equals -15. 6. Twice a number decreased by 4 is 11. 7. x is decreased by two times y. 8. Twice the sum of a number and 9 9. One-third the difference of x and y 10. Thirteen more than five times a number 11. Four less than the quotient of a and b 12. A number divided by 20 13. Twice a number diminished by 24 14. Nine multiplied by the sum of a number and three is equal to 48. ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________

15. Four less than three times a number ________________ B. Translate the following mathematical phrases/statement into verbal phrases/sentences. 1. x 8 2. 12x 3. 4x - 6 4. 18 (5 - x ) 5. y 6 = 10 6. x + 12 > 20 7. 5 < x +4 8. 7x < 12 9. 10K + 12 10. 3x + 2 = 11 C. RIDDLE
What do you call the ordinal order that is not correct?

________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________

Translate the following verbal sentences into mathematical phrase. Use the DECODER to answer the riddle. 1. Three times x more than 4 equals 12. 2. Three times x is greater than 4 plus 12. 3. Three times x less than 4 equals 12. 4. Three times x is less than 4 plus 12. 5. Three times the product of x and 4 equals 12. 6. Three times the difference of x and 4 equals 12. 7. Three times the sum of x and 4 equals 12. DECODER G 3x + 4 = 12 N 3(4x) = 12 R 3x > 4 + 12 I 3(x 4) = 12 O 3x 4 = 12 K 3(x + 4) = 12 W 3x < 4 + 12 E 3(4 x) = 12

TOPIC: Solution Set of a First- Degree Equation or Inequality in One Variable From a Replacement Set

OBJECTIVES: 1. Define the solution set of a first degree equation or inequality 2. Find the solution set of simple equations and inequalities in one variable from a given replacement set Sentences which contain variables are called open number sentences, or simply open sentences. An open sentence generally becomes a statement which is either true or false when we give a value to the variable. The set of numbers which makes the open sentence true is called the solution set or root of the sentence. Sometimes the set from which the solution set is to be chosen is specified. We then call this the domain of the variable or replacement set. Study the following examples.

1. x - 6 = 4

Domain: ( 7, 8, 9, 10) Solution Set: (10) X = 10

Substituting each of the elements in the domain in the given equations results in one true sentence. 2. 4x 5 = 45 Domain: set of counting numbers Solution Set: (12) x = 12

By substitution, 12 satisfies the given equation. 3. 2x + 1 < 7 Domain: ( 3, 2, 1 0 , -1, -2 ,-3, -4, ) Solution Set: (2, 1, 0, -1, -2, -3, -4, )

In this example, the solution set has finite number of elements. Substitute each element in the solution set to test whether each satisfies the given open sentence.

EXERCISES

A. Use (-5, -4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5) as your replacement set to find the solution of the following: 1. x > 0 2. x 4 3. x + 2 = -1 4. x 3 = 5 5. 2x 1 = 1 6. 2x + 5 > 1 7. 3x 2 < 4 8. x + 2 3x 2 9. 6x 5 2x + 7 10. 8x + 3 5x + 3 ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

B. Replace the variable by each number in the given replacement set and tell whether the resulting sentence is true. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. x+7=4 3y = 18 13 = x 2 2x + 2 > 3 4x 1 < 3 3x 2 = 7 3x 8 = 2x 7 4x 2 = 2x +8 x+2=3 4 10. 2x -1 = 5 3 (3, -3) (6, 9) (11, 15) (0, 1) (2, -2) (3, 4) (1, -15) (5, 2) (12, 10) (15, 8) _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________

C. RIDDLE
What is the best way to know if a piece of jewelry is expensive?

_____ 1 _____ 5 _____ 6 _____ 7

_____ 2 _____ 8

_____ 3 _____ 9

_____ 4 _____ 10 _____ 11 _____ 12

The replacement set for the variable in each of the following sentences is {-3, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9}. Find the solution or root of each sentence. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Y+4>9 X+2=7 4m = 12 3R = 6 X+1<6 X2>5 L (4, 3, 2, 1, 0, -3) Y (7, -3) U 1 I 3 K 6 D (2, 1, 0, -3) S 2 O 9 X (4, 7) W (1,9) = ___________ = ___________ = ___________ = ___________ = ___________ = ___________ B (-3, 6) I (6, 7, 9) C No solution 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. E -3 P 4 X+9=4 w/3 = 2 X 1 = -4 N+35 9x 3 = 6 2m 4 = 4 = ___________ = ___________ = ___________ = ___________ = ___________ = ___________ T 5

TOPIC: Solution Set of Equations and Inequalities in One Variable on a Number Line

OBJECTIVE: 1. Graph the solutions of equations and inequalities on a number line At this point, let us consider a point M on the number line whose coordinate is m. Take note of the graph of the relation described in each of the following cases: (Here, x represents the solution.) 1. The coordinates of all points to the right of M are greater than m and all points to the left of M
have coordinates less than m. M m

In symbols, x = m

2.

M m

The shaded potion of the graph shows all points whose coordinates are less than m, that is, x < m. The small unshaded circle on top of m means that m is not included. 3.
M m

Here, the shaded potion of the graph represents all numbers greater than m, In symbols, x > m. 4.
M m

The shaded circle on top of m and the arrow from m to the left on the number line indicates all numbers to the left of m, including m. In symbols, x m.

5.

M m

The graph above shows all numbers to the right of m, including m. In symbols, x m.

EXERCISES A. Graph the solution set of the following equalities and inequalities. 1. x = 6

2. x > 4

3. x < 6

4. x 6

5. x -7

6. x < -4

7. x 15

8. x > -12

9. x 5

10. x 26

TOPIC: Basic Properties of Real Numbers OBJECTIVE: State / name the basic properties of real numbers PROPERTIES OF REAL NUMBERS Let a, b and c represent any real numbers (a, b, and c IR) Addition a+b=b+a (a + b) + c = a + (b + c) a+ 0 = 0 + a a + (-a) = (-a) + a Multiplication ab = b a (ab)c = a(bc) a1 = 1a If a is not zero, then a1/a = 1 = 1/aa

Commutative Associative Identity Inverse

Distributive Property of Multiplication over Addition A(b + c) = ab + ac and (b + c)a = ba + ca EXERCISES A. Name the property that justifies each of the following statements. 1. 5 1 = 5 _______________________________________________ 2. 7 + (-7) = 0 _______________________________________________ 3. 6 + 0 = 6 _______________________________________________ 4. (3 + 2)5 = 35 + 25 _______________________________________________ 5. X + y = y + x _______________________________________________ 6. 5 + (x + y) = (5 + x) + y _______________________________________________ 7. 2a + 2b = 2(a + b) _______________________________________________ 8. (x + y) + z = x + (y + z) _______________________________________________ 9. 2 = 1 _______________________________________________ 10. Y + 5 = 5 + y _______________________________________________

B. Use the indicated property to write an expression that is equivalent to each of the following expressions

1. 8 7 2. 9 + 6 3. 3(5 +4) 4. (84) + (5 + 7) 5. (5 + x) + 3 6. (8 + x)4 7. (75)6 8. X + (2 + 14) 9. 47 + 46 10. [(m + p) + r] + s

(commutative property) (commutative property) (distributive property) (commutative property) (associative property) (distributive property) (associative property) (commutative property) (distributive property) (associative property)

________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________

C. SHARPEN YOUR SKILL Complete the equations below to illustrate exactly one of the properties. Give the name of the property used. 1. 3 (5 + 7) = ________ + ____ ____ __________________________ __________________________

2. 9 + ________ = 9

3. 15 + ________ = 0 4. 8 ________ = 1

__________________________ __________________________

5. 15 + 7 = ________ + ________ 6. ________ 8 = 9 ________

__________________________ __________________________

7. (3 6 ) 4 = ________(________________) 8. 8 + ________ = 12 + ________ TOPIC: Properties of Equalities OBJECTIVE:

__________________________ __________________________

State and illustrate the different properties of equality. PROPERTIES OF EQUALITY For any numbers a, b, c a=a If a = b, then b = a. If a = b, and b = c then a = c. If a = b, then a may be replaced by b. If a =b, then a + c = b + c If a =b, then a - c = b - c If a =b, then a c = b c If a =b and if c is not zero, a/c = b/c

Reflexive Symmetric Transitive Substitution Addition Subtraction Multiplication Division

: : : : : : : :

EXERCISES A. Apply the properties of equality on the following: 1. 5 = 5 , add 4 __________________________________ 2. 9 = 9 , subtract 7 __________________________________ 3. 6 = 6 , multiply 6 __________________________________ 4. 10 = 10 , add 12 __________________________________ 5. 4 = 4 , divided by 20 __________________________________ 6. 18 = 18 , subtract 17 __________________________________ 7. 95 = 95 , add 45 __________________________________ 8. 80 = 80 , multiply by 5 __________________________________ 9. 90 = 90 , divide by 10 __________________________________ 10. 35 = 35 , subtract by 15 __________________________________ B. Fill in the blank with the correct expression to make the statement true. 1. 18 = _____________ Reflexive Property 2. If 5 + 3 = 8 then 8 = ______________ Symmetric Property 3. If 9 + 6 = 15 then 9 + 6 + 4 = 15 + ____________________ Addition Property 4. If2 + 3 = 5 and 5 = 4 + 1 then _____________________ Transitive Property 5. If 4 5 = 20 then ___________________ = 4 5 Symmetric Property 6. If 10 + 3 = 13 then 10 +3 - __________ = 13 5 Subtraction Property 7. If 2 3 = 6 1 then (2 3)5 = (6 1) ____________ Multiplication Property 8. If 5 6 = 3 10 then 5 6 = 3 10 Division Property 2 ___ 9. ______________ = -1/4 Reflexive Property

10. If ______________ = 9 then 9 = 5 + 4 11. C. RIDDLE

Symmetric Property

What is the speed of the fastest space craft?

Cross out the boxes that illustrate the properties of equality. The numbers in the remaining boxes contain the answer. _____ 6 2 + 3 = 2 + 9-3) 4 65=65 9 79=79 _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ mph 0 2(-1/2) = 2(1/2) 0 6 (6) = 6 (6) 3 8 + 3 = 8 + (-3) 5 6 + (-2) = 6 + (-2) 8 3+6=3+9 0 (6 + 5)2 = (6 + 5) 2

1 3+5=3+5 7 (2) = (2) 0 3 (-2) = 3 (-2)

TOPIC: Solving First-Degree Equations in One Variable OBJECTIVES: 1. Solve first degree equations in one variable 2. Apply the properties of equality in solving first-degree equations involving one variable
Warm-up: A. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate integers. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. ___ + 4 = 5 ___ - 6 = 2 ___ + 6 = -2 7 - ___ = 10 9 + ___ = 5

B. Warm-up: Solve for the variable. 6. 7. 8. 9. 8k = 24 33 = -3b -4p = -36

d 7 5
x 5 2

10.

PROPERTIES OF EQUALITIES 1. Addition Property of Equality (APE) Given the numbers a, b and c, if a = b, then a + c = b + c. 2. Multiplication Property of Equality (MPE) Given the numbers a, b and c, if a = b, then ac = b c. 3. The Equivalence Relation Given the numbers a, b, and c Reflexive Property a=a Symmetric Property if a = b then b = a Transitive Property if a = b and b = c, then a = c.

The solution of a simple equation is facilitated by the use of certain properties of equalities. Study the examples below. 1. Solve for x in the equation x + 2 = 8 Solution : x+2=8 x + 2 + (-2) = 8 + (-2) x +[ 2 + (-2)] = 8 + (-2) x + [2 + (-2)] = 8 2 x+0=6 x=6

Given equation Add -2 to both sides, or APE Associative Property Definition of Subtraction Additive inverse Additive Identity

2. Solve for x in the equation 2x = 16 Solution : 2x = 16 (2x) = (16) (1/2 2)x = 8

Given equation Multiply both sides by 1/2, or MPE Associative Property

1x=8 Multiplicative Inverse x=8 Multiplicative Identity 3. Solve for x in the equation x 6 = 9 Solution : x6=9 Given equation x6+6=9+6 Add 6 to both sides, or APE x = 15 Simplify 4. Solve for x in the equation x = 3 2 Solution: 2x=32 2 x= 6 EXERCISES A. Solve the following equations and check the solutions. 1. x 13 = 8 2. x -15 = 25 3. x 9 = 37 4. x 12 = 43 5. x 16 = 52 6. x + 23 = 84 7. x + 14 = 93 8. x + 19 = 57 9. x + 29 = -29 10. x + 27 = 75 B. Solve for the value of each variable in set of real numbers. 1. 9x = 108 2. 3y = 45 3. 7m = 56 4. 3x = 114 5. 8t = 144 6. x/4 = 6 7. y/3 = 9 8. m/6 = -7 9. 3x/4 = 12 10. 2y/3 = 16

Multiply both sides of the equation by 2 Simplify

TOPIC: Solving Other types of First Degree Equations OBJECTIVES: 1. Solve equations using the properties of equality 2. Solve equations containing parentheses An equation is said to have been solved if the value of the unknown quantity is such that when substituted for it, the two members of the equation will be equal. The following are other types of equations in one variable that are solved using the properties of real numbers and properties of equality. EXAMPLES 1. Solve the equation 5x 13 = 37 Solution: 5x 13 = 37 5x 13 + 13 = 37 + 13 5x = 50 5x = 50 5 5 X = 10 Check: 5(10) 13 = 37 50 -13 = 37 37 = 37 2. Solve: 4x -8 = x + 19 Solution: 4x -8 = x + 19 4x -8 + 8 = x + 19 + 8 4x = x + 27 4x x = x x + 27 3x = 27 3x = 27 3 3 X=9 Check: 4 (9) 8 = 9 + 19 36 8 = 28 28 = 28 3. Solve 2(x 4) = 10 + 5x Solution: 2(x 4) = 10 + 5x 2x 8 = 10 + 5x 2x 8 + 8 = 10 + 8 + 5x

Addition Property of equality Division Property of equality

Addition Property of Equality Subtraction Property of Equality Division Property of equality

DPMA Addition Property of Equality

2x = 18 + 5x 2x 5x = 18 + 5x 5x -3x = 18 -3x = 18 -3 -3 x = -6 Check: 2 (-6 4) = 10 + 5 (-6) 2(-10) = 10 30 -20 = -20

Subtraction Property of Equality Division Property of equality

EXERCISES: A. Solve for the following equations. Check your answer. 1. 4x + 3 = 27 2. 4x 8 = 2 3. 2x + 3 = 7 4. 5x 4 = -14 5. -3x + 7 = -14 B. Solve for the value of the variables and check. 1. 9x = 15 + 4x 2. 5x 3 = 7 + 4x 3. 5 ( x + 2) 3(x + 3) = 15 4. 7x 3 = 5x + 9 5. 4x 5 = 11 8

TOPIC: Solving First Degree Inequalities in One Variable by Applying the Properties of Inequality OBJECTIVES: 1. State the properties of inequalities 2. Determine the solution set of first degree inequalities in one variable by applying the properties of inequality

PROPERTIES OF INEQUALITIES 1. Addition Property of Inequality (API) Given the numbers a, b and c. If a < b, then a +c < b + c; if a > b, then a +c > b + c 2. Multiplication Property of Inequality (MPI) Given the numbers a, b and c. If a > b, then ac > bc, for every positive number c. If a > b, then a c < bc, for every negative number c. If a < b, then ac < bc for every positive number c. If a < b, then ac > bc, for every negative number c. 3. Trichotomy Property Given the number x. If x = 0, then x is not positive and x is not negative. If x > 0, then x = 0 and x is not negative. If x < 0, then x = 0 and x is not positive. 4. Transitive Property of Inequality Given the numbers a, b, and c. If a < b and b <c, the a < c.

EXAMPLES: 1. Solve the inequality x 2 > 6 Solution: x2>6 x2+2>6+2 x>8 2. Solve the inequality -3x < 12 Solution: -3x < 12 -1 (-3x) > -1 (12) 3 3 x> -4 3. Solve the inequality x 7 6 Solution: x7 6 6 x 6 (7) 6 X 42

add 2 to both sides of the inequality

MPI

multiply both sides of the inequality by 6

4. Solve the inequality 3 7x 4x 30 3 7x 4x 30 3 + ( 7x) 4x + ( 30) 3 + ( 7x + -4x) 4x + (-4x) + ( 30) 3 + ( 11x) 0 + ( 30) 3 +(-3) + ( 11x) ( 30) + (-3) 0 + ( 11x) ( 33) (-11x) (-33) -1 (-11x) -1 (-33) 11 11 X3

Given Definition of Subtraction API Additive Inverse Additive Inverse Additive Inverse Additive Identity MPI Multiplicative Identity

EXERCISES A. Solve each inequality. 1. 5x > 30 2. x + 5 < 7 3. x + 7 < 1 4. x 4 8 5. -8 + x > 4 B. Solve the inequality. 1. 7x + 3 < 6x + 5 2. 5x 3 < 7 2 3. 2x + 5 x 1 4. 10 2x x -2 5. 2(x 5) > 3 + x C. CHALLENGE 1. The sum of two consecutive integers is less than 35. What is the greatest possible pair? 2. The difference between two integers is less than 96. The larger number is 245. Find the smallest value of the other integer. 3. What number should be added to 11 to get a sum of at least 26?

4. Find two consecutive positive odd numbers whose sum is at most 60. 5. Find three positive integers such that 12 greater than five times the integer is greater than 7.

TOPIC: Cartesian Coordinate Plane OBJECTIVE: 1. Describe the Cartesian Coordinate Plane, 2. Given a point on the coordinate plane, give its coordinate. A coordinate plane is a plane figure consists of two perpendicular number lines. The horizontal number line is called the x-axis. The vertical number line is called the y-axis. The intersection point of two number lines s called the origin at (0,0). Each point on the coordinate plane has two coordinates (x,y). The first number in the ordered pair is the x-coordinate or the abscissa. The second number is the y-coordinate or the ordinate. We can count the number of units a point is to the left or right of the y-axis and the number of units up or down from the x-axis to find the coordinates of a point. EXAMPLE: Using the graph below, find the coordinates of the following points.

1. 2. 3. 4.

M A T H

1. Point M on the graph has coordinates (3,3) which means it is located 3 units to the right of the y-axis and 3 units above the x-axis. 2. Point A on the graph has coordinates (-3,4) which means it is located 3 units to the left of the y-axis and 4 units above the x-axis.

3. Point T on the graph has coordinates (-3,-3) which means it is located 3 units to the left of the y-axis and 3 units below the x-axis. 4. Point H on the graph has coordinates (3,-4) which means it is located 3 units to the right of the y-axis and 4 units below the x-axis.

EXERCISES Give the coordinates of the following points. 1. Point A ________ 2. Point B ________ 3. Point C ________ 4. Point D ________ 5. Point E ________ 6. Point F ________ 7. Point G ________ 8. Point H ________ 9. Point I ________ 10. Point J ________
1

TOPIC 5.2 Plotting of Points

OBJECTIVE: Given a pair of coordinates, plot the points. If points in a coordinate plane can be named, points can also be plotted in the plane given their coordinates. In an ordered pair (x,y), the x-coordinate tells how far a point is to the right or left of the origin and the y-coordinate tells how far a point is above or below the origin. To plot a given point given its coordinates, 1. From the origin, count the number of x-units. go to the right if the abscissa is (+). go to the left if the abscissa is (-). 2. From this point on the x-axis, count the number of y-units. go upward if the ordinate is (+). Go downward if the ordinate is (-). EXAMPLE Graph the following points in a coordinate plane.

1. 2. 3. 4.

M(5,6) A(-6,-4) T(4,-5) H(-4,3)

SOLUTION 1. For M(5,6) Start at the origin. Move 5 units to the right, then move 6 units up. 2. For A(-6,-4) units down. Start at the origin. Move 6 units to the left, then move 4

3. For T(4,-5) Start at the origin. Move 4 units to the right, then move 5 units down. 4. For H(-4,3) Start at the origin. Move 4 units to the left, then move 3 units up.

EXERCISES

1. Point A(6,4) 2. Point B(3,6) 3. Point C(-5,-4) 4. Point D(-5,2) 5. Point E(1,-6) 6. Point F(5,3) 7. Point G(-6,-2) 8. Point H(3,-5) 9. Point I(-4,-4) 10. Point J(-1,6)

TOPIC 5.2.1 Points in a Quadrant

OBJECTIVE: Given the coordinates of a point, determine the quadrant s or axes where the point is located. The coordinate plane is divided into four quadrants. The quadrants are numbered counterclockwise starting at the upper right. The axes are not a part of any quadrant. A point on the x-axis or y-axis is not in a quadrant since it is on the boundary between quadrants.

EXAMPLES: In which quadrant is each point located? 1. A (3,-12) 2. B (8,6) 3. C (-3,-15) 4. D (-11, 10) answer: Quadrant IV answer: Quadrant I answer: Quadrant III answer: Quadrant II

EXERCISES Without plotting the points, determine the quadrants or axes which each point can be found. 1. (4,7) 2. (8,-2) 3. (10,-1) 4. (-15,9) 5. x= -8 6. (-7,6) 7. (-9,-5) 8. y=12 9. (-3,-3) 10. x= 0 __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________

TOPIC 5.3 Linear Equations in Two Variables

OBJECTIVES 1. Define a linear equation in two variables. 2. Construct a table of values for x and y given a linear equation in two variables.

A linear equation in two variables has the standard form Ax +By = C where A,B and C are real numbers and both A and B are not equal to zero. The exponent on each variable must be equal to 1. Also, we cannot have a term which contains the product or quotient of the two variables. EXAMPLES: 1. 2. 3. 4. 3x + y =2 y= x +1 x2 + y = 7 xy + x = -3 a linear equation in two variables in standard form a linear equation in two variables not in standard form not a linear equation in two variables not a linear equation in two variables

Suppose we are asked to construct a table of the linear equation y= x+1, we can choose convenient values of x or a replacement set. Let x = 0, 1 and 2 If x=0, If If x=1, x=2, Solving for y, we have : y= 0+1 = 1 therefore, (0,1) y=1+1 =2 therefore, (1,2) y=2+1 =3 therefore,(2,3)

So, the table of values for x and y are

x y

0 1

1 2

2 3

EXERCISES A. Complete the ordered pairs using the given equations. 1. y= x + 10 2. x= 2y + 1 3. y + 5 = x 4. x + 2y = 0 5. y = -3x 6. y = 3x 6 7. 3x 4y =12 8. -3x + y = 4 9. 3x + 5y = 15 10. 2x 5y = 10 (0,__), (__,0), (-2,__) (0,__), (__,0), (3,__) (0,__), (__,0), (6,__) (0,__), (4,__), (__,-3) (-2,__), (0,__), (__,-6) (0,__), (__,0), (3,__) (0,__), (__,0), (8,__) (1,__), (0,__), (-2,__) (0,__), (10,__),(__,0) (0,__), (10,__), (__,0)

B. Construct a table of ordered pairs. Use { -2, -1, 0, 1, 2} as values for x. 1. y = -x x y

2. y = 3x + 2 X y

TOPIC 5.3.1 Graphs of Linear Equations in Two Variables Based on Table of Ordered Pairs OBJECTIVE Draw the graph of Ax + By = C based on a table of values for x and y. The graph of a linear equation Ax + By = C is the set of all points (x,y) that satisfies the linear equation in x and y. Steps in constructing the graph of linear equations: 1. Assign values of x and compute the corresponding values of y. 2. Set up a table values to obtain ordered pairs (x,y). 3. Plot the points in the coordinate plane and connect these points with a straight line.

EXAMPLE: Given a table of ordered pairs, construct the graph of y = 8 3x.

x y

-2

-1

0 8

1 5

2 2

14 11

EXERCISES: Draw the graph of the given tables below: 1. x y 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

2. x y -4 -2 0 0 2 4 2 6 4 8

3.

x y

-2 -1 0 2 1 0

1 2 -1 -2

4.

x y

-2 -1 0 -3 -1 1

1 3

2 5

5. x y -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 3 7 6 5 4

TOPIC 5.3.2 Properties of Graphs of Linear Equations OBJECTIVE Determine the different properties of the graphs of a linear equation Ax + By = C. The x-intercept of a line is the coordinate of the point where the line intersects the xaxis. The y-intercept of a line is the coordinate of the point where the line intersects the y-axis. If the graph of a linear equation trends to the right, then it is increasing and it has a positive slope. If the graph trends to the left, then it is decreasing and it has a negative slope. EXAMPLES: Given the graphs below, determine the x- and y- intercepts, trend (increasing or decreasing) and the slope ( positive or negative). 1. a. x intercept: b. y-intercept: c. trend: d. slope: (-3,0) (0,2) increasing positive

2. a. x-intercept: b. y-intercept: c. trend: d.slope:

(-3,0) (0,-1) decreasing negative

EXERCISES: A. Determine the x-and y-intercepts, trend (increasing or decreasing) and the slope (positive or negative).

1.

a. b. c. d. 2.

X-intercept: __________________ Y-intercept:__________________ Trend:_______________________ Slope:_______________________

a. b. c. d.

X-intercept: __________________ Y-intercept:__________________ Trend:_______________________ Slope:_______________________

3.

a. b. c. d.

X-intercept: __________________ Y-intercept:__________________ Trend:_______________________ Slope:_______________________

4.

a . X-intercept: __________________ b. Y-intercept:__________________ c. Trend:_______________________ d. Slope:_______________________

B. Determine the x-and y-intercepts, trend (increasing or decreasing) and the slope (positive or negative).

1.

a. X-intercept: __________________ b. Y-intercept:__________________ c. Trend:_______________________ d. Slope:_______________________ 2.

a. b. c. d.

X-intercept: __________________ Y-intercept:__________________ Trend:_______________________ Slope:_______________________

3.

a. b. c. d.

X-intercept: __________________ Y-intercept:__________________ Trend:_______________________ Slope:_______________________

4.

a . X-intercept: __________________ b. Y-intercept:__________________ c. Trend:_______________________ d. Slope:_______________________

TOPIC 5.3.3 Characteristics of the Graph of a Linear Equation

OBJECTIVE Give the characteristics of the graph of a linear equation using the given linear equation. Given the equation 2x + 5y = 10, determine the x-intercept, y-intercept, the slope, and the trend.

To find the x-intercept of the graph of an equation, we must let y = 0, then solve for the value of x.

2x + 5y = 10 2x + 5(0) = 10 2x + 0 = 10 (1/2)2x = 10(1/2) X=5

therefore, x-intercept is (5,0)

To find the y-intercept of the graph of an equation, let x = 0, then solve for the value of y.

2x + 5y =10 2(0) + 5y = 10 0 + 5y = 10 (1/5)5y = 10(1/5) Y =2

therefore, y-intercept is (0,2)

To find the slope, transform the equation in the form y = mx + b where m is the slope.

2x + 5y = 10 -2x + 2x + 5y = -2x + 10 (1/5)5y = (-2x + 10)1/5 y = -2/5x + 2

therefore, since the slope is -2/5, the trend is decreasing.

EXERCISES: A. Given the following equations, determine the x-intercept, y-intercept, slope and the trend. x-intercept _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ y-intercept __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ slope _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ trend ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________

1. X + 5y = 15 2. 3x + y = 12 3. 4x + 3y = 24 4. 5x 3y = 45 5. -7x + 2y = 28 6. 9x + 3y = -18 7. -6x + 8y = 12 8. 10x 3y = -20 9. 15x + 12y =30 10. 11x 10y = 22

B. Determine the x-intercept, y-intercept, slope and the trend of the following equations. x-intercept _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ y-intercept __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ slope _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ trend ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________

11. 5x + 9y=45 12. 8x+ 3y=-48 13. -12x+7y=28 14. 8x+12y=-24 15. 15x-10y=30 16. -9x+4y=-72 17. 4x+ 5y=5 18. 3x-2y =12 19. 2x + 3y= 4 20. 5x-4y = 2

TOPIC 5.3.4 Slope of a Line

OBJECTIVE Find the slope of the line that passes through the given points.

A straight line may be determined by means of two distinct points. But a line can be drawn also using one point of the line and its slope. The slope of the line is the steepness of the line and is described as the ratio between the change in y and the change in x.

If P1( x1, y1) and P2 (x2,y2) are any two distinct points on a line, then the slope m of the line is given by m = y1 y2 X1 x2 (rise) , where x1 x2 (run)

EXAMPLE 1: Find the slope of the line that passes through (2,3) and (6,5). Solution: Let P1(x1,y1) = (2,3) and P2(x2,y2) = (6,5) Therefore; m= y1-y2 = (3-5) = -2 or 1 x1-x2 (2-6) m= 1 2 -4 2

EXAMPLE2. Find the slope of the line that passes through (3,5) and (5,2). SOLUTION: Let P1(x1,y1) = (3,5) and P2(x2,y2) = (5,2) Therefore; m= y1-y2 = (5-2) = 3 or -3 x1-x2 (3-5) m= -3 2 -2 2

Lines with a positive slope rise to the right. The larger the slope, the steeper the line rises. Lines with a negative slope fall to the right. Vertical lines which have equations of the form x = k, have undefined slope. Horizontal lines which have equations of the form y = k, have a slope of zero.

EXERCISES: A. Find the slope of the line that passes through the given points. ______________ 1. (2,6) and (3,9) ______________ 2. ______________ 3. (-1,-3) and (7,3) (4,8) and (5,8)

______________ 4. ( -6,1) and (-6,-6) ______________ 5. (0,0) and (1,3)

______________ 6. ( 0,0) and (-1, 3) ______________ 7. (-2,3) and (3,3) ______________ 8. ( -4,2) and (3,3) ______________ 9. (-2,1) and (6,4) _______________ 10. (-4,-2) and (6,4)

B. Solve the following problems:

1. Find the slope of the line that contains the points (1,2) and (4,5).

2. Find the slope of the line that passes through the points (-3,1) and (-2,-4).

3. Find the slope of the line with the following points (5,0) and (0,-4).

4. A line passes through points (4,-5) and (9,-3). Find the slope of the line.

5. Find the slope of the line through the points (4,6) and (0,4).

TOPIC 5.4

Rewriting Ax + By = C in the Form y = ax + b and Vice Versa

OBJECTIVE Rewrite a linear equation Ax + By = C in the form y = ax + b and vice versa A linear equation in two variables x and y is an equation of the form Ax + By = C where A, B, and C are real numbers and both A and B are not equal to zero. In this equation, the highest exponent of both variables x and y is 1. Hence, the linear equation is also known as the equation of the first degree. A linear equation Ax + By = C can be written in the form y = ax + b. EXAMPLE 1: Write x 3y = -6 in the form y = ax + b. SOLUTION: x - 3y = -6 x - x -3y = -6-x 0 -3y = -6-x (-1/3)-3y = -1/3(-6-x) Y=2+x y = x+ 2 Given Subtract x from each side Multiply -1/3 to each side Rearrange 2 + x

EXAMPLE 2: Write y 1 = x in the form Ax + By = C SOLUTION: y1=x y -1 +1 = x +1 y = x+ 1 y+(-x) = x+(-x) +1 y + (-x) = 1 -x + y = 1 Given Addition Property of Equality Add x to both sides Rearrange y + -x

EXERCISES: A. Transform Ax + By = C in the form of y = ax + b and vice versa. 1. 3x + 4y = 10

2. 2x 5y = 6

3. 5x + 7y = -8

4. -4x + 3y = 9

5. -2x + 3y = -7

6. y = 5x 3

7. 2y = -4x + 5

8. -3y = 8x + 2

9. -2y = -7x + 9

10. -9y = 2x 15

B. Rewrite Ax + By = C in the form y = ax + b and vice versa.

1. 10x + 7y = 9

2. 15x 12y = 24

3. 1/2x + 5y = 3

4. 4x 3/4y = 5

5. 5/6x + 1/3y = 9

6. y = 13x 9

7. y = -18x + 15

8. y = 5x/6 + 8

9. y = 3x +

10. y = 2x + 10

5.4.1 Obtaining the Equation of the Line

OBJECTIVE Obtain the equation of the line given the following from its graph; a. two points, b. slope and one point, and c. slope and y-intercept

1. Determine an equation of the line that passes through the points (1,3) and (-2,5). a. Get the slope using the formula m= y1-y2 = (3-5) = x1-x2 (1- (-2)) -2 3

b. Determine the value of b by replacing the formula y = mx + b, by the obtained slope and one of the given points. If point (1,3) y = mx + b 3 = -2/3(1) + b 2/3 +3 = -2/3 + 2/3 + b 3 2/3 or 11/3 = b If point (-2,5) y = mx + b 5= -2/3(-2) + b -(4/3) + 5= 4/3 +(-4/3) + b 11/3= b

Note: You may use either of the points and will arrive at the same value of b as shown above. c. Substitute the obtained value of slope and b in the equation y = mx + b and transform it in Ax + By = C

y = mx + b y = -2/3x + 11/3 2/5x +y = -2/5x +2/5x +11/3 [2/5x +y = 11/3] 15 3(2x) + y = 5(11) Multiply the equation by its LCD to get the standard form. 6x + y = 55

2. Determine an equation of the line that passes through point (3,2) and has a slope of 3 . 4 a. Find the value of b by replacing the slope and the given point in the equation y = mx + b y = mx + b 2 = 3 (3) + b 4 2=9+b 4 (-9) + 2 = 9 + (-9) + b 4 4 4 -1 = b 4 b. Substitute the slope and the obtained value of b in the equation y = mx + b and transform it in standard form. y = mx + b y = 3x 1 4 4 (-3x) + y = 3x + (-3x) 1 4 4 4 4 -3x + y = -1 4 4 [ -3x + y = -1 ] 4 4 4 [ -3x + 4y = -1] -1 3x 4y =1 c. Determine equation of the line with slope of -2 and y-intercept equal to 5 or (0,5). Note that the y-intercept is also the value of b. Substitute the slope with y-intercept in the equation y = mx + b and transform it in standard form. y = mx + b y = -2x + 5 2x + y = -2x +2x +5 2x + y = 5

EXERCISES: A. Determine the equation of the line that satisfies the given requirements. Write the equation in standard form Ax + By = C. 1. m = 3, y-intercept = -5 2. m =-2, y- intercept = 7 3. m= 1, y- intercept =8 4 4. m = -3, y intercept = 10 5 5. m = 5, and passes through the point (2,5) 6. m = -2, and passes through the point (-3,4) 7. m = 3, and passes through the point (-2,6) 4 8. m = 4, passes through the point (1,4) 5 9. Passes through the points (1,5) and (-3,9) 10. Passes through the points (-2,-3) and (-1,3)

B. Determine the equation of the line that satisfies the given requirements. Write the equation in standard form Ax + By = C. 1. Passes through the points (8,3) and (5,2) 2. Passes through the points (9,-2) and (4,3) 3. Passes through the points (7,5) and (-3,-1) 4. Passes through the points (-2,-3) and ( -1, 3) 5. m = 6, y-intercept = 2 3