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UNIVERSITATEA SPIRU HARET FACULTATEA DE LITERE Specializarea: Romn-Englez FORMA DE NVMNT: ZI ANUL III-GRUPA 301

Portofoliu Opional Gramatica aplicat n traduceri

Student,

Ghi C. Georgiana (Rdu)

Lector univ. dr. Irina Dubsky

I A. Google translate saver or killer?


Nowadays,with the desire to save more of our time,we often prefer to call the Internet and, as we all know, the most popular search engine of all, preferred by the majority, is Google with all of the applications it owns. We may sometimes think that Google Translate application can save us at any time if we are in difficulty when translating a text. We must always consider the type of text that we want to translate with this application, because the translation of a nonliterary text differs from that of a literary text that leaves much room for interpretation. What is Google Translate? Google Translate is a free translation service that provides instant translations between 58 different languages. It can translate words, sentences and web pages between any combination of our supported languages. Google Translate hopes to make information universally accessible and useful, regardless of the language in which its written. How does it work? When Google Translate generates a translation, it looks for patterns in hundreds of millions of documents to help decide on the best translation for you. By detecting patterns in documents that have already been translated by human translators, Google Translate can make intelligent guesses as to what an appropriate translation should be. This process of seeking patterns in large amounts of text is called "statistical machine translation". Since the translations are generated by machines, not all translation will be perfect. The more human-translated documents that Google Translate can analyse in a specific language, the better the translation quality will be. This is why translation accuracy will sometimes vary across languages. Google Translate tests other languages, called "alpha languages", that may have lessreliable translation quality than our supported languages. Its always working to support other languages and will introduce them as soon as the translation quality meets our standards.

Features and limitations The service limits the number of paragraphs, or range of technical terms, that will be translated. It is also possible to enter searches in a source language that are first translated to a destination language allowing you to browse and interpret results from the selected destination language in the source language. For some languages, users are asked for alternate translations such as for technical terms, to be included for future updates to the translation process. Text in a foreign language can be typed, and if "Detect Language" is selected, it will not only detect the language but also translate it into English by default. Google Translate, like other automatic translation tools, has its limitations. While it can help the reader to understand the general content of a foreign language text, it does not always deliver accurate translations. Some languages produce better results than others. Google Translate performs well especially when English is the target language and the source language is one of the languages of the European Union. Results of analyses were reported in 2010, showing that French to English translation is very accurate, and 2011 and 2012 showing that Italian to English translation is very accurate as well . However, rule-based machine translations perform better if the text to be translated is shorter; this effect is particularly evident in Chinese to English translations. Texts written in the Greek, Devanagari, Cyrillic and Arabic scripts can be transliterated automatically from phonetic equivalents written in the Latin alphabet.

Translation methodology Google Translate does not apply grammatical rules, since its algorithms are based on statistical analysis rather than traditional rule-based analysis. Indeed, the system's original creator, Franz Josef Och, has criticized the effectiveness of rule-based algorithms in favor of empirical approaches. It is based on a method called statistical machine translation, and more specifically, on research by Och who won the DARPA contest for speed machine translation in 2003. He is now the head of Google's machine translation group. Google does not translate from one language to another (L1 L2), but often translates first to English and then to the target language (L1 EN L2). However, because English, like all human languages, is ambiguous and depends on context, this can cause translation errors. Overlooking the grammar of the language can cause mistakes. For example, consider the following sentence: Tu ai scris o scrisoare pentru familia Dariei. .. Based on the word order, Google translates: You wrote a letter to family Daria. Based on declensions (word functions), it means: [it's] Daria's family [that] writes you a letter,
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exactly the opposite.. Google took you for to you, Daria for of Daria as well as to the family for the family. That's correct because Google understood the English words order. Respecting the same word order as in English or publishing in English as above may help. According to Och, a solid base for developing a usable statistical machine translation system for a new pair of languages from scratch, would consist in having a bilingual text corpus (or parallel collection) of more than a million words and two monolingual corpora of each more than a billion words. Statistical models from this data are then used to translate between those languages. To acquire this huge amount of linguistic data, Google used United Nations documents. The UN typically publishes documents in all six official UN languages, which has produced a very large 6-language corpus. Google representatives have been involved with domestic conferences in Japan where it has solicited bilingual data from researchers.

Translation mistakes and oddities Because Google Translate uses statistical matching to translate rather than a dictionary/grammar rules approach, translated text can often include apparently nonsensical and obvious errors, often swapping common terms for similar but nonequivalent common terms in the other language, as well as inverting sentence meaning.

Conclusions To conclude,Google Translate can seem to save us for the moment, but we must take into account that it can make mistakes and then we must consider the consultation of reliable sources of information to make sure that what we write is really correctly. When Google translate can turn into a killer, the only thing we have to do is to browse a book that will help us enlighten besides notions and strengthen our knowledge.

References
http://translate.google.com 4

http://support.google.com

I B. Translation now and then


Introduction Basically, majority of scholars of translation and translators believe translating literary works is more difficult than translating other types of texts. Some scholars contended that this is because of the fact that literary texts or works contain specific words and structures. These structures bring specific values to literary texts which make their translations very difficult. The traditional discussion of the problems about literary translation regards searching for proper equivalents for lexical items and syntactic structures. However, recent studies pay much attention to some other features like style, genre, figurative language, and connotation. The choices made by the translators like the decision whether to retain the stylistic features of the source language text or whether to retain the historical stylistic dimension of the original becomes the most important issue in the case of literary translation. Literature Review Some translation scholars consider literary texts different from other texts just in terms of words and structures. However, others regard some other aspects besides word and structures. In addition, they contend that literary texts are the production of cultures. This is also related to the social aspects. Therefore, any literary work is the matter of social and cultural aspects. The assumption that literary texts or works are closely related to the culture and society comes from significant ideas of four scholars and theorists, namely, Andre, Tory, Evan-Zahra, and Theo Herman. All these theorists consider literature as a system. They are central system and peripheral system. Furthermore, Andr contends that literature is one of the systems which constitute the systems of discourse. In addition, he refers to literature as a subsystem of a society or a culture. It may mean that literary translation is also the translation which is related to the cultural and social issues and matters. Here, two points of view were elaborated. The first one posits that literary translation is just matter of different words and structures. This is due to fact that literature comprises different words and structures. Consequently, for this point of view, in the process of literary translation,
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translating just word and structures from one language into another is adequate. On the other hand, the second point of view contends that literature is the matter of culture and society or literature is subsystem of society and culture. Andre maintains that literature is one of the systems which constitute the system of discourses in society and culture. Hypothetically, parallel to these two ideas toward literary translation, there are approaches of TQA which regard both ideas. Traditional approach which is taken into consideration by some translation theorists like Nabokov and the others. The recent or novel approach which is culturebound is regarded by some other scholar like Mona Baker. Baker theorized a taxonomy which is based on equivalence. Various equivalents were introduced by Mona Baker. On the basis of what has been mentioned before, Bakers equivalents almost consider both views of TQA. This is because of the types of equivalents which are taken into consideration by Mona Baker. Bakers equivalents comprise both approaches (Traditional approach which is word and structure-based and novel approach which is culture-based).Although Bakers taxonomy of equivalents is not specifically theorized for literary translation, it can be applied in this field as a type of a translation, generally. To put it in a nutshell, this study regards Bakers taxonomy as a model for translation quality assessment. In other words, Bakers model will be utilized in order to evaluate a translation of a literary text. In fact, Bakers taxonomy of equivalents will be a model for assessing translation quality of an English literary text, namely, Ante-gone which was rendered into Persian. Methodology In accordance with Baker, there are, at least, five levels for equivalence. They are as follows: Word level: This equivalence exists in almost all languages of the world. It is at the level of the word. Above word level: This equivalence comprises collocation meaning of a group of the words. Grammatical level: This equivalence includes word order in a sentence. Textual level: This equivalence includes thematic and information structures like cohesive devices like references, substitution, ellipsis, conjunction, and lexical cohesion. Pragmatic level: This level of equivalence comprises coherence and processes of interpretation like speech act forces.

References
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Monday, J. (2002). An Introduction to Translation Studies. New York: Rutledge.

II. Traducerea din romn n englez a unui fragment (20 de rnduri) din Ultima noapte de dragoste,ntia noapte de rzboi, Camil Petrescu.

-Cu ce drept s ucizi o femeie care nu te mai iubete? N-ai dect s te despari. Dragosteai frumoas tocmai pentru c nu poate cunoate nici o silnicie. E preferina sincer. Nu poi s-mi impui s te iubesc cu sila. Cpitanul Floroiu, puintel, delicat i cu fata blond ters, mbtrnita nainte de vreme, era de aceeai prere. -Cum poi s ai cruzimea s siluieti sufletul unei femei? Dreptul la dragoste e sfnt, domnule...Da, da... i aci lungea mult, cu capul ntors a necaz, n profil, pe cei doi "a". i spun eu... oricnd... unei femei trebuie si fie ngduit s-asi caute fericirea.i toi ceilali, tineri sau mai btriori, lsnd c discuia s fie dus cum se cuvine de ctre superiori, erau, dealtfel, de aceeai prere. A fi vrut totui s spun i eu dou vorbe. Simplismul convins al acestei discuii m fcea s surd nervos, cci se suprapunea celor nveninate din mine, ca n revistele ilustrate prost, unde roul cade alturi de conturul negru. Dar fiindc vorbeam ncet, nu eram auzit, i cum ncepeam fraza, cte o voce mai puternic mi-o lua cu hotrre i pasiune nainte. Ar fi drept s art c nu numai n saloane, n tren, la restaurant se discuta aa. n literatur, de pild, i n teatru era acelasi lucru. Nu numai romanele, dar toate piesele asa-zise bulevardiere, mult la mod pe atunci, nu proclamau dect"dreptul la iubire", i n privina asta erau noi i revoluionare,fa de piesele care proclamau n vremuri prfuite: Ucide-o!...ndeosebi era jucat pe toate scenele din lume un tnr francez,ale crui eroine "poetice", elocvente, cu prul despletit si umerii goi, ntr-un decor de lux i muzica, i cutau "fericirea" trecnd peste orice, trte de patim. Femeile din toate capitalele plngeau, nduioate pn la mistuire de nentelegerea brbailor brutali din pies, incapabili s simta frumusetea sublim a iubirii.

With what right to kill a women who doesnt love you anymore?Go ahead and break up.Loves beautiful just because it cant know any violence.It is sincere preference.You cant impose me to love you by force. Captain Floroiu,little,delicate and with his blonde face,old before its time,had the same opinion. -How can you have the cruelty to compel a woman's soul? The right to love is holy, sir ... Yes, yes ... and here he was delayed much longer, with the head turned as sorrow, in profile,on the two "e". I tell youa women must be allowed anytime to seek her happiness. And all the others, young or old, leaving that discussion to be carried out properly by their superiors, were, moreover, of the same opinion.
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Yet,I wanted to say a few words.The convinced simplicity of this discussion was making me smile furios ,because it overlapped those poisoned things in me, as well as poorly illustrated magazines, where red falls along with black outline. But because I was talking slowly, I wasnt being heard , and as soon as I began the phrase, a stronger voice was taking it up before with determination and passion . It would be fair to show that not only in salons, in train ,at the restaurant it discusses this way. In literature, for example, and in the theater was the same thing. Not only novels, but all pieces so called superficial,much in vogue then, only proclaimed "right to love", and about it were new and revolutionary pieces that were proclaiming in dusty times: Kill her! .. . Particulary,there was played ,all over the worlds scenes ,a young frenchman ,whos "poetic", eloquent heroines, with disheveled hair and bare shoulders, in a luxurious scenery and music, were seeking their "happiness" passing over everything, dragged by passion.Women in all capitals were crying touched up to the burning by the misunderstanding of brutal men in the play,unable to feel the sublime beauty of love.