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EDITORS
Massimo Macucci Giovanni Basso University of Pisa Pisa, Italy
SPONSORING ORGANIZATION University of Pisa All papers have been peer reviewed.
1129
Editors
Massimo Macucci Giovanni Basso Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell'Informazione Via Caruso 16 I56122 PISA Italy Email: m.macucci@mercurio.iet.unipi.it g.basso@iet.unipi.it
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L.C. Catalog Card No. 2009925195 ISBN 9780735406650 ISSN 0094243X Printed in the United States of America
CONTENTS Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii ICNF 2009 Organization, Committees, and Sponsors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix
PLENARY LECTURES
The Ring of Brownian Motion: The Good, the Bad, and the Simply Silly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
P. Hanggi THEORY
Modeling Scaled Processes and Clustering of Events by the Nonlinear Stochastic Differential Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
B. Kaulakys, M. Alaburda, and V. Gontis
Acceleration of the Chaotic and Noiseinduced Transport in Adiabatically Driven Spatially Periodic Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
S. M. Soskin, R. Mannella, O. M. Yevtushenko, and M. Filiasi
v
v
Modeling and Measurements of Lowfrequency Noise in SingleWalled Carbon Nanotube Films with Bulk and Percolation Congurations (Invited) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
A. Behnam, A. Ural, and G. Bosman
1f Noise, Transport, and Percolation in Carbon Nanotube Film Fieldeffect Transistors: Simulation and Experiments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
S. Soliveres, F. Martinez, A. Hoffmann, and F. Pascal
Analysis of Current Noise During the Resistive Transition of MgB2 Thin Films Produced by the Application of an External Magnetic Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
V. Andreoli, P. Mazzetti, A. Stepanescu, M. Rajteri, C. Portesi, E. Monticone, E. Taralli, C. Gandini, and A. Masoero
Monte Carlo Study of Diffusion Noise Reduction in GaAs Operating under Periodic Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
D. P. Adorno, N. Pizzolato, and B. Spagnolo
A Systematic Study of the Impact of Geometry on the Lowfrequency Noise in Patterned La0.7 Sr0.3 MnO3 Thin Films at 300 K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
S. Wu, B. Guillet, L. Mechin, and J. M. Routoure
vi
vi
Lowfrequency Noise in Electrolytegate Fieldeffect Devices Functionalized with DendrimerCarbonnanotube Multilayers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
F. V. Gasparyan, A. Poghossian, S. A. Vitusevich, M. V. Petrychuk, V. A. Sydoruk, A. V. Surmalyan, J. R. Siqueira, O. N. Oliveira Jr., A. Offenhausser, and M. J. Schoning
Lowfrequency Noises of Hydrogen Sensors on the Base of Silicon Having Nanopores Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Z. H. Mkhitaryan, F. V. Gasparyan, and A. V. Surmalyan
Nyquist Relation and Its Validity for Piezoelectric Ceramics Considering Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
P. Sedlak, J. Majzner, and J. Sikula
Diagnostics of Forward Biased Silicon Solar Cells Using Noise Spectroscopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
R. Macku, P. Koktavy, P. Skarvada, M. Raska, and P. Sadovsky
Flickering Noise Spectroscopy as a Powerful Tool for Investigation the Dynamics of the Deformation Processes in Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
S. G. Lakeev, N. N. Peschanskaya, V. V. Shpeiizman, P. N. Yakushev, A. S. Shvedov, and A. S. Smolyanskii
Noise Measurement of Interacting Ferromagnetic Particles with High Resolution Hall Microprobes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
K. Komatsu, D. LHote, S. Nakamae, F. Ladieu, V. Mosser, A. Kerlain, M. Konczykowski, E. Dubois, V. Dupuis, and R. Perzynski
Study of Organic Material FETs by Combined Static and Noise Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
X. Yong, T. Minari, K. Tsukagoshi, K. Bock, M. Fadlallaha, G. Ghibaudo, and J. A. Chroboczek
Impact of the TiN Layer Thickness on the Lowfrequency Noise and Static Device Performance of nChannel MuGFETs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
M. Rodrigues, A. Mercha, N. Collaert, E. Simoen, C. Claeys, and J. A. Martino
Giant Enhancement of Lowfrequency Noise as Precursor for the Onset of a Highfrequency Instability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
P. Shiktorov, E. Starikov, V. Gruzinskis, L. Varani, and L. Reggiani
vii
vii
Noise Limitations of FETBased Biochemical Sensors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 Noise in Green Transistors Small Slope Switches (Invited) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
C. Jungemann
Suppression of Random Telegraph Signal Noise in Smallarea MOSFETs under Switched Gate and Substrate Bias Conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
N. Zanolla, D. Siprak, M. Tiebout, P. Baumgartner, E. Sangiorgi, and C. Fiegna
RTS in Submicron MOSFETs: Lateral Field Effect and Active Trap Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
J. Sikula, V. Sedlakova, M. Chvatal, J. Pavelka, M. Tacano, and M. Toita
Noise Enhanced THz Rectication Tuned by Geometry in Planar Asymmetric Nanodiodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
I. IniguezdelaTorre, H. Rodilla, J. Mateos, D. Pardo, A. M. Song, and T. Gonzalez
Analysis of Noise Characteristics and Noise Generation in SubTHz and THz Frequency Ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
V. L. Vaks, A. N. Panin, S. I. Pripolzin, E. A. Sobakinskaya, and D. G. Paveliev
Current Collapse and Deep Levels of AlGaNGaN Heterostructures Monitored by LFN Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
M. Tacano, N. Tanuma, S. Yagi, H. Okumura, T. Matsui, and J. Sikula
Optimal 2DEG Density for Plasmonassisted Ultrafast Decay of Hot Phonons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
E. Sermuknis, J. Liberis, and A. Matulionis
A New 1f Noise Model for MultiStack Gate Dielectric MOSFETs (Invited) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
Z. CelikButler
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Lowfrequency Noise in Highk Dielectric MOSFETs. How Far from the Channel Are We Probing the Traps? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
S. Rumyantsev, C. Young, G. Bersuker, and M. Shur
1f Noise in 0.12 m PMOSFETs with Highk and Metal Gate Fabricated in a Si Process Line on 200 mm GeOI Wafers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
J. Gyani, F. Martinez, S. Soliveres, M. Valenza, C. Le Royer, and E. Augendre
Lowfrequency Noise Degradation in 45 nm Highk nMOSFETs due to Hot Carrier and Constant Voltage Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
M. Shariar Rahman, Z. CelikButler, M. A. QuevedoLopez, A. Shanware, and L. Colombo
The Consequence of Continuous Current Branching on Currentnoise Spectra in Fieldeffect and Highelectron Mobility Transistors (Invited) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
E. Starikov, P. Shiktorov, V. Gruinskis, L. Varani, H. Marinchio, and L. Reggiani
Impact of Advanced Gate Stack Engineering on Lowfrequency Noise Performances of Planar Bulk CMOS Transistors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
A. Mercha, H. Okawa, A. Akheyar, E. Simoen, T. Nakabayashi, and T. Y. Hoffmann
Length Dependent Transition of the Dominant 1f Noise Mechanism in SiPassivated GeonSi pMOSFETs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
E. Simoen, A. Firrincieli, F. E. Leys, R. Loo, B. De Jaeger, J. Mitard, and C. Claeys
Numerical Modeling of Low Frequency Noise in Ultrathin Oxide MOSFETs (Invited) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
F. Martinez, J. Armand, and M. Valenza
Lowfrequency Noise of Strained and Nonstrained nChannel TriGate FinFETs with Different Gate Dielectrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
N. Lukyanchikova, N. Garbar, V. Kudina, A. Smolanka, E. Simoen, and C. Claeys
Lowfrequency Noise Behavior in PChannel SOI FinFETs Processed with Different Strain Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
W. Guo, R. Talmat, B. Cretu, J.M. Routoure, R. Carin, A. Mercha, E. Simoen, and C. Claeys
Scaling Effect of GaAs pHEMTs Small Signal and Noise Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
S. C. Huang, W. Y. Lin, and Y. M. Hsin
Investigation of SiGe Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor Over an Extreme Temperature Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
A. Shimukovitch, P. Sakalas, M. Ramonas, M. Schroter, C. Jungemann, and W. Kraus
ix
ix
Study of the Lowfrequency Noise of Metallic Emitter SiGeC Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
F. Pascal, J. Raoult, and C. Leyris
Intrinsic Noise Sources in a Schottky Barrier MOSFET: A Monte Carlo Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
E. P. Corral, R. Rengel, and M. J. Martn
Lowfrequency Noise Measurements of the Tunneling Current in Single Barrier GaAsAlAsGaAs Devices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
J. Przybytek and M. Baj
Suppression of 1f Noise in Accumulation Mode FDSOI MOSFETs on Si100 and 110 Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
W. Cheng, C. Tye, P. Gaubert, A. Teramoto, S. Sugawa, and T. Ohmi S. L. Rumyantsev, M. E. Levinshtein, P. A. Ivanov, M. S. Shur, J. W. Palmour, A. K. Agarwal, B. A. Hull, and S. H. Ryu
Monte Carlo Analysis of Noise Spectra in InAs Channels from Diffusive to Ballistic Regime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
G. Sabatini, H. Marinchio, L. Varani, C. Palermo, J. F. Millithaler, L. Reggiani, H. Rodilla, T. Gonzalez, S. Perez, and J. Mateos
1f Noise in pChannel ScreenGrid Field Effect Transistors SGrFETs as a Device Evaluation Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
K. Fobelets, S. L. Rumyantsev, P. W. Ding, and J. E. VelazquezPerez J. A. Cichosz and A. Konczakowska
The Lowfrequency Noise of SiC MESFETs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353 The Methods for RTS Noise Identication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
A. Konczakowska and B. StawarzGraczyk
Modication of A. Van der Ziel Relation for Natural Noise in Diodes with NonIdeality Factor of IV Characteristic 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
A. V. Klyuev, A. V. Yakimov, and E. I. Shmelev OPTOELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS
Investigation of Intensity and Phase Feedback Effects on the Relative Intensity Noise in Blue Laser Diodes under Highfrequency Modulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
J. C. Yi, H. U. Cho, and J. D. Kim
x
x
Equivalent Noise Input Photon of MWIR Hg Cd Te Avalanche Photodiodes Used in a Focal Plane Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
B. Orsal, J. Foltz, J. Kayaian, and J. Arnoult
Noise Sources of aSi1x Gex Oy Microbolometers and Their Reduction by Forming Gas Passivation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
M. M. Rana and D. P. Butler
Acoustic Emission, Electroluminescence Intensity Surface Distribution and Light Fluctuations Correlation in GaAsPGaP and InGaNGaN Structures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
V. P. Veleschuk, O. I. Vlasenko, O. V. Lyashenko, and M. P. Kysselyuk
Lowfrequency Noise Characteristics and Aging Processes of High Power White Light Emitting Diodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399
V. Palenskis, J. Matukas, B. Saulys, S. Pralgauskait, and V. Jonkus
Using Gate Voltages to Tune the Noise Properties of a Mesoscopic Cavity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409
M. Totaro, P. Marconcini, S. Rotter, D. Logoteta, and M. Macucci
Shot Noise and Linear Conductance in a Transport Through Quantum Dot Coupled to Polarized Leads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419
A. Golub
xi
xi
Excited States in an InAs Nanowire Double Quantum Dot Measured by Timeresolved Charge Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449
T. Choi, I. Shorubalko, S. Gustavsson, S. Schon, and K. Ensslin
Poor Qubits Make for Rich Physics: Noiseinduced Quantum Zeno Effects, and Noiseinduced Berry Phases (Invited). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469
R. S. Whitney
Lowfrequency Noise in 2DEG Channel of AlGaNGaN Heterostructures Scaled to Nanosize Width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487
S. A. Vitusevich, M. V. Petrychuk, V. A. Sydoruk, T. Schapers, H. Hardtdegen, A. E. Belyaev, A. Offenhausser, and N. Klein
A Novel Numerical Approach for the Frequencydomain Calculation of Oscillator Noise. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497
F. L. Traversa and F. Bonani
Oscillator Noise Analysis: Full Spectrum Evaluation Including Orbital Deviations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501
S. Hong and C. Jungemann
xii
xii
MULTISCALE DYNAMICS
Analysis of Quasar Radio Wave Flux Density Fluctuations and Its Cosmological Meanings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 519
N. Tanizuka BIOPHYSICAL SYSTEMS
Applications of Dynamical Inference to the Analysis of Noisy Biological Time Series with Hidden Dynamical Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531
A. Duggento, D. G. Luchinsky, V. N. Smelyanskiy, M. Millonas, and P. V. E. McClintock
Charge Fluctuations and Boundary Conditions of Biological Ion Channels: Effect on the Ionic Transition Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535
R. Tindjong, D. G. Luchinsky, P. V. E. McClintock, I. Kaufman, and R. S. Eisenberg
Cancer Growth Dynamics: Stochastic Models and Noise Induced Effects (Invited) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 539
B. Spagnolo, A. Fiasconaro, N. Pizzolato, D. Valenti, D. P. Adorno, P. Caldara, A. OchabMarcinek, and E. GudowskaNowak
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xiii
MODELING
A Semiconductor Device Noise Model: A Deterministic Approach to Semiconductor Device Current Noise for Semiclassical Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . 569
B. A Noaman and C. E. Korman
Investigation of Noise Performance of SiGe HBTs by Deterministic Simulation of Boltzmann Equation in Twodimensional Real Space. . . . . . . . . . . 573
S. Hong and C. Jungemann
Inuence of Dopant Proles and Traps on the Lowfrequency Noise of Four Gate Transistors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 585
A. Luque Rodrguez, J. A. Jimenez Tejada, J. A. Lopez Villanueva, mezCampos A. Godoy, P. Lara Bullejos, and M. Go
A New Circuit Topology for the Realization of Low Noise Voltage References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 599
` C. Cio, G. Scandurra, and G. Cannata
A Very Simple Low Noise Voltage Preamplier for High Sensitivity Noise Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 603
` G. Cannata, G. Scandurra, and C. Cio
Extraction and Analysis of Noise Parameters of on Wafer HEMTs up to 26.5 GHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 615
A. Caddemi, G. Crupi, and A. Macchiarella
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RELIABILITY
Possible Correlation between Flicker Noise and Bias Temperature Stress. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 621
P.J. Wagner, T. Aichinger, T. Grasser, M. Nelhiebel, and L. K. J. Vandamme
Lowfrequency Noise Evolution of AlGaNGaN HEMT after 2000 Hours of HTRB and HTO Life Tests. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 625
C. Sury, A. Curutchet, N. Malbert, and N. Labat
Lowfrequency Noise in High Speed SiGe:C HBTs after Forward and Mixedmode Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 629
M. Diop, C. Leyris, N. Revil, M. Marin, and G. Ghibaudo
Lowfrequency Noise Characterizations of GaNbased LEDs with Different Growth Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 633
W. K. Fong, K. K. Leung, and C. Surya
Microplasma Luminescence and Signal Noise Used to Solar Cells Defects Diagnostic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 641
J. Vanek, P. Koktavy, J. Dolensky, A. Vesely, Z. Chobola, and P. Paracka
Lowfrequency Noise Measurement of Reverse Polarized Silicon Carbide Schottky Diodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 645
A. Szewczyk and B. StawarzGraczyk MISCELLANEOUS
xv
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Contemplator enim, cum solis lumina cumque inserti fundunt radii per opaca domorum: multa minuta modis multis per inane videbis corpora misceri radiorum lumine in ipso et vel ut aeterno certamine proelia pugnas edere turmatim certantia nec dare pausam, conciliis et discidiis exercita crebris; conicere ut possis ex hoc, primordia rerum quale sit in magno iactari semper inani. De Rerum Natura, Titus Lucretius Carus Observe indeed, how the rays that are let in diuse the light of the sun in the darkness of the houses: you will see how many minute bodies mix in many ways in vacuum, in the light itself of the rays, and how, as in an eternal confrontation, they undertake conicts and battles, ghting in squadrons, without ever pausing, aected by frequent unions and breakups; from this you will be able to imagine how the principles of things always uctuate in the immense vacuum.
PREFACE
This volume contains the proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Noise and Fluctuations (ICNF 2009) that will be held in Pisa, Italy, from June 14th to June 19th, 2009. The present edition of ICNF is the continuation of a series of International Conferences on Fluctuation Phenomena that began in Nottingham in 1968 and of the International Symposium on 1/f Fluctuations that started in Tokyo in 1977. In 1983 in Montpellier the two conferences were combined into the International Conference on Noise in Physical Systems and 1/f Fluctuations (ICNF). Since then, editions of ICNF have been held every other year in Rome in 1985, Montreal in 1987, Budapest in 1999, Kyoto in 1991, St. Louis in 1993, Palanga in 1995, Leuven in 1997, Hong Kong in 1999, Gainesville in 2001 (where the title was changed to International Conference on Noise and Fluctuations), Prague in 2003, Salamanca in 2005, and Tokyo in 2007. Noise and uctuations are acquiring an increasing importance in science and technology, as witnessed by the growing number of publications in this eld that appear in leading journals. This is the result of the realization about the importance of uctuations in new areas of human knowledge and in the
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raising awareness of the role they play in dening the ultimate miniaturization limits of devices for information storage and processing. The research results that will be presented at ICNF 2009 clearly show how noise research can help in determining the fundamental properties of new materials, conrming theoretical conjectures, helping develop devices with improved performance, estimate material and device reliability, make progress in the understanding of biological and social systems. The conference will include a total of 178 contributions, including 2 plenary and 19 invited talks by internationally recognized experts. The 157 contributed papers will be presented in two parallel oral sessions and in two poster sessions. We believe that ICNF 2009 will be an opportunity for noise researchers operating in very different areas of scientic and technological endeavor, with diverse backgrounds, to come together and create the basis for renewed crossfertilization and collaboration. We wish to thank the members of the International Advisory Committee and of the Scientic Program Committee for their support and advice in the selection of the invited speakers, in the review of the submitted abstracts and in the denition of the program. Pisa, March 14th, 2009 Massimo Macucci Giovanni Basso
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20th International Conference on Noise and Fluctuations ICNF 2009 organized by Dipartimento di Ingegneria dellInformazione University of Pisa, Italy Conference Chair:
Massimo Macucci, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dellInformazione, University of Pisa
ICNF International Advisory Committee G. Bosman University of Florida, Gainesville M. Buttiker University of Geneve Z. CelikButler University of Texas, Arlington ChinKun Hu Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica C. L. Claeys IMEC, Leuven J. Deen McMaster University, Hamilton T. Gonzalez University of Salamanca P. Hanggi University of Augsburg P. H. Handel University of Missouri, St. Louis N. B. Lukyanchikova Institute of Semiconductor Physics M. Macucci University of Pisa A. Matulionis Semiconductor Physics Institute, Vilnius L. Reggiani University of Lecce J. Sikula Brno University of Technology C. Surya Hong Kong Polytechnic University M. Tacano Meisei University L. Varani University of Montpellier II A. V. Yakimov Nizhny Novgorod State University Y. Yamamoto University of Tokyo Sponsored by: University of Pisa USA Switzerland USA Taiwan Belgium Canada Spain Germany USA Ukraine Italy Lithuania Italy Czech Republic Hong Kong Japan France Russia Japan
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ICNF 2009 Scientic Program Committee C. W. J. Beenakker University of Leiden S. Bezrukov NIH, Bethesda F. Bonani Technical University of Torino G. Bosman University of Florida, Gainesville M. Buttiker University of Geneva Z. CelikButler University of Texas, Arlington C. Cio University of Messina J. Deen McMaster University, Hamilton G. Ghibaudo IMEP, Grenoble C. Glattli CEA, Saclay T. Gonzalez University of Salamanca P. Hanggi University of Augsburg R. Haug University of Hannover M. Heiblum Weizmann Institute D. Loss University of Basel N. B. Lukyanchikova Institute of Semiconductor Physics M. Macucci University of Pisa A. Matulionis Semiconductor Physics Institute, Vilnius L. Reggiani University of Lecce J. Sikula Brno University of Technology L. Varani University of Montpellier II F. von Oppen Freie Universit t Berlin a A. V. Yakimov Nizhny Novgorod State University Y. Yamamoto University of Tokyo The Netherlands USA Italy USA Switzerland USA Italy Canada France France Spain Germany Germany Israel Switzerland Ukraine Italy Lithuania Italy Czech Republic France Germany Russia Japan
ICNF 2009 Local Organizing Committee M. Macucci, G. Basso, G. Iannaccone, B. Neri University of Pisa, Italy
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The Ring of Brownian Motion: the good, the bad and the simply silly
Peter Hanggi
1,2 ' Institute of Physics, University of Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg, Germany ^ Department of Physics and Centre for Computational Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Republic of Singapore 117542 Abstract. In this plenary talk I give an account on the blossoming role that Brownian motion Theory and Experiment played  and still keeps doing so  in germinating and advancing several, partially diverse physical disciplines. Although the use of Brownian motion concepts generally most favorably impacted those scientific areas there are also some abuses where the application of such concepts may not describe satisfactorily physical reality. Keywords: Brownian motion, eqiulibrium and noneqiulibrium statistical mechanics. Stochastic Resonance, Brownian motors PACS: 05.60.k, 47.61.k, 81.07.b, 85.25.j, 85.35.p, 87.16.b
ROLE AND IMPACT OF BROWNIAN MOTION FOR PHYSICS AND RELATED FIELDS
Since the turn of the 20th century Brownian hiss has continuously disclosed a rich variety of phenomena in and around physics. The understanding of this jittering motion of suspended microscopic particles has undoubtedly helped to reinforce and substantiate those pillars on which the basic modem physical theories are resting.  Its formal description provided the key to great achievements in statistical mechanics, the foundations of quantum mechanics and also astrophysical phenomena, to name only a few [1]. Brownian motion also determines the rate limiting step in most transport phenomena via escape events that help to overcome obstructing bottlenecks [2], or triggers those intriguing oscillatory dynamics occurring in excitable media [3]. My purpose here is as follows: Rather than presenting yet another sketchy overview of Brownian motion phenomena from an abundance of most useful and not so useful apphcations 1 instead prefer to point out a few timely such topical areas which are in the limehght of present and ongoing research activities. Different aspects and perspectives of these have been repeatedly reviewed in the recent literature with comprehensive reviews and features being available, see the cited literature given below. So, rather than presenting yet an additional such account 1 prefer to guide the interested reader to a selection of overviews. Next, 1 shall briefly highhght three such recent activities.
CPn29, Noise and Fluctuations, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
Stochastic Resonance
Although noise is usually thought of as the enemy of order it in fact can  given the necessary conditions  also be of constructive influence. The phenomena of Stochastic Resonance [4] presents one such paradigm. In a nutshell, Stochastic Resonance refers to the phenomenon for which the addition of the appropriate dose of noise can boost a (informationcarrying) signal and hence facilitate its detection in a noisy environment. Due to its intrinsic simplicity and robustness the phenomenon has widespread applications and impacts a rich abundance of interdisciplinary fields. Given its slow start after its invention in the 80's of the last century Stochastic Resonance spurred interest ever since and widened in scope and breadth of apphcations exhibiting still growing momentum. Presently its most salient applications apply to noisy physical biology [4, 5, 6] and to quantum information processing schemes [4, 7, 8].
Brownian motors
Noise can also induce directed transport: In systems possessing spatial or dynamical symmetry breaking, Brownian motion combined with unbiased external input signals, deterministic or random, alike, can assist directed motion of particles and continuous phases at the submicron scales. The by now common terminology for this paradigm of noiseassisted directed transport is "Brownian motors" [9, 10, 11, 12]. The concept of Brownian motors has given rise to novel design and implementation of various transport and separation devices in physics, chemistry, and in physical biology that operate on the nanoand/or microscale [12]. Most importantly, the combination of ever present thermal hiss with additional, unbiased nonequilibrium disturbances enables the rectification of haphazard Brownian thermal noise so that quantum and classical objects can be directed around on a priori designed routes.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Financial support by the German Excellence Initiative via the Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), the Volkswagen Foundation (project 1/80424), the DFGcollaborative research centers SFB486, SFB631 and SFB484 is gratefully acknowledged.
REFERENCES
1. W. Ebeling and I. M. Sokolov, Statistical thermodynamics and stochastic theory of nonequilibrium systems, Adv. Stat. Mech., Vol. 8 (World Scientific, Singapore 2005). 2. P. Hanggi, P. Talkner, and M. Borkovec, Reactionrate theory: fifty years after Kramers, Rev. Mod. Phys. 62, 251342 (1990). 3. B. Lindner, J. GarciaOjalvo, A. Neiman and L. SchimanskyGeier, Effects of noise in excitable systems, Phys. Rep. 392, 3 2 1 ^ 2 4 (2004). 4. L. Gammaitoni, P. Hanggi, P. Jung and F. Marchesoni, Stochastic Resonance, Rev. Mod.Phys. 70, 223288 (1998). 5. P. Hanggi, Stochastic Resonance in Biology: how noise can enhance detection of weak signals and help improve biological information processing, ChemPhysChem 3, 285290 (2002). 6. K. Wiesenfeld and F. Moss, Stochastic Resonance and the benefits of noise. Nature 373, 3336 (1995). 7. M. Grifoni and P Hanggi, Driven Tunneling, Phys. Rep. 304, 229354 (1998). 8. T. Wellens and A. Buchleitner, Stochastic Resonance, Rep. Progr. Phys. 67, 45105 (2004). 9. R. D. Astumian and P. Hanggi, Brown/anmoto/*, Physics Today 55 (11), 3339 (2002). 10. P. Reimann, Brownian motors: noisy transport far from equilibrium Phys. Rep. 361, 57265 (2002). 11. P. Hanggi, F. Marchesoni, and F. Nori, Brownian motors, Ann. Phys. (Berlin) 14, 5170 (2005). 12. P. Hanggi and F Marchesoni, Artificial Brownian motors: Controlling transport on the nanoscale. Rev Mod. Phys. 86,156 (2009); arXiv:0807.1283. 13. J. Dunkel and P. Hanggi, Relativistic Brownian motion, Phys. Rep. 471, 173 (2009).
INTRODUCTION The kinetic theory of fluctuations for a classical nonequilibrium gas with binary collisions was developed 40 years ago and is now expounded in review articles [1, 2], monographs [3, 4], and even in the advanced textbooks [5]. In the framework of the correlationfunction method, the fluctuations were investigated also in Fermi gas with interelectron collisions [ 6  9 ] . The aim of this paper is to check earlier results by deriving, from first principles, the equations for the twoparticle, timedisplaced and equaltime, correlation functions for nonequilibrium degenerate quasiclassical gases with pair collisions. A selfcontained, rather simple and transparent system of such equations will be obtained for a gas of electrons (or holes). It will be demonstrated that for Coulomb (or nearly Coulomb) interaction potential, thanks to the prevalence of smallangle interelectron scattering, the theory takes a rather simple form. Namely, the kinetic equations for the twoelectron correlation functions governing fluctuations in the degenerate electron gas are selfcontained and comparatively simple. This is in contrast to other possible types of interaction in Fermi gases where, due to exchange effects, the situation proves to be much more complicated even in a quasiclassical picture. P R O B L E M STATEMENT It is known that in the nonequilibrium state of a gas a correlation among particles exists due to particleparticle colhsions (see, e.g. [1]). Indeed, during such a collision, two particles change simultaneously their momenta and this process creates a constant flow
CPn29, Noise andFluctuaUons, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
of correlated particles into a pair of states pp'. As a result, the equaltime two particle correlation function of the occupancy fluctuations of the oneparticle states acquires a nontrivial part: {5Fp{t)5Fpi{t)) = FpSppi + (Ppp'{t) (here Fp is the stationary nonequilibrium distribution function). The twoparticle correlation function (Ppp'{t) satisfies the special kinetic equation [1], where a collision operator of particle pairs appears at the righthandside. Such an operator describes the permanentlyacting source of correlation in the quasimomentum space. In turn, the lefthandside is responsible for the relaxation of correlation in a way similar to that of oneparticle kinetics: {dt + Jp+Jp>)(Ppp> = npp,{F,F}. (1)
Here the quantities Jp and Jpi are the linearized operators of the oneparticle kinetics describing the evolution of small deviations from the nonequilibrium state created by the combined action of an external driving force and collisions [1]. (For a steady state the function cpppi is timeindependent, and the time derivative in (1) should be omitted.) For classical particles n^y is given by np^{F,F} = Y^iwgFpF^  wf^FkFy). (2)
Here W , is the probability for two particles with momenta k and k" to get the momenta j9 and j9' after the mutual collision. (To simplify the formulae, we omit here and henceforth all unnecessary details, in particular, we do not write the vector indices). The correlation source Ilppi has a clear physical meaning, representing a balance between the incoming and outgoing pairs of particles, quite analogous to the similar balance for individual particles in a oneparticle collision operator (when summed over p', the operator n^y becomes the usual particleparticle collision operator Ilp{F,F} of the Boltzmann equation.) In equilibrium Ilppt = 0, and correlation among particles vanishes. The quantity TIppi is the main element of the theory of fluctuations in nonequilibrium states of classical particles. As mentioned above, an attempt to derive its analogue for a degenerate nonequilibrium quasiclassical electron gas with pair collisions was initially made by Kagan [6], and later by Muradov [7] (twoband semiconductor). It was shown in [8, 9] that observation of fluctuations in a nonequilibrium electron gas would allow one to investigate directly and rather simply the macroscopic Paulicorrelation. While deriving, in the quasiclassical approximation but from first principles, kinetic equations for correlation functions in the degenerate nonequilibrium electron gas, we took advantage of the modernized version [10] of the diagram technique that we had developed earlier (see, e.g., [11  13]). In the general case of a Fermi gas, the terms representing the largeangle scattering appear in the expression for the source, as well as in the left hand side of equation (1). The general quasiclassical theory of fluctuations in a Fermi gas, taking into account all exchange effects, would be much more complicated than the version presented in [6 9], and is not available yet.
10
n./ = S'+n(;\
kV
(3)
where O**, is defined by the following expression: ^%,=FpFp,{\ FkFk>)FkFk>{\ FpFp,), (4)
kk'
The comparative simplicity of our main results (3) and (5) is ensured by a "soft" character of the Coulomb (or nearly Coulomb) interaction between electrons. For that type of interaction, the Fourier transform of the interparticle potential U{r) (cf [6, 7]) is large enough just for small characteristic values of the momentum transfer q = p k. Since in (3), (5) the momentum k takes, among others, values close to p, the Fourier transform Uq turns out to be large. On the other hand, the disregarded terms contain the transforms that depend on the large momentum transfer (comparable to p p'). Such a transform is much smaller than Uq in the region of small enough values of q: \Up_p,\\Uq\. (6)
This rather strong inequality enables us to neglect the terms containing the Fourier transforms of the potential U{r) depending on the large momentum transfer. They are less important for the soft potentials in which we are interested here. However, such items should necessarily be taken into account in a theory of fluctuations in a nonequilibrium Fermi gas provided that the interparticle scattering at large angles is essential. In parallel with sources, the corresponding terms should be included into the response operators, as mentioned above. These problems will be considered elsewhere. The method we used for investigating fluctuations in a degenerate nonequilibrium electron gas, thanks to the prevalence of smallangle electronelectron scattering, is selfcontained. The results are rather transparent. We remind that we define fluctuations of the distribution function, extracting the product of the uncorrected (averaged independently) distribution functions FpFpi from the initial twoparticle distribution function. It looks like FpFpi FpFpi. But in FpFpi some terms needed to form the full independent Fp andi^/ are absent because of the Pauli constraints. This absence reveals itself as an additional fluctuation, and the corresponding expressions emerge with opposite signs in the fluctuation source. Such is the origin of the additional nontrivial correlation in
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nonequilibrium electron gases. The existence of this correlation phenomenon remained so far unnoticed in the fluctuation theory. Similar phenomena can exist also in other physical situations. Let us note that the modification in the pair correlation function, induced by the Pauli principle, could reveal itself through macroscopic observables, e.g., current fluctuations in a conductor or ionized plasma (cf. [8, 9]). In fact, the effect is none other than the indirect manifestation of the electronic HanburyBrown and Twiss (HBT) effect in the solidstate or gaseous plasma. Indeed, a correlation of occupancies of different j9states of electrons apparently can be interpreted as a correlation of intensities of "partial" electron beams in a real space. The correlation of particlestate occupancies, conditioned by the Pauli constraints, are not destructible by interelectron collisions since the latter conserve energy and momentum. On the contrary, for Pauli correlations to be detectable in noise experiments, the effectiveness of interelectron scattering should be higher than the electronlattice interaction. The correlation survives, contributing to the noise spectrum, as long as relaxation processes due to interaction with lattice allow. The Pauli correlation can reveal itself in a macroscopic system via electric noise only provided that the electron system is substantially displaced from the equilibrium with the lattice. This is a quantum effect measured by quasiclassical (kinetic) means. The vanishing at equilibrium is a fundamental property of all the additional terms. Though existing on microscopic level, the Pauli correlation disappears after averaging with the equilibrium distribution (density matrix). Indeed, at equilibrium the average partial fluxes in the momentum space balance out, so the twoparticle correlation sources disappear. In contrast to averaging over the equilibrium distribution, the averaging over a nonequilibrium one does not necessarily lead to the vanishing of correlation sources. Computation of Pauli correlation effect on spectra of current fluctuations is in progress.
REFERENCES
1. 2. S. V. Gantsevich, V. L. Gurevich and R. Katilius, Riv Nuovo Cimento 2 (5), 187 (1979). R. Katilius, "An Overview of the Development of the Kinetic Theory of Fluctuations" in Noise and Fluctuations Control in Electronic Devices, edited by A. A. Balandin, Stevenson Ranch, CA: American Scientific, 2002, pp. 110. Sh. M. Kogan, Electronic Noise and Fluctuations in Solids, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996, Chapter 3. H. L. Hartnagel, R. Katilius and A. Matulionis Microwave Noise in Semiconductor Devices, New York: Wiley, 2001, Chapters 35. E. M. Lifshitz and L. P. Pitaevskii, Physical Kinetics, Oxford: Pergamon, 1981. V. D. Kagan, Fiz. Tverd Tela (Leningrad) 17, 19691977 (1975) [Sov Phys. Solid State 17, 1289 (1975)]. M. I. Muradov,P/;j;s. Rev B 58, 1288312898 (1998). R. Katilius, Phys. Rev B 69, 24531518 (2004). R. Katilius and M. Rudan, Phys. Rev B 74, 23310114 (2006). R. Katihus, S. V. Gantsevich, V. D. Kagan and M. I. Muradov (to be published). S. V. Gantsevich, V. L. Gurevich, V. D. Kagan and R. Yia<d\ms,phys. stat. sol. (b) 75,407422 (1976). R. Barkauskas, S. V. Gantsevich and R. Katihus, Zh. Eksp. Teor Fiz. 84, 20822091 (1983). [Sov.Phys.JETP SI, 12121216 (1983)]. S. V. Gantsevich, V. L. Gurevich, M. I. Muradov and D. A. Parshin, Phys. Rev B 52, 1400614017 (1995).
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Modeling scaled processes and clustering of events by the nonlinear stochastic differential equations
B. Kaulakys, M. Alaburda and V. Gontis
Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy of Vilnius University, A. Gostauto 12, LT01108 Vilnius, Lithuania Abstract. We present and analyze the nonlinear stochastic differential equations generating scaled signals with the powerlaw statistics, including 1 / / ^ noise and (/Gaussian distribution. Numerical analysis reveals that the process exhibits some peaks, bursts or extreme events, characterized by powerlaw distributions of the burst statistics and, therefore, the model may simulate selforganized critical and other systems exhibiting avalanches, bursts or clustering of events. Keywords: 1/f noise, stochastic differential equations, qGaussian distribution PACS: 05.40. .a, 72.70. +m, 89.75.Da
INTRODUCTION Powerlaw distributions, including 1 / / noise, are ubiquitous in physics and in many other fields [1, 2, 3]. Despite the numerous models and theories, the intrinsic origin of 1/f noise and other scaled distributions still remain open questions. Starting from the multiplicative point process [4] we obtained the stochastic nonlinear differential equations, which generated signals with the powerlaw statistics, including 1 / f^ fluctuations [3, 5]. Here the other nonlinear stochastic differential equation generating qGaussian distribution of the bursting signal and \/f^ noise is presented and analyzed. THE T H E O R Y We consider a nonlinear stochastic differential equation Ax=(n^x\{xl,+x^)'^'\At+{xl,+x^Y'^&W, generating ^Gaussian distributed signal 7 >1, 7 A>1 (1)
v^r(VV^'^+'^'^
v^rf^V2
'^ ^""^
with q = I + 2/A. Here W is a standard Wiener process and Xm is the parameter of the ^Gaussian distribution. Eq. (1) for small x <CXm represents the linear additive stochastic
CPn29, Noise andFluctuaUons, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
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process generating the Brownian motion with the linear relaxation, whereas for x > X m Eq. (1) reduces to the nonlinear multiplicative equation. In accordance with Refs. [3, 4] the power spectrum of the process generated by Eq. (2) may be approximated as
with A characterizing the intensity of 1 //'^ noise, /o '^ fmin being the frequency for transition of spectrum at low frequencies to the flat spectrum, and /3 = 1 A3 2(771] (4)
The autocorrelation function of the process is C(5) 0 ^(/)cos(2;r/5)d/=^f^ r ( p / 2 ) V/o Kk{2nfos), (5)
with Ki^{z) being the modified Bessel function and /i = (/3 l)/2. The second order structural function F2{s) and heightheight correlation function F{s) are expressed as F{s)=Fi{s) = {\x{t + s) x{tf) = 2[C(0) C(5)] = A j ^ S{f)^m\nsfW. (6)
Particular cases of Eqs. (5) and (6) are presented in Ref. [3]. N U M E R I C A L ANALYSIS We present here the investigation results of the dependence of characteristics of Eq. (1) solutions on the nonlinearity parameter r\ for the fixed parameter A = 3, i.e., for the pure 1//noise.
FIGURE 1. Examples of the numerically computed signals according to Eq. (1) with the parameters A = 3, X = 10^^, whereas 7] = 1.5 (left figure) and 7] = 2.5 (right figure). m
As examples, in figure 1 we show the illustrations of the signals generated according to Eq. (1). We see bursts of the signal. In figures 2 and 3 the numerical calculations of the distribution density, P{x), power spectral density, S{f), autocorrelation function.
14
FIGURE 2. Distribution density, P{x), and power spectral density, S{f), for solutions of Eq. (1) with A = 3, X = 10^^ and different values of 7] = 1.5 (circles), J] = 2 (squares) and 7] = 2.5 (triangles) in m comparison with the analytical results (solid lines) according to Eqs. (2) and (3), respectively.
^i^pijaiigafE^at^w^ir^fjr
^^ffl
j ^ ^ i ^ M I ^ M ^^m
: ^1
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
FIGURE 3. Autocorrelation function, C{s), and the second order structural function, F2 (s), for solutions of Eq. (1) with the same parameters as in figure 2 in comparison with the analytical results (solid lines) according to Eqs. (7) and (8), respectively.
C{s), and the second order structural function, F2{s), for solutions of Eq. (1) with A = 3, Xm = 0.01 and different values of the parameter 7 are presented. We see rather good 7 agreement between the numerical calculations and the analytical results for /3 = 1, C{s) =A[r+\n{n/os)] (7)
v^'
* '
10"^ 10"^ 10"^ 10"'
10" 10' 10^ 10^ 10^
d
FIGURE 4. Dependence of the burst size 5' as a function of the burst duration T and distributions of the burst size, P{S), for the peaks above the the threshold value x^ = 0.1. Calculations are as in figures 2 and 3 with the same parameters.
15
FIGURE 5. Burst duration, P{T), and interburst time, P(6), for the peaks above the the threshold value Xii, = 0.1. Calculations are as in figure 4 with the same parameters.
F2{s) =
^2A[\n{nf,^^s)r],
(8)
where 7 = 0.577216 is Euler's constant and fmax is the cutoff of the 1 / / spectrum at high frequency. Figures 4 and 5 demonstrate that the size of the generated bursts S is approximately proportional to the squared burst duration T, i.e., S <x T^, and asymptotically powerlaw distributions of the burst size, P{S) '^ S^^^, burst duration, P{T) r^ ri"* and interburst time, P(0) '^ 9^^^, for the peaks above the threshold value Xth of the variable x{t). These dependencies slightly depend on the degree of nonlinearity exponent 7 of the stochastic equation and are similar to those discovered [3] for the q7 exponential distributions.
CONCLUSION
The nonlinear stochastic differential equations may generate ^Gaussian distributed signals with 1 //'^ power spectrum, exhibiting bursts, similar to the crackling processes [6] and observable longterm memory time series [7, 8].
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We acknowledge the support by the Agency for International Science and Technology Development Programs in Lithuania and EU COST Action MP 0801.
REFERENCES
M. E .J. Newman, Contemp. Phys. 46, 323 (2005). Scholarpedia, h t t p : //www. s c h o l a r p e d i a . o r g / a r t i c l e / l / f _ n o i s e (2009). B. Kaulakys and M. Alaburda, J. Stat. Mech. P02051 (2009). B. Kaulaliys, V. Gontis, and M. Alaburda, Phys. Rev. E 71, 051105 (2005). B. Kaulaliys, J. Ruseckas, V. Gontis, and M. Alaburda, PhysicaA 365, 217 (2006). J. P. Sethna, K. A. Dahmen, and C. R. Myers, Nature 410, 242 (2001). A. Bunde, J. F. Eichner, J. W. Kantelhardt, and S. Havlin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 048701 (2005). R. Blender, K. Fraedrich, and F. Sienz, Nonlin. Processes Geophys. 15, 557 (2008).
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INTRODUCTION
In weakly perturbed integrable Hamiltonian systems, small areas of the phase space near resonances are chaotic [1]. The stochastic web concept dates back to the early 1960s when Arnold showed [2] that, in nondegenerate Hamiltonian systems of dimension exceeding 2, resonance lines necessarily intersect, forming a web of infinitesize in the Poincare section. It provides in turn for a slow chaotic (sometimes called "stochastic") diffusion over infinite distances in the relevant dynamical variables. It was discovered at the end of 1980s [35] that, in degenerate or nearly degenerate systems, stochastic webs can arise even for dimension 3/2. An archetypal example of such a lowdimensional stochastic web arises when a ID harmonic oscillator is perturbed by a weak traveling wave whose frequency coincides with a multiple of the natural frequency of the oscillator [1, 4, 6]. Perturbation plays a dual role: on the one hand, it gives rise to a slow dynamics characterized by an auxiliary Hamiltonian that possesses an infinite weblike separatrix; on the other hand, the perturbation destroys this selfgenerated separatrix, replacing it with a thin chaotic layer. Such a lowdimensional stochastic web may be relevant to a variety of physical systems and plays an important role in the corresponding transport phenomena: see [1, 4, 6] for reviews on relevant classical systems. There are also quantum systems the dynamics of whose transport reduces to that of the classical model described above. One example is a nanometrescale semiconductor superlattice with an applied voltage and magnetic field [7, 8]. Moreover, there is evidence that, if a classical system possesses a stochastic web, then transport in the quantum analogue of that system is much stronger than where the classical system does not possesses a web [9, 10], a finding that may be relevant e.g. to the transport of ultracold atoms in optical lattices [9]. One might assume that, like the Arnold web, the lowdimensional stochastic web
CPn29, Noise and Fluctuations, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
17
described above should be infinite, so that it would provide for transport between the centre of the web and states situated arbitrarily distant in coordinate and momentum. However this is not the case. Provided that the perturbation is not exponentially strong, the real web is confined to the region within just a few inner loops of the infinite weblike resonant separatrix (cf. [1, 4, 6]). The reason is as follows. The resonant Hamiltonian possesses a single, infinite, weblike separatrix only in the firstorder approximation of the averaging method [11]; with account taken of the nextorder approximations, the separatrix splits into many separate complex loops successively embedded within each other. Nonresonant terms of the perturbation dress the separatrices by exponentially narrow chaotic layers. If the perturbation is not small, the chaotic layers manage to connect neighbouring separatrix loops situated close to the centre. However, the width of the chaotic layer decreases exponentially fast with increasing distance from the centre [1, 4, 6]. As a result, coalescence of the chaotic layers associated with adjacent loops only occurs among the few loops closest to the centre. If the resonance between the perturbation and the oscillator is inexact, or if the oscillator is nonlinear, the separation of neighbouring loops is typically much larger: it is already apparent in the firstorder approximation of the averaging method [1, 5, 6]. So, the number of the loops connected to the centre by chaotic transport is even smaller [1, 5, 6] than in the case of an exact resonance. How can one modify the perturbation in order that the transport should become unlimited or, at least, significantly extended? One possible answer was obtained at the very beginning of the studies of lowdimensional webs [3]: if the perturbation consists of short kicks that are periodic in space and time, and if the frequency of the kicks is equal to a multiple of the natural frequency, then a so called uniform web is formed covering the whole phase space. Such a perturbation seldom applies in practice, however, and even where it does the chaotic transport is still exponentially slow [1,6]. Is it possible to obtain a web of form similar to the original one [4] but substantially extended in the phase space? Our present work leads to a positive answer based on the following simple idea. The chaotic layer in the web is exponentially narrow because the frequency of the nonresonant perturbation of the resonant Hamiltonian is necessarily much higher than the frequency of small eigenoscillations in the cell of the weblike separatrix [1,36]. So, we need to modify the perturbation in such a way that the resonant Hamiltonian does not change while its perturbation contains, in addition to the conventional terms, a lowfrequency one. One may do this by modulating the wave angle at a low frequency or by adding one more wave of frequency shifted slightly from the original one. The latter option will be considered elsewhere together with a generalization for the uniform web (leading to a huge enhancement of the chaotic transport through it). Our present work concentrates on the first option since it may have immediate apphcations to nanometrescale semiconductor superlattices in electric and magnetic fields [7, 8].
first for /j = 0 (i.e. for the conventional case with parameters as in [1,4,6]), and secondly for /j = 0.1. Although the modulation in the latter case is weak (its amplitude is small compared to the 2K period of the wave angle), the resultant increase in size of the web in coordinate and momentum is large: a factor of about 6 x . To account for these results we develop the analytic theory, generahzed for the offresonant case [1, 5, 6], using a general method developed recently in [12]. It is anticipated that the method can also be generahzed for uniform webs [1, 3, 6], leading to an exponentially strong enhancement of chaotic transport through them.
6 4
^;^:^=?F^=:^
O 0
2 4 6
M 8' w" *
^^^^\
z^M^ ^
S^^^
^^^^irrirt::^'^!
"^^^~S=^==^
^^
0.5
0.5
q/2n
FIGURE 1. The Poincare section for a trajectory of the system (1) with initial state q = 0.1, q = 0 (at instants i = nT where T = In/Q.Ql is the period of the modidation and n = 1,2,3, ...600000) for h = Q (left panel) and h = Q.\ (right panel). A symplectic integration scheme of the fourth order is used, with an integration step tint = jlfjo ~ 1.57 x lO^'*, so that the inaccuracy at each step is of the order of Hnt ~ X10^'' The left panel corresponds to the conventional case considered in [1,4,6]. The right panel demonstrates that the modidation, although weak, greatly enlarges the web sizes (note the different axes scales), thereby greatly enhancing the chaotic transport.
PI PI
2OT* '
(2)
where x is the direction along the SL axis, A is the miniband width, d is the SL period, m* is the electron effective mass for the motion in the transversal (i.e. y z) direction.
Thus, the quasiclassical motion of an electron of charge e in an electric field F and a magnetic field B is described by: f = 4^+[Vp(/^)x5]}. (3)
It was shown in [7] that, for constant electric field along the SL axis F = (Fo,0,0) and constant magnetic field with a given angle 9 to the axis B = (5cos(0),O,5sin(0)), the dynamics of the zcomponent of momentum p^ reduces to the equation of motion of an auxiliary harmonic oscillator in a plane wave. At certain values of the parameters, the ratio of the wave and oscillator frequencies takes integer values (as in Eq. (1) with h = 0) giving rise to the onset of the stochastic web. This leads in turn to a delocahzation of the electron in the xdirection and, consequently, to an increase of the dcconductivity along the SL axis. The experiment [8] appears to provide evidence in favor of this exciting hypothesis. At the same time, the finite size of the web and, yet more so, the exponentially fast decrease of the transport rate as the distance from the centre of the web increases, seem to place strong limitations on the use of the effect. We now suggest a simple and efficient way to overcome these limitations: if we add to the original (constant) electric field FQ a small timeperiodic (ac) component FacCOs(QacO' then the wave angle in the equation of motion of p^ is modulated by the following term (cf. Eq. (1)): hcos{Q.t) = cos[t], Qo = ^ (4)
This allows us to increase drastically the size of the web and the rate of chaotic transport through it. For example, for the case shown in Fig. 1, where we have an increase of the web size by the factor of 6x, it is sufficient to add an ac component of electric field of frequency 0.02 x QQ and amplitude Fac = 0.1 x 0.02 x FQ, i.e. an amplitude that is 500x smaller than the original constant field FQ!
REFERENCES
G.M. Zaslavsky, Physics of Chaos in Hamiltonian systems, Imperial CoUedge Press, London, 2007. V.I. Arnold, Dokl Acad. Nauk SSSR 156, 9 (1964). G.M. Zaslavsky et al., Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 294 (1986); A.A. Chernikov et al., Nature 326, 559 (1987). 4. A.A. Chernikov et al., Phys. Lett A 122, 39 (1987). 5. A.A. Chernikov et al., Phys. Lett A 129, 377 (1988). 6. G.M. Zaslavsky, R.D. Sagdeev, D.A. Usikov and A.A. Chernikov, Weak Chaos and QuasiRegular Patterns, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1991. 7. T.M. Fromhold et al., Phys. Rev. Lett 87, 046803 (2001). 8. T.M. Fromhold et al., Nature 428, 726 (2004). 9. W.K. Hensinger et al., Nature 412, 52 (2001); D.A. Steck, W.H. Oskay, M.G. Raizen, Science 293, 274 (2001); R.G. Scott et al., Phys. Rev. A 66, 023407 (2002). 10. A.R.R. Carvalho, A. Buchleitner, Phys. Rev Lett 93, 204101 (2004). 11. N.N. Bogolyubov, Yu.A. Mitropolsky, Asymptotic Methods in the Theory of Nonlinear Oscillators, Gordon and Breach, New York, 1961. 12. S.M. Soskin, R. Mannella, and O.M. Yevtushenko, Phys. Rev E11, 036221 (2008). 1. 2. 3.
20
Acceleration of the chaotic and noiseinduced transport in adiabatically driven spatially periodic systems
S.M. Soskin*'1', R. Mannella**, O.M. Yevtushenko* andM. Filiasi**
'Institute of Semiconductor Physics, 03028 Kiev, Ukraine Ubdus Salam ICTP, 34100 Trieste, Italy "Dipartimento diFisica, Universita diPisa, 56127Pisa, Italy "^Physics Department, LudwigMaximiliansUniversitdtMUnchen, D80333 Miinchen, Germany Abstract. We show that, in an acdriven spatially periodic Hamiltonian system, the width of the chaotic layer associated with a separatrix diverges in the adiabatic limit. A similar behaviour is observed for the layer of transient chaos in the presence of a weak dissipation. If noise is added, this mechanism may have as a conseguence that the noiseinduced transport is greatly accelerated by the adiabatic ACdrive. Keywords: separatrix chaos, adiabatic, noiseinduced, diffusion, threshold devices PACS: 05.45.Ac,05.40.a,05.45.Pq,66.30.h
INTRODUCTION A timeperiodic perturbation of a Hamiltonian system possessing a separatrix destroys the separatrix itself, leading to the onset of chaos in its vicinity [13]. Until recently (cf. [13]) it was assumed that, for a small amplitude of the perturbation, the separatrix chaotic layer should necessarily be narrow (see in particular [46], where adiabatic chaos was studied). However we have discovered [7] that any spatially periodic Hamiltonian system (for instance, a pendulum) driven by an ACforce, i.e. by a timeperiodic coordinateindependent force, possesses a remarkable property: the upper energy boundary of the chaotic layer diverges as the driving frequency goes to zero (Fig. 1). The origin of this counterintuitive feature is as follows. Let the system stay initially at the separatrix. If the weak ACforce changes slowly, then a small acceleration of the system caused by this force keeps its sign for a long time, namely for a halfperiod of the force. If the period is sufficiently long, then the system acquires a large velocity by the end of this time. During the next halfperiod, the acceleration changes to deceleration so that, by the end of the period, the system again approaches the vicinity of the separatrix, where some chaotization occurs: the new accelerationdeceleration round starts then with a small random shift of the ACforce angle from a multiple ofln. Thus, the trajectory is chaotic on sufficiently large timescales (Fig. 2). The smaller the frequency, the larger the maximum absolute value of the velocity; therefore the faster the chaotic transport becomes (cf the inset of Fig. 2). We have developed an explicit adiabatic theory [79] which nicely describes results of simulations (Fig. 1(c)). We have also developed a qualitative description of the chaotic diffusion and explained its acceleration in the adiabatic
CPn29, Noise and Fluctuations, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
21
limit [79], but its rigorous description as well as a thorough numerical study have not been done. Some, mostly heuristic, theoretical study of the adiabatic chaos in the same system was recently undertaken in [10].
Coordinate q (mod
271:)
Frequency, lo8((0j.>
FIGURE 1. ACdrivenpendulum [7]:i/ = ;72/2ffl^cos(^) + /;ffl^^sin(ffii;<) withfflo= l and/; = 0.01. (a). Trajectory in the stroboscopic (fori = 2;i:/(/withw = 0,1,2,...) Poincare section for </ = 0.01 and q{Q) = n, p{Q) = 0. (b). Spectral dependence of the maximum excess of energy E = p'^/2 OQ COS((/) over the barrier level OQ = 1. (c) As in (b) but compared with our adiabatic theory (solid line) and its asymptotes for relatively low and high adiabatic frequencies (dashed and dotted lines respectively).
FIGURE 2. The frajectory of the same system as in Fig. 1(a), on a large time scale [8]. The inset compares frajectories for different cOf.
Spatial diffusion
Consider an underdamped pendulum driven by a weak ACforce (cf. that in Fig. 1) and by a weak white noise:
22
q = p^ p= (/nW) = o,
r<i,
(1)
/i<i,
For the system (1) initially at the bottom of one of the potential wells, we have computed the statistical distribution over wells at some given instant by computer simulations of Eq. (1), without (Fig. 3) and with (Fig. 4) ACdrive. Simulations demonstrate that the ACdrive may greatly accelerate the spatial diffusion, especially if the driving is adiabatic. Moreover, there is an optimal frequency (Fig. 4(c)): if cof decreases below it, the diffusion slows down (see the detailed discussion, including a criterion for the optimal frequency, in [8, 9]). Acceleration of the spatial diffusion by the adiabatic ACdrive applied to strongly underdamped spatially periodic systems was suggested earlier in [11] but neither the chaotic mechanism nor the correct criterion for the optimal frequency were given.
FIGURE 3. Noisedriven underdamped pendulum (Eq. (1) with T = 0.005, T = 0.5 and h = 0): the distribution over wells at some given instant (t = 10^), for the initial state being in the well 0 (units at the vertical axis are arbitrary).
FIGURE 4. The same as in Fig. 3 but in the presence of the ACdrive with h = 0.2 and cOf equal to: (a) 2.0, (b) 0.1, (c) 0.005, (d) 0.001. As cOf decreases, the diffusion first accelerates ((a)(c)) but then slows down ((c)(d)), thus revealing the existence of an optimal small frequency.
Threshold devices
Threshold devices are reset to an initial state if a given dynamical variable reaches a preset threshold. Such devices, linked to various stochastic systems, were considered in the context of stochastic resonance (see e.g. [12]). We suggest to use them in a different context: the adiabatic ACdrive may greatly increase the mean rate of resets. Consider the model (1) and a threshold in kinetic energy, Kth', Fig. 5 shows an example of the relevant scheme. Let Kth be higher than the barrier height AU and let the temperature T
23
Josephson j unction
^r
drive
M^v^
threshold device
FIGURE 5.
be smaller than both AU and Kth ^U. In the absence of the ACdrive, the mean rate of resets has an activationlike dependence on T: Rocexv{Kth/T), h = 0, T^Kth. (2)
If the adiabatic ACdrive is applied, then the system starting from the top of the barrier may follow the deterministic trajectory reaching a high kinetic energy'. This means that the activation barrier reduces to AU, i.e. the reset rate should drastically increase. We have tested this in computer simulations. The parameters are the same of Fig. 3. The threshold kinetic energy is Kth = 4.5. In the undriven case, R ^ 69 while, for the adiabatically driven case ( / = 0.1, /i = 0.2), R 240100, about 3500 times larger. This huge increase is obtained despite a rather nonsmall temperature: for smaller temperatures it would be exponentially higher. The origin of the effect is the adabaticity of the ACdrive: for the nonadiabatic drive (cof = 2),R^ 7060, about 35 times smaller. Such a strong sensitivity of the reset rate may be used for control or as a new kind of sensors.
REFERENCES
A.J. Lichtenberg and M.A. Liebermann, Regular and Stochastic Motion, Springer, New York, 1992. G.M. Zaslavsky, Physics of Chaos in Hamiltonian systems. Imperial CoUedge Press, London, 2007. G. N. Piftankin, and D.V. Treschev, Russian Math. Surveys 62, 219322 (2007). A.I. Neishtadt, Sov. J. Plasma Phys. 12, 568573 (1986). J.R. Gary, D.F. Escande, J.L. Tennyson, P/;j;s. Rev. A 34, 42564275 (1986). Y. Elskens and D.F. Escande, Nonlinearity 4, 615667 (1991). S.M. Soskin, O.M. Yevtushenko, R. Mannella, Phys. Rev Lett. 95, 224101 (2005). S.M. Soskin, R. Mannella, and O.M. Yevtushenko, in Noise and Fluctuations in Circuits, Devices and Materials, edited by M. Macucci, L.K.J. Vandamme, C. Ciofi, M.B. Weissman, Proceedings of SPIE 6600, 660008 (2007). 9. S.M. Soskin, R. Mannella, O.M. Yevtushenko, Commun. Nonlinear Set Numer Simulat., in press. 10. D. Hennig, L. ShimanskyGeier, and P Hanggi, Eur Phys. J. B 62,493503 (2008). 11. J. Kallunki, M. Dube, T. AlaNissila, Surface Science 460, pp. 3948, 2000. 12. N.G. Stocks, Phys. Rev Lett. 84, 23102313 (2000).
The deterministic trajectory coincides with the regularlike part of the chaotic trajectory though chaoticity is irrelevant
24
INTRODUCTION
Separatrix chaos is the seed of chaos in most Hamiltonian systems [13]. Consider a system of dimensionality 3/2, for which a 1D Hamiltonian Ho{p,q) perturbed by a weak timeperiodic perturbation could be an archetypal example. If//o possesses a separatrix, then the perturbation destroys the separatrix, which is replaced by a chaotic layer. If HQ does not possess a separatrix, the perturbation generates resonances, i.e. areas in the phase plane where the deviation of the angle of HQ from the angle of the perturbation performs regular oscillations [13]. These areas are separated from the areas where the absolute value of the deviation regularly grows with time by thin chaotic layers which may be considered as the separatrices generated by the resonant part of the perturbation which are destroyed by the nonresonant part of the perturbation [13]. Thus, typically, chaos in 3/2 D systems is immediately related to separatrix chaos. In many higherdimensional cases, the origin of chaos is similar. Outer boundaries of the separatrix chaotic layer (SCL) in a Poincare section can be easily found numerically by integration of the Hamiltonian equations with a set of initial conditions in the vicinity of the separatrix: it is easy then to distinguish regular and chaotic trajectories, e.g. using that the former ones lie on lines i.e. ID objects while the latter trajectories occupy layers i.e. 2D objects. But it is important to be able also to describe and to predict various properties of the SCL theoretically. This especially concerns the SCL width, either in energy on in related quantities. There is a long and rich history of the corresponding studies. The results may be classified as follows. I. Heuristic analytic results. Consider a ID Hamiltonian system perturbed by a weak timeperiodic perturbation: H = Ho{p,q)+hV{p,q,t), V{p,q,t+ 2n/(0f) = V{p,q,t), / i < 1, (1)
CPn29, Noise and Fluctuations, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
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where Ho{p,q) possesses a separatrix and, for the sake of notation compactness, all relevant parameters of//Q and V, except possibly / , are assumed to be '^ 1. There were a few heuristic criteria set by physicists (see e.g. [13]) which gave qualitatively similar results for the SCL width in terms of energy E = Ho{p,q): A'(tO/)/KKi/e, el e oc exp(a(Kiy) <c 1, for for t O /  l , (2) ft)y>l.
U'^l
The quantity h\e\ is called the separatrix split [2] (see also Eq. (4)): it determines the maximum distance between the perturbed incoming and outcoming separatrices [15] . It follows from (2) that the maximum of Ai? lies in the frequency range (Of'~ 1 while the maximum itself is '~ h: AE^^ = max{AE{(Of)} ~ h, ^ " " ^ ~ ^ (3)
II. Mathematical results and accurate analytic physical results. There were many works which studied the SCL by methods typical of mathematicians. Thus, for the range / > 1, there were many works studying the separatrix splitting (see the review [4] and references therein) and the SCL width in terms of the so called normal coordinates (see the review [5] and references therein). Though quantities studied in these works typically differ from those studied by physicists [13], they implicitly confirm the qualitative conclusion from the heuristic formula (2) in the high frequency range: if / > 1 the SCL width is exponentially small. There were also several works studying the SCL in the opposite i.e. adiabatic limit (i)f ^ 0: see e.g. [69] and references therein. In the context of the SCL width, it is most important that /sE{(i)f ^0) ^ h for most of the systems [68]. For a particular class of systems, namely for acdriven spatially periodic systems (e.g. the acdriven pendulum), the width of the SCL part above the separatrix diverges in the adiabatic limit [9]: the divergence develops for Of <C 1/ ln(l//i). Finally, there was a qualitative estimate of the SCL width for the range Of ^Iby one of the mathematical methods [5]. Its result appears to be the following: the width in this range is of the order of the separatratrix split while the latter is of the order ofh. Thus, it could seem to follow from the above results that, for most of the systems (i.e. for all systems except the acdriven spatially periodic systems), the maximum of the SCL width is ^ h and occurs in the range (Of ^ \, quite in agreement with the heuristic result (3). In any case (even for the acdriven spatially periodic systems), this conclusion seemed to apply to the width of the SCL part below the separatrix, for the whole frequency range, and of the SCL part above the separatrix, for Of ^ l/ln(l//i). III. Numerical evidences of high peaks in AE{cOf) and their rough estimates. The aforementioned conclusion does not agree with several numerical studies carried out during the last decade (see e.g. [915]) which revealed the existence of sharp high peaks in AE{cOf) in the frequency range l/ln(l//i) ^^ (i>f ^ 1 Intuitively, they were related by authors of [1015] to the absorption of nonlinear resonances by the SCL. For some partial case, rough analytic estimates for the position and magnitude of the peaks were suggested in [10, 15].
26
IV. Accurate analytic description of the peaks. Accurate analytic estimates for the peaks were lacking until recently. They have been done in recent works [1618], where a new approach to the theoretical treatment of the separatrix chaos for the relevant frequency range has been developed and applied to the doubleseparatrix cases [16, 17] and to singleseparatrix ones [17, 18]. The basic ideas of the approach are described below.
(pi = (Ofti, ai =
sign{dHo/dpl.),
where Es is the separatrix energy while co{E) is the frequency of oscillation with the energy E in the unperturbed case (i.e. for h = 0). Consider the two most general ideas of our approach. 1. If the SM trajectory includes a state with E = Es, for any cp ^ nn (where n is an integer) and any a, then the trajectory is chaotic. Indeed, the angle cp of such a state is not correlated with the angle of the state of the previous step of the map, due to the divergence of co^^ [E ^ Es). Therefore, the angle at the previous step may be arbitrary and, hence, the deviation of energy of the state at the previous step from Es may take an arbitrary value within the interval [/ie,/ie]. Obviously, for the state E = Es the variable a is not correlated with that at the previous step either. 2. As weU known [13,10,1518], the frequency of eigenosciUations as a function of the energy near the separatrix is proportional to the reciprocal of the logarithmic factor: (0{E) = bncoo . ^^ ^ , ln( \EE, ^ b= 3sign{EEs) ^ ', (5)
\EEs\^AH
= EsEst,
where Est is the energy of the stable states. Given that the argument of the logarithm is large in the relevant range of ii, the function co{E) is nearly constant for a substantial variation of the argument. Therefore, as the
27
SM maps the state {EQ = Es,(po,(7o) onto the state with E = E\ =Es + Oohe sin(^o), the value of co{E) for the given sign(c7oesin(^o)) is nearly the same for most of the angles ^0 (except in the close vicinity of multiples of n), namely &)() ft)r = (o{Esh) for sign(c7oesin(^o)) = 1(6)
Moreover, if the deviation of the SM trajectory from the separatrix increases further, (o{E) remains close to oy provided the deviation is not too large, namely if Indii  Es\/h) <C \n{AH/h). If (Of ^ (Or , then the evolution of the map (4) may be regularlike for a long time until the energy returns to the close vicinity of the separatrix, where the trajectory is chaotized. Such a behavior is especially pronounced if the perturbation frequency is close to (Or or (Or or to one of their multiples of relatively low order: the resonance between the perturbation and the eigenoscillation gives rise to an accumulation of energy gain for many steps of the SM, which results in a deviation of E from Eg that greatly exceeds the separatrix split /i  e . As a function of /, along the SCL boundary the largest deviation from the separatrix takes its maximum at frequencies close to 0)r or (Or', for the upper or lower boundary of the SCL respectively. This corresponds to the absorption of the Istorder nonlinear resonance by the SCL.
CONCLUSIONS
We have developed an approach which allows one to describe the separatrix chaotic layer in the frequency range where the layer width takes its maximum due to the absorption of a nonlinear resonance by the layer. The approach has numerous applications. REFERENCES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. A.J. Lichtenberg and M.A. Liebermann, Regular and Stochastic Motion, Springer, New York, 1992. G.M. Zaslavsky, Physics of Chaos in Hamiltonian systems, Imperial CoUedge Press, London, 2007. G.M. Zaslavsky, Hamiltonian Chaos and Fractional Dynamics, Oxford University Press, 2008. V.G. Gelfreich, and V.F. Lazutkin, Russian Math. Surveys 56, 499558 (2001). G. N. Piftankin, and D.V. Treschev, Russian Math. Surveys 62, 219322 (2007). A.I. Neishtadt, Sov J. Plasma Phys. 12, 568573 (1986). Y. Elskens and D.F. Escande, Nonlinearity 4, 615667 (1991). A.I. Neishtadt, V.V. Sidorenko, and D.V. Treschev, Chaos 7, 211 (1997). S.M. Soskin, O.M. Yevtushenko, R. Mannella, Phys. Rev Lett. 95, 224101 (2005). I.I. Shevchenko, P/;j;s. Scr 57, 185191 (1998). A.C.J. Luo, K. Gu, and R.PS. Han, Nonlinear Dyn. 19, 3 7 ^ 8 (1999). S.M. Soskin, R. Mannella, M. Arrayas and A.N. Silchenko, Phys. Rev 63, 051111 (2001). A.C.J. Lao, Appl Mech. Rev 57, 161172 (2004). V.V. Vecheslavov, Tech. Phys. 49, 521525 (2004). I.I. Shevchenko, Phys. Lett. A 372, 808816 (2008). S.M. Soskin, R. Mannella, and O.M. Yevtushenko, Phys. Rev E11, 036221 (2008). S.M. Soskin, R. Mannella, and O.M. Yevtushenko, "Separatrix chaos: new approach to the theoretical treatment", in Chaos, Complexity and Transport: Theory and Applications, edited by C. Chandre, X. Leoncini, and G. Zaslavsky, World Scientific, Singapore, 2008, pp. 119128. 18. S.M. Soskin, and R. Mannella, "Maximal width of the separatrix chaotic layer", submitted to Phys. Rev E.
28
Abstract. An orthogonal basis consistent with transient random phenomena is proposed and applied to market data and 1//"noise. For 1//"noise the powerrate spectrum is flat. The basis set leads to a powerrate spectrum and can be used to facilitate the detection of specific signal forms. Keywords: Transient random phenomena, basis set, powerrate spectrum, power spectral density. PACS: 02.50.Fz, 05.10.Gg, 05.40.a
INTRODUCTION
The scientific endeavour related to characterizing random phenomena has a long and important history, e.g. [1]. One important, and widely used, method for characterizing random phenomena is via waveform decomposition based on utilizing a basis set for a specified interval of interest, e.g. [2]. Usually, the power, or energy, of the constituent waveforms arising from the decomposition are calculated and utilized to define a power spectral density or a timescale representation for the random process. Common basis sets include the sinusoidal basis set, which leads to the standard, and widely used, power spectral density function, a basis set consistent with a KarhunenLoeve decomposition e.g. [3] and [4], a wavelet basis set, e.g. [5], which leads to a timescale characterization, etc. In general, the basis sets used are such that the waveforms, or sets of waveforms as in wavelet analysis, exhibit the same form over the interval of interest. As such they are not optimally suited to the characterization of transient random phenomena. For transient random phenomena of a specific type, a custom approach, where the signals in the basis set match the form of the underlying random phenomena, is likely to lead to a better characterization and, hence, a simpler model of the random phenomena. There have been several papers on orthogonal basis sets for the transient case and typically for the interval [0, oo], e.g. [6], [7] and [8]. Such basis sets usually consist of Laguerre, or similar functions, which exhibit exponential decay as infinity is approached. Such basis sets can, naturally, represent transient phenomena of all types. However, in general, the decomposition is likely to be nonoptimal when the random phenomenon yields signals which are inconsistent with the basis set signals. In this paper a basis set for characterizing transient phenomena, and consistent with random walk type phenomena is proposed.
CPn29, Noise and Fluctuations, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
29
Nl c,,b,,(kAt)+ ^
i=l
2^"'l ^
j=l
for A: e {0, 1, ..., 2  1 } , where c,,. is the coefficient associated with b,Xt), and
^^fc = S ^^0^o(*^0,
i=0
r.(kAt)=
^
j=l
c^jbij(kAt),
ie{l,...,Nl}
(2)
X=^+
Y^R.,
i = I
n = Lo,Hi,...,n^^_
1,
R. =
lr.(0),...,r.[(2^l)At]\(3)
The first component, \x, represents a 'dynamic' mean component consistent with the basis signals b^^it), b^^it), ..., b^Q{t). The vector R^ is defined by samples of a n
611(0^12(0 ^^^(^) i'i4(0 b^^{t) ^16(^)^17(0 ' O  0  0 O  0  0  0 4 / 2M 4At 6At HAt lOAt UAt UAt l6At
6IQ(0O 0 0 0 0 0 0
^oo(0 1^
I
ri( i(0
Z
7=1
^1/1/0
ho^'^h^^it) o
2At 4At 6At
622(0 O
10At
623(0 O
t 'iW = l2At UAt 16At
N2 ^ "1
Z .^, ^2/2/0
%At
1*
h (n
^4o(0
i'3o(o
o
7H
<
r^(t) =
^
7=1
Cyby(t)
, ^*
lAt
4At
6At
HAt
lOAt
UAt
UAtdl6At ' O
and
for the case of W = 4 . All waveforms have unity amplitude but some are offset for clarity of display. The basis signals 6QQ(0, 6 I Q ( 0 , , ^ATQCO have a nonzero mean; all other basis signals have a zero mean. The signals r^ , r^ and fj define the first three signalling random processes.
30
signalling random process r^{t), [9], which is based on the basis functions bf^{t), ..., b ^_; (t) and has a rate of X^. = 1/2 A?. Its first 2 components are
zero consistent with transient phenomena. Given a data vector X it can be readily shown that the coefficients in the basis decomposition are given by
2''l
1
CQO
 ^0' k=0
2''+l
ie{l,2,...,N}
(4)
2''l
2''l 2i+k ^ fc = 0
* /
71
/e{l,...,7Vl}
2/+2 +^
^ fc = 0
7e{l,...,2
1}
The average power, P^, in the ith signalling random process r^{t), over the interval [2 At, 2 At], where it is nonzero, is
l^At Pi = 2"'!
i N
\ {2^ 2') At
2 At
r^(t)dt = 2^'l
Z ^[ %J
i=l 2 2 2
(6)
where E is the expectation operator. For the case of E[c] = E[cj^] = a. , for
2 2 2
k^j,
it follows that P = a . For a random walk with a step size of +A, and a step variance of a = A , it can be shown, utilizing the independence between step increments, that the average power in the ith signalling random process R is:
2 ^i 2 ,/l 2 2
P = ^ +2 ^ .I 1 ' 4 12
a 4
A to I , 12X,'
,/!
(7)
for ; e {1, ..., A^1}. The second form arises as X. = 1/2 At and, thus, the powerrate spectrum exhibits a 1/rate form.
31
basis set 1 / / noise appears as 'white' noise. The following is a summary of powerrate spectral forms: White noise (flat power spectral density) yields a powerrate spectrum varying according to rate, 1 / / noise yields a flat powerrate spectrum and a \lf (a power spectral density consistent with a random walk  see ch. 6 of [9]) yields a 1 /rate powerrate spectral form. The proposed basis set can be used to facilitate a test of whether a random phenomena is consistent with a random walk, or has a component which is consistent with a random walk or 1 / / noise. Finally, the proposed basis set can yield greater sensitivity to certain types of random phenomena than a standard power spectral density.
powerrate spectrum
0.00005 0.00001 5.X10'
" 1^
..
*'
5.X10"' l.xlO'
1
ffl
normalized rate
1 .
i
FIGURE 2. Left: Theoretical powerrate spectrum for a random walk (continuous curve) and powerrate spectrum of 4096 values of AUD:USD Forex data (dots) taken with a 10 minute step interval. Right: averaged powerrate spectrum from 1 / / noise simulated consistent with [10] and then filtered. 100 averages and 65536 samples have been used. The roUoff is due to the filtering.
CONCLUSION
An orthogonal basis consistent with transient random phenomena has been proposed and applied to market data and 1 / / noise. The basis set leads to a powerrate spectrum and for a random walk the associated powerrate spectrum exhibits a 1/rate form whilst for 1 / / noise the associated powerrate spectrum is constant. The proposed basis set can facilitate the detection of specific signal forms.
REFERENCES
L. Cohen, IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, 2045, Nov. (2005). L. Debnath and P. Mikusinski, Introduction to Hilbert Spaces with Applications, Academic Press, 1999. M. Loeve, Probability Theory: Part II, Springer Verlag, 4th ed. 1978, p. 144. J. Ardnt, H. Hertzel, S. Bose, M. Falcke and E. SchoU, E. (1997), Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, 8, 19111920(1997). T. K. Sarkar, C. Su, R. Adve, M. SalazarPahna, L. GarciaCastillo and R. Boix, IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, 40, 4970 Oct., 3649 Dec. (1998). H. L. Armstrong, IRE Transactions on Circuit Theory, 4, 286287 (1957). H. L. Armstrong, IRE Transactions on Circuit Theory, 7, 351354 (1959). J. W. Head, Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 52, 640651 (1956). R. M. Howard, Principles of Random Signal Analysis and Low Noise Design: The Power Spectral Density and its Applications, WUey, 2002, ch. 5. 10. R. M. Howard and L. A. Raffel, 'General models for 1/f noise' in Noise in Devices and Circuits, edited by M. J. Deen et. al, SPIE vol. 5113, SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 2003, pp. 282293.
32
INTRODUCTION TO ROADVEHICLE SYSTEMS To introduce problems of interest let us consider the simple quarter car model, shown in fig. 1. It is riding with constant velocity v = const, on harmonically or randomly shaped roads with surfaces Z,, determined in dependence of the way coordinate s.
AlXt
a
Z, = Z COS ujs
Zt
" s = vt Figure 1: Scheme of roadvehiclesystems Running on roads, vertical car vibrations are generated described by the equation of motion Xt + 2Doj,[Xt  Zt) +OJI[1 + 7(Xt  Ztf][Xt  Zt) = 0. (1)
Herein, uji = \Jcjni denotes the natural frequency of the car, D > 0 is its dimensionless damping measure and 7 > 0 determines the cubic spring characteristic of the wheel suspension. In the classical case, the road surface Z^ is harmonically modelled with amplitude Z and middle frequency GJ = 271/1 determined by the wave length .
CPl 129, Noise and Fluctuations, 20 International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Physics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
33
SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF ROADS AND CARS In stochastic problems, waynoise models [1] are introduced by the increment equation dZs = nZJs + adWs , E{dW^) = ds. (2)
Herein, ds denotes the way increment, dWg is the Wiener increment, a determines its intensity and 0 is the associated corner frequency replacing the middle frequency of the harmonic case, mentioned above. The transformation of (2) into the time domain is performed by means of the increments ds = vdt and dWg = \fv dWf. This gives the time increment equation dZt = QvZtdt + a^/v dWt E{dW^) = dt. (3)
In the stationary case, the spectral analysis of (3) leads to the power spectrum [2]
2, 2
SAuj) =
y202
^(^)20
(4)
that is integrated over all spectral frequencies w < oo in order to obtain the root mean square, respectively the rmsvalue a^ of the stationary base excitation Zt Note, that the road spectrum is vanishing for sufficiently slow or fast car speeds, meanwhile the rmsvalue of the road is constant and independent on the car speed.
T
OxjOz
D = .01
D= m
[/a o n
D = .10
0 0
0.4
0.8
1.25
2.5
> V = vfl/uji
oo
Figure 2: Rmsratios of road and car versus related car speeds In the linear case 7 = 0, the spectral analysis above can be extended to the quarter car equation (1) that leads to the following spectral density of the road vehicle system.
Sr.(oj) =
(5)
This spectrum can easily be integrated over all spectral frequencies w < 00 in order to obtain the following vehicleroad rmsratio in dependence on the related car velocity ly. 2Z) + (1 + 4Z)2),y 2D[12D)i
n
with v = V
(6)
34
Figure 2 shows theoretical and numerical evaluations of both, the excitation (x) and response (o) rmsvalues, plotted versus the related vehicle speed for the three different damping measures D = .01, D = .05 and D = . 10. Herein, the applied jj v scaling is linear with ;/ = /i in the undercritical range 0 < /i,;/ < 1 and rationally scaled by;/ = 1/(2 /i) in the overcritical ranges 1 < /i < 2 and l < v < oo, respectively. Note, that the car vibrations become resonant for the critical speed Vc = l and they are completely tranquilized for infinitely increasing speeds. The measurements of fig. 2 are obtained by MonteCarlo simulations applying a simple forward Euler scheme with the scan rate Ai = .001 for A^ = 10^ sample points. The Wiener increments are approximated by normally distributed l\Wn = VArNn. MCSIMULATIONS OF NONLINEAR CAR VIBRATIONS To extend the simulations above to the nonlinear case, the equation of motion (1) is rewritten into a first order form introducing the state process of the displacement Xt and the vertical velocity Xt = uJiYt. Subsequently, Zt is replaced by (3) and all three state processes are normahzed by [Zt, Xt, Yt) = a^{Zt, Xt, Yt). Finally, dimensionless time and noise are introduced by ujidt = dr and ^JuTydWt = dW^, that reduces the five parameters in (1) and (3) to the three ones !/, D and 7. Therewith, the following dimensionless equations are obtained:
dXj = YT dr,
(7) (8)
dYr =
+j{Xr
2D{Yr
 [1 +
^fal
 Zrf]{Xr
with 7 =
Figure 3 shows numerical results (o) of the rmsratios in dependence on the related car speed for the parameter D = 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 7 = 0.2. The results are obtained by means of Euler schemes with the scan rate A r = 0.001 applied for A^ = 10 samples. Straight lines without markers represent the results of the linear S5^em with 7 = 0. 2.5
0"x/0"2
D=0.1
.D=0.2 1.5
35
STABILITY OF THE VERTICAL CAR VIBRATIONS The stability of the nonlinear car vibrations is investigated by the variational equations of (7) and (8), derived by the perturbation setup Xt = Xt + AXt and Yt = Yt + AYf. d{AXr) = AYrdr, d{AYr) = [2DAYr AX^, A K 1, + AXr + 37(X^  ZrfAXr]dT. (9) (10)
Applying the polar coordinates AX^ = A^ cos $^ and Ay, = A^ sin $^, the linear perturbation equations (9) and (10) are transformed to the phase and Inamplitude equation d^r = dr  [37(X^  Zrf cos $^ + 2D sin $^] cos $^(ir, d[\nAr) = [i^iiXr
lT
(11) (12)
According to the multiplicative ergodic theorem of Oseledec, the amplitude equation (12) gives 1 Xtop = lim 7= / [37(X^  Zr) cos $^  2D sin $^] sin $^(ir. (13)
Figure 4 contains numerical evaluations of the top Lyapunov exponent Xtop for the values D = 0.07,0.05 and 7 = 0.1,0.12. The scan rate AT = 0.001 was applied for N = 10* sample points. This analysis shows the Kramers effect [3] that for weak positive damping the stationary car vibrations can be destabilized bifurcating into stochastic chaos. 0.05
D= m
7 = 0.12
^top
'D = m
7 = 0.1
chaos
0.0
Stat.
0.025
fl5= m
0.05 0 7 = 0.1 0.4 0.8 1.25
2.5 00
References
[1] W. Wedig, Dynamics of Cars Driving on Stochastic Roads. In: Computational Stochastic Mechanics ed. by P.D. Spanos & G. Deodatis, Millpress, Rotterdam, 647654, 2003. [2] K. Popp & W. Schiehlen, Fahrdynamik, B.G. Teubner, Stuttgart, 1993. [3] L. Arnold & P. Imkeller, The Kramers Oscillator Revisited. Lecture Notes in Physics, 280291, 2000.
36
INTRODUCTION
Ubiquity of the 1//" fluctuation is still one of the mysteries in science. The main stream of research in ICNF series is about fluctuations of electric conductivity, but there are many other interesting offstream 1//"fluctuation phenomena which suggest a possible origin of this type of fluctuations. For instance, fluctuations in traffic currents on an expressway, ' density modulation of biological action potential impulses propagating on nerve axons, ^ frequency fluctuations of extremely temperaturestabilized quartz oscillators, ^ human heart rates,'' neuron discharge intervals of snail, ^ hand tapping intervals, ^ phonon excitation in a temperaturestabilized quartz crystal,^ imaginary part of a dielectric constant, and so on. The present mathematical approach suggests existence of a universal mechanism for generation of such mysterious fluctuations. The previous theoretical approach ^ is not satisfactory although the final result is supported by experiments and needs no correction. Here an abstract of the full version mathematical manipulations will be described.
FORMULATION
Energy fluctuations of a dynamical system in contact with a heat bath are associated with dissipation processes as is shown by the fluctuationdissipation theorem and the problem associated with energy dissipation of an oscillator in equilibrium with a
CPn29, Noise andFluctuaUons, 20* International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
37
reservoir oscillators was already discussed in detail by Louisell' , in which he starts with the Hamiltonian for creation and annihilation operators of harmonic oscillators. H = hcoa^a + ^ha>jb'jbj + ^Mkjab'j + k'a^bj) + ^hkjfi'jb,. (1) We will focus our attention on dynamic behavior of oscillator a and its number operator n (= a^a). All the oscillators in equilibrium will be subject to the same statistical behavior. Other oscillators b/s are regarded as forming a reservoir to a, and their initial values bj{0) are randomized such that <bj{0)> = 0 in making ensemble averaging. Throughout the following manipulations we make <bj{0)> = 0. The Heisenberg picture and the Schroedinger picture will be used as the case may be. The equation of motion of osciUator a is da / dt = (1 / ifi){aH  Ha), and each of a and bj is separated into slowly varying part and quickly oscillating part as a{t) = A(t)e'""' ,bj(t) = Bj{f)e'""''. The equations of motion including n = N= a^a is N(t) = (l/ih){a*aH^  H^a*a)= ij^ ( kjUb* + k'ja^bj) (2) b = icDjbj ikja Bj{t) = ikjA{f)e'""'"''^' . Integrating Eq.4 gives BAt)Bm = ik, f rf?M(r)e"*"""^"' (5) (3) (4)
under the WignerWeisskopff approximation (HA denotes Hermitian adjoint): Y}k^'^{Mne'"''''^"'"^dt' = {r/2)A(t). (7)
Here 7 is a relaxation frequency. In deriving Eq.6 coupling terms as a^bj play an essential role. Therefore, a simple relaxation process comes from the actionreaction processes between oscillator a and the reservoir oscillators, in which mutual coupling of the reservoir oscillators is ignored. In reality reservoir oscillators are mutually coupled and some part of energy which has been transferred to them from oscillator a diffuses over the reservoir oscillators. This diffusion process works to maintain a part of energy coming from a and feeds it back to a through the actionreaction process. This effect can be taken into account by adding higherorder coupling terms to the Hamiltonian. We investigated effects of terms as a^abj, a^bjbi, a^aabj , a^ab/bi, ab^b^b, and aabjb^ and found out that only the term of a^aabj{= nabj) has a finite contribution to dN/dt after ensemble averaging of the reservoir states. Therefore, kj is modified as (1 + n)kj. The additional higherorder Hamiltonian and its effect on dN/dt are described as H= hriY^kjab] +HA = hY^k^a^aab] + HA (8) and dN^/dt = {1/ ih^NHH N)= mY,kjab] +HA
38
= N{t}^\kjf^'A\t')e"''"''"'^'''"'^dt'A{t} Finally Eq.6 is reformed as dNldt = rNrNN. a state of oscillatory at time t. Then
+ HA = rN{t}N{t}.
(9) (10)
In the Schroedinger picture, \t) is a state of the oscillator system at time t, and \t), is
\t) = Y\\t)r
In the Schroedinger picture we rewrite as N(t)N(t) = {t\NN\ O) in Eq.9;
(; AW 0) = j ' {t\N\ T)P(T){T \N\ 0)dT = j ' {t\N\ r) {T\N\ 0)dT,
(11)
(12)
where p{T)dTis the number of states of \t) betweenr and z + dz, which is replaced by dz{d I dz)). This is inserted inEq.lO; sN{s) 1 = yN{s)  yN{s)[sN{s)  1 ) , where N{s) =
Jo
(13)
ms)=j\if^.
These solutions are approximated in the two extreme cases: N(s) = l/s or l/y for \s/y\l,and N(s) = l/ylys f o r  5 / 7  l .
(14)
(15)
N{s) refers to an impulse response of oscillators and its Fourier transform is given by N{in) where /2 is a Fourier frequency. The effective time length of this impulse response is \l y. With v such oscillators, the power spectral density of the total sum of normalized power (= v) of these oscillators is given by i~ 2 fvr/Q^ (^r)
s^n) = vY\N{in)\ =r
' )
^[
(16)
Suppose each oscillator has a power of A^(0) . Then the PSD of the power fluctuations must be multiplied by (^^(0))^ on Eq.l6, namely (A^(0))^ .S'(/2). The fractional PSD is obtained by diving PSD by a squared total power {yeN(^)f. Therefore, a fractional PSD, Sfraa (^), is given as ^ v^\ I \\lvQ; {QY). [Mb)
Conclusively the socalled 1//spectrum appears at frequencies below v, above which it is of \lf type. Vibration modes of materials are decomposed into harmonic oscillators and they are always accompanied by nonlinear coupling of mode. Therefore, the present theory predicts that 1//fluctuations should be observed. We cannot get rid of this mysterious fluctuations.
39
D I S C U S S I O N and C O N C L U S I O N Let the impulse response function be simply given by g{t) (=N{tyN{Oy), then inverse Laplace transformation of Eq.l3 generates the equation of motion as, = r,(t)rUtr)^dr. (18) dt Jo dr The second term works to slow down the exponential decay in time. Factor g{T)dT is an infinitesimal amount of energy given to the reservoir in dr at timer, and it will decay by gitr) in a remaining time interval t  r up to time t of observation. Therefore, the remaining amount g{t  r) g{T)dT is continuously fed back to the original oscillator, which slows down the otherwise exponential loss rate. This is the meaning of Eq.l8. It is concluded that as long as a collective system is subject to the BoseEinstein statistics, energy partition will have 1//fluctuations and its power spectral density is given by Eq.l7 regardless of whether it is in the classical mechanical regime or quantum mechanical regime, and from the observed PSD we can estimate how many elements (molecules) are involved in generation of the observed fluctuations. REFERENCES
1 . T. Musha and H. Higuchi, Jap. J. Appl Phys. 15 , 12711275 (1976); T.Musha andH.Higuchi, Jap. J Appl. Phys. 17, 811816(1978). 2 . T. Musha, Y. Kosugi, G Matsumoto, M. Suzuki, IEEE Trans. On Biomed. Eng. BME28, 616623(1981); R Graeneis, M. Nakao, M. Yamamoto, T. Musha and H. Nakahama, Biological Cybernetics 60, 161169(1989). 3 . Y Noguchi, Y Teramachi and T. Musha, Appl Phys Lett. 40,, 872873(1982). 4. M. Kobayashi and T. Musha, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng BME29, 456457(1982). 5. T. Musha, H. Takeuchi and T. Inoue, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng BME30, 1943197(1983). 6. T. Musha, K. Katsurai and Y Teramachi, IEEE Trans Biomed. Eng BME32, 578582(1985). 7 . T. Musha, G Borbely and M. Shoji, Phys Rev. Lett, 64,23942397(1990). T. Musha and G Borbely, .Jpn J Appl. Phys.il, no.3B, L370L371(1992). 8. T. Musha, A. Nakajima and H. Akabane, Jpn J Appl. Phys 27, L311L313(1988). 9. T. Musha and M. Tacano, Physica A 346, 339346 (2005). 1 0 . W.H.Louisell, Quantum Statistical Properties ofRadiation,Nsw York: John Wiley & Sons, 1990, p.420.
40
INTRODUCTION
Quantum correlation effects in the nonequilibrium plasma could be traced also in mesoscopics and plasma diagnostics. Recently [1] it was found that the interelectron collisions in nonequilibrium degenerated plasma create additional quantum correlations and produce inputs to the equaltime nonequilibrium correlation. However, not only the initial correlations, but also dielectric properties of the degenerated plasma determine the fluctuation spectrum. The electron formfactor  spectral function of the electron density fluctuations plays an essential role in determining the spectrum of the scattering of an electromagnetic field by a nonequilibrium plasma [2]. Strongly coupled plasma is characterized by its exchange interaction. In the works [3], on the basis of the BBGKYhierarchy, we found a solution for the onetime pair correlation function and obtained the kinetic equation describing the oneparticle distribution function relaxation with the exchange interaction and polarization taken into account. In this paper these results are generalized to the case of twotime correlation functions. For this purpose we start with the dynamic equation for a oneparticle density matrix in the Heisenberg representation. Our approach develops PinesSchriffer method [4] of accounting for the exchange interaction. Our scheme allows us accounting for not only the selfconsistent Hartree field, but the exchange Fock field as well. With the use of the found solution of this linearized equation we obtain an expression for the oneparticle density matrix fluctuations spectral function. The expression for the electric field spectral functions contain the exchange scattering ampltude and dielectric permittivity, which exactly takes into account the exchange interaction of particles. It is shown that this expression
CPn29, Noise andFluctuaUons, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
41
in the thermodynamic equilibrium satisfies the FluctuationDissipation Theorem. A general expression for the response function in presence of exchange interaction is given. Approximate solutions of the equation for the exchange scattering amplitude are used for concrete estimates. THE L I N E A R I Z E D EQUATION F O R THE D E N S I T Y MATRIX We start with the dynamic equation for a oneparticle density matrix N{t,p,p') = a+{t,p')a{t,p), p = (p,cj), (1)
where a{t,p') and a'^{t,p) (p = (p, <T)) are particle creation and annihilation operators in a state with momentum p and spin a . The complete statistical description of the quantum system is determined by the collection of all matrix (1) moments: {N{t,p,p')), {N{t,pup[)N{t,p2,p'2)). (2)
This system of moments satisfies a chain of equations analogous to the BBGKYhierarchy. However it is more convenient not to solve the system for coupled equations, but to use the equation of motion of the operator N{t,p,p'). This exact nonlinear equation describes the dynamics of quantum systems. In this work we will be interested in the twotime correlation function {5N{t,pi,p[)5N{t',p2,P2)) where 5N{t,p,p') = N{t,p,p') {N{t,p,p')) is the density matrix fluctuation. We can linearize equation for operator N{t,p,p'). For this purpose let us represent N{t,px,p[)N{t,p2,p'2){N{t,px,p[)N{t,p2,p'2)) = 5N{t,p2,p[)5{pi p'2) + 5N{t,pup[) {N{t,p2,p'2)) + 8N{t,p2,p'2) + ri5N{t,pup'2){N{t,p2,p[)), {N{t,pup'i)) (3)
+ri5N{t,p2,p[){N{t,puP2))
where rj is 1 for Bose statistics and 1 is for Fermi statistics. Approximation (3) corresponds to taking exchange into account in the BBGKYhierarchy as in [3]. The linearized equation for fluctuation has the form
mjm{t,pup'i)
+ \f{t,p'i)f{t,Pi)]fdp[U{pip\)
where f/(q) is the interaction potential, and'(p) = p^/2m + r7/fifp'f/(2^)/(p') is the quasiparticles' energy. The integral sign in (4) denotes integration over momenta and summation over spins. Introduce two new variables p = (pi + p'l)/2, k = (pi pj )/'h and a new function 5f{t, k, p) = 5N{t, p + ^k/2, p ^k/2). This i^mction is the Fourrier transformed with respect to the space variables Wigner density matrix.
42
FLUCTUATION S P E C T R A L F U N C T I O N S The fluctuation spectral function of a density matrix can be represented in the form (5/(p)5/,(p'))a,,k (5)
= eaAkfa{p)J,ecjdp'[(P(k)
 5aM^^)]Rca'{p'AXz,t)
+ 5aa'5{pq).
(6)
Here we put Uab{k) = ^^^^^(k) = ^ ^ ^ and r] =  1 . The solution of eq. (6) takes the form
Ea{p^),
Akya(p) =
fa{p+f)fa{pf),
^ , (p)  e , y # _ _ _ _ _ _ xp^, (p ) _ g^,y rfp _ _ _ _ , (8)
(9)
The exchange scattering amplitude ra(p,p') for eqs. (79) satisfies an integral equation, which contains only the exchange interaction potential
(lO)
Ta (p, p') depends on k and z as on parameters and is similar to the vertexfunction, wellknown in manyparticle perturbation theory. Integrating (5) over momenta and summing with ea over sorts of particles we get an expression for the spectral function of the nonequlibrium electrostatic field fluctuation with the exchange interaction taken into account (5E5E)),k (11)
5(^coAk'a(q))[/6(q + W 2 ) + / 6 ( q  W 2 ) ] .
43
In the thermodynamic equilibrium, when the distribution function is Fermi, a fluctuationdissipation relation follows from (11) (5E5E)),k = ^ a " ( c o , k ) r t / i  ^ , where a"{co,k) = 4n'J^0{k)ei dq JdpTa{p,q) rHF (co,k)
2
(12)
Ak/a(q)5(^coAkiia(q))
(13)
is the imaginary part of the generalized response function. The spectral function (11) and the response function (13) are expressed by the amplitude of the scattering interaction ra(p,p') which satisfies the linear integral equation (10). The solution of this equation in the case of Coulomb interaction of the particles is difficult and requires an appropriate approximation. The simplest approximation is the replacement of the Fock potential underthe integral of (10) by the averaged over the impulse value ^{^^jf) = 0(k)G(z,k). One form of G(z,k) was found using a variation procedure in [5]. Then, the dielectric function taking into account exchange interaction particles, takes the form e^^(z,k) = 1+P(z,k)[l P(z,k)G(z,k)]\ (14)
where P(z,k) = 0(k)Xae^/^pAi_/a(p)/[fe Ai'a(p)] is the plasma polarization. In this case (11) takes the form {5E5E))a>,^, = 4n^nJ^(^,^^
e(z,k) '
f 5{ncoA^Ea{q))[Mq
nk/2)+Mqnk/2)]dq, (15)
where
~ 2
_ e(z,k) = l + P ( z , k ) ( l  G ( z , k ) ) ,
(16)
and e(z,k)
in (15) plays the role of the screening of the interaction potential 0(k). 47t/e^^{(0,k). REFERENCES
1. R. Katilius and M. Rudan, Phys. Rev. B 74, 233101 (2006). 2. V. V. Bs\y\,Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 255001 (2002). 3. V. V. Belyi and Yu. A. Kukharenko, Contrib. Plasma. Phys. 47, 240147 (2007); V. V. Belyi and Yu. A. Kukharenko, J. Stat Mech. (in press) (2009). 4. D. Pines and J. R. Schriffer, Phys. Rev 125, 804 (1962). 5. F. Brosens, L. M. Lemmens and J. T. Devrees, Phys. Stat. Sol. (b) 81, 551 (1975).
44
INTRODUCTION
The stochastic resonance phenomenon (SR) discovered in the beginning of eighties of last century found its theoretical solution after one decade (see wellknown review [1] and references therein). Probably, it was basic effect with obvious constructive role of noise, and further a number of publications in this area showed an exponential growth because of wide apphcation in different areas of science. At the same time, the analytical results beyond the usually employed linear response approximation [2] was exclusively obtained in the framework of twostate approximation [3, 4]. Some recent results obtained by precise numerics [5] request to develop new analytical approaches for analysis of the nonlinear regime of stochastic resonance. We mean a possibility to calculate more exactly the correlation function of output signal, the signaltonoise ratio (SNR), and the SR gain. Here we offer new modified method to investigate the SR nonlinear regime observed in experiments.
CPn29, Noise and Fluctuations, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
45
FIGURE 1. The dependence of power amplification factor T) on noise intensity D for different values of signal magnitude A in Gaussian approximation. The frequency of input signal is fJ = 0.1.
where: x(t) is the displacement of Brownian particle, E,(t) is white Gaussian noise with zero mean and intensity 2D, A and Q. are the magnitude and the frequency of external signal respectively. The basic idea of our method consists in the approximation of nonstationary probabihty distribution of output signal x{t) in the form of two deltafunctions (as in twostate approximation) but with varying positions of maxima
W{x,t)=p{t)5{x +
a{t))+q{t)5{xb{t)).
(2)
Thus, according to Eq. (2) and the normalization condition p{t) +q{t) = 1, we have three parameters to characterize the power amplification factor ri = (3)
where Pi = (A^+Bf) /2 is the power of the first harmonic of periodic output signal mean value Ao MO) = ^ + ^Acos(MQ?)+5sin(MQ?) (4)
n=l
and Po = A^/2 is the power of input signal. We use the fact that the probabihty density function P{x) of arbitrary random variable ^ generates a sequence of orthonormalized polynomials P{x) with the weight P{x) [6]
XP (x) = SP (x) + V ^ ^ P + l (x) + VR~nPnl W
(5)
where 0 < S < +0, /? > 0. The generating function of the parameters S and Rn can be represented in the form of continuous fraction h(z) 1 ^z/ So1
Siz"2
(6)
46
FIGURE 2. The dependence of power amplification factor T) on noise intensity D for different values of signal magnitude A in the modified twostate approximation. The frequency of input signal is fJ = 0.1.
corresponding to the probability density function P{x). For model probabihty distribution (2) we have in Eq. (6) only three first nontrivial parameters, which are coupled with three unknown parameters in Eq. (2). As a result, from Langevin Eq. (1) we can obtain the following closed set of equations for parameters So(t), Ri (t) and Si (?)
(7) 2D,
Ri
{SiSo).
The abovementioned procedure fits with some specific cumulant truncation scheme. Thereby, a comparison of our results with wellknown Gaussian approximation for two first cumulants of random process x{t) obeying Eq. (1) ki = 3K2KiKl + Ki+AsmQ.t, + 2K2+2D (8)
K2 = 6l46K2Kf
and the next (excess) approximation for four first cumulants kl = K33K2KiKl + Ki+AsmQ.t, + 2D, (9) I8K2K1 + 3K3,
k2 = 2K46K3Ki6l^6K2Kf+2K2 ks = 9K4Ki2lK3K29K3Kf kl =
48K4K2l2K4Kf36Kj72K3K2Ki24K2+4K4
were performed. To solve the systems (7), (8) and (9) and to find the power amphfication factor (3) we use the Fast Fourier Transform (EFT) program and the program ODE45 from MathLab package. The dependence of power amphfication factor on the noise intensity for different values of signal magnitude in the framework of Gaussian approximation is depicted
47
FIGURE 3. A comparison of Gaussian approximation, excess approximation and modified twostate approximation for the power amplification factor. The parameters are A = 0.1,f2 = 0.1.
in Fig. 1. The same dependence for the modified twostate approximation is shown in Fig. 2. At last, in Fig. 3 we demonstrate a comparison of dependencies for three approximative schemes (7)(9). As it is seen from Fig. 3, the value of amphfication is practically the same for Gaussian approximation and twostate approximation schemes whereas the position of the characteristic maximum is different. A comparison with some experimental data and the results giving by the Linear Response Theory (LRT) is also performed.
CONCLUSIONS
We offered new procedure to investigate the nonlinear regime of stochastic resonance, namely, the modified twostate approximation scheme. We compared the results for the power amplification factor given by the ordinary cumulant truncation schemes and the method proposed. The main distinction consists in the maximum position in the dependence of power amplification factor versus noise intensity.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This work was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project 080201259).
REFERENCES
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, L. Gammaitoni, P. Hanggi, P. Jung, and F. Marchesoni, Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 223 (1998). P Jung and P Hanggi, Phys. Rev. A 44, 8032 (1991), B, McNamara and K, Wiesenfeld, Phys. Rev A 39, 4854 (1989), J, CasadoPascual et al, Phys. Rev Lett. 91, 210601 (2003), J, CasadoPascual et al, Phys. Rev E 67, 036109 (2003); 68, 061104 (2003); 69, 067101 (2004), Yu, E, Kuzovlev and G, N, Bochkov, Radiophys. Quant. Electr. 20, 1036 (1977),
48
INTRODUCTION
Contemplations on the nature of "Time" have accumulated various thoughts [1]. For example, the theory of relativity, which has conceptually brought space and time closer to receiving equal treatment, continues to fascinate and attract discussion in diverse fields. In this paper, we attempt a very modest approach to this topic by presenting a view point for considering the concepts of "stochasticity" and "nonlocality" on the time axis[2, 3,4]. Normally, these are concepts we are familiar with in space, but not in time. However, we can obtain rather complex dynamicsl behaviors by considering a combination of temporal stochasticity and nonlocality. We present a simple dynamical model which includes noise in the time variable but not in the "space" variable, which is opposite to the normal description of stochastic dynamics. We call it "stochastic time." Also, the model incorporates temporal nonlocality in the form of delayed dynamics [5, 6, 7, 8, 9]. We shall see that this model can exhibit behaviors which are similar to stochastic resonance[10, 11, 12].
MODEL
The differential equation of the delayed dynamics with stochastic time we discuss here is ^^ = ax{t) + jix{tr). (1)
Here, x is the dynamical variable, and T is the delay. The difference from the normal dynamical equation appears in the existence of delay, and in "time" f, which contains stochastic characteristics. We can define f in a variety of ways as well as the value of T. In order to avoid ambiguity and for simplicity, we focus on the following dynamical
CPn29, Noise andFluctuaUons, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
49
Xt
.0.
p FIGURE 1. ip A schematic view of the model.
map system incorporating the basic ideas of the above equation. Xni^i = (1 axj^ )+px^^x, rik+i = rii + ^i
(2)
Here, ^^ is the stochastic variable which can take either + 1 or 1 with certain probabilities. We associate "time" with an integral variable n. The dynamics progress by incrementing integer k, and n occasionally "goes back a unit" with the occurrence of = 1. Let the probability of ^ = 1 be p for all k, and we set o = 0. Then naturally, with p = 0, this map reduces to a normal delayed map with ^ = k. We update the variable x with the larger k. Hence, x in the "past" could be "rewritten" as n decreases with the probability p. Qualitatively, we can make an analogy of this model with a teletypewriter or a taperecorder, whose recording device occasionally moves back on a tape. A schematic view is shown in Figure 1. The recording head writes on the tape the values of x at a step, and "time" is associated with positions on the tape. When there is no fluctuation (p = 0), the head moves only in one direction on the tape and it records values of x for a normal delayed dynamics. With probability 0 < p,it moves back a unit of "time" to overwrite the value of x. The question is how the recorded patterns of x on the tape are influenced as we change p.
ANALYSIS
We consider the case of a = 0.03, p = 0.05, and T = 15. We have found, through computer simulations, that an interesting behavior arises. The tuned noise in the time flow gives the system a tendency for oscillatory behavior. In other words, adjusting the value of p controlling induces an oscillatory dynamical path. Some examples are shown in Figure 2. With increasing probability for the time flow to reverse, i.e., with p increasing, we observe oscillatory behavior both in the sample dynamical path as well as in the corresponding power spectrum. However, when p reaches beyond an optimal value, the oscillatory behavior begins to deteriorate. This phenomenon resembles stochastic resonance. A resonance with delay and noise, called "delayed stochastic resonance"[13], has been proposed for an additive noise in "space". Analytical understanding of the mechanism is yet to be explored for our model. However, this mechanism of stochastic time flow is clearly of a different type and new.
50
(a)
PiX)
(b)
125
ISO
175
200
PiX)
(c)
PiX)
10
IS
20
25
30
35
40
PiX)
(e)
,s ,
P(;.)
FIGURE 2. Dynamics (left) and power spectrum (right) of delayed dynamical model with stochastic time. This is an example of the dynamics and associated power spectrum through the simulation of the model given in Eq. (3) with the probability p of stochastic time flow varied. The parameters are set as a = 0.03, /3 = 0.05, T = 15 and the stochastic time flow parameter p are set to (a) p = 0, (b) p = 0.15, (c) p = 0.25, (d) p = 0.3, and (e) p = 0.48. We used the boundary condition that x^ = x^n when s < miniji]^ :k < s), and set x^n = 0.5. The simulation is performed up to L = 512 steps and 50 averages are taken for the power spectrum. The unit of frequency K is set as j , and the power P{K) is in arbitrary units.
51
DISCUSSION
We would like to now discuss a couple of points with respect to our model. First, we may extend this model to include nonlocality and fluctuations in the space variable x. In this way, we have a picture of dynamical systems with nonlocality and fluctuations on both the time and space axes. The analytical framework and tools for such a description need to be developed. The question of whether this approach can extend to quantum mechanics and/or leads to an alternative understanding of such properties as timeenergy uncertainty relations also requires further investigation. In relation to the notion of "causality", this model faces a problem. There are, however, works such as Dirac theory [14, 15, 16] and the WheelerFeynman theory [17] related to electrons, which include the effect of state in "future". Also, there is a theory of elementary particles with a fluctuation of spacetime, where the noise term is added to the metric[18]. If we can connect our approaches here to such theories remains to be seen. Finally, this resonance may be used as an experimental indication for probing nonlocality or stochasticity in time, if there are some aspects of reality. We have previously proposed "delayed stochastic resonance"[13], a resonance that results from the interplay of spatial noise and delay. It was theoretically extended[19], and the effect was experimentally observed in systems with a feedback loop[20, 21]. It is left for the future to see if an analogous experimental test could be developed with respect to temporal stochasticity and nonlocality.
REFERENCES
1. p. Davies, About Time, (Simon and Schuster, New York, 1995). 2. T. Ohira, "Stochastic Time," in Frontiers of Fundamental Physics (FFP8), Eighth International Symposium, edited by B. G. Sidharth, A. AlfonsoFaus, and M. J. Fullana, AIP Conference Proceedings 905, American Institute of Physics, New York, 2007, pp. 191194. 3. T. Ohira, Physica A 379, 4 8 3 ^ 9 0 (2007). 4. T. Ohira, J. Stat Mech. P01032 (2009). 5. M. C. Mackey and L. Glass, Science 197, 287289 (1977). 6. K. L. Cooke and Z. Grossman, J. Math. Anal, and Appl. 86, 592627 (1982). 7. J. G. Milton, et al., J. Theo. Biol. 138, 129147 (1989). 8. T. Ohira and T. Yamane, Phys. Rev. E 61, 12471257 (2000). 9. T. D. Frank and P J. Beek, Phys. Rev. E 64, 021917 (2001). 10. K. Wiesenfeld, and F Moss, Nature 373, 3336 (1995). 11. A. R. Bulsara and L. Gammaitoni, Physics Today 49, 3 9 ^ 5 (1996). 12. L. Gammaitoni, P Hanggi, P Jung, and F Marchesoni, Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 223287 (1998). 13. T. Ohira and Y Sato, Phys. Rev. Lett 82, 28112815(1999). 14. P A. M. Dirac, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A 167, p. 148 (1938). 15. F Rohrlich, Classical Charged Particles, (AddisonWesley, Reading, Mass., 1965). 16. B. G. Sidarth, arXive:physics/0701237(2007). 17. J. A. Wheeler and R. P Feynman, Rev. Mod. Phys. 17, p. 157 (1945); 21, p.425 (1949) 18. Y Takano, Prog. Theor Phys. 26, 304314(1961); Y Takano, ibid, 38 (1967) 11851186. 19. L.S. Tsimring and A. Pikovsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87 250602 (2001). 20. C. MasoUer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 034102 (2002). 21. M. Misono, T. Todo, K. and Miyakawa, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn., 78, 014802 (2008)
52
Analytical and numerical calculations of dynamics of polarization and population for twolevel quantum system, interacting with stochastic fields are presented. For the fields we consider two cases: phasediffusion and colorednoise field of arbitrary Stationary values and characteristic evolution times of polarization and population are defined.
Keywords: quantum system, dynamics, colorednoise field, phasediffusion field. PACS: 02.50.Ey, 05.10.Gg, 42.50.Md, 42.65.Sf
INTRODUCTION Studying of interaction of quantum systems (atoms and molecules) with various stochastic fields is of great interest both for fundamental and applied science. For example, modification of atom and molecular spectrum under an influence of cosmic background is very important in astrophysics. Thermal fields generated by solid surface can affect processes absorption and desorption, that must be taken into account in hitech. Development of quantum computers based on employing of single molecules also requires information about noise impact on a "device" operation. Understanding of dynamics of interaction is crucial for these and many other problems. In the literature there are only few papers dedicated to some general points of temporal evolution of density matrix that is not enough for understanding. QUANTUM SYSTEMFIELD MODEL In the presented paper we considered a twolevel system driven by coherent probe field and interacting with stochastic field. The entire system is described by the following Hamiltonian: H(t) = H,+H(t) + V(t), H(t) = d^^E(t),V(t) = di^E(t) (1) where, Hgis the Hamiltonian for isolated system, and ff{t) and V(t) are interactions between the quantum system and stochastic and regular fields correspondingly, du is the matrix element of the electric dipole between the two states. For analytical calculations in the case of phasediffusion field (WienerLevy stochastic process) the equation of motion for the density matrix operator p with Hamiltonian (1) is written as:
CPn29, Noise andFluctuaUons, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
53
dN , ^ ^ r 1 ^  = 2x{t) Im A2 + (o  ^ )
dt ij
/I \
difference, ^(/) = ^(ff(/)e""+g*(/)e ""+'cos/), ito is an amplitude of the probe field and sit) = \e(t)\e"''''' is the fluctuating complex amplitude, with \s{t'\ and (p(t) being the real amplitude and phase, respectively. For calculations we consider a stationary Markov process. In this case the firstorder correlation function is given by: l.s*{t,)e{t,)) = elexp(k  f J / r J , s] = (\s(t)f) (3)
Analytical studies of a quantum system behavior interacting with colorednoise field are based on a paper [1]. In this case the Hamiltonian (1) is rewritten with Pauli matrices, rf. Ho^r,, H(f) = J]e,r,E(f), ViO^ihY^rMae""a^e""), 7.=]^i (4)
'
'
ii
'
The studies in this case are done for weakly nonMarkovian noise with correlation function (3). The numerical calculations (both for phasediffusion and colorednoise fields with correlation function (3)) use equations (2) and are made for a system with parameters (incgs): coo= 10.430 GHz, di2=710"'', no=3.3IO', Ti=T2=10"^. In computer simulations of dynamics the Heun algorithm has been used, which allows to generally solve quantum equations of twolevel system (in timedomain) even for high frequencies and intensive stochastic fields. RESULTS Phasediffusion Field It is shown that the presence of phasediffusion field does not affect the stationary value of polarization, p'l^, but the relaxation time T2 is decreased: ^. nfiAi , = + i:^ (^\
T'n\ (  ) ' + + ^ ' T' AT' Dynamics of the polarization for various intensities is presented on Fig. 1 for the case Tc=I2.510"' (Fig.Ia) and TC=5T0"' (Fig.Ib) (in cgs). It is shown that in the short time regime, when ti:c, phasediffusion field act like a coherent signal, inducing
54
polarization in quantum system. At the moment tZc maximum polarization is induced, and then it decays with characteristic time T^ defined by (3). The stationary value of pl'2 is determined by (3). If T* < T^ , then polarization can be induced several times.
Pu(t)
i^ l ^ l l
(a) (b) FIGURE 1. Computer simulation of behaviour of Pj" as a function of time: (a)xc=12.510"',ej=410^;(b)xc=510', ej=410^; r;=1.710l
It is also demonstrated that estimation of the induced polarization can be made by a model of coherent field. Analysis of population difference dynamics shows that presence of the noise field leads to decrease of the population difference and can be considered as heating of quantum system (Fig.2).
FIGURE 2. Computer simulation of behaviour of A^ as a function of time: (a) Xc=12.510"', EI =410^; (b)Xc=510', el =410^
Colorednoise Field It is shown that absorption line shape is not changed only in case of where di2=d2u dn=d22 and ycoo, then the profile retains Lorentzian shape and relaxation time is given by:
1 T '2 1 T "2 Id^.sl
xi+</r)
(6)
55
Dynamics of yOj" for this case is presented on Fig.2 (in cgs): y =110 , Eo=510" . Maximal polarization is induced in t~ T^'. In this case colored noise destroys induced polarization and heats the system.
,n j 
^ ^ ^ * ^ ^ P I ^ W i ^ W W P B P 5 000E+8^
(a) (b) FIGURE 3. Computer simulation of behaviour of p"^ as a function of time: (a) red curve e^ =0, blue curve e ^ =20, T^ = 6.5 10"" (b) red curve e^ =0, blue curve e ^ U, r, =1.610^
Therefore, the results of studies show that stochastic fields can strongly modify dynamics of a quantum system. It is also demonstrated that crucial role is taken by statistics properties of noise.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This work is financially supported by ISTC 3174, CRDF R U C 2  2 8 6 7  N N 0 7.
REFERENCES
1. K.Faid, R.F.Fox, Phys.Rev., 34, 4286,1986.
56
INTRODUCTION
A sensor network is a system composed of many separate sensors and a data fusion center that gathers the output from all the sensors. Often the sensors are simple devices with low sensing resolution or quality. However, even if individual sensors are simple, it is possible to obtain highersensing performance by aggregation and fusion of the outputs from many sensors. One well known example is quantizing sensors that have analog input and digital output. Even if a quantizer has low resolution, higher resolution can be obtained by combining the outputs from multiple quantizers. Heterogeneity among quantizers can improve the resolution. For example, it is known that setting different values of input bias for each quantizer can give improved resolution, although the optimal control of the bias inputs may be complicated (Papadopoulos et al. [1]). However, for practical reasons it is often preferred that all the sensors are identical and have simple controls. Here we propose the use of sensing noise as a practical way to introduce heterogeneity in a sensing network, and thus improve sensing performance. In particular, we show that in a sensor network which aggregates the results from many multilevel quantizing sensors each having the same input signal, adding independent noise to the sensors can reduce the error between the input signal and output obtained by simply combining the outputs from all the sensors.
CPn29, Noise and Fluctuations, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
57
MODEL We consider a network of quantizing sensors as shown in Fig. 1 (a). Each sensor works in parallel to output a discrete multilevel quantized output corresponding to a common analog input and a data fusion center decides a global discrete output based on the local discrete outputs from all quantizers. As shown in Fig. 1(a), the ;th quantizer receives the common input signal x{t) and individual noise ^^{t) (i = 1,...,A0 and transmits its output y^{t) to the data fusion center. Individual output y^{t) is 7 1 if 0j _) < x{t) + ,(?) < 0,, U = l)! We note that the local quantizer has the threshold parameter set 0. .. N is the number of local quantizers and Q is the number of discrete output levels of each quantizer. The internal state of the data fusion center y{t) (= SiLi7,(0) takes a nonnegative integer value (0 ^ N{Q 1)). The global output z{t) of the data fusion center is obtained from the internal state y{t) using an output table which assigns the value z^ (A: = 0,... ,7V(g 1)) when the value of the internal state y{t) is k. We note that the center has the parameter set, z^. We also note that the sensor network can correspond to one quantizer which can have up to N{Q 1) + 1 discrete levels when local quantizers have different thresholds. We focus on the error in the output z and its dependence on the standard deviation a of the noise distribution. We evaluate quantization performance using mean square error E as follows.
N(Qi) .^
E =
%
k=0
''
ixzfq{k\x)pix)dx.
(1)
Here j9(x) is the probability that the common input signal has value x and q{k\x) indicates the conditional probability that the data fusion center has an internal state k when an input signal value is x. RESULTS First, we want to show that the error between input signal and output can be reduced by adding noise when each quantizer has an identical threshold set (0. . = OX Next, we also show the case of the optimal system in which the error increases monotonically with the noise intensity. In the optimal system the local quantizers have different sets of threshold values. The use of different sets of threshold values means that there is no redundancy in the quantizers. Here we assume that the input signal is a random signal uniformly distributed over a finite range (p{x) : U[1/2,1/2]), and the independent noise has Gaussian distribution (N(0, C7^)). As a particular example of a system with homogeneous thresholds, we show results for a network with T = 4 local quantizers and 2 = 4 four equally spaced threshold V levels, with O = 1/2 + j/A. This set of threshold values is independently optimal for a single quantizer with respect to the given input signal without noise  optimal in the sense that it minimizes E in the case of a single (A^ = 1) quantizer with center parameters z = 1/2 1/(2 x 4) + 7 / 4 . For the A^ = 4 network, we set the center parameters z^ = l / 2 + l / ( 2 x 13) +A:/13. This output value set corresponds to the set
58
of values which would be optimal (i.e. minimize E) in the case when there was no noise and sensors were allowed to have different optimally assigned threshold values, namely 9,j = l/2+U + 3x{il))/l3. Figure 1 (b) shows the dependence of the mean square error E of the discrete output signal on the noise intensity a. Note that the error, shown by the line, corresponding
( Noise J
X
Data &sion canter
(^ig"^i )  C l t e r )
I
(
I Siiml>
Output tabie
Output)
^ Quantizer I
Noise J
(a)
(b)
FIGURE 1. (a) Our sensor network model. Each sensor works in parallel and a data fusion center decides global discrete output based on the local discrete outputs from each quantizer The data fusion center has a summing part and output table part. The internal state of the data fusion center has the nonnegative integer value obtained by summing the individual integer outputs of each quantizer The global output of the data fusion center is obtained from the internal state using an output table, (b) Mean square error E between input signal and output with increases of noise intensity a. Line shows error using an identical (homogeneous) threshold set for local quantizers. Dotted line shows error using the optimal parameter set when local quantizers have different (heterogeneous) threshold values.
to nonoptimal homogeneous thresholds can be reduced by adding noise, and there is a finite noise intensity which gives the least error. We call this noiseassisted quantization. We can show that this noiseassisted quantization always occurs when the quantizer of sensors has an identical threshold set and each sensor senses the same signal with independent noise. On the other hand, when the network is optimal, with heterogeneous thresholds, noise only increases the error as shown by dotted line in Fig. 1(b). For the network to be optimal it is necessary for each quantizer to have different threshold values. We can also see that the two lines in Fig. 1 (b) have a cross point and the error by the homogeneous quantizers becomes smaller than the error by the optimal system at a larger a region. The reason is that the threshold set of local quantizer in both cases is not optimized for each noise intensity value and it is optimal only in the absence of noise. This property of the homogeneous quantizers shows robustness against noise intensity. The sufficiency condition for noiseassisted quantization is still unclear. However, we can show that a necessary condition for noise assisting quantization is that the system is not optimal, where by optimal we mean that the quantization parameters (0.P ,zP ) minimize E in the absence of noise such as (0.P ,zP ) = argmin^g ^ ^ ii. In particular, noiseassisted quantization occurs even though each quantizer has a threshold which is independently optimal with respect to the input signal, as the redundancy (homogeneity) in the threshold values in different quantizing sensors means that the system is suboptimal as a whole. On the other hand, when the network is optimal, noise only increases the system error, i.e. degrades the sensing performance. For the network to be optimal it is necessary for each quantizer to have different threshold values.
59
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This research was supported in part by "Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology: Yuragi Project" of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan.
REFERENCES
1. H. C. Papadopoulos, G. W. Womell and A. V. Oppenheim, "Sequential signal encoding form noisy measures using quantizers with dynamic bias control,"/iiiiii Trans. IT, vol.47, no.3, pp.9781002, (2001). 2. N. G. Stocks, "Suprathreshold stochastic resonance in multilevel threshold systems,"P/;ys. Rev. Lett., vol.84, no. 11, pp.23102313 (2000).
60
INTRODUCTION
A great variety of phenomena such as nuclear decay, autocatalytic chemical reactions, beginning of laser generation, spread of epidemics, population dynamics, after a linearization near some critical point can be described by the following firstorder differential equation
f = /.
(1)
at The sign of the parameter UR defines the behavior of system (1) around the critical point OR = 0: the system tends asymptotically to a stable state or has some kind of explosion. But really this parameter is not constant in time and experiences fluctuations: OR^t) = a + ^ (?), with a constant (real value) and ^ (?) noise. Moreover, the probabihty distribution and the time characteristics of the noise ^{t) play a crucial role in the behavior of such a stochastic system. We consider a random process in the form of 5pulse train ^{t) = fl^d{tti),
i
(2)
where the random intervals between neighboring 5pulses l^i = U tii are mutually independent and identically distributed with the probability density w (Q, that is the socalled renewal process [ 1,2, 3]. The effective (average) period of such a noise excitation is r = (Q. Note that E, (t) represents the derivative of the wellknown continuous time random walk (CTRW) model process with fixed value of jumps.
CPn29, Noise and Fluctuations, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
61
with multiplicative noise < (?) in the form of pulse train (2), under the conditions ^ r <C 1/a and / <C 1. In particular, the evolution of the species density in population dynamics or the number of infected people in epidemics [4] may be described by equation (3). Using the exact solution of Eq. (3) I{t)=Ioe'"exp(l^^z)dz\ we can calculate the morder moment of the random process / (?) {r{t))=I^e"""(exp\m ['^{z)dz\\=I^e"""Y.Pn{t)e"'f",
n=0
(4)
(5)
where P (?) is the probabihty to have n pulses in the time interval (0,?). According to the theory of renewal processes, the Laplace transform P (s) of this probability can be expressed in terms of the Laplace transform w (s) of waiting times distribution Pn{s) = ^[lW{s)]. (6)
Performing the Laplace transform of Eq. (5) and using Eq. (6) we arrive to the following exact result for the Laplace transform of morder moment
+ ma)[le'fw{s
+ ma)]'
^^^
e'"f\w{s + ma)\<l.
(8)
Because of \w{s + ma)\ < w{ma) the mmomentum stability condition for arbitrary probability distribution of intervals between pulses takes the form / <  l n ^ . m w{ma) In particular, for the mean value (m = 1) the sufficient stability condition reads / < l n ^ . w{a) (10) (9)
62
FIGURE 1. The pidse train presenting peaks with parameter of periodicity C,olT equal to 0.8 (high periodicity). The period T is equal to 100 s. After each pidse there is the delay ^o = 80 s (some time interval) during which the next pidse is impossible. After this delay the rate r of pulse train is equal to 0.05. This process is suitable to obtain noise sources with varying degree of randomness.
w(0 =
0, pe
C<Co,
(11)
where p and C,o are some positive values. As it is evident from Eq. (11), within the time interval ^o> after each deltapulse, the occurrence of a new pulse is forbidden (like in neurons). The random process (2) with the probability distribution w(Q of waiting times is known as deadtimedistorted Poisson process and can be considered as an example of renewal process. In Refs. [5] and [6] similar deadtimedistorted Poisson processes are considered as an example of renewal process in quantum optics. In Ref. [7] periodical properties of the process are proved by means of experiments with radiation of 22Na source. The rate of pulse train p can be expressed in terms of the mean waiting time T = {Q
(0 = C + o
(12)
For fixed effective period T, the rate p increases with increasing the memory ^o (see Fig. 1) and p ^ ^ when ^o ^ T. So, in such a case from Eq. (11) we arrive to pure deterministic periodical excitation with the probability distribution of time intervals between pulses w ( Q = 5 (^ ^o) In the opposite situation, i.e. ^o = 0, the random process ^ (?) becomes the white Poissonian noise. Thus, the parameter of periodicity 1^0/T ranges from 0 to 1. It is easy to find from Eq. (11) the Laplace transform of probabihty distribution w{s) (13)
p+s
63
and after substituting it in the stability condition (9) we get f <at;o + \n[l+ma{T t;o)]. (14)
M i + mar)
m
^^^^
For periodical pulse excitation, i.e. ll,o = T,p ^ ^ , Eq. (14) transforms into f <aT. From Eq. (14) we obtain the following critical value of the parameter a, corresponding to the transition from stable to unstable state regarding the m''' moment of the system (3) flc =  + ^ ^ I 1  1 (16)
When the noise with periodicity is included in Eq. (3), we can see qualitatively different behavior of the system, depending on the values of noise amplitude and periodicity.
CONCLUSIONS
The stabihty problem for systems under influence of quasiperiodical noise is solved analytically. A special noise source model, consisting of a pulse sequence at random times with memory, is presented. By varying the memory we can obtain variable randomness of the stochastic process. The variable delay time between pulses produces different kinds of correlated noise ranging from white noise, without delay, to periodical process, with delay equal to the average period of the pulses.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This work was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project 080201259), and MIUR.
REFERENCES
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, D. R. Cox, Renewal Theory, Chapman and Hall, New York, 1967. CGodreche, J.M.Luck Journal of Statistical Physics, 104, No, 3/4 (2001) 489523, O, C, Akin, P, Paradisi, and P Grigolini, J, Stat, Mech, (2009) P01013, O, Chichigina, D, Valenti, B, Spagnolo, FNL, 5, No, 2 (2005) L243L250, L,M,Riccardi, REsposito, Kybemetic 3, Bd,, Heft 3, (1966) 148152, E, Jakeman and J, H, Jefferson, OPTICA ACTA 33, No, 5, (1986) 557576, CFaraci and A,R,Pennisi, Phys,Rev,A 33, No, 1, (1986) 583588,
64
INTRODUCTION Nowadays the problem of the relationship between 1//noise (for example, voltage noise) in semiconductor devices and fluctuations of either carrier density (f5model) or mobility (f5//model) is discussed. This work is devoted to research of the structure and spatial bistability mechanism of defect complexes originated by donoracceptor pairs, which should be one of the potential sources of mobility fluctuation dfi in GaAs based devices. The absence of reliable information about the sources generating \lf noise in mobility {dfi noise) imparts relevance to the problem under consideration. T H E M O D E L OF B I S T A B L E D E F E C T S For an explanation of \lf noise in semiconductor devices, the model of bistable defects (within the framework of f5//model) located in a crystal lattice is widely used [1]. According to this model, the defect can exist in one of two different structural configurations " 1 " and "0" at the same charge state (in other words, it forms a twolevel system), separated by a potential energy barrier it (Fig. la).
CPn29, Noise and Fluctuations, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
65
a)
b)
FIGURE 1. (a) Energy diagram of the bistable defect; (b) movable defect complex of paired type in GaAs lattice
Under the thermal vibration of the lattice, defects can stochastically change spatial configurations, moving between their local states (Fig. lb). Changes of the bistable defect spatial configuration are manifested through modulation of the carrier mobility by the random telegraph process. Ensemble of such bistable defects can lead (under wellknown conditions [1]) to l//"noise in mobility // and, consequently, to 1/f noise in the output device voltage.
66
More information about the nature of bistable defects can be obtained from studying the energy E necessary for defect spatial reorientation (Fig. la). As it is known, the process spectrum has the form of 1// (where /  frequency) if the local barrier heights E are uniformly distributed in a sufficiently wide range from E\ to E2. In case of symmetrical twolevel systems (difference in depth Eh = 0) the lowest and highest comer frequencies are defined by the relation
where/r  frequency of lattice thermal vibrations. Since in the analyzed GaAs FETs [2] the 1//" spectrum was observed at frequencies from 1 Hz to 20 kHz, it is necessary to have a set of bistable defects with reorientation energies E in the range from 1=0.2 to i?2=0.5 eV in order to explain the form of the measured spectrum.
Thus, the vacancy VGa, which is a part of VGaSiGa complex, is displaced from the node of the ideal crystal lattice due to JahnTeller distortion. Reference [7] shows that VGa'^ (with 7 electrons and 1 hole on the vacancy orbitals) should have up to four positions for displacement (shown by arrows in Fig. 2). Each displacement corresponds to its own metastable state. In case of an isolated vacancy, these four locally stable states have equal energy {Eh=0). Whereas presence of SiGa donor near VGa influences the spatial location and depth of the energy minimums, thus destroying the initial energy equivalence of the local states. Analysis of theoretical and experimental data cited in [7, 8] has shown, that for VGaSiGa Containing movable VGa'^, the energy barrier E needed for the reorientation of the entire complex can be estimated as E>0.2 eV. If we compare the magnitude of i? obtained for VGaSiGa complex with the estimated El and E2 for twolevel systems laying in the range from 0.2 to 0.5 eV, we can conclude that VGaSiGa structure is probably one of the bistable (multistable) defects that can contribute to generation of I//noise observed in the analyzed devices.
67
Generally, the defect reorientation energy under the influence of JahnTeller effect can be in the range from 0.1 to 0.6 eV, and defect displacements from the symmetric position in the lattice can reach 1 A. The latter testifies to possible existence of a mechanism, according to which the defects influenced by JahnTeller effect can act as sources of 1//"noise. Thus, further research is needed to determine JahnTeller distortion of lattice and the energy necessary for reorientation of various complexes of defects in GaAs based devices.
CONCLUSIONS
It was shown that the simplest example of complexes potentially existing in nGaAs:Si are such pairs as SiAsSioa , VoaSiGa , SIASISI The mechanism of spatial bistability of the entire complex of defects is linked with the influence of JahnTeller effect on the entire complex or one of its elements. According to this approach, the ability of VoaSiGa to be one of the sources of 1/f noise in research samples is analyzed. The obtained additional information supports the earlier suggested hypothesis about anisotropically scattering spatially bistable defects being a source of 1//noise in GaAs based devices.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The presented research was carried out in Nizhniy Novgorod State University in frames of the Priority National Project "Education", EducationalScientific Center "InformationTelecommunication Systems: Physical Bases and Software", Laboratory "Modem Systems of Signal Processing".
REFERENCES
1. A. V. Yakimov, Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics 42(6), 521524 (1999). 2. A. V. Moryashin, S. V. Obolensky, M. Yu. Perov, and A. V.Yakimov, Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics 50(21 135145 (2007). 3. A. E. Kunitsyn, V. V. Chaldyshev, S. P. Vul', et al.. Semiconductors 33(10), 10801083 (1999). 4. I. A. Bobrovnikova, M. D. Vilisova, I. V. Ivonin, et al.. Semiconductors 37(9), 10471052 (2003). 5. L B . Bersucer, Electron structure and properties of coordination compounds. Introduction in theory, Leningrad: Himiya, 1971, 352 p. 6. N. S. Averkiev, A. A. Gutkin, M. A. Reshchikov, Semiconductors 33(11), 11961201 (1999). 7. N. S. Averkiev, A. A. Gutkin, S. U. Il'inskii, Physics of the Solid State 42(7), 12311235 (2000). 8. A. A. Gutkin, T. Pitrowski, J. Pultorak, et al.. Semiconductors^2(1), 3339 (1998).
Abstract. The feedback loop of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) maintains a constant current throughout the circuit and utiUzes a piezoelectric crystal to control the tipsample separation distance. The piezoelectric crystal is a source of quantum 1/f noise which can reduce detection limits. Both the fluctuations in the timneUng current and the spatial fluctuations of the piezoelectric crystal result in deviations in tipsample separation distance. Here, for the first time, using the quantum 1/f theory, the fluctuations in the tipsample separation distance due to the fluctuating relaxation rate, r, of the piezoelectric crystal are calculated. Keywords: Quantum 1/f noise, piezoelectric. Scanning Tunneling Microscopes, resolution limits. PACS: 87.64.Dz;; 68.37.Ef; 77.65.J
S,_CT{Z,J
2,2 Cli,
2ps^ \+ay
^'^
where C is the specific heat, T is the temperature, y is the Gruneisen constant, So is the speed of sound in the absence of dissipation, Q.o is the resonance frequency of the crystal, p is the crystal density, and x is the relaxation time [1]. To simplify, we let AE = CT <y^> = constant and also use the low frequency Young modulus Eo = p So^ = constant. Now after letting x = Q.o^x^, Eq. (1) can be written
CPn29, Noise and Fluctuations, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
69
^ ^ ' +1 2' 1 + x
(2)
Differentiating, and assuming E  E o l , we obtain an expression for the variation in the Young modulus 5E, which is proportional to the change in the relaxation time 5T
dE=AE
(3)
(l + xf t
^ '
Applying a force to the crystal, or applying a voltage across the crystal, causes spatial displacement, X, in the vertical direction, which we take to be the direction of crystal length. Fluctuations in the Young modulus, Eo, produce tipsample distance fluctuations 5X/X = hEolEo, which gives the spectral density of fractional fluctuations as
1
X En ^0
The relation between quartz quality (Qfactor), relaxation time and frequency given by [1], is Ex/AE~Q^ which allows for the spectral density of fractional spatial Ex/AE~Q^, fluctuations to be written as
4 4 5. ^ 4 ^ 5^ \^ J (1+xr T Q
^2
x'
(5)
Recall that the phonon emission, or interaction, rate T is equal to 1/T , where T is the relaxation rate of the quartz. Therefore, the fractional fluctuations in phonon emission rate are equal to the fractional fluctuations in relaxation rate: 5 sx/x = 5 sr/r According to the general quantum 1/f formula, F"^ 5 r ( / ) = laAJf, where a = e^/hc is the fine structure constant and A = 2(AJ/ec)^/37i is the quantum 1/f effect in any physical process rate F [2], [3]. The current discontinuity AJ in the AmpereMaxwell equation equals the discontinuity AdP/dt in the rate of the crystal dipole moment change dP/dt. The spectral density of fluctuations in the rate F of phonon emission /removal from the main resonant oscillation mode of the crystal can be written
(6)
where (AP )^ is the square of the discontinuity in the dipole moment change rate, in the process causing the removal of a phonon from the main oscillator mode. To calculate this change, we write the energy W of the interacting resonator mode <co> in terms of dP/dt
70
W=nh<co> =2(Nm/2)(dx/dt)^ =(Nm/e)^(edx/dt)^ = (m/Ne^)(dP/dt)^, The factor 2 includes the potential energy contribution. Here m is the reduced mass of the elementary oscillating dipoles, e their charge, and N their number in the crystal. Considering An=l for 1 phonon, we obtain the fractional energy variation An/n =2IAdP/dtl /(dP/dt), or AdP/dt =(l/2n) dP/dt Taking AdP/dt fro the expression of W, substituting it into the last expression here, we obtain an expression for the jump in the rate of change I AP I = (Nh<co>/n)^'^(e/2). Substituting AP into Eq. (6), the expression for the spectral density is then
Y^S^{f) = Nah{o}^^)l37rnMc^f
^^
where N is the number of oscillating dipoles in the crystal, n is the number of thermal phonons at the resonant frequency of the quartz (which we set to unity), M is the reduced mass of the elementary oscillating dipoles, and c is the speed of light. <cOeff > replaces the crystal resonator mode frequency, which is usually much smaller. The frequency <C0eff > is the frequency that gives the average of the quantum 1/f contributions. Indeed, the quantum 1/f effect calculated from Eq. (7) includes contributions from all 3 phonons involved in the process in which a phonon from the main resonator mode combines with a thermal phonon of much higher frequency, yielding another thermal phonon of similar high frequency. The largest contribution will not come from the main resonator 1/n factor, but from the 1/n factor corresponding to the highfrequency thermal modes that have n close to 1. Furthermore, n is the number of thermal phonons at the frequency <C0eff > of the quartz, which we set equal to unity [2], [3]. Each coherence volume e^ of the quartz crystal has independent dissipation fluctuation, with e being the phonon coherence length. Their variances add, and cause a (e^/V) factor to be present in the spectral density of the fractional legth fluctuations for the whole crystal. Using eq. (7), the fractional spatial fluctuations of equation (5) can be written in terms of the fractional fluctuations of the phonon emission rate T
4 '
X
4 '
{f)an{(o. efS
iTinMc'f
' 4 ^^ 6
Q'v'
'iTtnMc^f
Q'v
fyQ'
(8)
Here V is the quartz crystal volume, (N/V) is the number of SiOa molecules in the volume of one unit cell of the quartz crystal, ^ is the squared phonon coherence volume. In this final form, we can make an approximation to the spatial fluctuations in the STM due to the phonon emission rate F of the piezoelectric quartz crystal which controls the feedback loop.
71
DISCUSSION
As a first approximation, assume the piezoelectric element is a cylinder with diameter and length of 1 cm, giving a crystal volume of 7.85 x 10"'' m^. Solving kT = h < C e > , we obtain < c ef > = 6.3 x 10^^ /s. A phonon coherence length of 0.1mm is Of Of assumed, along with a quartz lattice constant of 4.9 A. If there is only one SiOa molecule in the volume of the quartz unit cell, then (N/V) = 8.5 xlO^'' m"^ . The reduced mass of the oscillating dipoles was taken to be 10"^^ kg, at room temperature, where kT = 4 x 10"^^ J. Substituting n = kT/h < c ef > for thermal phonons, and these Of assumed values into Eq. (8), we obtain fractional spatial fluctuations of Ssx/x = 3.6 x 10"^^ / Hz for Q = 1000 and Ssx/x = 3.6 x 10"" / Hz for Q = 100. Finally, to calculate the rms spatial fluctuations along the length of the piezoelectric crystal, 5X, we use the following relation, in the case of Q = 1000,
5X X
r
= A %
3.6x10"''
=\
6x10""
= fTT
y ^
Hz
TTT
siHz
(9)
The rms spatial fluctuations are obtained by multiplying by the crystal length, X, which in this case is 1 cm.
{sx)
6x10"" ^ 'Hz
X =
6xl0""(lcm) ylHz
1= =
0.6x10"' ylHz
/ cm (10)
Therefore, the quantum 1/f fluctuations in this spatial direction are 0.006 Angstroms per square root of Hertz. This means that the piezoelectric crystal in the STM contributes 10 times more error in tip sample separation distance compared with the quantum 1/f fluctuations occurring in a stationary needle without the feedback loop engaged [4].
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The support of the Army Research Office and Army Research Laboratory is thankfully acknowledged.
REFERENCES
1. J.J. Gagnepain, J. Uebersfeld, G. Goujon, P.H. Handel, "Relation between 1/f Noise and Qfactor in Quartz Resonators at Room and Low Temperatures," 35"" Annual Symposium on Frequency Control, Philadelphia, pp. 476483 (1981). 2. P.H. Handel, "Noise, Low frequency," Wiley Encyclopedia of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, vol. 14, pp. 428449, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., John G. Webster, Editor, (1999). 3. P.H. Handel, A.G. Tournier, "Nanoscale Engineering for Reducing Phase Noise in Electronic Devices," Proceedings of the IEEE Vol. 93, No. 10, October 2005, pp. 17841814 4. A. Truong, P. Handel, and P. Fraundorf " Quantum 1/f Biochemical Detection Limits in THz Signatures Revealed by STM Currents", IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 8 No.6, pp. 10201027 (2008).
72
INTRODUCTION In the Boltzmann equation (BE) scattering events are instantaneous and the power spectral density (PSD) of the corresponding Langevin force for scattering is therefore white [1,2]. A generalization of the BE can be derivedfromthe workof I. Levinson [3], where the quantum treatment of scattering leads to a finite duration of the scattering events. This is called coUisional broadening and its impact on transport has been widely studied (e.g. [4]). The question remains, how this affects noise. THEORY Here, we use the form of the Levinson equation (LE) given in Ref. [5] for spherical and parabolic bands (e = Tp'Ji^/2m), homogeneous real space conditions, zero electric field, nondegenerate conditions, and constant matrix element phonon scattering (silicon) df{k,t) _ Q II* dt K'h{2Kf ^ c^cos[a^(Xl')(??')]/(A',?') c,7Cos[a,7 {k'\k){tt')]f{k,t')&^l<!&t' with a^(k\k') = he(k)e(i')n(a^]. (2) (1)
hcDr^ is the energy transfer of the scattering process r\ and c,, the corresponding scattering constant, where optical and elastic acoustic phonon scattering is considered [6]. Under
CPn29, Noise and Fluctuations, 20"" International Conference flCNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
73
stationary conditions the convolution integral reduces to an energy conserving deltafunction 1 cos.[a^(k\k){tt')\At' = 5 a,,(XA') =5 e(k)e(l<')%(0^ (3)
and the BE is recovered. Thus, at least for zero fields the impact of coUisional broadening vanishes under stationary conditions. Noise can be calculated by solving the LE for the autocorrelation function of velocity. Under the above mentioned conditions the PSD of velocity can be calculated exactly in the frequency domain by analytical means with S^{oi) = 49t v{k)'^Fy{k,a))d^k (4)
{2nf
and the Fourier transformed LE for the conditional probability of velocity io)Fy{k,o)) = feJe{k))v{k) d{ar,{k\k') 0)) + d{ar,{k\k') + (o) 5{aT^(k'\k)(o) + 5{aT^(k'\k) + (o)
1(0
nia^jiklt)  (0^
ICO
Fy{k',a)) (5)
n[a^{k'\k)(o2
Fy(k,co)}d^k'.
Based on the outscattering part of the collision integral a complex valued microscopic relaxation time (MRT) can be defined for the velocityrandomizing scattering processes 1 TLE(e,(s) ^ 1)^
Q
n[a?j{k'\k)(o2
S{etio))+S{e 2
where the total scattering rates depend only on energy for the given scattering processes S{e) S{e) = =
Q
(2^)^ IF
I CT^S e(k'){e
+ na)T^) d^k",
(7) (8)
74
OJ
,o, ^ o o 10
>
o
Q CL
10
\ 1 + lft)T^^
(10)
eq^
(11)
RESULTS
For zero frequency the PSD based on the LE reduces to the result of the BE. Thus, also in the case of noise the BE is recovered for low frequencies. Huge differences between both approaches can be expected only at higher frequencies (Fig. 1), where the PSD of the LE decays with frequency only with the power of 1.5 instead of 2, because at high frequencies the real and imaginary parts of the inverse microscopic relaxation time are both proportional to the square root of the frequency. The relative difference of both results is shown in Fig. 2 and at room temperature the error of the assumption of instantaneous scattering exceeds one percent only at frequencies above 150GHz.
CONCLUSIONS
We have presented for the first time an exact analytical solution of the LE for noise at equilibrium. This result gives more insight into the problem of collisional broadening
75
than numerical calculations. The BE is recovered in the stationary limit for transport and at zero frequency for noise. In silicon at room temperature a nonnegligible impact of colhsional broadening is found only for frequencies above about 150GHz. For weaker scattering (e.g. lower temperatures) and thus higher mobilities the impact increases.
REFERENCES
1. S. Kogan, Electronic Noise and Fluctuations in Solids, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, 1996. 2. S. V. Gantsevich, V. L. Gurevich, and R. Katilius, Nuovo Cimento, 2, 5 (1979). 3. I. Levinson, Sov. Phys. JETP, 30, 362 (1970). 4. L. Reggiani, P. Lugli, and A. P Jauho, Phys. Rev. B, 36, 66026608 (1987). 5. M. Nedjalkov, H. Kosina, R. Kosik, and S. Selberherr, Microelectronic Engineering, 63, 199203 (2002). 6. R. Brunetti, C. Jacoboni, F. Nava, L. Reggiani, G. Bosman, and R. J. J. Zijlstra, J. Appl. Phys., 52, 67136722(1981). 7. W. Brauer, and H. W. Streitwolf, Theoretische Grundlagen der Halhleiterphysik, Vieweg, Braunschweig, 1977, 2nd edn.
76
Modeling and Measurements of Low Frequency Noise in SingleWalled Carbon Nanotube Films with Bulk and Percolation Configurations
Ashkan Behnam, Ant Ural, and Gijs Bosman
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA Abstract. Monte Carlo simulations and noise modeling are used to study the scaling of 1//noise in singlewalled carbon nanotube films as a function of device parameters and film resistivity. This computational approach provides a general framework for the characterization of 1//noise in nanotube films and explains experimental observations. Keywords: 1/f noise, percolation, carbon nanotube films. PACS: 73.50.h,73.50.Td, 73.63.Fg.
INTRODUCTION
Singlewalled carbon nanotube (CNT) twodimensional networks and threedimensional films attract significant research attention due to the fact that they are transparent, conductive, flexible, and have uniform physical and electronic properties since individual variations in nanotube diameter and chirality are ensemble averaged [1]. As a result, the reproducibility and reliability problems found in devices based on individual nanotubes are resolved, and CNT film based devices can be mass produced in a cost effective manner. Several promising device applications of CNT films have been demonstrated, such as thin film transistors, flexible microelectronics, optoelectronic devices, and chemical sensors [2]. It has been shown that for both single nanotubes (regardless of their intrinsic parameters like diameter and chirality) and CNT films, 1// noise levels can be quite high compared to other conventional materials [3]. As a result, determining the device 1//noise level, its origin and its scaling with various CNT film parameters will assist in validating the applicability of CNT films for purposes where device noise cannot be ignored. In this paper the results of MonteCarlo low frequency noise simulations as a function of film thickness, width and length will be presented and compared with experimental data. The film feature sizes are chosen in such a way that transitions from bulk to percolation transport can be observed both in terms of resistivity and 1/f noise magnitude. Whereas the low frequency noise in the bulk domain scales with feature sizes as expected from Hooge's law [4] and the resistivity is a constant, a variety of power laws for the dependence of both the relative 1/f noise magnitude and resistivity on critical feature sizes are observed approaching percolation.
CPn29, Noise andFluctuaUons, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
79
j2  yljll^^n^nK'
(1)
where i is the current, A is the relative 1/f current noise magnitude, and r is the resistance of the tube or junction associated with the th individual noise source. Based on experimental results, we have used A = IQ^" Rg/l for the 1// noise amplitude of individual nanotubes, where / is expressed in microns and RQ = 6.5 kQ.[7]. Unlike individual nanotubes, determining A for tubetube junctions based on the available experimental literature is rather difficult. In this work, a relationship \ = ar^ was assumed with a = 10"^ Q.'^.
EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
The CNT films used in our study were deposited by vacuum frltration on a (100) silicon wafer with a 500 nm layer of thermally grown SiOi on top [6]. From AFM
measurements it was estimated that most nanotubes in the film had lengths in the range of 110 jim. The CNT film was subsequently patterned and etched to produce four point probe structures with film lengths L between 7 and lOOOjim, width W between 200nm and lOOjim, and film thickness t between 15 and 75 nm. Low frequency noise measurements between IHz and 100 kHz were carried out using a low noise amplifier and spectrum analyzer. Strong 7/f noise spectra were observed scaling with the DC current squared.
10
FIGURE 1. Loglog plot of the noise amplitude normalized by resistance (AIR) versus device length for a singlelayer nanotube network. Experimental data from 2D nanotube networks of Snow et al. [8] is shown by the filled circles. Our simulation data points for singlelayer devices with W =2 am, Icm = 2 am, n= 5 am , and L ranging from 2 to 20 am are shown by the open circles.
The dashed line in Fig. 1 is the powerlaw fit to the experimental data, yielding that A/R  L'^with a critical exponent a= 1.3, in agreement with the simulation data for 8 < L < 20 jim. The decrease in the noise amplitude with device length is consistent with Hooge's classical empirical law [4] where the 1/f noise amplitude A varies inversely with the number of charge carriers N in the device, i.e. A  1/N. However, since the resistance of the CNT film device is given by R=pLAVt, where p is the resistivity, and A'' scales with the device volume, i.e. A''  LWt, A/R is expected to scale as A/R  L~ . Previously, it was suggested that the deviation from this ideal result is due to nonuniformity of the CNT network [8]. Our results, on the other hand, suggest that the observed exponent is probably due to the effect of other device parameters on the 1/f noise amplitude.
81
To illustrate this point further. Fig. 2 shows how the film thickness t affects the scaling of A/R with L.
10^ 10^^ 10^^
r
ftbn
1
* ^ ^''P g.^ jg layers) Sim (3 layers) Fit to Sim
IWgo^ ^ ni^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^^
V V
a
D:10"
r
V
N
N
1
1 ^ 1
^ V.
. . .
10
1000
FIGURE 2. Loglog plot of noise amplitude normalized by resistance {AIR) versus device length for multilayer nanotube films. Filled circles represent our own experimental measurements of CNT film devices with 15 nm thickness, 50 ^,m and 1000 ^tm device length, and device widths ranging from 2 to 50 ^,m. Open circles and squares are simulation data points for devices with a film thickness of i = 16 nm (8 layers) and t = 6 nm (3 layers), respectively, where the other simulation parameters are W = 2 \un, IcNT = 2 \un, n = 1.25 ^,m , and L ranging from 2 to 14 ^,m.
Two curves are illustrated for films consisting of 3 and 8 layers, respectively. The extracted critical exponents from the powerlaw fits to the simulation data for L > 6}im are a= 0.8 and a= 1.9, respectively. For comparison with the simulation data, our own experimental measurements of the 1/f noise amplitude in CNT film devices with 15 nm thickness, 50 }im and 1000 \na device length, and device widths ranging from 2 to 50 \na are also shown in Fig. 2 as filled circles. As can be seen, the simulation results for the f = 16 nm CNT film are in excellent agreement with the experimental data, and both exhibit a critical exponent which is very close to the ideal bulk case of a= 2. The resistivity scaling with device width close to the percolation threshold has been experimentally observed to be significantly more pronounced than that with device length [6]. This point is also evident in the simulation data shown in the inset of Fig. 3. The results of simulations to investigate the scaling of 1/f noise with device width in the CNT film are shown in the main panel of Fig. 3. Two regions can be distinguished. For W > 2 }im, A is inversely proportional to W (the powerlaw exponent extracted from the dashed line fit to the data is W^'^). This variation is expected, since A ~ 1/N, and the number of carriers A increases linearly ^ with device width and the resistivity is constant in this regime, as seen in the inset of Fig. 3. However, for W < 1 }im, there is a strong powerlaw relationship between A and W with a critical exponent extracted from the fit equal to 5.6. This shows that the variation of resistivity has a strong effect on the noise in this region.
82
10 =
1
1 Width (nm)
0.5 Width (nm) FIGURE 3. Loglog plot of computed A versus W for a device with L = 5 ^,m, t = 16 nm and other parameters same as in Fig. 2. There are two separate scaUng regimes. The extracted exponent of the dashed Une fit for large widths (where resistivity is constant) is 1.1. The extracted exponent of the dashed line fit for small widths is 5.6. The inset shows a loglog plot of resistivity versus device width for the same device as in the main panel.
As we have seen in Fig. 2 CNT film thickness has a strong effect on the noise scaling with device length as confirmed experimentally by Soliveres et al. [9]. Next, we investigate this dependence by our simulations. The inset of Fig. 4 shows a loglog plot of resistivity versus number of layers (i.e. thickness) where resistivity is almost constant for films with 10 layers or more, while strong inverse power law dependence of resistivity on thickness exists for thin films near the percolation threshold.
10^
' '
.
.ts ^^
>.
g10"^
"
0.1
= n
ro A
._
 C
,^ X
< 10""
10 Thickness (Layers)
^
Sim Fit
_^ ^
10'
0.02
0.5
FIGURE 4. Loglog plot of computed A x t versus resistivity, The inset shows a loglog plot of resistivity versus device thickness for the same device.
The main panel shows the loglog plot of the 1/f noise relative amplitude normalized by thickness, A x f, versus resistivity computed for the same CNT film device as in the inset. The normalized amplitude A x fis used because A varies with thickness linearly in the regime when resistivity is constant. The simulation data can be fit by A X f ~ /'', where the extracted critical exponent is V = 1.8.
83
CONCLUSIONS
The data show that the relative 1/f noise amphtude of CNT films may depend strongly on device dimensions and on the film resistivity, following a powerlaw relationship with resistivity near the percolation threshold after properly removing the effect of device dimensions. Furthermore, the noiseresistivity and noisedevice dimension critical exponents extracted from the powerlaw fits are not universal invariants, but rather depend both on the parameter that causes the change in resistivity and noise, and the values of the other device parameters.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This work was funded in part by the University of Florida Research Opportunity Seed Fund.
REFERENCES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Z. Wu, Z. Chen, X. Du, J. Logan, J. Sippel, M. Nikolou, K. Kamaras, J. Reynolds, D. Tanner, A. Hebard, and A. Rinzler, Science 305, 1273 (2004). E. Bekyarova, M.E. Itkis, N. Cabrera, B. Zhao, A.P. Yu, J.B. Gao, and R.C. Haddon, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 5990 (2005). P. G. Collins, M. S. Fuhrer, and A. Zettl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 894 (2000). F. N. Hooge, Phys. Lett. A 29, 139 (1969). S. Kumar, J. Y. Murthy, and M. A. Alam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 066802 (2005). A. Behnam and A. Ural, Phys. Rev. B 75, 125432 (2007). Y. M. Lin, J. Appenzeller, J. Knoch, Z. Chen, and P. Avouris, Nano Lett. 6, 930 (2006). E. S. Snow, J. P. Novak, M. D. Lay, and F. K. Perkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4172 (2004). S. Soliveres, J. Gyani, C. Delseny, A. Hoffmann, and F. Pascal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 082107 (2007).
84
1/f noise, transport and percolation in carbon nanotube film fieldeffect transistors: simulation and experiments
S. Soliveres, F. Martinez, A. Hoffmann, F. Pascal
IIES  UNWERSITE MONTPELUERIIUMR CNRS 5214
Abstract. In this paper we present a model for electrical properties of carbon nanotube film fieldeffect transistors. The model, based on carbon nanotube physics uses Landauer formalism and tight binding calculation. The total film is described as an electrical network .A modified nodal analysis provides DC and noise characteristics. Theses simulations are in good agreements with experimental results. Keywords: carbon nanotube film fieldeffect transistor, 1/f noise, transport. PACS: 73.63.Fg
INTRODUCTION
The properties of an individual nanotube make it interesting to use in microelectronic as transistor (CNFET). If the fabrication of high quality and reproducible CNFETs remains a difficult challenge, sensor apphcations using large quantities of CNTs are already available. The sensors consist of fieldeffect transistors based on films of CNTs arranged randomly. Although transport properties in individual nanotube have been intensively studied, little is known about structures with large quantities of CNTs. In this paper, we show that percolation dominates the transport and the noise properties of these films. A transport model is presented which allow to reproduce experiment and to predict the behavior of noise and conduction in CNTs films transistors.
85
nanotubes. Considering the large mean fiee path in CNTs and the weak coupling between NTs, we assume that the contacts between NTs dominate the transport through the film. From a macroscopic point of view, the NT film is modeled as a percolation network. Percolation networks have electrical properties that vary rapidly at the vicinity of the percolation threshold and follow power laws related to the density of NTs. In order to get a microscopic understanding of the transport phenomenon, we have developed a simulator for the electrical properties of CNTs films. The objective is to provide a physical interpretation of experiments and to predict DC and noise behaviors of CNTs film transistors. Nanotubes are set randomly on a surface and wide electrodes are defined to form source and drain with a low contact resistance. Each intersection between tubes (metal/metal, metal/sc or sc/sc) is modeled as a dipole with a dynamic resistance re. The hopping from a tube to another is modeled as a perturbation in the transmission probabilities in the framework of Landauer formalism. Transmission probability depends on the nanotube charge and on the energy barriers between nanotubes. Charge inside a tube is calculated self consistently with potential taking into account the gate voltage and the density of states. The energy barrier is obtained by a first neighbor tightbinding calculation. From these values, the transmission probability is obtained by WKB approximation (to reduce computational time). In the considered experimental conditions each junction exhibits only 1/f noise source. The current noise spectral density is expressed as Sj (f )=KP/f with K=10''r^ [1]. Figure 1 shows the simulated current of a SCSC junction of crossed nanotube controlled by the gate bias. Finally, the total CNT film is modeled as an electrical network. A modified nodal analysis provides DC and noise characteristics.
6e8 5e8 4e8 3e8 2e8 1e8
0.2
0.4
0.8
o.e
VG(V)
two quantities follow power laws with critical exponent 4 for the conductivity and K for the noise, as expected in percolation processes. Figure 2binset shows that K is related to the conductivity by an exponentw = KIt^, which lead to a CNT film noise RS where R is the film resistance, and S the L section area. This expression explains the different empirical relations found in literature [3]. model function of the design K
i.
^
10= TO" TO"
1 V
x5
\ ,
ltf
KC 1 3*l
"v^^^
CTsp^m)
(b)
0 10 NL NL 10 19 14
16
\
18
FIGURE 2. a: Conductivity (x) obtained from measurements and power law () versus the number of deposited layers, b: Noise coefficient (x) obtained from measurements and power law () versus the number of deposited layers.
Simulations Device simulations are performed using the model presented previously. Figure 3a,b shows the simulated potential along a device for VDS=1 V. For high CNTs densities the potential decreases linearly. For low CNTs densities, the potential drop is not homogeneous and there is dispersion in nanotube potentials. 1/f noise is more important in the non homogeneous parts and contributes mainly to the total noise. Figure 4a and 4b present simulated conductivity and the noise coefficient K for the different densities. The curves clearly exhibit the same behavior than experimental results (figure la and lb), with similar exponents. Figure 5 presents a simulation of the drain current versus gate voltage for a CNT film composed of semiconductor nanotubes only. It indicates that transistors with very good lON/IOFF ratio could be competitive if it were possible to sort metallic and semiconductors nanotubes.
1
0.8
o.6
0.4 i
(b)
0 L(m) ^,p. 1 2 L(m
**
5 ^.,06
FIGURE 3. NT potentials along the film for a density of (a) 125 NT/jim^ and (b) 25 NT/jim^
87
103
 power law with tc=2 1 simulation
a 102
b
10' 10= 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 200 400 e O 800 1000 1200 1400 O NT density {UJI\inf) NT density (NT/Mrrf) F I G U R E 4. a: Simulated conductivity (o) and power law () versus the N T density, b: Simulated noise (o) coefficient and power law () versus the N T density. W / L = l n m / 4 n m . 10'
0.4
0.6
F I G U R E 5. Simulated current and noise coefficient versus the gate bias for a C N T transistor, for 60 NT/jim^. W / L = l / 4 n m .
CONCLUSION
In summary, we have shown that percolation greatly influence the noise and the conductivity for CNTs film. Nonhomogeneous films lead to very high noise. We have developed a simulator based on random generated CNT film. Contact between tube compact model lead to simulation of DC and lowfrequency noise behaviour, taking into account percolation transport. A very good agreement with experiments is observed. Prospective simulations on transistors have been performed showing potentially good performances for such devices.
REFERENCES
1. A. Benham, G. Bosman, A. Ural, Phys. Rev. B 78, 085431 (2008) 2. S. Soliveres, J. Gyani, C. Delseny, A. Hoffmann and F. Pascal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 082107 (2007) 3. E. S. Snow, J. P. Novak, M. D. Lay and F. K Perkins, Appl. Phys. Lett 85, 4172 (2004)
Analysis Of Current Noise During The Resistive Transition Of MgB2 Thin Films Produced By The Application Of An External Magnetic Field
V.Andreoli^ P.Mazzettf, A.Stepanescu^ M.Rajteri'', C.Portesi'', E.Monticone'', E.Taralli'', C.Gandinf and A.Masoero''
"Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degUAhruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica INRIM, Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino, Italy 'Dipariimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Avanzate, Universita del Piemonte Orientals "Amedeo Avogadro", Via Bellini 25/G, 15100 Alessandria, Italy Abstract. The excess noise observed during the resistive transition of a superconducting material can be used to shed light on the microscopic processes underlying the transition itself. In a previous paper [1] it has been proposed a model to explain the large noise observed during the resistive transition of MgB2 superconducting films, obtained by slowly increasing the specimen temperature across its critical value when a d.c. bias current is applied. The amplitude and frequency behaviour of the noise power spectrum, simulated with this model, are in good agreement with the experimental data. The model is based on the onset of correlated transition of large sets of grains forming resistive layers through the specimen cross section, giving rise to resistance steps. It is assumed that these events produce the large noise, of \lf type in the low frequency range, observed in the experiments. To compare this model with alternative ones, based on dissipative effects produced by fluxoid dynamics, new results, obtained by producing the transition by varying an applied magnetic field, are reported in this paper. The fact that the transition noise remains practically unchanged, even if the fluxoid density is much increased by the magnetic field, suggests that the transition mechanism proposed in the described model is more appropriate than the one based on fluxoid dynamics. Keywords: resistive transition, magnetic field, dynamic noise PACS: 72.70.+m, 74.40.+k, 74.70.Ad
INTRODUCTION
The analysis of current noise, produced in stationary and non stationary conditions during the resistive transition of polycrystalline samples, can be used to understand the microscopic processes at the base of the transition itself, and to improve the signal to noise ratio in bolometers and transitionedge sensors. In a previous paper [1] it has been proposed a simple model to explain the noise observed during the resistive transition of MgBa polycrystalline films, which is alternative to other models based on fluxoid dynamics. According to this model, the transition process is characterized by a large noise, due to avalanche transition processes among the grains, giving rise to abrupt resistance steps. In the model these steps correspond to the creation of resistive layers across the specimen, formed by grains which have undergone the resistive transition. By
CPn29, Noise andFluctuaUons, 20* International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
assuming a Gaussian distribution for the grains critical currents, the power spectrum of the transition noise of a nanogranular MgBa film could be calculated and found in good agreement with the experimental data. In particular, the large noise at low frequency appears to exclude alternative models based on fluxoids motion within a matrix of pinning centers, which would justify a transition noise not much larger than the stationary one. To make a further check of the model, measurements of the transition noise power spectrum were taken in the presence of a static magnetic field [2]. In that paper it was proved that, while the application of the field shifts the transition towards smaller temperatures, it does not alter the mechanism at the base of the transition process, since no variations of the noise power spectrum intensity and frequency behavior was observed, as expected if fluxoid depinning and motion would be responsible of the transition process. In the present paper additional proofs of the validity of the model are reported by producing the transition by varying the external magnetic field and keeping the bias current and temperature constant. The results show that, when the transition occurs with the same rate of change of the film resistance, the noise power spectrum is identical to the one produced in the absence of magnetic field by slowly increasing or decreasing the specimen temperature. EXPERIMENTAL The reported experiments have been performed on a MgBa film prepared at the I.N.Ri.M. institute. The film has been prepared by a growth process characterized by a simultaneous evaporation of Mg and B on a SiN substrate kept at 570K. Mg and B precursors were annealed in situ at 773K for 300s in argon atmosphere at a pressure of Imbar. The film thickness was 150nm and the active area of the film (1 x l)mm^. The average grain size was estimated of being between lOnm and 20nm. The specimen was sealed within a copper container filled with helium, put in a cryocooler and located between the poles of an electromagnet powered by a Kepco power amplifier driven by a low frequency oscillator . A standard four contact technique was used for the resistance and noise power spectrum measurements during the transition process. An extra low noise stepup transformer was used for the noise signal detection and as a highpass filter to suppress the dc component of the power spectrum. The stepwise voltage pulses, related to the formation of resistive layers, are changed by the transformer in exponentiallike pulses. Fig.l shows the transition curves for two different values of applied field. Fig.2 shows the noise power spectra without applied field and for an applied field varying from 56G to 1560G. The external field was applied perpendicular to the film surface. These results show that the magnetic field reduces the material critical current density, but it does not have any effect on the transition noise. This fact is in good agreement with the transition mechanism proposed in [1], since it is expected that the field simply reduces the superconducting grain critical current, shifting the transition curve towards lower temperatures, as shown in Fig.l.
90
/=10mA,if=800G
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
temperature (K) FIGURE 1. Shift of the transition curves along the temperature axis due to a change of the applied field.
91
r=35.5 K T: 35.536.5 K
2 / = 10 mA, H=0,
> B
lE17 lE18
100
1000
frequency (Hz) FIGURE 2. Power spectra of the transition noise taken in the absence of the magnetic field and with a temperature change between 35.5K and 36.5K (curve 2) and under a variation of magnetic field from 56G to 1560G at a constant temperature of 35.5K, giving the same resistance variation of the specimen in the same time interval (curve 3). Curve 1 represents the background noise which has been subtracted from the others curves. The presence of the large fluctuation peaks in the high frequency part of the spectrum of curve 3 are due to induced emf related to small vibrations of the specimen immersed in the magnetic field within the cryocooler.
As a conclusion, it can be stated that this model seems more appropriate for describing the transition mechanism in polycrystalline high Tc superconductors when the transition is produced at low bias current and near the critical temperature of these materials. The other model, based on fluxoid creation and depinning, is certainly more appropriate when the transition occurs by effect of a strong current density at temperatures much lower than the critical one. However, in that case, noise measurements become quite difficult, if not impossible.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This work has been carried out with the contribution of Tecnomeccanica SRL Novara (Italy), to the financing of a postdoctoral grant, in memory of Guglielmo Agradi.
REFERENCES
1. p. Mazzetti, C.Gandini, A. Masoero, M. Rajteri and C. Portesi, Phys. Rev. B 11, 064516 (2008). 2. M. Rajteri, C. Portesi, M. Accardo, E. Taralli, E. Monticone, C. Gandini, A. Masoero, V. Andreoli and P. Mazzetti, IEEE Trans. Appl Supercond., in press. 3. D. Daghero, P. Mazzetti, A. Stepanescu, P. Tura and A. Masoero, P/ij's. iJev. S 66, 184514(2002). 4. L. Cattaneo, M. Celasco, A. Masoero, P. Mazzetti, I. Puica and A. Stepanescu, Physica C 261, IllUS (1996). 5. C. Heiden and G. I. Rochlin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 691694 (1968).
92
INTRODUCTION In the mixed state of type11 superconductors, vortex states near the peakeffect (PE) regime, where the critical (depinning) current /c shows a peak with magnetic field B or temperature T, have attracted considerable interest for many years. While the PE was considered to originate from softening of vortex lattice just prior to the upper critical field and random pinning due to quenched disorder, it has become clear that it marks the structural phase transition of vortex matter from the weakly pinned ordered phase (OP) to the strongly pinned (amorphouslike) disordered phase (DP) [1]. This transition is called an orderdisorder transition (ODT). We have recently found for amorphous (a)MOj:Gei.j: films [2] that voltage noise Sy induced by current(/)driven vortices exhibits a sharp peak just below the peak field 5p of /c, indicating the existence of ODT of vortex matter and metastable vortex states just below 5p [1]. Here we show that SY is a very useful method to detect the phase transition in the vortexsolid phase, where the linear resistance is always zero. In general, measured noise contains contributions from different physical origins [36] and is crucially dependent on the average velocity of driven vortices, which is proportional to the flow voltage V. Therefore, to detect the phase transition clearly, we must choose an appropriate value of V in measuring Sy. We will show that the shape of SyB curves is significantly dependent on V and moderately large V is needed to probe ODT clearly. More detailed results concerning present work have been pubhshed elsewhere [2].
CPn29, Noise and Fluctuations, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
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EXPERIMENTAL We prepared an aMoxGcix film with thickness 330 nm by rf sputtering on a Si substrate held at room temperature [2,5]. The meanfield transition temperature TM and the zeroresistivity temperature T^ are 6.3 and 6.2 K, respectively. The arrangement of the Corbinodisk (CD) electrical contacts is shown schematically in the inset of Fig. 1(c). The current flows between the contact +C of the center and that C of the perimeter of the disk, which produces radial current density inversely proportional to the radius r [13]. The vortices induced by an applied field B rotate around the center of the disk without crossing the sample edges and their dynamics at r is probed using voltage contacts +V and V placed at r. We measure S^iJ) over a broad/range (1 Hz40 kHz) by using a fastFourier transform spectrum analyzer. We obtained the excess noise spectra S^iJ) by subtracting the background contribution, which was measured with 7=0. All the data shown in this paper were taken at 3.3 K in zerofieldcool mode.
94
FIGURE 1. (a) Field dependence oil, at 3.3 K. (b) Noise spectra5v(/)/Ftaken at F=0.1 mV (i.e., in the plasticflow regime) in different fields at 3.3 K. A dashed line represents the background level. 5v(/)/I^in 5.5 T is near the background level, (c) Field dependence of 5v(100Hz) /Ftaken at 0.1 mV (circles), 0.5 mV (triangles), and 2 mV (squares). Inset: Schematic illustration of the arrangement of the electrical contacts of CD, in which the vortices rotate around the center of the sample. A vertical dashed line in (a) and (c) (main panels) marks the location of Bp. All other lines are guides for the eye.
Svif) 10'' V^/Hz. BBN of substantial magnitude is clearly seen over the broad fields except for 5.5 T (=5c), which reflects incoherent flow of vortices in the plasticflow state. As a whole, the spectral shape is of Lorentzian type, although for 4.0 T the shape is shghtly degraded by the appearance of a small hump, whose origin has not been specified. Possibly, the spectrum may be composed of two components of Lorentzian spectra with different comer frequencies. Shown in Fig. 1(c) is the field dependence of 5'v(/)/Fat^l00 Hz measured for V=2 mV (squares), 0.5 mV (triangles), and 0.1 mV (circles). For either V, an abrupt drop of 5'v(100Hz)/F is clearly seen just above 5p=4.8 T, indicative of the sharp phase transition (ODT). In particular, for the largest V=2 mV, 5'v(100Hz)/Fexhibits a single narrow peak with a sharp rise followed by an almost vertical drop of 5'v(100Hz)/F at 55p. Therefore, evidence for ODT is most clearly seen at this voltage. For lower V, we also find the peak of SY/VJUSI below B^: For F=0.5 mV, Sy/V has a very long tail which extends toward the low5 region, while for the lowest V=0.1 mV, in addition to the sharp peak at ~Bp, an additional very broad peak appears at around 4 T. The similar feature was reported previously in NbSe2 single crystals at lower V. Origin of large noise in the vicinity of Bp was reasonably attributed to vortex instabilities due to DP coming from the sample edges and intermixed with OP in the bulk [1]. This is called edge contamination (EC) effects. We have recently found that the EC effects are not present in our aMoxGcix films through comparative studies using CD and striplike configurations [2]. However, the notion of the coexisting phase as an origin
95
for large noise at 5p is not unreasonable, considering a supercooled metastable DP [1,811] and/or possible shght inhomogeneities in the sample. In the meantime, a stationary vortex configuration composed of OP and DP has been revealed in the PE regime of NbSe2 single crystals by shaking the vortex system [12]. The shaking technique is often used to reorder the metastable vortex system. The result found in Ref 12 contradicts the picture of supercooling. To clarify whether large noise observed just prior to 5p in our aMoxGcix films indeed results from supercooled DP, we are now conducting shaking experiments. We use a 30 kHz ac drive current with amplitude comparable to that of the dc drive current. Prehminary data shows that no significant change in S^if) is visible after shaking, rejecting the scenario of supercoohng. We thus seek an alternative interpretation. Our film is highly homogeneous, judging from the sharp resistive transition with typical transition width of {TarTc)ITay=Q.Q\5. However, a subtle spatial variation of/c that may be present in the sample will lead to the coexistence of OP and DP in the vicinity of ODT (5p). Let us summarize the results and interpretations presented in this paper. For the lowest voltage F(=0.1 mV), the sharp peak in the Sy/VB curve at 5p originates from the coexisting phases in the vicinity of ODT, while the broad peak in Sy/VB at lower 5 ( 4 T) is attributed to plastic flow, i.e., pinninginduced incoherent flow of vortices. For higher F(=0.5 and 2 mV), i.e., the higher flow velocity, the pinning effect becomes less effective, resulting in a decrease in plasticflow noise, whereas Sy/V in the vicinity of ODT survives. The present results clearly show that flow noise Sy is a very useful method to probe the equilibrium phase transition (ODT) of vortex matter, as well as the dynamic transition, which cannot be detected by ordinary static transport measurements, such as, linear resistivity and /c. The results also show that, in order to detect clearly the ODT from the Sy/VB data, we should measure Sy in the fluxflow state using moderately large / to suppress plasticflow. This work was partly supported by a GrantinAid for Scientific Research from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan and by the CTC program under JSPS.
REFERENCES
1. Y. Paltiel, E. Zeldov, Y. Myasoedov, M.L. Rappaport, G. Jung, S. Bhattacharya, M.J. Higgins, Z.L. Xiao, E.Y. Andrei, P.L. Gammel, and D.J. Bishop, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 37123715 (2000). 2. S. Okuma, K. Kashiro, Y. Suzuki, andN. Kokubo, Ptiys. Rev. B 11, 212505 (2008): S. Okuma, Y. Suzuki, andN. Kokubo, Proceedings of 21st Int. Symposium on Superconductivity, in press. 3. S. Okuma and M. Kamada, Phys. Rev. B 70, 014509 (2004). 4. R. Eggenhoffner, E. Celasco, V. Ferrando, and M. Celasco, Appt Phys. Lett 86, 022504 (2005). 5. S. Okuma, J. Inoue, and N. Kokubo, Phys Rev. B 76, 172503 (2007). 6. C.J. Olson, C. Reichhardt, and F. Nori, Phys Rev. Lett 81, 37573760 (1998). 7. A.B. Kolton, D. Dominguez, and N. GronbechJensen, Phys Rev. Lett 83, 30613064 (1999). 8. B. Rosenstein and V. Zhuravlev, Phys Rev. B 76, 014507 (2007). 9. Z.L. Xiao, O. Dogru, E.Y. Andrei, P. Shuk, and M. Greenblatt, Phys Rev. Lett 92, 227004 (2004). 10. C.J. van der Beek, S. Colson, M.V. Indenbom, and M. Konczykowski, Phys Rev. Lett 84, 41964199(2000). 11. X.S. Ling, S.R. Park, B.A. McClain, S.M. Choi, D.C. Dender, and J.W. Lynn, Phys Rev. Lett 86, 712715(2001). 12. G. Pasquini, D. Perez Daroca, C. Chiliotte, G.S. Lozano, and V. Bekeris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 247003 (2008).
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INTRODUCTION
Low frequency 1/f noise is a sensitive tool to probe the quality and rehability of electrical devices. As the system size is reduced, 1/f noise increases due to the surface adsorbates as well as the atomic scale structural fluctuations, which restricts the performance of nanoscale devices. Nanowires can be used as interconnects in nanoelectronic devices [1] and also in several proposals of biological and mechanical sensors, so until a way to minimize the noise is found, their applicability is limited. There has been a lot of work on electronic properties of nanowires, but a little is known about their noise characteristics [2]. The main aim of this work is to understand the microscopic origin of noise in nanowires and to find if by tuning the growth conditions properly, the noise level in nanowires can be reduced. Being a highly conducting metal, silver nanowires are the best candidate for this purpose. Normally metals like silver and gold exhibit fee crystal structure but some results show that they acquire highenergy hep crystal structure as the dimension is reduced below about 25 nm, due to competition between surface and internal packing energies [3,4]. By modifying the electrochemical growth parameters, we have stabilized silver nanowires in hep crystal structure, even in nanowires of diameter 100 nm, while the nanowires, grown in standard OPD technique, acquire fee phase [5]. The excess noise in single crystal systems can be due to the defect diffusion along the dislocations, movement of dislocations etc, which are highly crystal structure dependent. Since by tuning the electrochemical growth parameters, we have stabihzed the silver nanowires in both fee and hep crystal structure with unprecedented control, it could be shown, how the electrical noise in these nanowires, with same geometry and size, is affected by the erystallinity and hence the dislocation kinetics.
CPn29, Noise and Fluctuations, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
97
r4 _
(a)
^^^UI^^HAMJ
FIGURE 1. (a) Schematic of electrodeposition setup. Selected area electron diffraction (S AED) pattern of (b) LPED silver nanowires showing hep crystal structure and the inset shows the crosssectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of nanowires (c) OPD silver nanowires showing fee crystal structure and the inset shows the crosssectional SEM image of nanowires. (d) Resistancetemperature plot of fee (blue triangle) and hep (black circle) silver nanowire.
(b)
o J
0.1 f(Hz)
0""
(c)
s *
* o
Q,3.
4
0""
'^.
%
'' f(Hz) 1
FIGURE 2. (a) Variation of yn (Hooge parameter)as a function of eletrodeposition potential for a large number of samples in form of band, variation of Normalized power spectral density of (b) fee and (c) hep silver nanowires.
show that the LPED AgNWs acquire hep crystal structure and the OPD AgNWs exhibit fee phase, respectively. In the insets the SEM micrographs of corresponding nanowires are shown. In Fig Id. resistance vs. temperature plot of both hep and fee crystalline silver nanowires show that the hep AgNWs have lower residual resistivity ratio(/?3ooK/^4.2K)
dependence of noise, which can not be explained in terms of DuttaHom model [9]. This weak temperature dependence of noise could be related to the highenergy crystal structure, where the disorder might take the system out of thermal equilibrium. In such a case, the dislocation motion between metastable states, separated by high energy barrier, possibly could occur under the influence of internal stress rather than temperature fluctuation resulting in weak temperature dependence of noise.
CONCLUSIONS
We have stabilized silver nanowires in pure hep crystal structure, by using modified electrodeposition technique, even for the nanowires of larger diameter ( lOOnm). We observed that the hep AgNWs exhibit ultralow electrical noise and this suppression of noise in hep nanowires could be attributed to the restricted dislocation dynamics in basel plane due to less number of slip system as well as pinning of dislocations by point defects. We also observed the weak temperature dependent noise behavior in LPED AgNWs, which could be linked to the high energy hep crystal structure.
REFERENCES
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, G, Snider, and R, S, Williams, Nanotechnology 18, 035204 (2007), A, Bid, A, Bora, and A.K, Raychaudhuri, Phys. Rev. B 72, 113415 (2005), P, Taneja, R, Banerjee, P, Ayyub, and G, K, Dey, Phys. Rev. B 64, 033405 (2001), X, Liu, J, Luo, and J, Jhu, Nano Lett. 6, 408 (2006), A,Singh, and A, Ghosh, /, Phys. Chem. C 112, 3460 (2008), M,B,Weissman, Rev Mod. Phys. 60, 537 (1988), A,Singh, and A, Ghosh, /, Phys. Chem. C93, 102107 (2008), D, Hull, and D, J, Bacon, Introduction to Dislocations (Pergamon, Elsevier , 1984), PDutta and PM,Hom, Rev Mod Phys. 53, 497 (1981),
100
INTRODUCTION Research interest in GaN nanowires has intensified in recent years because it is realized that for sufficiently thin nanowires, quantum confinement effects can be observed possibly enabling novel applications. They are also strong candidates for power sources [1], gas sensors [2], light emitting diodes [3] and advanced transistors [4]. Although basic logic functions have been performed with these nanowires, the electrical noise produced in these structures limit their analog performance and this prevents the faultfree mass fabrication of electronics based on nanowires. The focus of this paper is on the electrical noise produced in GaN nanowires and its' low temperature analysis. Once the noise sources have been identified, strategies can be devised to reduce the influence of the electrical noise on device performance. EXPERIMENTAL METHODS A. Growth and Sample Preparation Before growing the GaN nanowires, approximately 15 A of gold was deposited by ebeam evaporation onto a clean wafer of (100) Si with 100 nm of thermally grown oxide. Next, the Ga metal source (99.999%) was poured into a quartz boat and placed into a tube furnace. The growth substrate was inserted and positioned within 3 cm down stream of the Ga metal source. The growth chamber was purged with Ar for 10 minutes at room temperature to remove any residual oxygen. The substrate was heated up to 850C and annealed for 15 minutes under Ar ambient.
CPn29, Noise andFluctuaUons, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
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FIGURE 1. Left: SEM image of the aligned wires transferred to a substrate by rubbing. Right: Image of a nanowire with contact pads.
The annealing is required for the successful formation of Au catalyst nanoparticles on the sample surface. After the anneahng step, high purity NH^ (99.999%) and H2 (99.999%) were introduced into the growth chamber. The GaN nanowires were grown for ~5 hours at 850C. Finally, the sample was removed from the chamber when its temperature had dropped below 100C to prevent oxidation. Typical nanowires used in the electrical measurements are shown in Fig. 1. Wires were measured to be between 2 and 10im in length and between 50 and 150nm in diameter. For ohmic contacts, Ti(20nm)/Al(80nm)/Pt(40nm)/Au(80nm) layers were deposited on top of the nanowires by ebeam evaporation and patterned by photolithography and liftoff to form sets of contact pads with 2, 4, 6 and 10 j,m spacing. The contacts were annealed at 350C for 60 s in flowing N2 ambient in a rapid thermal annealing furnace. Further details in materials characterization can be found in the references [5, 6]. B. CurrentVoltage Measurements The currentvoltage characteristics were measured on wafer using an HP4145B semiconductor parameter analyzer with tungsten probes. Linear devices with a single nanowire connection between the contact pads spaced at 2 and 4 im were investigated over voltage range of 3V to 3V. A minimum resistance of l.SkQ. was observed at room temperature. C. Noise Measurement Setup An HP3561A lowfrequency spectrum analyzer was used to measure the voltage spectral density in the frequency range of 10 Hz to 100 kHz. Since the noise of the device under test is below the detectable range of the spectrum analyzer, a low noise amplifier was used. The system was powered by a car battery in order to lower external noise at the front of the setup. 102
V^ / Hz
FIGURE 2. The spectral intensity of a.c opencircuited voltage fluctuations Si^y(f) of a typical GaN wire versus frequency
lE17
sav/Vg ^
lElB lE19 1E20 lE21 lE2 2 lE2 3 lE24 '.
Device A
Device B
V
4
\
5 6 7 E 9 10
\ \
lOOO/T '^
11
i!3
FIGURE 3. The low frequency gr noise plateau values 5^(0) divided by VQ of the different gr noise components versus 1000/T. The triangles represent the measured values of device A and circles device B whereas solid and dashed lines are meant to guide the eye.
In Fig. 3 the values of Sj,(0)/7o^ of the various generationrecombination (gr) noise components are presented as a function of 1000/T for I00<T<300 K for two GaN devices. 5j,(0) is the plateau value of a gr noise component and VQ is the voltage across the device terminals at that particular temperature. Three maxima at T= 300, 200, 100 K are observed which can be attributed to three distinct trap levels.
103
The positions of the energy levels are found from the slope of the characteristic times of the different gr noise components versus 1000/T as depicted in Fig. 4. Trap level energies at ~ E^OJ, E^O.!, E^O.H eV are associated with the maxima at T=300, 200 and 100 K respectively.
1 OOE01 T i m e C o n s t a n t (s)
1.00EO2 
>. ./ /
if* A
^^
1.00E0 3 
1.00EO4 
/ / /
//
FIGURE 4. The characteristic times of the different gr components plotted versus 1000/T. The triangles are data points collected from device A. The circles are data points collected from device B (300220 Kelvin) whereas the dashed and solid lines are meant to guide the eye.
CONCLUSION In conclusion we note that the gr noise measurement technique is a powerful tool for the spectroscopic study of deep level impurities in GaN wires. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Funding for this project was provided by the University Scholars Program of the University of Florida. REFERENCES
1. Z. L. Wang, Compound Semicond. 13, 16 (2007). 2. L. M. Li, C. C. Li, J. Zhang, Z. F. Du, B. S. Zou, H. C. Yu, Y. G. Wang, and T. H. Wang, Nanotechnology 18, 225504 (2007). 3. H.Y. Cha, H. Wu, M. Chandrashekhar, Y. C. Choi, S. Chae, G. Koley, and M. G. Spencer, Nanotechnology 17, 1264 (2006). 4. C. Y. Nam, D. Tham, and J. E. Fischer, Nano Lett. 5, 2029 (2005). 5. J. L. Johnson, Y. Choi, and A. Ural, Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B 26, 1841 (2008). 6. J. L. Johnson, Y. Choi, A. Ural, W. Lim, J. S. Wright, B. P. Gila, F. Ren, and S. J. Pearton, Journal of Electronic Materials, 38,490 (2009).
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This contribution presents a low frequency noise characterization of germanium (Ge) semiconducting bars, directly relating to the quality of the Ge film in GeOI transistors. We propose an experimental method to dissociate the intrinsic noise of the semiconducting bar from the access region noise by using 4 point probe (Kelvin) structures. An accurate value of Hooge's parameter for the studied Ge technology is extracted. We obtain a of 2.6 10 which is an indication of the good quality of the studied Ge semiconductor material. Keywords: low frequency noise, noise, germanium, access resistance. PACS: 73.50.Td, 74.40.4k
INTRODUCTION
Due to its better transport properties compared to Sihcon (Si), Germanium (Ge) is a promising material in order to achieve sub32nm node high performance MOSFET channels. In some apphcations, low frequency noise (LFN) can appear as a limiting factor in achieving high performance devices. It is well known that Hooge's parameter (a), extracted from LFN measurements, is used as a figure of merit for a given technology to determine the quality of a semiconductor. As the structures of MOSFETs are complex, it is easier to extract the intrinsic a value of the semiconductor by measuring the noise in a simple homogeneous layer semiconducting bar. However, if the magnitude of the excess noise generated by the access regions is not negligible compared to the LFN of the main bar, the parameter a cannot be accurately determined. Therefore, in order to accurately characterize the noise behaviour of the Ge bar, it is necessary to dissociate the intrinsic noise and access path noise. In this contribution, we propose an experimental method to dissociate the intrinsic noise of a semiconducting bar and the excess noise of the access regions using 4 point probe (Kelvin) structures.
CPn29, Noise andFluctuaUons, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
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EXPERIMENT
The studied resistances are elaborated on 200inm GeOl wafers with a 6080 nm thick Ge active layer obtained using SmartCut^'^ technology, upon which Ge mesa structures were patterned. Samples with different widths were measured. Prior to noise analysis, the electrical resistances of the main semiconducting bar and the access regions were extracted from dc measurements. Current LFN measurements between Ci and C2, as well as output voltage LFN measurements between contacts Ci and C2, as well as between Ci and K2 were performed. The device structure and the experimental setup are shown in figure l.a and l.b, respectively. The studied structures have a length L=240 am and a width W between 0.25 am and 10 am.
Main semiconclucting bar Acces region
\A<P
r C2
Ci
Voltage amplifier
K,
K2
^
FIGURE 1. Diagram of the studied samples with Kelvin structures (left), experimental biasing circint for noise measurements (right).
" "
Figure 2.a shows the variation of the normalized current power spectral density (PSD) measured at 1 Hz across Ci and C2 (main region in series with the access regions), as a function of current for various device geometries. The noise behaviour exhibited in each device is in accordance with the empirical relation proposed by Hooge [1,2]. However, the variation of the normalized current PSDs@lHz as a function of device width varies as shown in fig 2.b (a 1 slope followed by a plateau), which, at first view, is not predicted by Hooge's relation.
106
e^p.rir..n1.l
e12
^
1e13
* \,^
(Plateau)
\*
^
FIGURE 2. Normalized current PSD@lHz a), versus current for various device geometries and, b) versus width W of the devices.
R.
vRc+Racc/
where S^ is the PSD of the main region and Siacc is the PSD of access regions. These a ^ I ' and S,  Kin. where P=P(W) and can be expressed by the relationships S, fP '" is the total number of holes in the semiconducting bar taking part in the current, and K is some factor. For widths W below 1 10^ ^im we have^
R^ and S,^ dominate the expression for S,^^ For widths W above 1 10 ^im we S, have
J_ , meaning w
that
The slope (1) is in accordance with empirical Hooge expression, whereas the plateau indicates the contribution of excess noise from access path noise sources. In order to separate the noise contribution of the main channel from that of the access path, we determined the analytical noise expressions derived from the voltage noise equivalent circuits in the two measurement configurations (across Ci and C2, and across Ci and K2). From these two expressions as well as voltage noise measurements in the two configurations, it is possible to extract the values of the main bar noise and the access region. All PSDs exhibited pure 1/f noise with y=l. The extracted normalized main bar and access path PSDs@lHz as a function of device width W are reported figures 5 and 6, respectively. It can be seen that the normahzed main bar noise S^ varies as W"^ whereas the access path normahzed noise S,^ is constant. This result shows that using this simple method, it is possible to extract low levels of intrinsic noise that would normally be hidden by excess noise. To validate the method of extraction, the extracted voltage PSD@lHz values of the main bar and the access regions are reinserted into the derived current noise measurement equivalent circuit expression. These values were then compared to the direct measurements of current noise; values showed an excellent agreement.
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An accurate value of the Hooge's parameter for the studied Ge technology is then extracted. We obtain a of 2.6 10"'*, which is an indication of the good quality of the Ge semiconductor. Note that the range of the observed values in bulk silicon resistors is between 2 10"^ and 4 10"'* [3]. To the author's knowledge, no a values for GeOl structures have been published in the hterature.
FIGURE 3. Separation of different noise sources : (a) Normalized main bar current PSD@lHz versus current, for various devices (b) normalized access path current spectral density versus current, for devices .
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors thank French OSEO organization for financial support.
REFERENCES
1. F. N. Hooge, Phys. Lett. 29A, 139 (1969) 2. F. N. Hooge, Physica, B 83,14 (1976) 3. L. K. J. Vandamme and F. N. Hooge, IEEE electron devices, vol. 55, n l l , 3070 (2008)
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INTRODUCTION
Current noise experiments in organic semiconductors (polyacenes) have evidenced a significant increase of the spectral density at voltages corresponding to the trap filling transition (TFT) between Ohmic and Space Charge Limited Current (SCLC) regimes [1, 2]. These results have been interpreted in terms of a continuous percolation model between the two regimes, considered as different electronic phases. The noise increase was attributed to the transition region responsible of a clustering of insulating regions among which current paths are constrained, thus leading to a substantial increase of the noise in analogy with the increasing of fluctuations near a structural phase transition. Here, we present an alternative interpretation based on the presence of trapping detrapping processes of injected carriers through the trapping centers in the TFT regime, which extends from the voltage V = Vtio the voltage V ^2Vt, which correspond to the extremes of the range where the quasiFermi level crosses the deep trap level. As a significant validation of the model we consider the simplest case of experiments: the tetracene. In a seminal paper of 1978 [3], Kleinpenning investigated the sharp crossover between Ohmic and SCLC transport regimes of 1 / / noise associated with mobihty fluctuations and in the absence of any trap filling transition (TFT). In this case, the excess noise was found to decrease proportionally to the apphed voltage in the SCLC region. Here we discuss the effect of TFT which is found to be responsible of a sharp increase of excess noise with a maximum corresponding to the highest value of the current voltage (IV) slope.
CPn29, Noise and Fluctuations, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
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In = ^^y
(1)
with e the unit charge, jU the carrier mobihty, and M the carrier concentration attributed Q to a full ionized shallow level. The SCLC 1V characteristics is given by the Mott Gumey law W ^ ^ ^ ^ V ^ , (2)
where e^ and eo are, respectively, the relative dielectric constant of the material and the vacuum permittivity and 0 = n/rit the ratio between the concentrations of the total free carrier and the total deep traps. A numerical fitting of the experimental 1V characteristics is obtained by considering the current as the sum of the Ohmic component with that of the SCLC regime, this last weighted by the fraction of filled trap u{V) which is function of the applied voltage and limited within the values 0 < u{V) < 1. Accordingly, it is: I = In + u{V)IscLC (3) where u = u{V) is obtained by best fitting the experimental curve. The results of the fit is reported in Fig. 1. For the relevant parameters of the 1V characteristics, we find: L/AenojX = 3 10"Q and QAeoe^iUO/SL^ = 6 lO^ii A/V^. From the fit of the SCLC region, we obtain Qji = 4.7 10^^ crn^/sV, and from the value of the Ohmic resistance we obtain Wj = 1.4 10^ {mVsy^. In the absence of an independent determination of oU mobility (or of 0), we discuss the possible range of values for the relevant parameters of interest. Accordingly, by assuming for jU = 1 crn^/Vs, the value of the single crystal, we find 0 = 10^^ and M = lO'^cm^^. By using the theoretical expression for 0 Q 0=exp[,/fer] gnt (4)
where ^ = 2 is the trap degeneracy factor, riv the density of states in the valence band, Et the energy of the trap level, kT the thermal energy, for riy = 10^^ cm^^, fit = 10^* cm^^ we find Et = 0.7 0.8 eV. All these values compare well with the range of values reported in the hterature and summarized Table 1. Noise. The experimental noise measured at 20 Hz is obtained by subtracting to the total relative noise the 1/f contribution of 1.8 ps at 20 Hz, which is clearly evidenced to be voltage independent in the Ohmic regime. The data so obtained are reported in Fig.
110
10^
Ohmic regime
Trapfillinc transition"
^^r
SCLC regime
10^
10^
Exp +
Fit
V, 1 2V,
10
1
V[V]
FIGURE 1. Current voltage characteristics at room temperature for a tetracene thin film of length L= 0.65 [im and crosssectional area A= 0.1 cm^. The characteristic evidences an Ohmic region at the lowest voltage, a TFT region between V = Vt ~ 0.8V and V a; 2Vt and a SCLC region at the highest voltages. Symbols refer to experiments, curve to the theory. TABLE 1. Values of the physical parameters of tetracene, taken from Uterature [1,4] . Physical parameters of tetracene Density of traps Total density of states in the valence band Energy trap level from the valence band Carriers'mobiUty (for single crystals [4]) Relative dielectric constant n, riy Et jl r 10 10^^ cm^^ 10^' ctrT^ 0.3 0.7 eV 0.1 1 ctrP'/sV 3.5 5
2. In the SCLC regime the observed noise decreases approximately as l/V, according to a noise suppression mechanism analogous to that observed in vacuum tubes. For the theoretical interpretation of experimental data in the TFT regime we use the standard formula for the relative trappingdetrapping noise with a lorentzian spectrum: %(/)
3(1
N?
Nt I+ {27tfzy
Bu{l
(5)
where Nt is total number of traps inside the volume of the device, T the lifetime of the carrier, M = 1 M the fraction of ionized carriers, / the sweeping frequency. Using the Q u{V) obtained from the IV characteristics, the best fit between theory and experiment is reported in Fig. 2. Since the Eq.(5) can only describe a noise maximum which exceeds the equilibrium noise (thermal noise) by a factor 0.25, the constant B has been rescaled to reproduce the total excess noise in the TFT regime. This is obtained for B = Smax/0.25 = 2.8 x 10^^ s.
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V[V]
FIGURE 2. Loglog plot of the relative trapping  detrapping noise spectral density at 20 Hz vs applied voltage for the tetracene sample in Fig. 1. Data are obtained by subtracting the relative resistance 1/f noise contribution at low voltages to the total excess noise data of Ref [1], Symbols refer to experiments, curve to theory.
CONCLUSIONS
By introducing a trapping  detrapping noise contribution associated with the TFT regime, we have developed a microscopic interpretation of relative current noise in tetracene. Points of further investigations remain: 1. The high level of noise enhancement in the TFT region, compared to the thermal noise, which is due to the high correlation degree of the trapping processes and cannot be accounted for in a quasiequilibrium model. This would require the introduction of a noise gain mechanism in the Eq.(5). 2. The explanation of the close 1 / / dependence of the excess current noise in the TFT region. 3. The possibility to interpret the data with multiple trapping centers on similar grounds.
REFERENCES
1. 2. 3. 4. A. Carbone, B. K. Kotowska and D. Kotowski, Phys. Rev Lett. 95, 236601 (2005) A. Carbone, B. K. Kotowska and D. Kotowski, Eur. Phys. J. B 50, 77  81 (2006) T. G. M. Kleinpenning, Physica B,C 94, 141,(1978) R . W. I. de Boer et al.J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1196, (2004)
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Abstract. In experiments, the entropy of glass is measured by heat flow, and this leads the fact that the entropy determined by cooling and heating shows respectively lower and upper bounds of the entropy defined by statistical thermodynamics. This report presents a new theoretical approach by stochastic theory to the above phenomenon obtained by experiments of glass and makes clear the relation between calorimetric entropy and statistical mechanical one caused by the nonequilibrium process of a glass state with heat exchange. The method shown here can be applied not only socalled glass but also disordered solids. In this theory, a master equation used in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics is basic. Furthermore, a canonical distribution of fluctuations extended to the timedependent case and detailed balance equation are the key of our theory. Keywords: glass, entropy, calorimetry, timedependent canonical form, master equation, detailed balance PACS:61.43.j
1. INTRODUCTION
The glass transition is a universal phenomenon. Then the work to be presented here has been originated in an effort to understand a lot of studies devoted to making clear the nonequilibrium or irreversible process of a glass state. Glasses are out of equilibrium. A glass state is thus a kind of a relaxation process, that is, an irreversible one which varies very slowly because molecules of glass are apparently kept frozen under glass transition temperature T g . In a glass state, the entropy derived from the theory of statistical mechanics, becomes different from the measured entropies, is one problem. Another is that glass has residual entropy, that is non zero zerotemperature entropy. Nemst's theorem does not work in this case. Thermodynamics explains the result as follows'''. In order to define the temperature of the system in nonequilibrium, we consider an isolated system composed of a glass and a heat reservoir, of which total entropy increases with time. This model described by thermodynamics gives the relation; S.(Ta ) ^ S . . ( T a ) ^ S , ( T a ). (1) Statistical mechanical approach to this relation will be shown here.
CPn29, Noise and Fluctuations, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
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2. T I M E D E P E N D E N T C A N O N I C A L D I S T R I B U T I O N A glass is out of equilibrium and a kind of very slowly relaxation process which tends to an equilibrium state. In order to determine the temperature, we introduce an isolated system which comprises a glass and a heat reservoir. Equilibrium statistical mechanics shows that the probability distribution of the system contact with a heat bath has a canonical form. In case of a glass state, we assume that a canonical distribution is extended to the following time dependent form. At time t, this would be of the functional form of \F(t)E^ ^ ; ( 0 = exp (2) kT{t) In spite that this has not been proved, the above mentioned property (2) is natural as a general asymptotic law of a macroscopic state variable'^'. 3. M A S T E R E Q U A T I O N A N D D E T A I L E D B A L A N C E A master equation is one of the most suitable starting points of any theory of timedependent stochastic processes'^'. A master equation dt where stands for a timedependent transition rate from a state n to m, and is basic. The detailed balance condition is introduced as follows;
2KnP:(owmP:w]=oThus, the master equation (3) and Eq.(4) give the following expression 2^^n(p:(t)ip:{t))pjt)=2^.n(p:(t)ip:{t))pst).
w
(5)
4. STATISTICAL E N T R O P Y Eq.(3) can be written by the expression of the timedependence of the statistical entropy defined by S{t) = k2PJt)lnPJt). (6) Eq.(3) takes the form ^ = k2W.nPM^P.(')^^Pn(t)l
m,n
(7)
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A=
k^PlnP^{t),
(9)
and B = k2wP:(t)y1
+ In
(10)
(11)
It may be worthwhile for us to remind the relationship between a generalized drive forth X and its conjugate displacement x appears in thermodynamics. Then Eq.(l I) is reduced as follows: , 1 "^E + ^X/x^ Idt. Using the energy conservation law of thermodynamics for a closed system, dE=6Q + 6W = 6Q^X/x^ ,
p
(12)
and making a notice that X signifies the drive forth which causes a displacement. we thus obtain A= 6Qldt^Q. (13) (14) (15)
Since the term B of the expression (10) is positive definite; B>Q, Eq.(8) satisfies the condition 5>A
As an example, we now consider the entropy of a glass. 5^(7]) is defined by cooling the liquid from the temperature T^ through the glass transition point to the some lower glass state temperature 7]. The measured entropy S^ (T,) is given by SXTd = S,{TJ+ ^QITdt.
(17)
On the other hand, the given expression (16) leads SST^S,{TJ>^QITdt (18)
Comparing Eq.(I7) and the relation (I8),we obtain 5(r,)>5,(r,). (19) In case of heating, the story is same as the above mentioned process. So that, defining 5^(7,) as the measured entropy in case of heating, we have S{T,)<S,{T,). (20)
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The inequalities (19) and (20) give the relation S^iT,)<SiT,)<S,iT,) This is the relation we would like to verify in this report.
(21)
REFERENCES
1. S.A.Langer, J.P.Sethanaand E.R.Grannan, Phys.Rev.B41,2261(1990) 2. R.Kubo, in Synergetics (Proc. Symp. Synergetics, 1972, Schloss Elmou); N.G.van Kampen, Stochastic Processes in Physics and Chemistry (NorthHolland, Amsterdam, 1981) 3. M.Ochiai, A.Holz,Y.Yamazaki and R.Ozao, 11 Nuovo Ciment 108B, 709 (1989) and references cited here ; C.W.Gardiner, Handbook of Stochastic Methods (Springer, 2nd ed. 1985)
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INTRODUCTION
When an object moves in a periodic potential in the presence of combined dc and ac forces, steplike structure analogous to Shapiro steps appears in the forcevelocity (Fv) characteristics. This phenomenon called a modelocking (ML) resonance has been observed in several physical systems with many degrees of freedom [112], which include a driven vortex system in typeII superconductors. The steps in the Fv curves appear, when the internal frequency of the system locks to the external frequency ^^xt of the ac drive. The ML resonance for driven vortices has been observed not only in superconductors with periodic pinning [7] but also in those with random pinning, such as amorphous films studied in this paper, where a periodicity can be induced dynamically as a result of the coherent motion of a vortex lattice [812]. In our recent work using amorphous {a)MoxGQ\x films we have found that broadband noise (BBN) is remarkably suppressed, when a driven vortex system undergoes the ML resonance (i.e., dynamic ordering) [11]. This is consistent with the view of the ML freezing that the modelocked state is a frozen solid pinned in the moving frame of reference [12]. It is known that the shape of the ML steps in the currentvoltage (/F) curves depends crucially on the ac drive, /rf, as well as the field. In fact, the current width of the ML steps Al, which reflects the sharpness of the ML resonance, exhibits an oscillatory behavior with /rf. These results lead to an interesting question as to whether the sharpness of the ML resonance and that of ML freezing
CPl 129, Noise and Fluctuations, 20^ International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Physics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
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(suppression of BBN) correlate to each other. It is reasonable to expect that in a situation where a larger number of vortices take part in ML, both the ML resonance and ML freezing are more pronounced. As far as we know, however, no experimental verification has been reported so far. Here, we perform simultaneous measurements of/F characteristics and voltage noise spectra Syif) across the (first) ML resonance for the aMoxGQuxfilmas a function of the ac drive. We find the correlation between the current width AI of the ML step and suppression of BBN (Sy) at ML.
EXPERIMENTAL
We prepared the 330 nmthick aMo^GQixfilmby rf sputtering on a Si substrate held at room temperature [10,11]. The superconductingtransition (zeroresistivity) temperature is 5.78 K and the upper critical field at 4 K defined by the 95% criterion of the normalstate resistivity is 5.2 T [13]. We measured the linear resistivity, IV characteristics, and the voltage noise spectrum Sy(f) induced by the currents using a fourterminal method. The ac (rf) current /rf was applied through an rf transformer. The frequency y^xt of/rf was 10 MHz. In measuring Sy(f) over a broad frequency range J=l Hz40 kHz, the voltage enhanced with a preamplifier was analyzed with a fastFourier transform spectrum analyzer. We obtained the excess noise spectra Sy(f) by subtracting the background contribution, which was measured with /=/rf =0 [14,15]. The sample was directly immersed into liquid "^He. The field B was applied perpendicular to the plane of the film.
118
T=4K
B = 3.ST
/e^=10MHz
0.2
0.4
0.6
/rf(mA) FIGURE 1. / dependences of dV/dl (top) and Sy(f)/V for J^40 kHz (bottom) at 4.0 K in 3.8 T (a) in the absence of/^ and in the presence of superimposed (10 MHz) (b) 1^^0.129, (c) 0.230, (d) 0.367, and (e) 0.458 mA. A vertical dotted line in each figure (be) represents the location of the first ML step (/ML) and that in (a) indicates the location of/ML expected when /rf>0. The background level is indicated by shading, (f) /^ dependence of the current width AI of the first ML step. A line is guide for the eye. (g) Noise spectra Sy(f)/VSit 4.0 K in 3.8 T in the presence of (10 MHz) /i.f0.230 mA and / (listed in the figure) that covers the first ML region (/ML=0.14 mA). The background level is indicated by shading.
In Fig. 1(g) we display the voltage noise spectra SY(f)/V (Sy divided by V) at 4.0 K and 3.8 T in the presence of ac /rf =0.230 mA and dc / covering the first ML region (7=0.0930.186 mA). We representatively show the data measured at /rf =0.230 mA that gives the maximum value of AI (/rf) [see Fig. 1(f)]. With increasing / from 0.093 to 0.143 mA, which corresponds to the first ML /ML(=0.14 mA), Sy(f)/V Sit high/(>10 kHz) decreases from ^ ( l  2 ) x 10"^^ V/Hz down to near the background level (10"^^ V/Hz), as indicated with shading. With further increasing /, Sy(f)IV then shows an increase. In order to see the change in BBN across ML in more detail, we plot Sy(f)/V at y^40 kHz against / in Figs. 1(b)1(e) (bottom panels). In Fig. 1(a) we show 5'v(40kHz)/F measured with /rf =0 to compare with the data taken for /rf^O. A vertical dashed line in Fig. 1(a) indicates the location of ML expected when /rf^ 0. Of course, no anomaly is visible at '7ML". By contrast, for nonzero /rf, one can clearly see suppression of 5'v(40kHz)/Fat ML, indicative of ML freezing [12]. Let us focus on the degree of completeness of ML freezing. For this purpose, we compare 5'v(40kHz)/F at the (first) modelocked state, 5'V,ML/^=5'V(/ML)/^, with that (Sy^uMiJV) at the modeunlocked state. Here, the value of 5'v,uML/f^ is extracted from the smooth interpolation of the data of 5'v(/)/F outside the ML (dip) region to / ^ / M L , such as shown in the inset of Fig. 1(b) in Ref. 11. We find a trend for Sy^uMiJV to
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increase monotonically with increasing /rf. However, the minimum value ofSy^uiJVat ML shows a nonmonotonic /rf dependence. We quantify the degree of ML freezing [suppression of 5'v(40kHz)/F at ML] by the ratio of r = 5'V,ML/5'V,UML. The smaller r means more pronounced ML freezing. It is seen from Figs. 1(b)1(e) (bottom) that ML freezing (suppression of BBN) occurs most remarkably at the first peak of Al (/rf) for /rf =0.230 mA, where r takes the smallest value of 5V,ML/^V,UML=1.2X 10"^^/(8x 10"^^0.15. At larger /rf =0.367 mA, which gives the local minimum of Al (/rf) between the first and second peaks, r takes the largest value around 0.6 and hence ML freezing is much less pronounced. As /rf is increased further up to 0.458 mA, where the second peak of A/(/rf) occurs, r again becomes small and a tendency toward ML freezing recovers. These results suggest that there is the correlation between Al at the ML steps, which represents the sharpness of the ML resonance, and suppression of BBN, which reflects completeness of ML freezing. To prove this fact more convincingly, we are now conducting experiments including the higher MLstep regions.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This work was partly supported by a GrantinAid for Scientific Research from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan and by the CTC program under JSPS.
REFERENCES
1. S. Bhattacharya, J.P. Stokes, M.J. Higgins, and R.A. Klemm, Phys Rev. Lett. 59, 1849 (1987): M.J. Higgins, A.A. Middleton, and S. Bhattacharya, ibid. 70, 3784 (1993). 2. M.S. Sherwin and A. Zettl, Phys. Rev. B 32, 5536 (1985). 3. S.N. Coppersmith and P.B. Littlewood, Phys Rev. Lett. 57, 1927 (1986): A.A. Middleton, O. Biham, P.B. Littlewood, and P. Sibani, ibid. 68, 1586 (1992). 4. H. Matsukawa and H. Takayama, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 56, 1507 (1987): H. Matsukawa, Syn. Met. 29, 343 (1989). 5. E. Barthel, G. Kriza, G. Quirion, P. Wzietek, D. Jerome, J.B. Christensen, M. Jorgensen, and K. Bechgaard, Phys Rev. Lett. 71, 2825 (1993). 6. A. T. Fiory, Phys. Rev. Lett. 11, 501 (1971). 7. L.Van Look, E. Rosseel, M.J. Van Bael, K. Temst, V.V. Moshchalkov, and Y. Bruynseraede, Phys. T^ev. 5 60, R6998( 1999). 8. C. Reichhardt, R.T. Scalettar, G. Zimanyi, and N. GronbechJensen, Phys. Rev. B 61, Rl 1914 (2000). 9. N. Kokubo, R. Besseling, and P.H. Kes, Phys. Rev. B 69, 064504 (2004): N. Kokubo, K. Kadowaki, and K. Takita, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 177005 (2005). 10. N. Kokubo, T. Asada, K. Kadowaki, K. Takita, T.G. Sorop, and P.H. Kes, Phys. Rev. B 75, 184512 (2007). U . S . Okuma, J. Inoue, and N. Kokubo, Phys. Rev. B 76, 172503 (2007). 12. A.B. Kolton, D. Dominguez, and N.GronbechJensen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4112 (2001). 13. S. Okuma, Y. Imamoto, and M. Morita, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3136 (2001). 14. S. Okuma and M. Kamada, Phys. Rev. B 70, 014509 (2004). 15. S. Okuma, K. Kashiro, Y. Suzuki, and N. Kokubo, Phys. Rev. B 11, 212505 (2008). 16. A. Schmid and W. Hauger, J. Low Temp. Phys. 11, 667 (1973).
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Monte Carlo Study of Diffusion Noise Reduction in GaAs Operating under Periodic Conditions
D. Persano Adorno*, N. Pizzolato^ and B. Spagnolo^
*Dipartimento di Fisica e Tecnologie Relative and CNISM, ^ Dipartimento di Fisica e Tecnologie Relative and CNISM, Group of Interdisciplinary Physics, Viale delle Scienze, Ed. 18,Palermo, Italy Abstract. The effects of an external correlated source of noise on the intrinsic carrier noise in a lowdoped GaAs bulk, operating under periodic conditions, are investigated. Numerical residts confirm that the dynamical response of electrons driven by a highfrequency periodic electric field receives a benefit by the constructive interplay between the fluctuating field and the intrinsic noise of the system. In particidar, in this contribute we show a nonmonotonic behavior of the integrated spectral density, which value critically depends on the correlation time of the external noise source. Keywords: Monte Carlo, Noise, Semiconductors,Transport properties theory PACS: 72.70.4m, 72.30.4q, 05.40.Ca
INTRODUCTION
Important studies about the constructive aspects of noise and fluctuations in different nonlinear systems have shown that the addition of external random perturbations to systems with intrinsic noise may affect the dynamics of the system in a counterintuitive way, resulting in a possible reduction of the total noise of the system [1]. A reduction of the diffusion noise in semiconductors driven by a static electric field is theoretically expected when a gaussian noise is added to the external field [2]. A detailed study of the electron transport dynamical response in semiconductor materials, working under cyclostationary conditions, has revealed that the addition of a fluctuating component to the driving highfrequency periodic electric field can reduce the total noise power [3,4]. This result is explained in terms of the noise enhanced stability phenomenon (NES), arising from the fact that the transport dynamics of electrons in the semiconductor receives a benefit by the constructive interplay between the fluctuating electric field and the intrinsic noise of the system [4]. Furthermore, a nonlinear behavior of the integrated spectral density (ISD) with the noise intensity has been found [4]. In the present work we analyze the modification of the intrinsic carrier diffusion noise induced in a ntype lowdoped GaAs semiconductor by an external source of random perturbations added to a driving alternate electric field, as a function of the noise correlation time. A Monte Carlo procedure is used to numerically solve the transport equation by keeping into account aU the possible scattering phenomena of the hot electrons in the medium. Numerical results show that, strictly depending on the correlation time, the presence of the external noise modifies the electron average velocity and significantly affects both the correlation function of its fluctuations and the internal noise spectrum of the system.
CPn29, Noise andFluctuaUons, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
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where / = co/ln and EQ are the frequency and the amplitude of the periodic component, respectively . The random component of the electric field is modeled with an OmsteinUhlenbeck (OU) stochastic process rj{t), which obeys the following stochastic differential equation: dr]{t) dt (2)
where TC and D are, respectively, the correlation time and the variance of the OU process, and E, (?) is the Gaussian white noise with autocorrelation < E, (t)E, it') >= 5(t t'). The OU correlation function is < r]{t)r]{t') > = D e x p (   ?  ? '  / T c ) . The changes of the intrinsic noise properties are investigated by the statistical analysis of the twotime symmetric autocorrelation function of the velocity fluctuations and of its mean spectral density, as described in Refs [6,7, 8]. Intrinsic noise has been investigated also by estimating directly the electron velocity variance. This calculation has been performed separately for each energy valley, following the same method of equivalent time moments described in Refs [4, 6].
122
E.
0.25
? ,
0.20
tj,
O.OIT
Xc=5 M T
0.15
:K
' *i A * ^ \
(a)
:w & c 1 u
a
0.10 0.05
Q.
500
1500
FIGURE 1. (a) Correlation functions of single particle velocity fluctuations; (b) Spectral density of electron velocity fluctuations as a function of the frequency. Continuous line corresponds to the results obtained with Tc = 0.01 T; dotted Une with Tc = 50 T; dashed line with Tc = 5 MT, where T is the period of the oscillating electric field.
Since in this contribute we investigate the role of the correlation time on the intrinsic noise modification, we keep the intensity of the external correlated noise at the constant value)i/2 = 5kV/cm. Figure 1(a) reports the results of Monte Carlo simulations of the autocorrelation function of the velocity fluctuations for three different values of Tc . Differently from the steadystate operation, under cyclostationary conditions, the autocorrelation curves exhibit damped oscillations around zero with approximately the same frequency of the periodic forcing field. In the presence of the added noise the autocorrelation function shows two similar decreasing trends for noise correlation times equal to 0.01 and 5 10^ periods T of the external field. In these both cases the whole relaxation process takes about 10 ps (5 times T). On the contrary, for Tc = 50 T, the correlation function continues to oscillate around zero exactly with frequency / for longer times. In figure 1(b) we show that the superimposition of an external source of correlated noise affects the spectral density of the electron velocity fluctuations, in a way that critically depends on the OU correlation time. In particular, the two spectra characterized by Tc = 0.01 T and Tc = 5 10^ T appear to be very similar each other, while the spectrum obtained with noise at Tc = 50 T shows a narrow peak at 500 GHz," signature" of a strong resonant response. In order to estimate the total noise power of the system we have computed the Integrated Spectral Density (ISD). The diagram in figure 2 shows a very interesting nonmonotonic behaviour of the ISD as a function of the correlation time. In particular, the total noise power shows an exponentiallike decreasing trend with the increasing of the correlation time until Tc becomes about ten times the period T of the forcing field. For higher values, we find a wide minimum of the ISD vs. noise correlation time diagram. Then, for values of Tc greater than lO'* periods T of the external field, the ISD starts to rise again. Finally, for very high values of Tc, the ISD becomes independent from the external source of noise.
123
 \
\\ \ \\
^
' ^^ y^ \\ >
y,
"^ Vv *
lo^
/' '

\
,'
^
10' 10* 10'
*'
lo' lo" 10= 10' lo" T^ [in u n i t o f T ]
102
FIGURE 2. Integrated spectral density of electron velocity fluctuations as a function of the correlation time of the external source of noise, in unit of T.
As shown in figure 4 of Ref.[4], depending on the intensity of the external source of correlated noise, the fluctuating electric field pushes the electrons to visit regions of the momentum space characterized by a smaller variance of the velocity fluctuations. In this work we have shown that this circumstance is strongly dependent also on the correlation time of the added noise source. In particular, for a given noise amplitude, the intrinsic noise reduction is verified for a wide range of values of the correlation times in which the system undergoes a resonant behavior. In this regime the external fluctuations constructively contribute to force the electrons to oscillate at exactly the same frequency of the periodic field, performing a more ordered dynamics which is confirmed by a lower total noise power.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This work was partially supported by MIUR and CNISMINFM.
REFERENCES
J, M, G, Vilar, and J, M, Rubi, Phys. Rev. Lett, 86, 950953 (2001), L. Varani, C. Palermo, C. De Vasconcelos,J. F. MiUithaler, J. C. Vaissiere, J. P. Nougier, E. Starikov, P. Shiktorov, and V. Gruzinskis, in Unsolved Problems of Noise and Fluctuations:UPoN2005, edited by L. Reggiani et al., AIP Conference Proceedings, American Institute of Physics, New York, 2005, pp. 474479. D. Persano Adomo, N. Pizzolato, and B. Spagnolo, Acta Phys. Pol. A 113 985988 (2008). D. Persano Adomo, N. Pizzolato, and B. Spagnolo, /. Stat. Mech. P0103910 (2009). D. Persano Adomo, M. Zarcone, and G. Ferrante, Laser Physics 10 310315 (2000). T. Gonzalez, S. Perez, E. Starikov, P. Shiktorov, V. Gruzinskis, L. Reggiani, L. Varani, and J. C. Vaissiere, Proc. ofSPIE 5113 252266 (2003). P. Shiktorov, E. Starikov, V. Gruzinskis, L. Reggiani, L. Varani, and J. C. Vaissiere, Appl. Phys.Letters 80 47594761 (2002). P. Shiktorov, E. Starikov, V. Gruzinskis, L. Reggiani, L. Varani, and J. C. Vaissiere, Phys. Rev. B 67 16520110 (2003).
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A systematic study of the impact of geometry on the low frequency noise in patterned LaQjSrQ^MnO^ thin films at 300 K
S. Wu*, B. Guillet^ L. Mechin^ and J.M. Routoure(*)t
*GREYC, CNRS UMR 6072, ENSICAEN, Umverstty of Caen Basse Normandie 6, Bd du marechal Juin 1^050 Caen Cedex. France. *routoure@greyc.ensicaen.fr Phone (+33)231452722 / Fax (+33)231452698 "^GREYC, CNRS UMR 6072, ENSICAEN, University of Caen Basse Normandie 6, Bd du marechal Juin 14050 Caen Cedex. France. * routoure@greyc.ensicaen.fr / Phone (+33)231452722 / Fax (+33)231452698 Abstract. We report systematic measurements of low frequency noise performed at room temperature in LaojSro^MnOj, (LSMO) thin films (thickness =150 nm) patterned with different lengths {50jxm to 300/JOT) and widths {lOjxm to AOOjxm). Noise measurements were performed using two probe configuration, four probe configuration and even six probe configuration. Different 1/f noise contributions were observed for the film, for the current contacts and also for the voltage contacts. For the smallest devices, the noise spectral density of the film contribution does not follow the classical quadratic dependence with the DC voltage. The current contact contribution is due to current crowding at the metal/LSMO interface as already reported. The voltage contact contribution could be attributed to DC current circulation into the voltage contacts. Keywords: 1/f noise, manganite, thin films PACS: 73.50 T, 75.47 Lx
INTRODUCTION
Manganite thin films are promising for next generation devices and sensors[l]. In the i>ao.7'^^o.3^wC'3(LSMO) case, it has been demonstrated that high sensitivity bolometers can be realized [2, 3]. High performance room temperature spintronic devices, magnetoresistances as well as strain gauge could also be obtained due to the low value of the low frequency (LF) noise[4]. A systematic study of the impact of length, width and thickness and appropriated geometries on the low frequency (LF) noise level is therefore necessary for future sensor developments [5]. Systematic measurements of LF noise at room temperature in patterned LaojSro^MnOj, (LSMO) thin films of thickness 150 nm, various lengths L (50 ^m, 100^m, ISOiim, 200^m and 300^m) and two widths W (20^m and lOO^m) have been performed. The spatial homogeneity of the film was checked by resistivity measurements; magnetic characterizations versus temperature have revealed a Curie temperature close to 350 K and the temperature of maximal resistance was found to be about 390 K. These values are very close to the bulk ones proving the good crystallinity of the thin films. The noise measurements have been performed directly on prober using a Karlsuss PM5 with two, four or six probes.
CPn29, Noise andFluctuaUons, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
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FIGURE 1. Optical photography of one 100 jlm width bridge with the two current probes IP and IM and 2 x 4 voltage probes (VI...V4, VI'...V4') on each side of the bridge. The bridge lengths between VI V2, V2  V3 and V3 V4 are lOOjlm, SOjlm and ISOjlm respectively.
126
In the four probe configuration, one voltage amplifier is connected to tiie voltage probes. The noise contribution of the film and of the voltage contact can be estimated. In tiie six probe configuration, two voltage amplifiers are connected on each side of the bridge. With a spectrum analyzer that calculates the cross spectral density, all the uncorrelated noise sources disappear and only the contribution of the film can be estimated. The LF noise spectral densities or cross spectral densities of the devices were measured for different DC current across the film in the two probe {Sy2p), four probe {Sv4p) and six probe configurations(iS'//6/?)
s
V4p
s
V6p
Slope 2
X
y
'
DQI
\
b.
Voltage V (V)
a.
FIGURE 2. a. Spectral density measured in the bridge with L = 100 \im and ^ = 100 \im in the two probe (Syip)^ the four probe (Syip) and the six probe configuration (Sy^p). b. Sketch showing the left part of the device with the IP pad and the two first voltage pads and the path of the current lines. The current lines close to the edge of the bridge penetrate more or less deeper in the LSMO part of the voltage contact depending on the shape of the voltage contact and the width of the bridge.
For the contact contribution the current contact noise level has a very high value as already reported [7, 8]. It is found that the noise spectral density follows a quadratic current dependency. It has been attributed to current crowding at the edge of the gold/LSMO interface. The film contribution does not follow a quadratic DC current dependency. This may be attributed to lorentzian contributions in the spectra. Whatever the slope is, the bridge contribution is 2 times smaller than the voltage contact one. It shows
127
another time that pubhshed normahzed values of ajn (with a the Hooge constant and n the concentration ) may have been overestimated. The last point concerns the fact that a LF noise contribution is found for the voltage contacts. In a first analysis, it is assumed that no DC current flows into the voltage contact since the input impedance of the voltage amplifier is very high: no f/f noise should be found in the voltage contact. As shown in the figure (2b ), the current line penetrates more or less deeper in the voltage contact depending on the shape of the LSMO part of the voltage contact. This point has been verified using numerical simulation of the current flow in the device. This current circulation in the voltage contacts creates voltage contact noise contributions. These noise contributions disappear when the devices are characterized in the six probe configuration because the noise contributions that appear on each side of the bridge are not correlated.
CONCLUSION
The impact of the geometry of patterned LSMO thin film with different lengths and widths on the LF noise has been reported. It has been shown that three contributions exist for the film, the current contact and the voltage contact. The last one has been attributed to current flowing more or less deeper in the LSMO part of the voltage contact. This study shows that in order to obtain the correct value of the film noise, six probe configuration has to be used. Moreover, in the frame of sensor development, the shape of the voltage contact has to be designed carefully in order to limit as much as possible the LF noise contribution of the voltage contact.
REFERENCES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. (2008), URL h t t p : / / w w w . i t r s . n e t . F. Yang, L. Mechin, J.M. Routoure, B. Guillet, and R. Chalialov, J. Appl. Phys. 99 (2006). M. Bibes, and A. Barthelemy, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 54, 1003 (2007). L. Mechin, F. Yang, J.M. Routoure, B. Guillet, S. Flament, and D. Robbes, Applied Physics Letters 87 (2005). L. Mechin, J. Routoure, S. Mercone, F. Yang, S. Flament, and R. Chakalov, Journal of Applied Physics 103, 083709083709 (2008). J.M. Routoure, D. Fadil, S. Flament, and L. Mechin, "A lownoise high output impedance DC current source," in Proceedings of the 19th International conference on Noise and fluctuations, ICNF 2007, edited by M. Tacano, Y. Yamamoto, and M. Nakao, AIP, 2007, vol. 922, pp. 419424. C. Barone, A. Galdi, S. Pagano, O. Quaranta, L. Mechin, J.M. Routoure, and P. Perna, Review of Scientific Instruments 78, 093905 (2007). C. Barone, S. Pagano, L. Mechin, J. Routoure, P. Orgiani, and L. Maritato, Review of Scientific Instruments 79, 053908 (2008).
7. 8.
128
Transparent conducting films are used widely in different optoelectronic devices as lightemitting diodes, laser diodes, different photo sensors, solar cells or even in flat panel displays. The candidate materials are high bandgap oxide semiconductors as the widely known indium tin oxide. The Al doped ZnO is a promising alternative due to its inexpensiveness. The cheapest and most effective method for deposition of these layers is the reactive sputtering of metallic alloy target. There are considerable efforts for increasing the electric conductivity of the Al doped ZnO films and maintaining its good transmittance at the same time. The published conductivity values improve from year to year. Some recent results'"^ are listed in Table 1.
TABLE 1. Recently published electric parameters of Al doped ZnO layers deposited by reactive sputtering in different laboratories. The transparency for the visible light was reported at about 80% in each case. Specific resistivity Density of mobile HaU1 mobility Ref. p milcm electrons fi c m W s n lO'cm' 0.24 6.8 38 1 0.35 4 8.5 2 0.63 n.a. n.a. 3 1,3 4.5 10 4 5 n.a. n.a. 5
The authors has not found any report on the noise properties of this material, however, it would have importance when it is apphed in sensors. There are publications on the noise properties of ZnO nanorods^'^, but that is a quite different structure. In the present work we are going to report the electric parameters and low
CPn29, Noise and Fluctuations, 20 International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
129
frequency noise properties obtained on the Al doped ZnO layers prepared by ourselves. EXPERIMENTS AND RESULTS Al doped ZnO layers were deposited by pulsed DC reactive magnetron sputtering. The target was a high purity Zn 99,95%, alloyed with 2% (m/m) Al of the size of 110x440 mm^. The depositions were performed in Ar/02 atmosphere. There was no closed loop process control apphed during deposition in order to stabihze the process. Details of the process were discussed elsewhere^ The typical structure of the layers is shown in Figure l.in planar and crosssectional views. The pictures show a columnar structure grown together. The diameters of the columns are in the 2050 nm range. Some columns are as long as the full layer thickness (186 nm); however the most of them are only about 100 nm.
*^'_.""*""'
mi*MM
'\
FIGURE 1. The scanning electron microscope picture of the top (a) and the crosssection (b) of sample No. 9.
The transparency of the samples treated here are over 80% between the wavelengths 500 nm and 800 nm. The ohmic contacts for the electrical measurements were made by evaporating a 2D array of Cr/Al dots. The roughly 10 nm Cr layer ensured the good adhesion of the Al layer. The diameters of the dots were 3 mm and the lattice constant of the square matrix was 9mm. The contact resistances were measured by the three point method. They proved to be completely hnear. For Halleffect measurements squares were cut having edges of 9 mm, the measurement was performed in the van der Pauw configuration. The cutting was done in that way that no shunting formed across the Si wafer. The Hall resistance was measured in the function of the changing magnetic field of the iron cored electromagnet. The field strength was measured by a calibrated Hall sensor (FC32). A typical measurement is shown in figure 2. The resistance at zero field is not zero, this is due to the slightly asymmetrical shape of the sample. The asymmetry can be estimated by comparing this resistance to the sheet resistance. In the case shown in the figure the asymmetry is 8,232/1812= 4.5 %, i.e. about 0.4 mm in geometry. The
130
measurements were fulfilled on both diagonals of the sample and also at both polarities of the current. The average of the four measurements is given in the Table 2.
8.32 8.30 8.28 8.28 8.24 : 8.22 8.20
D09
R=8 23+0.'.057*B
^ > ^
^
8.18 8.18
^
8.14 0.20 0.15 0.10 005 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20
B[T]
FIGURE 2. The measured Hall resistance in the function of the magnetic induction. The biasing current was 1 mA. The sample No. is D9.
However the IV characteristics of the contacts were good ohmic, the noise measurements were made in the 4 point configuration. The voltage noises were measured by the SR785 Dynamic Signal Analyzer on strips holding the 4 contacts. Fig. 3. shows the measured noise spectra.
::::!: w ,
Sample: DC 9
ov
_''^'".v,..
^^^^
w\ "^^S*. ^w
^p
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'"fifes ^^
f
" ^
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FIGURE 3. The noise spectra at different biases. The continuous line stands for the 1/f dependence.
The series resistance was always at least twenty times higher than the resistance between the current points of the sample. The bias change during the measurements was less than 1% due to the highcapacitance of the lead batteries. After a few biasing 131
cycle the noise values increase and become weakly biasdependent. The effect of the atmosphere was investigated by placing the samples in pure nitrogen instead of air. No significant difference has been observed so far. The samples recover in a few days. Then the repeated measurements result in spectra similar to the firsts. It seems that the phenomenon is some bias induced change in the electronic structure, perhaps trapping at the grain boundaries. The noise spectra were evaluated by the Hoogeformula': ^r  ^f, (1)
, where an is the dimensionless Hoogeparameter and N is the number of electrons participating in the conduction. N was calculated from the geometry and the electron density obtained from the Hall measurements. The exponent of the DC bias was 2 within the measuring error. Table 2 summarizes the measured parameters.
TABLE 2. The summary of the data obtained from the Hall and noisemeasurements. SAMPLE NO. D09 D12 Thickness [nm] 186 177 Free electron cone, [cm"'] 8.6*10" 3.7*10" Hall mobility [ c m V s  ' ] 22 41 P 1.02...1.06 1.13...1.23
OH 7300 4500
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This work was supported by the Hungarian Research Found (OTKA) under contract No. 73424. The assistances in the sample preparation of Mr. Tamas Szabo and Mr. Attila Nagy are also acknowledged.
REFERENCES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
8.
J. Hiipkes, B. Rech, S. Calnan, O. Kluth, U. Zastrov, H. Siekmann and M. Wuttig, Thin Solid Films 502, 286291 (2006) F. Ruske, A. Pflug, V. Sittinger, W. Werner, B. Szyszka and D.J. Christie, Thin Solid Films doi.:10.1016/j.tsf.2007.06.019 (2007) S.J. Jung, B.M. Koo, Y.H. Han, J.J. Lee and J.H. Joo, Surface & Coatings Technology 200, 862866 (2005) L. Li, L. Fang, X.M. Chen, J. Liu, F.F. Fang, Q.J. Li, G.B. Liu and S.J. Feng, Physica E 41 169174(2008) C. May, R. Menner, J. Striimpfel,. M. Oertel and B. Sprecher, Surface & Coatings Technology 169170, 512516 (2003) H.D. Xiong, W. wang, Q. Li, C. A. Richter, J.S. Suehle, WK. H, T. Lee, D. M. Fleetwood, Applied Physics Letters 91, 0531071 (2007) J. Lee, I. Han, BY. Yu, GC. Yi, G. Ghibaudo, J. Korean Physical Society, 53, 339342 (2008)
A. Nemeth, Cs. Major, M. Fried, Z. Labadi, I. Barsony, Thin SolidFilms, Volume 516, Issue 20, 30 August 2008, Pages 70167020
9.
132
Low Frequency Noise In ElectrolyteGate FieldEffect Devices Functionalized With Dendrimer/CarbonNanotube Multilayers
F.V. Gasparyan , A. Poghossian ' , S.A. Vitusevich , M.V. Petrychuk , V.A. Sydoruk , A.V. Surmalyan , J.R. Siqueira , O.N. Oliveira Jr. , A. Offenhausser^ M.J. Schoning^'^
'Yerevan State University, 1 AlexManoogian St., 0025 Yerevan, Armenia ^Institute ofNano and Biotechnologies, Aachen University of Applied Sciences, 5242, Jiilich, Germany ^Institute of Bio and Nanosystems. Research Centre Jiilich, 52425 Jiilich, Germany ''Taras Shevchenko National University, 01033 Kiev, Ukraine ^Physics Institute of Sao Carlos, University of Sao Paulo, 369, Sao Carlos, Brazil Abstract. Lowfrequency noise in an electrolyteinsulatorsemiconductor (EIS) structure functionalized with a multilayer of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer and singlewalled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) is studied. The noise spectral density exhibits 1//'^ dependence with an exponential slope of / 0.8 and 0.8 < / < 1.8 for the bare and functionalized EIS sensor, respectively. It has been observed that functionalisation of EIS structure with the PAMAM/SWNTs multilayer leads to an essential reduction of 1/f noise at frequencies below ~10 Hz. Keywords: lowfrequency noise, fieldeffect sensor, carbon nanotube, dendrimer. PACS:73.21.b;73.22.f
INTRODUCTION The functionahsation of fieldeffect devices (FED) based on an electrolyteinsulatorsemiconductor (EIS) system with the nano and biomaterials is one of the most attractive approaches for the development of (bio)chemical sensors and biochips [1]. In addition, silicon nanowires and carbon nanotubes have recently attracted significant interest as a promising material for novel nanoscale bioelectronic devices [2]. Since FEDs are charge sensitive devices, each (bio)chemical reaction leading to chemical or electrical changes at the insulator gate/electrolyte interface can be detected by coupling the gate with respective chemical or biological recognition elements. In order to obtain specific biosensors with a high performance, the layerbylayer (LbL) technique has been recognized as a suitable tool for fabricating functional hybrid materials and nanostructured films, as it offers fine control over film thickness and architecture at the nanoscale [3]. While the noise has been extensively studied in MOSFETs (metaloxidesemiconductor fieldeffect transistor) and related devices, so far the noise investigation
CPn29, Noise and Fluctuations, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
133
in electrolytegate FEDs has been limited [4]. Noise investigations in functionahsed FEDs are especially important in the case of an application of FEDs for the detection of biomolecules by their intrinsic molecular charge, where the sensor signal can be very small [1]. Moreover, the study of noise spectroscopy in functionalised FEDs can give additional insight into the detection mechanisms of the biosensor. In this work, lowfrequency (LF) noises in a capacitive EIS structure functionahsed with polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer/SWNT (singlewalled carbon nanotube) LbL multilayer has been investigated for the first time.
EXPERIMENTAL
The LbL film consisting of three bilayers of PAMAM/SWNT was prepared on an AlpSiSi02 Ta205 (300 nm Al as a rearside contact layer, 30 nm Si02 and 55 nm Ta205) chips via consecutive adsorption of positively charged PAMAM dendrimers and SWNTs (modified with carboxylic groups) from the respective solutions, following by rinsing and drying steps. The adsorption of each layer was monitored by capacitancevoltage (CV) method using an impedance analyzer (Zahner Elektrik). Fig. 1 shows the schematic crosssection of the EIS structure functionalised with a multilayer of PAMAM/SWNT (a) as well as the chemical structures of the materials employed (b).
SWNT b)
PAMAM
FIGURE 1. Schematic of the EIS structure functionalized with a muWlayer of PAMAM/SWNT (a) and chemical structures of materials employed (b).
Shflding box
FIGURE 2. Experimental setup for noise measurements. E: battery; R: load resistance; DUT: device under test; LNA: lownoise current amplifier.
134
Noise spectra in bare and functionalized EIS sensors were measured in a pH 7 buffer solution in a frequency range from 0.03 to 100 Hz using the experimental setup shown in Fig. 2. A voltage from battery E was applied to the EIS structure via load resistance {R=10 MQ) and an Ag/AgCl hquidjunction reference electrode. The EIS sensor was coupled to a lownoise current amplifier (LNA). The LNAoutput was connected to an HP 3 5670A dynamic signal analyzer that records the noise signal. The measuring cell with the EIS sensor, reference electrode and LNA were placed in a shielding box for protecting from external electromagnetic influences.
"'~""''^~*"''**^
^ , 30.6
*^
' A
\\ \\
\ . PAMAM 6 ' SWNT 6
SWNT 1
c 30 S o ^20
O
\ \
PAMAM 1 \ \
Tafis
10 1.5
1.0
0.0
0.5
29.4 0.40
0.38
0.30
FIGURE 3. CV curves for a bare pSiSi02Ta205 EIS structure and an EIS sensor functionalized with 3bilayers of PAMAM/SWNT measured in a buffer solution of pH 7 (left), and the zoomed CV curves in the depletion range (right).
LF noise spectra were measured in different working points of the CV curve by applying different gate voltages. The measured noise spectral density (NSD) exhibits l/f dependence with an exponential slope of 7 0.8 and 0.8 < 7 < 1.8 for the bare and functionalized EIS sensor, respectively. Surprisingly, at frequencies of/<10 Hz, noisereduction effect has been recorded in a functionalized EIS structure. This effect depends on the applied gate voltage and is stronger in the accumulation regime. As an example. Fig. 4 demonstrates the gatevoltage noise power spectral density (Sy) as a function of frequency for the bare and functionalized EIS structures, recorded in the accumulation region at an applied gate voltage of 1.5 V and in pH 7 buffer solution. As can be seen, the presence of an additional PAMAM/SWNT multilayer leads to essential reduction (by the factor of up to 100) of the 1//noise in the accumulation mode in comparison to bare EIS structure.
135
^a'
lrf
Frequency (Hz)
10^
FIGURE 4. Gatevoltage NSD (Sy) as a function of frequency for the bare (plot 1) and functionalized (plot 2) EIS structures, recorded in the accumulation region at an applied gate voltage of1.5 V.
The theoretical modelling of the noise in functionalised FEDs is very complicated due to the presence of an organic/inorganic hybrid structure, and should include noise caused from the reference electrode, electrolyte, multilayer of PAMAM/SWNT, oxide/electrolyte and multilyer/electrolyte interfaces, and the solidstate device itself. It has been reported that 1 / / noise behaviour was observed for ISFETs (ionsensitive fieldeffect transistor) down to 1 Hz, indicating that the noise is dominated by the trappingdetrapping mechanism at the SiSi02 interface [4]. An application of a trappingdetrapping model to our structure, do not allow explain the effects observed in functionalised EIS structures. Thus, our results demonstrate that in addition to charge fluctuation mechanism in solidstate part, electrochemical processes at the Ta205/PAMAM and electrolyte/PAMAM/SWNT interfaces as well as in multilayer itself could be responsible for noise behaviour in functionalised FEDs. It is also possible to include phonon percolation processes in semiconductor (insulator)/other media interfaces to explain the low frequency noise pecuharities [5]. Dashed hues in Fig. 4 are calculated using only charge fluctuation model at the Ta205/PAMAM/SWNT/electrolyte interfaces. The PAMAM/SWNT multilayer could act as a "stabiliser" providing a more stable signal and a smaller drift [6] and as a tool for "noise suppression" in the investigated system [5].
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
F.V. Gasparyan is grateful to German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) for financial support.
REFERENCES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. M.J. Schoning and A. Poghossian, Electroanalysis 18, 18931900 (2006). J. Mannik, I. Heller, A.M. Janssens, S.G. Lemay and C. Dekker, Nana Lett. 8, 685688 (2008). J.L. Lutkenhaus and P.T. Hammond, Soft Matter 3, 804816 (2007). C.G. Jakobson and Y. Nemirovsky, IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 46, 259261 (1999). S.V. Melkonyan, V.M. Aroutiounian, F.V. Gasparyan, H.V. Asriyan, Physica, B: Physics of Condensed Matter 3^2, 6570 (2006). J.R. Siqueira, Jr., M.H. Abouzar, M. Backer, V. Zucolotto, A. Poghossian, O.N. Oliveira, Jr., and M.J. Schoning, P/;>'5. Status SoUdi A 206, 462467 (2009).
136
Low Frequency Noises Of Hydrogen Sensors On The Base Of Silicon Having NanoPores Layer
Z.H. Mkhitaryan, F.V. Gasparyan, A.V. Surmalyan
Yerevan State University, 1 AlexManoogian St., 0025 Yerevan, Armenia Abstract. Sensors have sandwich stracture metal/porous silicon/crystalhne silicon/Al. The contact metal on porous silicon was from Au and from Pd. Porosity of the samples is 57% and 63%. Low frequency noises before, during and after influence of hydrogen gas flow are studied. Noise spectra of the samples in general have Ij f^ forms with 0.7 < / < 1.
INTRODUCTION
Design of control and monitoring systems permitted to receive information about composition of the several gaseous medium. This is very important for the environment monitoring. The basic part of those systems is the gas sensor. They are used for threshold detection of the several gas escapes and for control of the foul gas concentration at the technological processes. Extensive search for new materials, new techniques for increasing of sensitivity of semiconductor based gas sensors have great interest [1]. Porous silicon (PS) has high resistivity and therefore it is very sensitive to external influences, such as gaseous medium. PS/silicon substrates have been used for sensing applications. PS is successfully used for design and construction not only gas, as well as (bio)chemical sensors and air humidity sensors [2]. The H2 gas sensors that can quickly and rehably detect H2 over a wide range of oxygen and moisture concentrations are not currently available. At the change of air gas composition concentration the electrical activity of the binding sites and charge states of the material surface is changed. Then electrical and noise characteristics of gas sensors are essentially changed. Since the time constants involved in the detection of several gases molecules via trapping on the surface electronic states of the PS layer are relatively large, in the order of seconds or higher, it would be expected that low frequency noise (LFN) is more critical than other types of noises in gas sensors. EXPERIMENTAL Sensors have sandwich structure Metal/PS/Crystalline silicon/Al. The contact metal on PS made from Au (samples 1) and from Pd (samples 2 and 3). Porosity of the samples 1 and 2 vas 57%, porosity of the samples 3 is 63%. PS layer is organized by
CPn29, Noise and Fluctuations, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
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the electrochemical etching of crystalline p^Si substrate having 0.012cm specific resistivity. Thickness of the PS layer is equal to 3 im.
i>
LNA
Fourier analyzer 1/
FIGURE 2. Noise spectra of the Samples 1 (PS 57%, Au contact). Current equal to 100 /JTO .
Noise measurements are carrying out at the 300K using experimental arrangement shown on the Fig. 1. Voltage from battery "E" is applied to sample across load resistance R. By the lownoise amplifier (LNA) "SR 560" signal level is amplified. After that we do Fourier analyze in the frequency range 2100 Hz using dynamic signal analyzer "Handiscope 2". Spectrum averaging number is equal to 200. Samples, battery, gas cell and LNA are located in Shielding box for protection from external electromagnetic influences. Currentvoltage characteristics (CVC) are measured in dry air and dry air+0.1% H2. In dry air CVC has nonlinear character. For the samples 2 and 3 the reverse CVC do not have saturation, but for sample 1 (ohmic contact) reverse branch is saturated. At the forward bias in air for sample 1 we can see rectification phenomenon. When we put up the sample 1 in air mixed with H2 only forward branch of CVC slowly changes: device resistance increases. For the samples 2 and 3 (non ohmic contacts) under influence of H2 both forward and reverse branches strongly changed and device resistance decreases. After 3 days ageing in dry air+0.1% H2 CVC of sensors with Pd contacts and 63% porosity become practically linear. 138
On the Figs. 24 LFN spectra are presented. In general that spectra have ij f forms with 0.7 < 7 < 1. Noise voltage is measured in current generator mode. At the influence of H2 LFN levels increases and at the same time its behavior changes. For all samples in air at the / > 3040 Hz thermal noise dominates. In the medium dry air + 0.1% H2 noise spectra for samples I get I / / dependence (Fig. 2). LFN level of the samples 2 and 3 increase in H2 medium (Fig. 3, 4). Note that the longer we keep samples in the medium dry air + 0.1% H2 the higher is noise level.
0 7 PS With Pd contact
air+Hj
FIGURE 3. Noise spectra of the Samples 2 (PS 57%, Pd contact). Current equal to 10 /JTO .
Pd contact 53% PS
10
100
I Hz
FIGURE 4. Noise spectra of the Samples 3 (PS 63%, Pd contact). Current equal to 50 mi
139
and 3 at the adsorption of H2 molecules surface resistance decreases for both forward and reverse bias cases. This is probably conditioned by the decreasing of the Schottky barrier height. Current growth is attended with quick growth of the noises level (Figs. 3 and 4). The adsorption of the gas molecules can be associated with decomposition or dissociation. A reducing molecule adsorbed on the sensor surface acts as a donor and give electrons to surface states. At the adsorption they migrate over nanopores and accept on the slow acceptor states. As a bulk recombination process via additional surface states bring to the increase of the fluctuation of the charge carriers in the bulk Si and consequently bring to the increase of LFN level. It is clear that the higher is H2 concentration the more is adsorbed molecules and therefore the stronger is the changes of the potential barrier height. As height of the heterobarrier at the H2 adsorption almost does not change the barrier does not have essential effect as compared with growth of the adsorbed and desorbed molecules effect on the formation of additional noise. After H2 discharge from the cell the noise level decreases. Two competing models have appeared in the literature to explain LFN: the McWhorter number fluctuation theory and Hooge mobility fluctuation theory. For explanation of LFN behavior in pSi/PS based gas sensors we used "Correlated numbermobility fluctuation model" [3]. In this theory noise spectral density of the flatband voltage fluctuation can be described by: S^(f) f  , here / = J2m''<S>g is AyC f h McWhorter's or tunneling parameter, k is Boltzmann constant, T is the temperature, 7V^, is the oxide equivalent trap density in eV'cm"^, A is the effective area of nanopores contacting with H2 molecules, C is the cumulative capacitance, m' is the effective mass of the electron in the oxide layer, and O^ is the tunnehng barrier height seen by the electron at the interface. O^ decreases with increase of H2 concentration. For numerical calculations of S^ ( / ) for samples 2 and 3 we consider that in air at the normal conditions we have 2.7x10^' molecules without H2. Then at the air+0.I%H2 we have A^^ 2.7xI0'*^ c m l For SiSi02 system at 300 K 7 = I0**cm"\ 7V^, = lO'^eV'cm"^. Samples have cycle's forms with d = l.5 cm diameter. Assume that all pores identical ( parallelepipeds having lOnm x lOnm x 3 im sizes). Then 1.77 x lO'^ pores. For 57% PS porosity A^j,/^ I2I0cm^, for 63% PS porosity A^y^^ I338cm^. Analytical graphs S^(f) are presented on the Figs. 3 and 4 (direct lines). We can see acceptable fit between experimental and analytical graphs. Different behavior of LFN is conditioned by the contact metal type, as well as it depends on tie of H2 molecules after chemical adsorption on the PS surface binding sites. At storage of samples in H2 atmosphere the noise spectrum has I/f dependence. =
REFERENCES
1. I. Schechter, M. BenChorin and A. Kax,Anal. Chemistryf,!, 37273732 (1995). 2. V.M. Aroutiounian, Z.H. Mkhitaryan, A.A. Shatveryan, F.V. Gasparyan, M.Zh. Ghulinyan, L. Pavesi, L.B. Kish, and C.G. Granq\ist, IEEE Sensors Journal S, 786790 (2008). 3. A. Hassibi, R. Navid, R.W. Dutton, and T. H. Lee, J. ofAppl. Physics 96, 10741082 (2004).
140
Nyquist Relation and Its Validity for Piezoelectric Ceramics Considering Temperature
Petr Sedlak, Jiri Majzner and Josef Sikula
Department of Physics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Communication, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 16, Brno 616 00, Czech Republic majzner@feec. vuthr. cz Abstract. In this paper, we focused on validity of the Nyquist relation for piezoelectric ceramics in temperatures 303 K  393 K. The electrical impedance and noise spectral density were measured and compared for every 10 K in frequency range 100 kHz  1 MHz. The measurements were made in thermal stable condition and under equilibrium conditions in the case of noise measurement. Keywords: piezoelectric ceramics, noise spectral density, Nyquist relation PACS: 77.84.Dy
INTRODUCTION
This work, developed at Czech Noise Research Laboratory (CNRL), concerns the validity of Nyquist relation on piezoelectric ceramics considering the temperature. This ceramic material is widely used in nondestructive acoustic/ultrasonic methods, especially in acoustic emission (AE). This technique offers great potential due to its ability of quantitative evaluation such as crack location and crack characterization. The AE sensors are almost of piezoelectric ceramics type due to its ability of high sensitivity with wide bandwidth. The signaltonoise ratio of these sensors depends on many factors including minimization of the own noise in piezoelectric part. The main sources of voltage or current fluctuation in piezoelectric ceramics are thermal noise, polarisation noise and low frequency 1/f noise. Thermal noise is given by interaction of phonons with free electrons or holes and noise spectral density of voltage fluctuations is proportional to sensor resistance and temperature. Fluctuation of electrical polarisation in piezoelectric ceramics is an additional source of the voltage noise. Electrical dipoles are vibrating due to thermal energy and theirs motion create on electrodes induced electric charges, with time dependent value of the total charge. Induced electric charge fluctuates and this is the origin of voltage fluctuation. This is generation recombination noise with exponential distribution of relaxation constant. Noise 1/f originates from superposition of particular generation recombination spectra. In previous papers [13], we showed that noise spectral density of these fluctuations can be described by wellknown Nyquist equation
CPn29, Noise and Fluctuations, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
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S^=4kTR
(1)
where k is Boltzmann constant, T is absolute temperature and R denotes a real part of electrical impedance. Figure 1 shows the noise spectral density of piezoceramic disc used in AE sensors. This dependence is simulation of PZ27 disc, and was calculated by our mathematical model [3], which is based on theory of finite element method and on Nyquist relation. The considered temperature is 300K. In this work, we compare the noise measurements and calculations in frequency range from 100 kHz to 1 MHz for temperatures 303 K393 K in order to prove the validity of Nyquist relation.
^r
AE frequency range^
10 10 frequency/ Hz
FIGURE. 1. Simulation results of the mathematical model based on Nyquist relation [3]
EXPERIMENT The experiment was carried out on PCM 51 disc specimen of diameter 9.95 mm and thickness 3.20 mm. This material belongs to piezoelectric soft materials, which are suitable for sensing applications, and is produced by Noliac Ceramics, Inc [4]. The measurements of complex electrical impedance were made with an autobalancedbridge using RLC meter HP4285A (Agilent Technologies, Inc.). The band of analysis covers the frequency range from 100 kHz to 1 MHz with a resolution of IkHz. Measurement of noise spectral density frequency dependence requires amplifier and filter competent quality. Our apparatus consists of input low noise preamplifier (PA 15, 3S Sedlak), amplifier (AMP 22, 3S Sedlak) with high selective filters and 12bit A/D converter. The sampling rate was 5 MHz and the sample was measured under equilibrium conditions. For each temperature, the 1000 realization of noise measurement were made to get fine resolution of noise spectral density. The noise background level of measurement setup was 2x10"'* V^ Hz"\ The temperature of the furnace was monitored and controlled by developed software from the PC via RS232 interface. This software includes the proportionalintegralderivate (PID) control. The noise and impedance measurement were done for temperatures from 303 K to 393 K. The temperature was increased at 4K per minute
142
and sample was kept at each measuring temperature at least 30 minutes before measurement in order to ensure thermal equilibrium. Figure 2 and 3 shows measured dependences for T = 393 K.
200
800
1000
200
800
1000
"K
30 28
a = 76.84Q/K
c^
+ +
"""+.,
"+,
"K,
+ "\
400 420
The specimen temperature seems to have little influence on the noise spectral density in temperature range 303  393 K. On the other hand, the thermal influence on impedance is not insignificant. The decrease of the real part of impedance is explained by thermal sensibility if certain characteristics of the piezoelectric material such as the dielectric constant [5]. In view of Nyquist relation, the decrease of real part of
143
impedance compensates the increase of the thermal noise, when the temperature increases. We compared the measured and calculated noise spectral density for correspond temperature in percentage. Figure 6 represents this comparison. With increasing temperature, the results of measurement and calculations are more different, nevertheless this difference is insignificant. We suppose that Nyquist relation can be used, and is valid in measured range of temperature.
'fe
( D o c
(U
7 a = 2.91x10"^%/K
8
a; 7.5
T3
(D
D) ro
I 8.5
o ^ Q. "o
(U
n 9
95
^ 10
280 300 320 340 360 380 Temperature / K 400 420
CONCLUSION
This work concerns the validity of Nyquist relation on piezoelectric ceramics considering the temperature. The experiment was carried out on PCM51 specimen. The noise and impedance measurements were made for temperatures 303 K393 K in frequency range from 100 kHz to 1 MHz. Comparing these measured and calculated noise spectral densities, we found that calculated results based on Nyquist relation gave us a good agreement with the noise measurement.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This research has been supported by the Czech Ministry of Education in the frame of MSM 0021630503 Research Intention MIKROSYN New Trends in Microelecfronic System and Nanotechnologies and Grant MSMT KONTAKT ME896.
REFERENCES
1. J. Majzner et al, 1/f noise in piezoceramic, samples Proc. ofICNF2003, 2003, pp. 851854. 2. J. Majzner et al. Noise in piezoceramics, Proc. ofICNF2007, 2007, pp. 347350 3. P. Sedlak et al. Mathematical Model for Electrical Noise of Piezoelectric Sensor, Proc. of ICNF2007, 2007, pp. 335338 4. Noliac Ceramics, Inc. http://www.noliac.com/ 5. Z. Gubinyi Z et al. Journal ofElectroceram 20 (2), 2007, 95105
144
Abstract Our research is above all focused on nondestructive testing of the solar cells. We study a singlecrystal silicon solar cells n^p and we don't have serious information about features of a/> junction and impurities distribution. The main point of our study is characterization of the local defects in samples. These defects lead to livetime reduction and degradation of reliability. Flicker noise in forward biased solar cells is subject of this paper. We will discuss our measurement with Kleinpenning approaches for inhomogeneous semiconductors and we suggest the physical nature of the samples behaviour. Keywords: Solar cell, flicker noise, shot noise, transport mechanism PACS: 73.50.Td
INTRODUCTION In terms of cost reduction for photovoltaic systems the use of a new method for solar cells diagnostics is a very promising approach. Silicon based single junction solar cells are currently most widespread production alternative. The major advantage of using silicon as a base material is a stray procedure of extended dimension ingot production. The solar cell surface area is generally up to several hundreds centimeters square. The pn junction is very close to surface and it follows surface texturing. Due to this fact, the solar cell structure is very sensitive to surface damage and imperfections in bulk of material. Our aim is above all characterization of the bulk imperfections or inhomogeneties. The lowfrequency noise measurement of a typical solar cell is investigated in this paper. During our study we proved that noise contributions of the solar cells are quite complicated. Their difficult character is probably result of large pn junction area and great number of local defects (such as impurities presence or junction thickness fluctuations resulting in local breakdowns). We want to characterize bulk imperfections; hence the sample selected for measurement (labeled K4) is only a fragment of the whole solar cell. Specimen surface area is less than 1 cm^.
CPn29, Noise and Fluctuations, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
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FIGURE 1. Power spectral noise density of forward biased solar cell for different bias voltage.
Figure 2 depicts IV curve of the solar cell (here n is an ideality factor). We suggest, that the first apparently hnear region where = 3.43 is a consequence of the shunt resistance, the second region ( = 2.58) is caused by generation and recombination (gr process) of carriers. The ideality factor is essentially impressed with the distributed series resistance, [1].
Here S^^ is a/> junction area [3], i is a intrinsic concentration and (i is a depletion region width. In our case, the re has the same meaning as r^ that is effective carriers life time. The depletion region width is possible to obtain form CU measurement. The
146
resulting life time is re = 8.9910" s. According to equation (1), the flicker noise in the pn junction is proportional to / . This statement has been verified by means of measurement of the power spectral noise density (center frequency 10 Hz) vs. forward current (see fig. 3).
shunt resistance is dominant
<
CO
C O
FIGURE 3. Power spectral noise density as a function of forward current, solar cell, quality factor 2 = 2.
FIGURE 4. Power spectral noise density as a function of f/f (Q is filter quality factor).
In spite of the above, the curve in figure 3 does not correspond to the flicker noise for low level currents (in case of high level current does not be keep low injection conditions). Figure 4 depicts increase of the power spectral noise density (PSD) vs. bias voltage and frequency is here a parameter. Origin of noise with the Lorentzian spectrum correlates with measurement at frequency of 120 Hz (see fig. 1). So, the voltage limit for flicker noise observation is approximately Uf ~ 290 mV. As opposed to the high voltage limit we can find out the low current hmit. By the same taken, the shunt resistance R^h must be implemented into equation (1). We obtain
(2)
iIUjR.^+h)Tj
Here 7 is a constant representing current transport mechanism./ is a saturation current and r^ is a life time. The y constant for the gr process in the space charge region is 2/3. Simulation results are depicted in figure 5. The shunt resistance in case of the K4 solar cell sample is only R^h = 44.4 \<l. In case of high currents the PSD of the flicker noise increase is proportional to the forward current and for the low lever currents it is proportional to S. / **. This means that the flicker noise is immeasurable in this region. So, what type of noise do we observe in low current region? We suggest the shot noise contribution. According to [1], pn junction shot noise is given by :2e/e"*^+2e/. 147
(3)
Simulation of the pn junction shot noise has been made in agreement with eq. (4). The obtained results are depicted in fig. 5 and they are in compliance with experimental results (fig. 3). The Lorentzian spectrum shaped noise from figure 1 has been only briefly discussed because of scope of this paper. We only suggest that the time constant of the gr process is r  410"^ s. This type of noise may be caused by means of the same traps as a l//"noise.
//A
CONCLUSION
The PSD vs. forward current curve in fig. 3 does not correspond to the flicker noise for low level currents. To deals with this problem, new type of noise sources has been added. Our model of solar cells noise is based on the flicker noise in the pn junction, the shot noise and the gr noise. The research has showed that the flicker noise is given by carriers generation and recombination in the space charge region of the solar cell (carriers density fluctuation) and 1 / / noise results from interaction between generationrecombination processes.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This research has been supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic. The grant No. is GA102/09/H074 and the research project No. is VZ MSM 0021630503.
REFERENCES
1. VANDAMME, L., K., I , ALABEDRA, R., ZOMMITI, M.: 1/f noise as reliability estimation for solar cells, Solid State Electronics, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 671674, 1983. 2. SZE S. M.: Physics of Semiconductor Devices, John Wiley & Sons, New York, November 2006, ISBN 9780471143239. 3. Macku, R.; Koktavy, P.; Skarvada, P.: Advanced nondestructive diagnostics of monocrystalline silicon solar cells, WSEAS Transactions on Electronics. 2008. 4(9). p. 192  197. ISSN 11099445
148
Flickering Noise Spectroscopy as a Powerful Tool for Investigation the Dynamics of the Deformation Processes in Solids
Sergey G. Lakeev^ Nina N. Peschanskaya , Vitalii V. Shpeiizman , Pavel N. Yakushev , Alexander S. Shvedov^ Alexander S. Smolyanskii^
" Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry, 10 Vorontsovo Pole, Moscow 105064, Russian Federation loffe Physical Technical Institute, 26 Polytekhnicheskaya, St Petersburg 194021, Russian Federation
Abstract. "Stick  slip" deformation in yirradiated PolyMethylMethAcrylate (PMMA) samples has been tested by means laser Dopier interferometry. Stick  slip deformation becomes apparent both at elastic and plastic PMMA flow stages. It was observed that the transition component of the creep rate can be described in the framework of Flickering noise process. The parameters of the Flickering noise process have been determined. It was concluded that Flickering noise spectroscopy can be concerned as a useful and a powerful approach, explaining the nature of stick  flip deformation in solids. Keywords: Polymer, Laser Dopier Interferometry, PMMA, "Stick  Slip" Deformation PACS: 05.40.a; 07.05.Kf; 07.60.Ly; 61.82.Pv; 62.20.Hg; 62.30.+d; 81.70.Fy
INTRODUCTION
Development of new precise methods for measurement the little displacement in solids discovers new information about the deformation in polymers [1]. Employing of the laser interferometry for testing the creep of the different sohds can improve the quality of prognosis of their deformation behavior. Laser interferometry has following advantages: (i) absence of the time lag; (ii) contactless control; (iii) distance measurement; (iv) continuous record the creep parameters; (v) high measurement accuracy; (vi) absence of the standard. It was shown [2] that employement of the laser interferometry technique for investigation of the deformation processes can obtain more precise information about one of the main creep parameters  the point of forced elasticity which separate the regions of the elastic and plastic flow stages. However creep data, observed by means of laser interferometry, may contain another feature important for understanding the nature of deformation in solids. Investigation of these one
CPn29, Noise andFluctuaUons, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
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requires the employment of modem information technologies and new approaches in explanation of the experimental data.
EXPERIMENTAL
A number of PMMA (Russian State Standard 1762272) samples having cylindrical shape (6 mm in height, 3 mm in diameter) were used as a unit under deformation test. The polymer samples were yirradiated up to 160 kGy at room temperature in vacuum (dose rate ~3 Gy/s). The deformation measurements have been carried out at room temperature in air. Investigation of the PMMA creep properties has been studied by means of experimental plant containing the deformation machine coupled with the laser interferometer (Fig. 1). This plant has following characteristics: (i) creep rate range  from 10' to 10' m/s; (ii) deformation range  from 10' to 10' m; (iii) sensitiveness ~X/4 (where 1 is the laser light wavelength (1=0.633 ^m in our experiments)); (iv) deformation and/or creep rate measurement error  0.02%; (v) deformation testing time  from 1 to 10"^ c; (vi) sampling rate  from 1 to 10^ s'\ Principle of operation: the mirror 2 starting to move during the sample creep. At the same time the reflected laser beam (b) undergoing the Dopier frequency shift. As a result of interaction between the reflected laser light and the reference laser beam (a) light quantity AO = Oi  OQ is formed (Fig. 1). The AO intensity periodically changes with the beat frequency Av = Vi  Vo, where Vi, Vo  oscillation frequencies of the reflected and reference light waves. These changes of light quantity AO were detected by photomultipliers 4, 5. The beat frequency Av connects with the creep rate e' by means of simple relation: Av. 2e. (1) For 1=0.633 jnn the Av value changes from 0.310 to 0.310' s' Further, the deformation e can be determined from the formula (2): (2) where N is the number of full waves.
CD
f7:^^4kn 1L.
FIGURE 1. Optical scheme of the laser interferometer: 1  laser; 2, 8  mirrors; 3  polarizer; 4, 5  photomultipliers; 6, 7  halftransmitting mirrors; 9  the direction of the sample travel.
150
20U
ion Time, s
euu
FIGURE 2. Deformation interferogramme recorded during testing of the PMMA sample irradiated up to 160 kGy. The sampling rate is 10"' s. The value of compressive load is 80 MPa.
RESULTS
The common PMMA deformation dependence has been observed during creep test (Fig. 2, 3). It consists of two regions, corresponding to elastic and plastic flow stages. PMMA creep behavior changes at the deformation e ~ 10 ^m corresponding to the point of forced elasticity e* (Fig. 3). At e > e* the PMMA deformation becomes irreversible. Sudden speedingup of the PMMA deformation as well as creep rate has been observed during sample loading (Fig. 3). More than 20 events of the acceleration the deformation process have been indexed in time of mechanical test. Observed fluctuations of the PMMA deformation and creep rate appeared occasionally, both at elastic and at the plastic flow stage. These ones have different amplitude. Every creep rate fluctuation followed by relaxation time. It was observed that the length of relaxation time depends on the amplitude of the creep rate fluctuation. Possibly, the amplitude of the creep rate fluctuation is determined by the size of the defect region where acceleration of PMMA deformation is localized. The phenomenon of the deformation acceleration is wellknown and may reflect the "stick  slip" nature of the deformation process [3]. Possibly, the polymer deformation can localize in some centers (radiationinduced defects and so on) which provide the acceleration of the frictional flow between the polymer layers in defect regions.
0,6 20
^
^ '
^*j 2 0,2 0,0 0 200 400 600 SO
u 10
Time, s FIGURE 3. Changing of the PMMA sample deformation e, xm (1) as well as creep rate e', xm/s (2) estimated according to (1), (2) from the Fig. 2 against the time of deformation test. The sampling rate is 10"' s. e* is the point of forced elasticity.
151
12
8
4
lg((0,s') FIGURE 4. The real part of the powerdensity spectrum estimated for occasional process characterizing the appearing of the creep rate fluctuations in the double logarithmic coordinates
From the temporal dependencies of PMMA deformation and creep rate (Fig. 3) the values of the observed times t, and creep rates e'tmax corresponding to the fluctuations of the creep rate were determined. Then by direct Fourier transform of these number series the powerdensity spectrum of the observed occasional process has been estimated (Fig. 4, where cO; ~ t;' ). As follows from the Fig. 4, the powerdensity spectrum of the observed occasional process has two important properties: S{a>)ocl/ofat(a>(ao (3) 5'(ft;) = 5'(0) atco<coo (4) It is wellknown [4] that is the features of the Fhckering noise process, which has the following parameters in our case: lg(S(0)) ~ 3.7 arb. un.; To = l/lmoo ~ 5L0 s; = 1,80 0,09 arb. un. (this estimation has got from the slope of linear dependence at co>coo (Fig. 4) by leastsquares method. From the n value it was easy to determine the Hurst constant by means of the following formula [4]: n = l + 2H^ (5) In the case of PMMA deformation the Hurst constant value is 0,40 0,05. The parameter To is a correlation time of the Flickering noise process [4]. Possibly, To can have a physical meaning as a mean relaxation time need for new fault nucleation where the deformation process can be accelerated. Finally, we may conclude that observed stochastic part of the PMMA deformation process can be satisfactory described in the framework of the Flickering noise process.
REFERENCES
1. S. E. Vaiisberg, "Reversible radiation effects in polymers" in Radiation Chemistry of Polymers, edited by V.A. Kargin, Nauka, Moscow, 1973, pp. 376443 (in Russian) 2. V. A. Stepanov, N. N. Peschanskaya, and V.V. Sheiizman, Durability and relaxation phenomena in solids, Nauka, Leningrad, 1984,245 p. (in Russian) 3. E. A. Brener, S. V. Malinin, and V. I. Marchenko, "Fracture and Friction: StickSlip Motion", (2004), http://www.kapitza.ras.ru/people/mar/BMM.pdf, accessed November 18,2004. 4. S. F. Timashev, and Yu. S. Polyakov, Fluctuation and Noise Letters 7, R15  R47 (2007).
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Noise Measurement of Interacting Ferromagnetic Particles with High Resolution Hall Microprobes
K. Komatsu'', D. L'Hote'', S. Nakamae'', F. Ladieu^ V. Mosser , A. Kerlain , M. Konczykowski", E. Dubois , V. Dupuis , and R. Perzynski
"Service de Physique de VEtat Condense (CNRS/MIPPU/URA 2464), DSM/IRAMIS/SPEC, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif/Yvette Cedex, France ''ITRONSAS, 76 avenue Pierre Brossolette, F92240 Malakoff, France 'Laboratoire des Solides Irradies, Ecole Polytechnique, F91128 Palaiseau, France atoire des Liquides loniques et Interfaces Chargees, UMR 7612 CNRS, Universite Pit Marie Curie,  4 place Jussieu, Boite 51, 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France Abstract. We present our first experimental determination of the magnetic noise of a superspinglass made of < i picoliter frozen ferrofluid. The measurements were performed with a local magnetic field sensor based on Hall microprobes operated with the spinning current technique. The results obtained, though preliminary, qualitatively agree with the theoretical predictions of FluctuationDissipation theorem (FDT) violation [1]. Keywords: Spinglass, Superspinglass, Magnetic noise. Fluctuationdissipation PACS: 75.10.Nr, 75.50.Lk, 64.70.Q, 61.43.Fs, 64.70.kj, 75.50.Tt
INTRODUCTION One of the most actively studied areas in the physics of complex systems such as spin glasses, polymers and colloids, is the dynamic correlation length that develops among interacting elements (spins, electrons, molecules, etc.) [2]. These length scales manifest themselves as various dynamically heterogeneous phenomena e.g., aging and critical behavior close to a phase transition. Recently, it has been shown theoretically that the mesoscopic outofequilibrium fluctuations (noise) and their relation to dissipation (fluctuationdissipation (FD) relation) should reveal previously unknown spatial heterogeneity of the system [3] including the dynamic correlation length scales. However, there is little or no experimental reports on such local spatialtemporal correlation noise due to the extreme weakness of the thermodynamic fluctuations involved [4]. Indeed, the only trusted measurements on fluctuations in outofequilibrium systems were performed on 'bulk' samples, e.g. in spinglasses [5] and in structural glasses [6], where the violation of the fluctuationdissipation theorem (FDT) was observed. In order to measure the fluctuations at mesoscopic scales, it is desirable to maximize the response from the individual elements of the system as well as the volume occupied by them. For this purpose, a concentrated ferrofluid superspin glass is a promising candidate. A 'ferrofluid' consists of ferromagnetic nanoparticles
CPn29, Noise andFluctuaUons, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
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suspended in liquid matrix (in our case, glycerin). When the nanoparticles are sufficiently concentrated, longrange dipolar interactions among them produce spinglass like behavior (aging, memory, etc.) at low temperatures. These systems are called 'superspin glasses' [7]. Due to their large magnetic moments, the magnetic fluctuations of a superspin glass can become accessible by a micrometer sized high resolution magnetic field probes placed within a close vicinity of the sample [8]. Here, we report the first successful experimental attempts to measure local magnetic noise (micrometer scale) in 0.5 picoliter of ferrofluid using a high resolution microHall probe with spinning current technique [9].
EXPERIMENTAL
Hall microprobes used in our study are Quantum Well Hall Sensors (QWHS) based on (pseudomorphic) AlGaAs/lnGaAs/GaAs heterostructures [9, 10, 11]. Such carrier confinement provides a temperature independent carrier density over a wide temperature range (4 < T < 350K). The effective field sensitive Hall cross area of 1.6x1.6 ^im^ (Fig. 1 left panel) is located at 650 nm beneath the sensor surface. A small, 0.5  1 pi drop of ferrofluid made of /Fe203 maghemite nanoparticles (diameter ~ 8.6nm, magnetic moment ~ lO"* ^IB) dispersed in glycerin (volume fraction 15%) is deposited directly on the probe surface as seen in Fig. 1, right panel. At low temperatures, the fluid (glycerin) is frozen and the only remaining magnetic degree of freedom is that of the particle magnetic moments. These moments (superspins) interact through the dipolar interaction leading to a superspinglass transition at T^ ~ 69.5K. Detailed ferrofluid characteristics and preparation methods are found in [12]. In our previous attempts, the Hall microprobes' field resolution was hmited to 1020x10"^ T for 40 < r < 90 K, not sufficient to measure the magnetization fluctuations of a superspinglass. Recently Kerlain et al, reported significant field resolution improvements on 2DEG based Hall microprobes [9, 11] using the spinning current technique [13]. We have employed the same approach and achieved so far, a 10 fold field resolution improvement at 77K.
FIGURE 1. Left Panel: A Hall microprobe with a nominal cross surface area of 2x2nm^. Right panel : The same microprobe with 0.51.0 pi (1215 im in diameter)of YFe203 ferrofluid deposited on top.
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100
150
Frequency (Hz)
Temperature (K)
FIGURE 2. Left panel: Spectral magnetic field noise density as a function of frequency at 60 K in zero applied field with and without ferrofluid. The magnetic noise becomes apparent a t / < 3Hz. The inset shows the squared magnetic noise due to ferrofluid magnetization fluctuation (see text) as a function of frequency. Right Panel: The out of phase component of ac magnetic susceptibility )^' vs. temperature of a bulk sample. The inset depicts ;c"(/) at 60 and 77 K (see text).
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CONCLUSION
In summary, we have observed the local magnetic noise stemming from a less than ~ 1 pi ferrofluid sample above and below T^ using a high sensitivity Hall microprobe. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first successful experimental attempt to measure the magnetization fluctuation close to the mesoscopic hmit in a (super)spin glass system. The experimental results imply that the FDT is obeyed at temperatures above Tg, where the system is in equilibrium. Below Tg, on the other hand, a sign of FDT violation has been found. Further improvements of the field resolution are under way. Although the results presented here are preliminary, the technique appears to be promising to study the FDT violation below Tg through the noise measurement.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We thank Roland Tourbot for his help in the reahzation of the experimental setup. This work is supported by the RTRATriangle de la Physique (MicroHall).
REFERENCES
1. see for example, L. F. Cugliandolo, J. Kurchan and L. Peliti, PhysRev. E, 55, 3898 (1997). 2. P. Doussineau et al., Europhys. Lett. 46, 401 (1999); L. Bellon, et al., Europhys. Lett 51 551 (2000); H. Mamiya et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4332 (1999); E. L. Papadopoulou, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 173 (1999); A. Gardchareon, et al., Phys. Rev. B 67 052505 (2003). 3. H.E. Castillo et al., Phys. Rev. B 68, 134442 (2003); C. Chamon and L. F. Cugliandolo, J. Stat Mech. P07022 (2007). 4. E. Vidal Russell andN. E. Israeloff, Nature 408, 695698 (2000). 5. D. Herisson and M. Ocio, Phys Rev Lett 88, 257202 (2002). 6. T. S. Grigera and N. E. Israeloff, Phys Rev. Lett 83, 5038 (1999); N.E. Israeloff et al., J. NonCrystaUine Sohds 352, 4915 (2006); L. Buisson and S. Ciliberto, PhysicaD, 204, 1 (2005). 7. P.E. Jonsson, Adv. Chem. Phys. 128, 191 (2004); P.E. Jonsson, et al, Phys Rev. B 70, 174402 (2004); D. Parker et al, Phys Rev. B 77, 104428 (2008). 8. D. L'Hote etal, J. Stat Mech: Theory andExp., P01027 (2009). 9. A. Kerlain and V. Mosser, Sensors and Actuators A 142, 528 (2008). 10. V. Mosser et al, 1997 Proc. 9th Int. Conf. on SolidState Sensors and Actuators, June 1997 (Chicago, USA) pp. 401404; V. Mosser et al 2003 SPIE Fluctuations and Noise Symposium, Santa Fe (NM), 14 June 2003, Proc SPIE 5115, 183; V. Mosser et al. Sensors and Actuators 43, 135 (1994); N. Haned and M. Missous, Sensors and Actuators A 102, 216 (2003); Vas. P. Kunets etal, IEEE Sensors J. 5, 883 (2005). 11. A. Kerlain and V. Mosser, Sensor Letters 5, 192 (2007). 12. Massart R., IEEE Trans. Magn., 17, 1247 (1981); E. Wandersmann et al, EuroPhys Lett 84, 37011 (2008); S. Nakamae et al, in press. Journal of Applied Physics (2009). 13. G. Boero et al. Sensors And Actuators A 106, 314 (2003); R.S. Popovic, 2"'' Edition, lOP Publishing, Bristol Philadelphia (2004); J.B. Kammerer et al, Eur Phys J. Appl Phys. 36, 49 (2006); Steiner R et al.. Sensors and Actuators A 66, 167 (1998).
156
Abstract. Experiments are reported which show that thick resistive films contain thermally activated noise sources. Their distribution within resistor volume is highly inhomogeneous and increases near resistor terminations. It occurs also that thermally activated sources of noise are highly influenced by the switching process triggered by the changes of microstructure.
Keywords: thermally activated kinetics, thick film resistors, lowfrequency noise. PACS: : 72.70.+m, 72.15.v, 85.40.Xx
INTRODUCTION
Experimental studies on thick film resistors (TFRs) show that excess low frequency noise apart from 1/f component contains contributions from thermally activated noise sources (TANSs) [1]. These noise sources most likely are located in the glassy matrix or conductive grain boundaries, and couple to resistance via the modulation of barrier heights for tunneling transitions in the conduction path [2]. In the paper several experiments are reported which prove that in TFRs: (i) distribution of TANSs within resistive film is highly inhomogeneous, (ii) population and/or intensity of TANSs increase near resistors terminations, (iii) TANSs are highly influenced by the switching process triggered by changes of film microstructure.
EXPERIMENT ALS
The basic experimental method used to arrive at the above conclusions was low frequency noise spectroscopy. We used the function of cross power spectral density Swxif) evaluated in frequency range IIO"* Hz as a function of temperature T. Noise voltages V and F^ were taken from various parts of resistors which were prepared as multiterminal specimens with several side legs equally spaced along resistor length. Shape of the samples and measurement setup are shown in Fig. 1. Resistive films were made either of labprepared pastes with ruthenium dioxide and leadborosihcate glass (10% B2O3 15% Si02 65% PbO) as basic components. Current
CPn29, Noise andFluctuaUons, 20* International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
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pads and voltage side contacts to the resistors were made of commercially available pastes containing Au, Pt, Pd and Ag as basic ingredients. Resistors for measurements were manufactured in conventional process on alumina substrates: samples were screen printed through 200 mesh screen and after firing at peak temperature 800C or 850C or 900C, for 10 minutes, gained the average thickness of 1020 j,m. Series of 8 specimens were fabricated. From each series a pair of samples with nearly matching resistance between contacts 17 (see figure la) at room temperature was selected for noise measurements. For each pair the measurements were made both on asprepared devices and devices annealed at 120C for 1000 h.
(a) (b)
FIGURE 1. (a) Shape of the samples and contacts enumeration, (b) Setup for noise measurements.
RESULTS
Feature (i) is concluded from the experiments like those reported in Fig.2, where fSwAf) is drawn versus frequency and reciprocal temperature in the form of two dimensional map. In such "noise map" TANS appears as local maximum which moves hnearly with \IT. Streaks observed in Fig. 2b originates from three TANSs with different activation energies. They appear in the noise spectrum of the whole resistor (measured between terminations 17) but not in the cross spectrum measured for part of the resistor extended between terminations 12. Thus, although the conclusion that noise sources that produce the streaks on the noise map are located somewhere between contacts 27 is not straightforward [3], the experiment proves that TANSs are nonuniformly distributed within the resistor. The increase of density and/or intensity of TANSs in the film/termination interface was observed for many TFRs e.g. in the experiment reported in Fig. 3a. Noise power {SV^) in three zones of a resistor is plotted versus temperature. The zones were of the same size but were located at various distances from resistor terminations. Zone A comprises most inner sectors 34 and 45, zone B sectors 23 and 56 and zone C most outer sectors 12 and 67. As can be seen noise produced by TANSs increase significantly in zone C, nearest to the terminations. Other experiments show that also the number of TANS in nexttotermination sectors of zone C increase. An important feature of TANSs located in zone C is that they are either nonstationary or especially sensitive to microstructural changes occurring in TFR during coohng. This property is illustrated in Fig. 3b, where the results of 6 coolingwarming cycles are shown. During these cycles noise spectra were measured in the range 77300 K for singlespacing
158
sectors 23, 34, 45, 56, twospacing sector 35 and fourspacing sector 26. Simple sumtest shows that noise powers for the singlespacing sectors add up to give noise powers measured for larger sectors, 35 an 26. As the spectra for different sectors were measured in different experiments this result requires stationary processes at all measured sectors as well as minor changes in resistive film microstructure occurring during successive thermal cycles.
1 / T , 1/K 1/T, 1/K FIGURE 2. Noise msips: JSwx(f, 1/T) measured simultaneously for (a) part of the resistor between contacts 12: V = F1.7, V^ = F1.2 (b) the whole resistor: : V = V^= F1.7. Measurements were done with the bias current flowing through terminations 17.
300 200 7, K FIGURE 3 Noise power (voltage fluctuations) in band 1001000 Hz versus temperature measured in (a) different zones (b) different sectors of a TFR. Lines in (b) are the sum of noise powers in sectors 34 and 45 (lower) and 23, 34,45 and 56 (upper). The most upper plots refer to noise power measured for the whole sample in six temperature cycles. 150
In each temperature cycle apart from the cross spectrum for a given sector also the spectrum for the whole sample (contacts 17) was measured. If the noise in sectors 12 and 67 had been stationary, noise power measured between terminations 17 in all 6 experiments would have been identical. This is not the case of Fig. 3c. Here the maximum at 150 K appears only in two of six "17" noise powers and is absent in the remaining four. This means that TANSs in zone C turn on/off during thermal cycles. Experiment reported in Fig. 4 shows that noise spectrum changes abruptly. A discussion provided in the paper [3] suggests that most likely origin of the switching
159
process that change intensity and energy of TANS is a redistribution of local currents driven by relaxation of mechanical stress, which in thickfilm resistors appears due to the mismatch of the thermal expansion coefficients of the materials contained in resistive film, conductive terminations and the substrate. 10k
100
CAI
C3
pi J
O OJ
OO o
(D ^
^ CO
^ C3
1/T, 1/K FIGURE 4. Noise map of RUO2 (10% by volume)+glass TFR measured at terminations 26.
Similar measurement were performed on the large quantity of TFRs made of commercially available pastes from DuPont (DP2021, DP2031, DP2041) and ITME (Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Warsaw, Poland) (R343, R344). Some of them contain bismuth ruthenate as conductive material. For all these resistors thermally activated noise sources with features (i)(iii) were observed. Thus, TANSs should considered as a common property of TFRs: they appear even in manufactureroptimized systems of compatible pastes and substrates. We were able to conclude that: (iv) on average the number of TANSs, and magnitude of the signal they produce, decrease with decreasing sheet resistivity, lowresistive devices of the size 2 x 15mm have at most two TANSs, (v) decreasing firing temperature makes TANS less intensive and frequent, (vi) anneahng does not remove TANSs. The phenomenon described in the paper, i.e. TANSs modulated by some switching process is active in temperature range of typical operation of TFRs. It becomes important factor that hmits stability and reliability of these devices especially in low temperatures where the phenomenon occurs to be more intensive.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The work was supported by TURz grant No. U737I/DS/BW.
REFERENCES
1. B. Pellegrini, R. Saletti, P. Terreni and M. Prudenziati, Phys. Rev. B, 27 1233 (1983) 2. A Kolek A W Stadler, P Ptak, Z Zawislak, K Mleczko, P Szalanski, and D Zak, J. Appl. Phys., 102 103718(2007). 3. A Kolek, A W Stadler, Z Zawislak, K Mleczko and A Dziedzic, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys, 41 025303 (2008).
160
INTRODUCTION
Perspectives of important applications of organic materials (OM) fuelled, for more than four decades, intensive research on the OMs and more recently on the OM devices [1]. That effort is now focused on molecular and polymer materials having 7tconjugated bonds [2]. We address here OM field effect transistors (OMFETs) with pentacene (P5) and polytriarylamine (PTAA) channel materials, belonging to these classes of materials. The energy band structure of 7tconjugated OMs resembles that of a standard semiconductor. The bands in the OMs are formed via interactions between the highest occupied molecular orbital, HOMO, and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, LUMO, for a large number of molecules. Conduction by extended states should predominate, but disorder induces localization, entailing transport by hopping. There is a growing consensus now that small polaron hopping [35] is involved in charge transport. The OMFETs operate as thin film transistors; the source and drain electrodes are embedded in the OM, and the gate electrode is separated from the latter by a dielectric layer. Conduction in the HOMO band occurs via carrier injection into the OM through a Schottky barrier. The contact resistance, usually high, depends on the barrier and also on contact position in the structure. In most cases the energy band configuration favours the hole injection into HOMO band, and OMFETs are ptype, and show very small mobility. Low frequency noise (LFN) in OMFETs has been addressed by several groups [68]. The PSD generally follows the 1/ftype dependence, often distorted by Lorentzian features. The interpretation is usually cast into the Hooge formalism, but that should be understood as a phenomenological description of the noise, rather than an evidence for the Ai model to hold. This work has two objectives (i) demonstration that the analysis of the static characteristics developed for standard FETs [9] can be applied to OMFETs and (ii) exploration of LFN in OMFETs and its analysis in concordance with the static data. Finally, we provide some elements that may contribute to the construction of a model for LFN generation in OMFETs.
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lA^g) = iw/L)M^fqiVgv,)xv,.
(4)
If the access resistance RSD is comparable with channel resistance, 6 should be replaced by 6*, 0* = 0 + iW/L)M,qRsn. (5) Extraction of RSD proceeds by calculating
\/4g^ = [\ + dHVgv,)]/s.
(6)
This function is linear in Vg hence gives a precise evaluation of 0* and, subsequently, of RSD
SjJl/=a/{WLnf),
and (ii) An, the carrier number fluctuation model, where Sj^ 11/ = q'kTN,, I (WLq'f) X {g 11, f
(7)
(8)
Nst in Eq. (8) is a surface density of noisegenerating centers that is found by a fitting routine. If RSD is significant (as in the OMFETs), Eq. (8) acquires another term SR/RSD =SR(Id/VDs) RSD can be determined from Eq.(5) and SR is evaluated as a fitting parameter. It measures the intensity of noise generation in RSD Note that the access resistance contribution to PSD~Id , thus it gives an upswing to the data points at higher Id, and, ultimately, a rise ~Id .
164
'
ljnrq^l
'
'
S''^
^ , ^ y ,
/
\ \ ^ ^
H=H(.exp(Ea/kT) fioo=14cmWs
y
W=500um, L=50um Vd=0 5V
G.t..oit.s.(v)
1000/T(Ki)
FIGURE 1. P5 OMFET. Y function vs Vg, The Id(Vg) and gm(Vg) are shown in the inset.
Noise PSD spectra in a TC 500x50am P5 device, shown in Fig. 3, follow the 1/f dependence and their intensity increases as Id . The PSD data for devices with W=500am and L=50, 100, and 150am, show a perfect gate surface area and current intensity scaling, as (Sid/Id )x(WL) versus IdXL/W) give a universal curve (Fig. 4). Figures 5 and 6 provide a starting point for a discussion on the noise generation model. First, it is readily seen that in P5 the relation Sid/Id ~Id is followed throughout several orders of magnitude in Id intensity. Note that Eq. (7) suggests SH/I d ~Id , thus the AJ. model clearly does not account for the data. On the other hand, the S^/Id and constx(g^/Id) functions can be superimposed in a range of Id intensities spanning several orders of magnitude, yielding rather reasonable values of Njt. The upward swing of the noise data from (gm/Id) function at the higher Id, is explained by the appearance of the noise generated in the access resistance; in addition, the latter is stronger in BC devices, as explained. Correlation between S^/Id and (gm/Id) implies a noise generation by carrier number fluctuations (Eq 8). At this point a construction of a more elaborate model of noise generation in OMFETs would be a mere speculation. However, as the noise scales with the gate surface area, the noise generators must lie in the vicinity of the OM/dielectric interface. It is plausible that they are
165
defecttrapped polarons, with lattice distortion extending deep into the dielectric, as suggested m [5].
FIGURE 4. Noise scaling. SH(@20HZ)WL/I/ data for 3 different P5 OMFETs, plotted vs IjXLAV.
TABLE 1: Comparison of parameters extracted from LFN (@20Hz) and static data for different types of FETs
W(nm) SiHcon MOSFET P5 TC OMFET P5 BC OMFET PTAA OMFET 10 500 500 60.000 L(nm) 0.12 50 50 30 Q(F/cm') 2X10' 5X10"* 5X10"* 1.26X10"' (l,(cmWs) 577 0.34 0.29 6.6X10"' Rsd(ii.fim) 170.7 33X10' 600X10' l.lxio" (SIjXWXL)/Ij (cm7Hz) 0.19X10"* 0.26X10' 2.24X10' 0.79X10' Na(l/eVcm') 6X10' 3.6X10" 1.5X10" ixio"
REFERENCES
1. CD. Dimitrakopoulos and D.J. Mascaro, IBM Journal of Res. and Development, 45, 1127 (2001) A. Facchetti, Materials Today, 10, 2837 (2007) D.A. da Silva Filho, Y. Olivier, V. Coropceanu, J.L. Bredas, and J. Comil, "Theoretical Aspects of Charge Transport in Organic Semiconductors: a Molecular Perspective " in Organic Field Effect Transistors, Z. Bao and J. Locklin, Editors, CRC Press, 2007, pp. 126. D. Emin, Physical Review B, 61,1453414553 (2000) N. Hulea, S. Fratini, H. Xie, C.L. Mulder, N.N. lossad, G. Rastelli, S. Ciuchi, and A.F. Morpurgo, Nature Materials, 5, 982986 (2006) J. Plane and A. Francois, Phys. Rev. B, 70, 184203111 (2004) P.V. Nucliudov, S.L. Rumyantsev, M.S. Shur, D.J. Gundlach, and T.N. Jackson, J. Appl. Phys, 88, 53955399 (2000). L.K.J Vandamme, R. Feyaerts, G. Trefan, and C. Detcheverry. J. Appl. Phys, 91, 719723 (2002) G. Ghibaudo, Electronics Letters, 24, 543544 (1988). E.J. Meijer, A. Matters, P.T. Herwig, D.M. Leeuw, and T.M. Klapwiijk, Appl. Phys. Lett., 76, 34333435 (2000).
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Impact of the TiN Layer Thickness on the LowFrequency Noise and Static Device Performance of nChannel MuGFETs
M. Rodrigues''^ A. Mercha", N. CoUaerf, E. Simoen", C. Claeys"'" and J. A. Martino''
"IMEC, Kapeldreef75, B3001 Leuven, Belgium ''USP, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. L. Gualberto trav. 3 n. 158, 05508900 Sao Paulo, Brazil 'EE Depart KULeuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, B3001 Leuven, Belgium Abstract. In this work, the impact of the TiN metal gate electrode with different thickness on the lowfrequency noise of nchannel MuGFETs is investigated. Thicker TiN metal gate electrodes show a higher threshold voltage Vj, with a lower maximum transconductance and lowfield mobility. At the same time, the equivalent capacitance thickness, GET, increases with a subsequent reduction of the gate leakage current. Higher number of TiN deposition cycles also showed an increase in the effective oxide trap traps density (Not). This increase of Not is more related to a larger amount of oxygen incorporated during the deposition of a thicker TiN layer, leading to a higher interfacial oxide layer (IL) thickness, than with the increase of the interface traps. Keywords: TiN metal gate. Lowfrequency noise, MuGFET PACS: 72.70.+m; 73.40.Qv
INTRODUCTION Multiplegate (MuGFET) devices are one of the most promising candidates for enabling the continued MOSFET scaling. In case undoped fms are employed, the threshold voltage (VT) tuning options in these devices are limited to work function (WF) engineering. Replacing the poly gate by deposited metal gate electrodes can lead to an appropriate WF [1]. Metal gate electrodes can also avoid the degradation caused by the HfSiO/polysilicon stacks of the carrier mobility, suppress the polysilicon depletion effect and reduce the dopant penetration through the gate dielectric. Titanium nitride (TiN) is being considered a promising metal gate electrode for MuGFETs. It is also known that its thickness variation can be used to tune the effective work function [2]. Therefore, the aim of the present work is to investigate the impact of different TiN metal gate electrode thicknesses on the static and LF noise performance of triplegate nchannel MuGFET devices.
CPn29, Noise and Fluctuations, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
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EXPERIMENTAL The SOI MuGFETs under study have a 65nm of Si film on 150nm buried oxide. The gate dielectric consists of 1 nm SiOa chemical oxide (IL), onto which 2.3 nm MOCVD HfSiO is deposited. HfSiO/TiN capped with 1 OOnm poly was used as a gate electrode. For the TiN thickness, different splits were considered: 2nm (64 ALD cycles), 5nm (160 ALD cycles) and lOnm (320 ALD cycles). More process details can be found elsewhere [3]. Fig. 1 shows a TEM view of a finished device using 2nm TiN as gate electrode. Onwafer noise measurements were performed under the control of a BTA system and NoisePro control software in linear operation, for a drain voltage of VDs=50mV. The gate voltage was swept from weak to strong inversion.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Fig. 2a presents the input characteristics in linear operation for the different TiN metal gate electrode thicknesses. It is clear that a thinner metal gate reduces the threshold voltage (VT) [3] and increases the peak of the transconductance. Through capacitance measurements a reduction in the capacitance equivalent thickness (GET) was also observed. The values of VT and GET are presented in Table 1. The gate leakage current (Fig. 2b) confirms this decrement in GET for thinner metal gate, showing an increase with the reduction of the number of TiN deposition cycles.
nFinFETsW =25nm ; L=1^m ; 10fins nFinFETsW =25nm ; L = V m ; 10 fins
ID'S ,n
(a)
(b)
FIGURE 2. (a) Drain current / transconductance and (b) gate leakage current versus gate voltage for nchannel MuGFETs with different TiN metal gate thickness.
The noise spectra versus frequency (Fig. 3a) are typically of the 1/f type and the frequency exponent y below 10 kHz is approximately 0.89 for the different types of devices studied. The drain current noise spectral density (Si) versus drain current (ID) characteristic in linear operation at a frequency f=25 Hz is presented in Fig. 3b, for the different TiN metal gate electrode thicknesses. Si follows a quadratic law with the
drain current at lower gate voltages. In addition, a higher Si is observed for thicker metal gate thicknesses at low drain currents.
nFinFETsW =25nm ; L=lMm ; 10 fins >TiN Vs=50"lV
X >, 10
/i25Hz
^s^a^
^ Sir X','^*
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'^
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~'D'
'
'
o 2 10='
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Frequency(Hz)
(a)
(b)
FIGURE 3. Noise spectral density (a) versus frequency and (b) versus drain current at 25 Hz for nchannel MuGFETs with different metal gate thickness.
The normalized noise (SI/ID ) is represented in Fig. 4a for the different metal gate thicknesses, where a plateau in weak inversion and a rolloff at higher ID are observed. The normalized noise variation with the number of TiN deposition cycles can be seen in the inset. The thicker metal gate presents a higher normalized noise. This increase in the normalized noise, can also be observed (Fig. 4b) through the inputreferred voltage noise spectral density (SvG=Si/gm^) at f=25Hz that is represented as a function of the gate voltage overdrive VGT=VGFVT.
nFlnFETs W^= 25nm ; L=1pni ; lOtlns
1E9
1E8
o 1E9
E10
V,=50mV f^25Hz 1E10 o A 64 cycles 160 cycles 320 cycles 1E7 1E6 Drain Current [A]
%
A 1E5
\
E11
AAAAAAA
.AA
o"o"5?)"<?
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 Gate Voltage Overdrive [V]
0.2
(a)
(b)
FIGURE 4 . (a) Normalized noise versus drain current and (b) inputreferred voltage noise spectral density versus gate voltage overdrive at 25 Hz for the different TiN metal gate thicknesses.
From the voltage spectral density at flatband, the effective oxide trap traps density (Not) can be derived, according to [45], where Svtb is SVG at flatband condition, a is the tunneling parameter (10* cm"' for electrons in Si02)[6], q the elementary charge, kT is the thermal energy, CCET is the capacitance density corresponding with the CET. Not values are presented in Table 1 together with the lowfield electron mobility (j,n) 1/2^ extracted from the Yfunction (=lD/gm ) [7]. q'kTN,, 5,Vfb (1)
" fln^^CET^J
TABLE 1. Extracted values of CET # cycles 320 160 64 CET [nm] 1.58 1.57 1.25
VT
x, and Not for the nMuGFETs with different TiN metal gate thickness studied. N, [cm' eV'] VT[V] (J, [cmWsl 0.57 284 3.40x10"* 0.51 311 1.92x10"* 0.45 1.91x10"* 317
A possible correlation between the lowfield electron mobility and the effective trap density is represented in Fig. 5, where thicker metal gates present a higher density of traps and a reduced lowfield electron mobility (that can be related with the reduced peak of the transconductance).
64 cycles ".....^^^ 5 320
"^.^"^,.^^>TiN
160 cycles
>* J
"\
320 cycles 4x10"
^
5x10"
V3=50mV
1x10"
2x10"
3x10"
FIGURE 5. Lowfield mobility versus effective oxide trap density for the nMuGFETs with different TiN metal gate thickness.
At the first instance, it is inferred that an increase in the TiN deposition cycles during the process steps could cause an interaction between the nitride and the highA: dielectric, enhancing the permittivity and reducing the CET, but the opposite situation is observed. Alternatively, this phenomenon can also be related to a reaction between a higher level of O2 (generated during the ALD process) and the IL, increasing its thickness and the CET. As a result, the variation in the inputreferred noise and of the transconductance can be related more with the variation caused by O2 in the equivalent capacitance than with the increase of the interface traps. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS M. Rodrigues and J.A. Martino would like to acknowledge the Brazilian researchfunding agencies of CAPES and CNPq for the support for developing this work. REFERENCES
1. Y.  C . Yeo, T. J. King and C. Hu, J. Appl. Phys. 92, pp. 72667271 (2002). 2. K. Choi et al., ESSDERC 2005, pp. 101104 (2005) 3.1. Ferain et al., ESSDERC, pp. 202205 (2008) 4. E. Simoen and C. Claeys, Solid State Electron. 43, pp. 865882 (1999) 5. G. Ghibaudo et al., Phys. Stat Sol. A. 124, pp. 571581 (1991) 6. R. Jayaraman and C. G. Sodini, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 36, pp. 1773178 (1989) 7. G. Ghibaudo, Electron. Lett. 24, pp. 543581 (1988)
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INTRODUCTION
Among cryogenic microcalorimeters available for very sensitive detections. Superconducting transition edge sensors (TES) are the most promising devices to detect with very high rate (100 }is) signals as tiny as, for instance, from single photon. The TES devices are designed for specific applications such as fast and sensitive cryogenic microcalorimeters or bolometers for high resolution, gamma ray. Xray, single photon spectroscopy, dark matter research and for the detection of submillimiter as well as UVIR radiation [1]. Essentially, a TES consists of codeposited superconducting thin film, typically 100 }im thick, operated at temperatures across the steep transition between superconducting and normal state around 0.1 K as shown in Figure 1 and of a normal metal thin film acting as radiation absorber. In these conditions, they acts as typeII superconductors.
86
94
104
112
Temperature (mK)
FIGURE 1. Resistance versus temperature in a 80 nm Al thin film (left curve) [2] and in our 75 nm Ir thin film (right curve). The slope a=(T/R)dR/dT is of the order of 50 and 70, respectively. Arrows T^ and Tc2 show the beginning of the superconducting transition and the achievement of the macroscopic superconducting state, respectively, obtained from the onset of slope changes.
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Suitable elemental or intermetallic superconductors requires a transition temperature in the range well below 1 K in order to decrease the thermal noise to low levels as the tiny phenomena to be detected. In a TES, the rapid change of the electrical resistance with temperature as in Figure 1 is used to detect particle or radiation energy. The resolution limit is influenced by the thermal fluctuation noise of the TES, beyond the Johnson, feeding current and SQUID amplifier contributions to global noise power. However, the ultimate performance of these quantum sensors in terms of energy resolving power is mostly limited by the occurrence of an unexplained electrical noise with a broad peak at typically 1100 kHz. Excess noise of this type was shown to be roughly proportional to Jcc, where a=(T/R)dR/dT dimensionless parameter for the transition steepness [3]. is the
where <p(co) (flat in the frequency range of experimental interest) is the power spectral function of completely independent events, p is the average number of pulses in each avalanche. To the average time period between two subsequent elementary events and
172
Vg the avalanche frequency. As discussed in ref.6, we introduced a scaling power relation between elementary pulse numbers n(x) correlated in a avalanche (i.e. the size avalanche) and the xtime interval between subsequent avalanches: n(x) ^ x^. The modulation function jf/<yj of the timeamplitude correlation entering eqn. 1 is defined as follows : sin[s arctg 0)/v } sl (2) Zs(() = '^ f(r) where/(F) is this suitable combination of the Gamma function F: the the i.e. avalanche
f(r)=2r'(s+i)/r(2s+i).
The main result from our generalization is that we provide a tool to calculate frequency dependence of the power spectrum with wide peaks. We remark that deviations from the 1/f behavior are explained with few disposable parameters, p<po (the limit of p<p(co) when O)>0), pTh (the mean avalanche duration), the frequency Vg (close to the peak frequency) and the scaling correlation parameter s.
103
104
10^
102
10^
10*
Frequency (Hz)
FIGURE 2. Experimental current power density spectra (open circle), total background estimated noise (thin solid line), excess noise (open squares) are reported. Thick lines are the bestfit of excess noise data (open squares) obtained through the correlated avalanche model. The same vertical scale was adopted in the three Figures (a)(c). Experiments in (a) are from Ullom et al. [3], in (b) from B.Cabrera [2]. In (c) present work residts are reported.
173
In Figures 2 (a)(c) we report the experimental power density spectra in TES with a transition near lOOmK realized by Mo/Cu on Si3N4 membrane [3], W on sihcon [2] and our laser ablated Ir on silicon with a Si3N4 layer, respectively. The power density spectra selected for the fitting are related to TES realized with three different elemental superconducting element (Mo, W and Ir), different substrates, depositions and preparation techniques. Global noise power density levels appear of the same order of magnitude, whereas the excess noise peak is much lower in more recently prepared TES, as shown by Figure 2 (b),(c) vs. Figure 2 (a). Further, the background noise (thin solid curves in Figures 2 (a)(c)) frequency behavior is significantly similar in the three treatments. Following Nori's suggestion [5], if we assume that in every superconductors the duration time To of a fluxon jump is of the order of 1 }is, the average number p of elementary fluxonsevents in a typical avalanche, estimated from our model parameter pTo^ turns out 225 in Mo TES prepared by UUom et al., 25 in the TES based on W by Cabrera's group and 825 in our Ir TES. These data are consistent with the result that larger avalanches need longer elapsing time between two subsequent avalanches and thus smaller peak frequencies are obtained, as indicated by the best fit Vg values 1200 Hz in Mo, 22000 Hz in W and 780 Hz in h". The best fit scaling correlation parameter s is 1.4 in Mo, 1.1 in W and 0.7 in Ir. When s<l as in the case of Ir (s=0.7), the correlation between events is almost negligible and the spectrum approaches the Lorentzian shape as Figure 2 (c) indicates. When s>l as in W (s=l.l) and in Mo (s=1.4) the deviations from the Lorentzian spectrum are large, as shown by Figures 2 (a)(b). The excellent agreement of the avalanche model [thick curves in Figures 2 (a)(c)] with the excess noise exhibited by all the TES devices explored in the present work and in references 78, irrespectively of their many differences, confirms that our model is suitable to describe the intrinsic physics involved in the generation of this type of noise.
REFERENCES
1) K.D.Irwin and G.C.Hilton, Cryogenic Particle Detection, C. Enss (Ed.), Topics Appl. Phys. 99, 63149 (2005), SpringerVerlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005 2) B.Cabrera, J.Low Temp.Phys. 151, 82 (2008) 3) J. N. Ullom, W. B. Doriese, G. C. Hilton, J. A. Beall, S. Deiker, W. D. Duncan, L. Ferreira, K. D. Irwin, C. D. Reintsema, and L. R. Vale, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4206 (2004) 4) R.Eggenhoffner, E.Celasco, V.Ferrando, M.Celasco, App/. Phys. Lett 86, 022504 (2005) 5) S.Field, J.Witt, RNori and X.Ling, Phys.Rev.LettlX, {1995) 1206 6) E.Celasco, M.Celasco and R.Eggenhoffner, J.Appl.Phys. 101, 054908 15 (2007) 7) D.BagHani, D.F. Bogorin, E.Celasco, M.Celasco, R.Eggenhoffner, L.Ferrari, M.Galeazzi, F.Gatti, R.Vaccarone and R.VaUe, IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity 2009 in press and Applied Superconductivity Conference 2008 (invited) 8) E Celasco, D BagUani, M Celasco, R Eggenhoffner, F Gatti, L Ferrari and R Valle, J.Stat.Mech. P01043 (2009)
174
Introduction The CCFM is constructed by Mn/directionally coupling N{> 2) wound ferromagnetic cores with cyclic boundary condition, thereby leading to the dynamics, i, =  x , + tanh(c(x, + Ax.+i^^^^+(l)'+ie)). (1)
where x^{t) represents the (suitably normalized) magnetic flux at the output (i.e. in the secondary coil) of unit;', and e C f/g is an external dc "target" magnetic flux, f/g being the energy barrier height (absent the coupling) for each of the elements (assumed identical for theoretical purposes). In the above, we have, also, reversed the orientation of successive cores so that the sign of the e term in (1) alternates; for T odd, this guarantees V that there will be two adjacent elements with the same sign of e. The dynamics of this coupled system have been detailed in [1] where it is shown that the oscillatory behavior occurs even for e = 0, however when e 7^ 0, the oscillation characteristics change; these changes can be exploited for signal quantification purposes, the underpinnings of the CCM. The above system (with T = 3) has been realized in the laboratory [1] and is, V currently being implemented in a cheap, lightweight, room temperature magnetic sensor. A theoretical analysis [1] shows that the system (1) exhibits coup linginduced oscillatory behavior with the following features: (1). The oscillations commence when the coupling coefficient exceeds a threshold value lc = Xif + c' tanh' x,.^, (2)
CP1129, A'^owe and Fluctuations, 20 International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Physics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
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withx.^^ = v / ( c  l)/c; note that in our convention, A < 0 so that oscillations occur for
 A  > \Xc\
(2). The individual oscillations (in each elemental response) are separated in phase by 2n/N, and have period
T. = J^l^
'
(3)
which shows a characteristic dependence on the inverse square root of the bifurcation "distance" Ac A, as well as the target signal e; these oscillations have been experimentally produced at frequencies ranging from a few Hz to high kHz. (3). Changing the target field strength also changes the period, via its influence on the threshold Xc, in addition, we immediately observe that increasing e leads to Ac going to larger (and negative) values i.e. a larger  A  is required to drive the system past its critical point. (4). Finally, it is important to observe that the elements in the ring switch sequentially between their stable steady states. This is apparent in figure 1 a which shows that during the switching interval for any of the elements, the other two elements remain in their (opposite) steady states, this gives the emergent oscillations the appearance of a "ripple" (visually, reminiscent of a soliton) that propagates around the ring. In practice, it is usually more convenient to use the Residence Times Difference (RTD) At as a quantifier of the target signal. For a static hysteretic nonlinearity, the RTD quantifies the difference between the times spent by the magnetization state variable in each stable state. The RTD can be computed [1], from the ith core element output signal, as
which vanishes (as expected) for e = 0. The system responsivity, defined via the derivative dAt/de, is found to increase dramatically as one approaches the critical point in the oscillatory regime; this suggests that careful tuning of the coupling parameter so that the oscillations have very low frequency, could offer significant benefits for the detection of very small target signals. Figure 1 a shows the oscillations obtained via a direct integration of the system (1); the agreement with experiment has been found to be very good [1]. The greatest sensitivity (defined via the slope of the RTD vs. e characteristic) is realized when the coupling strength is set closest to the critical value, but in this regime it can only detect a very small target field amplitude. Hence, the ability to tune the coupling to detect a range of target field strengths, must be a central feature of this device.
Quantifying the Sensor Performance; The Effect of a Noise Floor We now introduce the "Resolution"; it is the minimum magnetic field that can be discriminated by the sensor against the background, after ambient static (homogenous)
176
101.6X
"3
o.s
0.6 0.4
ro o 0.2
<! 0.2
0.4
0.60.8
1 
If
tj
TN
40 Time
60
1
R= STD{h^t)l[dh^t/de\
100.0
100.S
101.0
101.S
FIGURE 1. (Left) Time series from simulations on a CCM arrangement. A^ = 3,c = 3,A = 0.54,8 = 0.07. (Right) Return map of the (experimentally obtained) RTDs; each cluster corresponds to a different e and the straight line is the locus of the means.
magnetic fields have been nulled out, as described earlier. The Resolution is defined as: (5)
where Aj t represents the averaged RTD measured (in this case) at the Xj element and the denominator is simply the slope of the outputinput transfer characteristic (the plot of Aj? vs. the target signal e), and represents the device responsivity. For small target signals, we expect this slope to be independent of e (i.e. A^t <x e); this is, of course, convenient for practical applications. The numerator in (5) is the standard deviation of theRTD, i.e., ^rZ3(Aj/'). We now describe how this quantity is measured, experimentally, in a CCFM consisting of T = 3 cores with the "favored" element for measuring the RTD taken as Xj (t). V We use an observation time (once the ambient static magnetic field nulling has been achieved) of O.I5 and an oscillation frequency that is adjusted (via the coupling A) to yield 1520 cycles of the response during this observation window. Of course, the observation time can be increased, but this would depend on the circumstances of the particular application and, more importantly, on the statistics and stationarity (or lack thereof) of the ambient noise. Keeping e fixed, we compute the timeaveraged RTD A^t by averaging the RTDs obtained in the observation window. The experiment is then repeated several times for the same e; each repetition yields a time averaged (over the observation window) RTD which is not necessarily the same as the others, due to fluctuations. In this way, one obtains a large number of time averaged RTDs corresponding to the fixed value of e. The quantity A^t is, then, the statistical average of these points (for the same value of e). The process is repeated for different values of e. A plot of A^t vs. e shows clusters of discrete points (each point corresponding to an average over the observation window) for each value of e. The locus of the statistical means of each cluster
177
of points then yields a straight line for small e. In figure lb, we have plotted the "return map" of the {experimentally obtained) RTDs. For a given e, each data point in a cluster represents the (windowaveraged) RTD at 2 successive observation intervals each O.I5 long; thus, we generate a cluster of points corresponding to a plot (actually a residence times return map) of Aj^^^j vs. A^t. Each cluster of points corresponds to one value of the target field e (in the absence of background noise, each cluster would collapse into a single point for that particular value of e; in this experimental sequence (figure lb), the point clusters correspond to values of e that are approximately l.OnT apart; one can use a smaller separation of e values, however this separation has been chosen for purposes of elucidation (with smaller separation the clusters tend to merge into one another). The density function of each cluster is neargaussian, with a mean value corresponding to the averaged RTD over all the discrete points, and a standard deviation that can be computed from the observations. The locus of the mean values is the straight line. When one plots these mean RTD values as a function of e (not shown), the slope of this line (the responsivity, i.e. the denominator of (5) is 229.i3sT^^. In the figure, the standard deviations of the point clusters are (from left to right) 0.057315,0.054994,0.065573,0.04463^5, resulting in resolutions (calculated from (5)) of 250,240,286, l95pT respectively, resulting in a mean resolution of lAlpT for this particular realization of the sensor. The resolution is approximately constant (the deviations arise from experimental uncertainties and fluctuations) in this regime of low target signal. It is important to realize that, as e increases, the target signal becomes more easily "resolved". However, the analytic description of the response breaks down when e becomes comparable to (or exceeds) the energy barrier height of a single element (isolated) potential function; in this regime, the resolution becomes edependent.
DISCUSSION
We have developed a laboratory version of the CCFM that yields dynamic behavior that faithfully follows all the theoretical predictions. The (laboratory) resolution of this sensor is around 200 pT. In principle, the resolution can be improved (i.e. the numerical value decreases) by incorporating a larger number of cores; this is readily apparent when we realize that the denominator of (5) scales, linearly, as N. However, increasing the number of cores comes at the cost of increased engineering complexity, and additional onboard power (for the coupling circuitry).
REFERENCES
V. In, A. Bulsara, A. Palacios, P. Longhini, A. Kho, J. Neff; Phys. Rev. E68, 045102(R) (2003). A. Bulsara, V. In, A. Kho, P. Longhini, A. Palacios, WJ. Rappel, J. Acebron, S. Baglio, B. Ando; Phys. Rev. E70, 036103 (2004). A. Palacios, J. Aven, V. In, P Longhini, A. Kho, J. Neff, A. Bulsara; Phys. Lett. A367, 25 (2007).
178
Giant enhancement of lowfrequency noise as precursor for the onset of a highfrequency instability
p. Shiktorov*, E. Starikov*, V. Gruzinskis*, L. Varani''' and L. Reggiani**
'Semiconductor Physics Institute, A. Gostauto 11, LT 01108 Vilnius, Lithuania ^Institut d'Electronique du Sud (CNRS UMR 5214), Universite Montpellier II, 34 095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France **Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell 'Innovazione and CNISM, Universita del Salento, Via Amesano s/n, 73100 Lecce, Italy Abstract. The spatiotemporal evolution of Gimn and Ryzhii current instabilities and accompanied noise behavior in ++ structures is investigated by the Monte Carlo particle technique. It is found that the transition from a passivestate to a generationstate is accompanied by an anomalous giant enhancement of the noise at frequencies quite lower than those corresponding to generation. By comparing various transport and noise features it is demonstrated that such a giant enhancement of lowfrequency noise can be considered as an indicator for the onset of a highfrequency instability. Keywords: Highfrequency noise, Lowfrequency noise. Current instabilities PACS: 72.20.Ht, 72.30.+q, 72.70.+m
INTRODUCTION It is well known that in active semiconductor devices, the transition from a static passivestate to a dynamic generationstate is accompanied by a dramatic increase of the electronic noise that finally transforms into a regular periodic signal. In the spectral representation, such a pregeneration enhancement of noise is usually observed in the spectral band of expected regular signal generation. Typical examples are: the luminiscent enhancement in hotcarrier lasers and masers [1], the currentnoise increase in n^nn^ diodes under Gunneffect [2], the Ryzhii instability [3], etc. In both experimental and theoretical investigations (see, e.g. [13]), it is widely accepted that this prethreshold increase of highfrequency noise is treated as a precursor of generation. The aim of this report is to demonstrate that in the pregeneration stage leading to the development of an instability, besides the noise enhancement within an expected generation band it can also appear a considerable increase of noise at frequencies well below those of the instability. This phenomenon can be addressed as an indicator of high frequency generation. N U M E R I C A L RESULTS To consider the above phenomenon, the spatiotemporal evolution of Gunn and Ryzhii current instabilities and accompanied low and highfrequency noise behavior in n'^nn'^ structures is investigated through the simultaneous solution of the Boltzmann and PoisCPn29, Noise andFluctuaUons, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
179
I
.^i^MH*(MIW'<>W>IWi>gi^^ ^/Mtyu^ iifii iW" WSt*"**!/!/!****
600
800
900
FIGURE 1. Time behavior of the current flowing through ++ GaAs and InP structures in the region of threshold values for the bias U corresponding to the onset of selfosciUations due to: (a) Gunn and (b) Ryzhii instabilities. To separate the current evolutions, in the figure constant current values jo are added to each evolution. Accordingly, for biases respectively of: U = 2.6, 2.8, 3, 3.3, 3.6 and 6 V (left, from bottom to top), the jo values are respectively of: 0, 0.3, 0.7, 1.2, 2.0, and 3.6 10'' A/m^. For the right figure U = 0.036, 0.038, 0.040, 0.042, and 0.047 V (from bottom to top) correspond to the jo values respectively of: 0,0.7, 1.4, 2.1, and 2.8 10^ A / m l
son equations by the Monte Carlo particle technique [4]. For Gunneffect originated by electron transfer from low T to upper L and Xvalleys the simulations refer to a 0.5 7.5 0.5 urn n^nn^ GaAs structure with electron concentration n+ = 2 x 10'^ and n = 10 cm^ , which is similar to that experimentally investigated at room temperature in ref. [5]. To simulate the Ryzhii instability caused by spontaneous emissions of optical phonons at a low lattice temperature T = 10 K [3], we take a 0.02 2 0.02 ^m n^nn^ InP diode with n+ = 10'^ andn = 10'^ ctn^^. Figure 1 presents the time evolutions of the current flowing through n'^nn'^ GaAs and InP structures at increasing values of applied voltage U (from bottom to top) in the range of the threshold region for the selfexcitation of current oscillations caused by the onset of Gunn (Fig. 1 (a)) and Ryzhii (Fig. 1 (b)) instabilities. In both structures, at values of U less than the threshold ones (Uth ~ 3 and 0.043 V for (a) and (b), respectively), current fluctuations exhibit a time behavior characteristic of diffusion noise. By approaching the threshold, superimposed to the diffusive level there appear firstly relatively sharp spikes, which then begin to join into local groups of successive deviations (overshoots) following one after another. Above the threshold at U > Uth, the time sequence of the overshoots becomes practically continuous, thus forming a nearly periodic oscillating behavior of the current. Figure 2 reports the spectral representation of current fluctuations in the highfrequency region corresponding to Fig. 1. Here one can see the well known scenario of fluctuation spectrum transformation when the system moves from a static into a dynamic state with the presence of selfoscillations. Far from the threshold at f/ < Uth, the noise spectrum is close to a Lorentzian one. Near the threshold U = Uth, an increase of noise takes place in the frequency region of future selfoscillations and their harmonics. Above the threshold U > Uth, the increase transforms into sharp resonant peaks inherent to a pronounced process of selfoscillations in the system. Accordingly, we shall show that the transition into a selfoscillating regime can also manifest itself
'o 10''
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' 
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;/,
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FIGURE 2. Frequency dependence of the spectral density of current fluctuations in the simulated ++: (a) GaAs (Gunneffect) and (b) InP (Ryzhii instability) structures at different biases.
FIGURE 3. Spectral density of current fluctuations at the frequency of 1 GHz and variance of current ; fluctuations Aj;2 in the simulated n^nn^: (a) GaAs (Gunneffect) and (b) InP (Ryzhii instability) structures as function of bias.
in a lowfrequency region placed well below the frequency of selfoscillations and its harmonics. This is illustrated by Fig. 3, which shows the intensity changes at lowfrequency (1 GHz) when U crosses the generation threshold value. As follows from Fig. 3, a sharp overshoot of the noise intensity at lowfrequency takes place in the region of threshold values U Uth AXU = Uth the noise intensity practically bumps up for several orders in magnitude. Then, at f/ > Uth it undergoes a significant sharp decrease which is correlated with the transition of the system into a quasistable region of selfoscillations. We stress that this overshoot of the lowfrequency noise does not come from a redistribution of the noise intensity over the whole spectrum when the integral intensity of the noise, Afi = J^Sjj{co)dco, is conserved, as it takes place, for example, under noise upconversion [6] or when varying the length of the depletion region in Schottkybarrier diodes [7]. This is illustrated by the dashed curve in Fig. 3 which reports the dependence of the average variation of current deviations AJ^ with respect to current values constant in time. As follows from Fig. 3, the onset for a sharp increase ofAJ^ coincides with the overshoot of the lowfrequency noise at f/ = Uth The overshoot vanishes practically just after the threshold while AJ^ keeps its extra values until the selfoscillation processes are kept in the system.
181
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This work is supported, in part, by the Lithuanian State Science and Studies Fundation contract No P01/2007.
REFERENCES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. E. Gomikand A. A. Andronov (eds.), Opt. Quant. Electron., 23, S111S360 (1991). P. Shiktorov, V. Gruzinskis, E. Starikov, L. Reggiani, L. Varani, Phys. Rev. B, 54, 88218832 (1996). V. Gruzinskis, P. Shiktorov, E. Starikov, Acta Physica Polonica A, 113, 947950 (2008). V. Mitin, V. Gruzinskis, P Shiktorov, E. Starikov, J. Appl. Phys., 75, 935941 (1994). V. Bareikis, J. Liberis, I. Matulioniene, A. Matulionis, P. Sakalas, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices, ED41, 2050 (1994). 6. P. Shiktorov, E. Starikov, V. Gruzinskis, S. Perez, T.Gonzalez, L. Reggiani, L. Varani, J.C. Vaissiere, Phys. Rev. B, 67, 165201 (2003). 7. P. Shiktorov, E. Starikov, V. Gruzinskis, L. Reggiani, L. Varani, J.C. Vaissiere, IEEEElectr Dev Lett, If,, 24 (2005).
182
INTRODUCTION The InGaAs/lnAlAs heterostructure is the basic element of modulation doped fieldeffect transistors (MODFETs), in which the intrinsic InGaAs channel is sandwiched between two InAlAs layers with planar doping applied in the top layer. Due to the narrow band gap of InGaAs, the excess population of free electrons diffuses across the heterojunction and high carrier concentration in the channel is reached without doping it with impurities. This lack of impurity scattering allows for very high mobility of the twodimensional electron gas in the channel, which is hmited almost solely by the polar optical phonon scattering at the room temperature and then it is possible to study the intrinsic 1/f noise characteristics of a high purity material and their relation to the transport processes. In this paper we discuss two fundamental models of 1/f noise and compare theoretical predictions of Hooge parameter as a function of temperature dependent mobility. According to the 1/f energy partition fluctuation model [1], mobility fluctuation is given by phonon scattering and the value of the Hooge parameter // is given as a ratio of lattice constant d and electron mean free A. Since A = v(r) and mobility ju = e{i:)lm , where <r) is mean time between colhsions, v electron velocity and m its effective mass, assuming the equipartition law of energy in 2D case E = kT= \l2m v^ we get
CPn29, Noise andFluctuaUons, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
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'I"
(1)
Another model of quantum 1// noise considers fundamental 1// fluctuation of the quantum mechanical cross sections and scattering rates, apphcable to the interaction of a charged particle and its own field [2]. It represents the lowest limit of ubiquitous 1// noise, inevitable in any system. The conventional, or incoherent quantum \lf noise theory gives Hooge parameter as 4a (Kvf
Sn c
(2)
where a = e^/h^c is Sommerfeld's fine structure constant, c the speed of light in vacuum and Av is the change in the velocity of the carriers in the interaction process considered, which is given by crosscorrelation formulas derived in [3] and shghtly modified in [4].
EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
The relation between the intrinsic \lf noise and mobility and scattering processes can be resolved from their temperature dependences, measured in both ntype and ptype InxGai.xAs/Ino52Alo48As quantum well heterostructures. We used samples with either lattice matched (x = 0.53) or pseudomorphic (x = 0.7) channel. The schematic view of samples' structure is given in the Tab. 1. All samples were grown on the semiinsulating InP substrate by MOCVD by NTT Advanced Technologies. The 5doped MOCVD process is expected to induce less deep levels compared with MBE grown substrates. The ungated Hall elements were formed using In or unalloyed Ti/Pt/Au ohmic contacts and exposed cap layer removed by etching.
TABLE 1. Crosssectional view of sample stracture: latticematched ntype (A) and ptype (C), pseudomorphic ntype (B) A nIno.53Gao.47As 2x10" cm'20 nm iInP 6 nm iIno.52Alo.48As 10 nm Sdoping 12x10'^ cm^ iIno.52Alo.48As 10 nm iIno.53Gao.47As 15 nm iIno.52Alo.48As 200 nm S.I. InP B nIno.53Gao47As 2x10" cmMo nm iInP 5 nm iIno.52Alo48As 10 nm nIno.52Alo.48As 5xl0"cm^7nm iIno.52Alo48As 5 nm iIno.7Gao.3As 10 nm iIno.52Alo.48As 200 nm S.I. InP C p nIno.53Gao.47As 2x10" cm'20 nm iInP 6 nm iIno.52Alo.48As 10 nm pIno.52Alo.48As 2x10"* cm'20 nm iIno.52Alo.48As 30 nm iIno.53Gao.47As 15 nm iIno.52Alo.48As 200 nm S.I. InP layer cap etch stop barrier charge supply spacer channel buffer substrate
184
Temperature dependence of the mobility // and sheet carrier density ns was determined by the Hall voltage measurement and results are plotted in Fig.l. Theoretical analysis indicates, that mobility at 300K is limited by polar optical phonon scattering to about 11000 cm^/Vs, whereas at low temperatures below 50K mobility is restrained by alloy scattering to about 70000 c m W s for latticematched lno53Gao47As/lno52Alo48As. Much lower mobility value of about 25000 cm^A^s at T= lOK in pseudomorphic samples is probably caused by interface scattering due to the smaller thickness of channel and spacer layers.
80000 70000 60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 T [K]
\ ' ' a)
18
\ b)
^\A
16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2
120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0
^J_____L____
\ '
4^
\^
Vi
I I
'
^A*^"""'^r^'^]
i^s
f^
FIGURE 1. a) Temperature dependence of mobility in ntype samples and theoretical limit given by optical phonon scattering (A denotes Ino.53Gao.47As and B Ino.7Gao.3As channels) b) Temperature dependence of mobility and sheet carrier density in ptype sample
o o X
y^yr'
100 T [K]
P :
200 300
FIGURE 2. Temperature dependence of p and nInGaAs/InAlAs Hooge parameter, measured on various samples (NTT greek cross, latticematched T, C and pseudomorphic H). Lines stand for 1/f energy partition fluctuation and quantum 1/f noise theories simulation
185
Temperature dependence of the voltage noise spectral density was measured using NF Instruments preamplifier with battery power source, Advantest R9211A FFT analyser and Iwatani helium cryostat and Hooge parameter determined. Results are plotted in Fig. 2 together with theoretical //(?) dependence, evaluated according to Eq. 1 and Eq.2 for both 1//noise models. The l//energy fluctuation model considering phonon scattering is in a good agreement with experimental results for both ptype and ntype samples, provided by NTT as a greek cross Hall elements with indium contacts. However, much lower values of Hooge parameter were measured on Hall bar samples prepared in our laboratory using NTT wafers with identical mobility. For latticematched samples an was in the range of 4x 10"^ to 3x 10"^ for temperature below 200K, where noise spectral density was l//"like. These values are close to quantum 1//noise theory prediction of an slightly lower than 10"^. Similar results we obtained on samples provided by Communication Research Laboratory [5]. For pseudomorphic samples Hooge parameter was about one order higher. There was almost no difference between Indium or Ti/Pt/Au contacts. The influence of contact noise was found negligible by measurement of TLM structures of 5, 10, 25, 40 and 80im width in comparison with 1000 im Hall bar samples. For temperature higher than 250K generationrecombination noise with \lf spectra became dominant and from the Arrhenius plot of Lorentzian spectra time constant up to temperature 440K the value of activation energy of traps was determined A = 0.63eV.
CONCLUSION
Temperature dependence of Hooge parameter was measured on InGaAs/lnAlAs samples with various In concentration and mobility and compared to theoretical models of intrinsic 1//noise. For ptype samples experimental results were consistent with 1//energy partition fluctuation model, whereas much lower values of //= 10"^ measured on ntype samples seem to approach quantum l//noise theory limit.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This research was supported by grant GACR 102/08/0260, JSPS fellowship of the first author and project MSM0021630503.
REFERENCES
1. 2. 3. 4. T. Musha and M. Tacano, PhysicaA 346, 339 (2005). P. H. Handel, IEEE Tram. Electron. Dev. 41, 2023 (1994). G. S. Kousik, C. M. van Vliet, G. Bosnian and P. H. Handel, Advances in Physics 34, 663 (1985). T. H. Chung, P. H. Handel and J. Xu, Proc. Noise in Physical Systems 1/f Fluctuations, edited by T. Musha and S. Sato, Kyoto, 1991, pp. 163166. 5. K. Shinohara, Y. Yamashita, A. Endoh, K. Hikosaka, T. Matsui, T. Mimura and S. Hiyamizu, Jpn. J. Appl Phys 41, L437 (2002).
St(f) = ^
(1)
" TtfN The Conventional Ql/fE is a fundamental quantum fluctuation of physical cross sections o and process rates Y. The Conventional Ql/fE is caused by the bremsstrahlung energy and momentum losses of charged particles, when they are scattered or accelerated in any way. The spectral density is given by
S^"''(/) = ^ ^ f 1
f
(2)
37:fN K c ) Both components of quantum 1/f noise are combined in the general quantum 1/f formula
CPn29, Noise andFluctuaUons, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
187
S,,=S'''"(f) + ^S''''(f) (3) ^ 1+^ f 1+^ f where the coherence parameter, s = 2N'ro, indicates to what extent the energy of the drift motion of the electrons adds up coherently or conventionally over the cross section of the current, in the Hamiltonian. The spectral density is related to the fractional fluctuations in each region using the following relation S,,=R^S^(,f) (4) For VDS constant, the spectral densities of current and resistance fluctuations are related by
^ S R
S I
R^
I^
(5)
Here Xo and Xi are the values of X at the source (V=0) and at the drain (V=VDS), while aH= aeCy) is the ydependent quantum 1/f coefficient. In this case of FETs and HFETs of much larger width wLDs>t, the kinetic energy Ek of average motion with drift velocity V per unit length in the direction of LDS is d still given by Nmvd^/2, but the magnetic energy Em per unit length in the direction of LDS is roughly proportional with the first power of w only, instead of w^, and can be approximated by Em = 7t[ln(w/2LDs)]LDs[nevS/c]^/w. This indicates decoherence along the device width w. This yields a coherence ratio of s = Em/Ek ~ 7tnrotLDsln(w/2LDs),
which shows that only an effective width w = Weff about equal to LDS should be used in the calculation of the coherence parameter s in this special case; larger widths are subject to decoherence. This favors lower, mainly conventional, quantum 1/f noise in these devices, in spite of the large values of w. It also explains for the first time why the huge widths are possible with impunity, i.e., without causing the much larger coherent quantum 1/f noise to affect the device. In general, part of the channel may be subthreshold (the part closer to the drain), starting at V(y) =Vsat=VG . The use of Fermi statistics becomes unavoidable, as is shown in Eq. (4). However, although Eq. (4) includes the field dependence of a and }i, it fails to reflect the physical situation correctly, because it neglects the impact ionization effect in the subthreshold section of the channel length. This effect is roughly included below in a first approximation, along with the variation of AlGaN polarization with y, by dividing the channel along its length into coherent and conventional parts. Using the fact that the velocity of the carriers shows strong saturation in the subthreshold section, to include the impact ionization effect, we return to the variable V in Eq. (4), we split up the integral at V(y) = VcVth, and write the second, subthreshold, part of the integral separately, with the number of carriers per unit channel length defined as N' = Ich/qvs, where Vs is the saturation velocity,
fi,,<(5R)>,=]'^+T"q>^^
M''Ch
"'"ch
' DS
' DS
:K^fI,,((5mf)^=K%,C; 1 s
a^^^, and C is the coefficient in <(6m)^>^C/f, defined by l+s l+s Eq. (8). The second term in curly brackets must be omitted when negative. Note, however, that the first integral was calculated here neglecting the variation oftteff,and the second integral was performed neglecting the variation of Vg. With this quantum 1/f definition of C in Eq. (8), the ultimate twosample (Allan) variance obtainable is <(dm)^>=2Cln2. This limits the achievable minimum detectable concentration of the biological agent.
where a^.. =
a;^ H
DISCUSSION
Our calculation of the fundamental 1/f noise in the channel is applicable both to HFETlike and FETlike biochemical sensors. It shows that the ultimate achievable detection limit is proportional to the biological or chemical effectivity K of the substance (e.g., an antibody to a certain bacterium) that was deposited on the gate, as defined by Eq. (8). From a physical point of view, the direct action of the biological agent is on the surface potential VG of the FETlike structure. The change in VG, in
turn, acts on the carrier density and energy level structure of the 2D electron gas in the channel, thus causing a change in the channel current I and resistance R at constant applied bias VDS If the change 6VG in surface potential is small, we can introduce a coefficient k as the change 6VG per unit mass 6m attracted by the antibody deposit on the gate. We obtain for constant VDS, 6R/R = 6I/I = gmSVc/I = gmk6m/I =K6m/R, and K =gmkR^A^Ds, (9)
where gm is the transconductance of the FET. The two constants K and k characterizing the effectivity of an antibody or chemically sensitive gate deposit, are thus related by the family of I/V characteristics and the implied value of gmMultiplying Eq. (8) with I/(VDS), we finally obtain for the smallest detectable amount 6m the (Allan) twosample variance (6m,^ )^ = 2C In 2 = ^ ^
2 ^
2R ln2
~KVV,S
Here 0() is the step function of the preceding round bracket, zero for negative values and 1 for positive values of the bracketThe above expression provides an analytical expression for the achievable flicker floor of biological and chemical detection, that can't be reduced by longer time averaging. Eq. (10) can also be used to optimize industrial FETbased biochemical sensors and detectors.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The support of the Army Research Office and Army Research Laboratory is thankfully acknowledged.
REFERENCES
1. P.H. Handel: "Fundamental Quantum 1/f Noise in Small Semiconductor Devices", IEEE Trans, on Electr. Devices 41, 20232033 (1994). 2. P.H. Handel: "Coherent and Conventional Quantum 1/f Effect" Physica Status Solidi bl94. 393409 (1996). 3. P.H. Handel: "Noise, Low Frequency", Wiley Encyclopedia of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, vol. 14, pp. 428449, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., John G. Webster, Editor, 1999. 4. P.H. Handel, A.G. Tournier, "Nanoscale Engineering for Reducing Phase Noise in Electronic Devices," Proceedings of the IEEE Vol. 93, No. 10, October 2005, pp. 17841814 5. Hadis Morkog: Handbook of Nitride Semiconductors and Devices, Noise Chapter, Springer, 2007. 6. R.M. Warner Jr., and B.L. Grung: SemiconductorDevice Electronics, Holt Rinehart and Winston/ Saunders, 1991.
Abstract. Small slope switches with very small subthreshold swings have been proposed recently to overcome the IC power problem. In the case of these new devices the source/drain current controlled by the gate is either due to avalanche breakdown (IMOS) or bandtoband tunneling (TFET). The impact of these new transport mechanisms on noise is investigated. The performance of the IMOS is not very promising. Its noise is by orders of magnitude too large due to the avalanche breakdown and it consumes too much power. In the case of the TFET the noise is similar to conventional MOSFETs, but the gate/drain correlation coefficient of noise is larger. Keywords: Noise, impact ionization transistor, tunnel transistor, silicon PACS: 72.10.Bg,72.30.+q,72.70+m
INTRODUCTION
The continuous scaling of CMOS devices has led to lower and lower supply voltages. This in turn has reduced the available voltage swing for turning off the MOSFETs. Since the minimal subthreshold swing of the classical MOSFET is limited to 60mV/dec at room temperature [1], this has led to an increase of the leakage currents by a factor often for each new technology cycle [2]. In the current semiconductor technologies a substantial part of the power consumption is due to this drainsourceleakage. New types of MOSbased devices have been developed which overcome the 60mV/dec limit. The two most prominent developments are the impact ionization transistor (IMOS) [3, 4] and the tunneling transistor (TFET) [5, 6], which are also called green transistors [7]. These devices are not based on the usual transport mechanisms. The IMOS is based on gatecontrolled avalanche breakdown between drain and source and the TFET on gatecontrolled bandtoband tunneling between drain and source. While the stationary and even some transient properties of these devices have been discussed (e.g. [8]), the noise properties have not yet been investigated. Therefore, the two device types are investigated by device simulation with special focus on their RF noise properties.
SIMULATION APPROACH
The noise simulations are performed with the 2D bipolar hydrodynamic model of Galene III [9, 10]. All transport and noise parameters are generated by consistent fullband Monte Carlo simulations. Impact ionization is described by the local temperature model [11, 12] and bandtoband tunneling by the local field model of Kane [13]. The bandtoband tunneling rate is multiplied with a constant factor to obtain drain currents
CPn29, Noise andFluctuaUons, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
191
FIGURE 1.
comparable to conventional MOSFETs. Convergence of the device model is checked by a simultaneous Newton solver for all equations.
IMOS
An IMOS is a gated pindiode, in which the drain current is due to a controlled avalanche breakdown (Fig. 1 [14]). With a positive V^s the pindiode is reverse biased and the drain current is very small as long as the bias is below the breakdown voltage. By applying a negative VGS a hole inversion channel is induced under the gate and the distance between the ndrain and the pregion is thus reduced. The decrease in the distance leads to an increase in the electric field and a decrease in the breakdown voltage. The breakdown voltage therefore depends on the gate bias. With a strong negative gate bias the breakdown voltage can be lowered below a sufficiently large drain/source bias and avalanche breakdown occurs. Since the device turnon due to avalanche breakdown is quite abrupt, a subthreshold swing of less than 60mV/dec might result. In Fig. 2 the output characteristics of a CIMPATIMOS [14] is shown and the avalanche breakdown leads to an abrupt change in the drain current. Subthreshold swings of a few mVs/dec have been achieved (e.g. [3, 4]). The corresponding Fano factor of the drain current noise is shown in Fig. 3. In a conventional MOSFET the Fano factor is usually below one, whereas the Fano factor of the IMOS is at least two orders of magnitude larger than that due to avalanche breakdown and the IMOS is therefore extremely noisy. This might cause problems even in digital applications. In addition, the IMOS consumes far too much power due to the rather high supply voltage. Although improved IMOS devices have been proposed, even those require supply voltages of two or more Volts [15]. This is more than twice the supply bias of current CMOS technologies. Variants of the IMOS are based on a controlled kink effect in SOI devices [16]. Since the turnon is still due to impact ionization and feedback occurs, the noise is still very large and the devices might be slow [17, 18]. Further problems are caused by the rather unconventional IV characteristics, which, for example, do not permit railtorail operation [3, 14].
192
inF
_
 up
10"*
16.50
17.00
FIGURE 2.
Drain current versus drain/source bias with Vgs = 3.5F for a 5/JOTCIMPAT device.
16.00
16.50
17.00
17.50
FIGURE 3.
Fano factor versus drain/source bias with Vgs = 3.5F for a 5/JOTCIMPAT device.
TFET A better candidate for a green transistor is the TFET. The device structure is very similar to the IMOS, where the gate covers the whole j9^region (Fig. 4) and the junctions are very abrupt. Instead of avalanche breakdown a gatecontrolled Zener breakdown is used. A positive gate bias leads to tunneling in the junction on the lefthand side and a negative to tunneling on the righthand side (this can be avoided by an asymmetric gate). If the device is properly designed [19], the average subthreshold slope can be smaller than 60mV/dec at room temperature. This might allow to scale the supply bias considerably below one Volt [7]. The IV characteristics are still unconventional and might require specifically designed circuits. The pnstructure might require an SOItechnology and electrical insulation of each individual TFET. Since the current is controlled by tunneling, noise is mostly due to tunneling and therefore strongly localized in the device. This leads to a strong correlation of the gate and drain noise. This in turn might reduce the noise figure [20]. Comparison of the TFET with a similar MOSFET (similar drain current and cutoff frequency) shows that both devices have similar noise
193
S oi
FIGURE 4.
E o
1.0
0.5
0.00
0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
properties. A clear decrease of the noise figure in the case of the TFET is not found. Thus, with respect to noise it seems that the TFET is neither better nor worse than a conventional MOSFET. On the other hand, the rather unusual device characteristics of the TFET might make it difficult to integrated this device into standard circuits. TFETs suffer from rather small drain currents (in the above simulations the drain current was artificially increased to allow for a fair comparison with standard MOSFET s). New device concepts have been developed to increase the bandtoband tunneling rate [7, 21, 22]. In [7] it is suggested that TFETs could operate at supply voltages as low as 0.2F, which is much lower than the value of current CMOS devices. This would reduce the power consumption considerable.
CONCLUSIONS
With respect to RF noise and other aspects the IMOS is not a very promising device. Its noise is by orders of magnitude too large due to the avalanche breakdown. In the case of
194
VBS=20V
Vs=1.5V
VDS=1.0V
V=0.5V M 0.00 
1.0
0.5
0.00
0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
FIGURE 6.
the TFET the noise is similar to conventional MOSFETs, but it has a larger correlation coefficient of the gate/drain noise. Its unusual device characteristics might prohibit its wide spread application.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/20072013) under grant agreement n216171 (NANOSIL).
REFERENCES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductors Devices, Wiley, New York, 1981. International Roadmap Committee, p u i l i c . itrs. net (2005). K. Gopalakrishnan, P. B. Griffin, and J. D. Plummer, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, 52, 69  76 (2005). K. Gopalakrishnan, R. Woo, C. Jimgemann, P. B. Griffin, and J. D. Plummer, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, 52, 77  84 (2005). W. M. Reddick, and G. A. J. Amaratunga,^/J;?/. Phys. Lett., 67, 494496 (1995). W. Hansch, C. Fink, J. Schulze, and I. Eisele, Thin Solid Films, 369, 387  389 (2000). C. Hu, "Green Transistor as a Solution to the IC Power Crisis," in International Conference on Solid State abdIntegrated Circuits Technology, Beijing, 2008, p. P5. C. Shen, J.Q. Lin, E.H. Toh, K.F Chang, P Bai, C.H. Heng, G. Samudra, and Y.C. Yeo, IEEE Tech. Dig lEDM, pp. 117120 (2007). C. Jungemann, B. Neinhiis, and B. Meinerzhagen, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, 49, 12501257 (2002). C. Jungemann, B. Neinhiis, S. Decker, and B. Meinerzhagen, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, 49, 12581264(2002). R. K. Mains, G. I. Haddad, and P A. Blakey, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, 30, 13271337 (1983). H. J. Peifer, B. Meinerzhagen, R. Thoma, andW. L. Engl, "Evaluation of impact ionization modeling in the framework of hydrodynamic equations," in IEEE Tech. Dig. lEDM, 1991, pp. 131134. E. O. Kane, J. Phys. Chem. Solids, 12, 181188 (1959).
195
14. F. Mayer, C. Le Royer, G. Le Carval, L. Clavelier, and S. Deleonibus, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, 53,18521857(2006). 15. C. Onal, R. Woo, H.Y. Koh, P. Griffin, and J. Plummer, IEEE Electron Device Lett., 30, 6467 (2009). 16. U. Abelein, M. Bom, K. Bhuwalka, M. Schindler, M. Schlosser, T. Sulima, and 1. Eisele., IEEE Electron Device Lett., 28, 6567 (2007). 17. W. Jin, P. C. Chan, S. K. H. Fung, and P K. Ko, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, 46, 11801185 (1999). 18. C. Jungemann, B. Neinhiis, C. D. Nguyen, and B. Meinerzhagen, Impact of the Floating Body Effect on Noise in SOI Devices Investigated by Hydrodynamic Simulation, Proc. SISPAD, Munich (Germany) (2004). 19. K. K. Bhuwalka, J. Schulze, and 1. Eisele, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, 52, 909917 (2005). 20. T. C. Lim, R. Valentin, G. Dambrine, and F. Danneville, IEEE Electron Device Lett., 29, 118  121 (2008). 21. T. Krishnamohan, D. Kim, S. Raghunathan, and K. Saraswat, IEEE Tech. Dig. lEDM, pp. 947949 (2008). 22. M. Schlosser, K. Bhuwalka, M. Sauter, T. Zilbauer, T. Sulima, and 1. Eisele, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, 56,100108 (2009).
INTRODUCTION
The history of lowfrequency noise (LFN) is both rich and old. For example, one finds publications on noise in electronic devices by Schottky in 1918 for shot noise [1] and Johnson and other researchers in 1920s [2, 3]. The noise was normally taken small enough in 1970s, although the presence of 1/f noise was noted in many physical systems [4]. However, the magnitude of 1/f noise is inversely proportional to the charge transport area [58], and the recent nmscaled electronic devices are accompanied with increased impact of LFN in diverse applications such as sensor systems, portable electronics, wireless and digital communications. Virtually all applications are affected by the LFN in some way. We address the trends for LFN in electronic devices, as seen from device downscaling projected in ITRS and from the experimental results reported in the literature.
LFN IN ITRS
Entering into the new millennium, the problems are complicated in following Moore's law of "twice per 3 years" for integration. The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) [9] follows Moore's law for gate length of MOS devices (Figure 1). However, downscaling of other devices is slowed down, e.g. the emitter width W E of bipolar transistors (BJT) saturates at 70nm. The 1/f noise in minimumsized MOS transistors will continue increasing in future, whereas the noise in bipolar transistors perhaps will not change significantly, owing to the reduced rate of downscaling.
FIGURE 1. Minimum sizes and LFN in ITRS, with arrows showing the evolution of the values vs. four editions of ITRS
CPn29, Noise and Fluctuations, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
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LFN IN EXPERIMENTS
Almost 85 years ago in 1925), the "colored" L F N w a s reported by Johnson [2], k n o w n for JohnsonNyquist white thermal noise [10, 11] (1928). Discussing the results in [2], the L F N was termed "flicker" noise in 1926 by Schottky [3], k n o w n for the white shot noise [1] (1918), and w h o proposed two features: quadratic relation between L F N p o w e r and D C current, written later as normalized 1/f noise, Snonn=S/DC^=KF/f, and frequency slope variation between 0 and 1/P, covering almost all L F N spectra investigated over the past.
oxide ^ / Fairchild2N696(npn, Si) 1 Moore's Law
: /
^ / /
M 0.5dB;year
'Kj : +
(pnp G e ) \
^
\ ^ v
'
^ V ^ i i * \ ^ I T R S MOS \ = ^ ^ v i Analog :
'^t
+
^""^
S
LEDs (AIGaAs)
X
12 90
ti
/ "'""
V / /
V^
RF
2000
\
2020 2040
FIGURE 2. Normalized 1/f noise at f=Af=lHz. Vacuum tubes (+), using cathode area; bipolar transistors ( , data is aggregated), using emitter g area; MOS transistors (D, aggregated), using gate :i area; by using surface area (O) and crosssection o area ( ) of nanowire and CNT devices; some IIIV semiconductor HBTs ( A ) and LEDs (X), using junction area. The predictions for MOSAnalog, MOSRF and BJT and the Moore's law (righthand axis) are from ITRS 2006. The regression line
(0.5dB/yCar) indicatcs thc prcdictions lu ITRS.
14 90
10 90
18 90
Year
In contrast to shot and thermal noise, for which fundamental theories are k n o w n [1, 11], there is n o unique explanation for the "colored" L F N . There are adjustable parameters in L F N models, e.g., an in H o o g e equation Snonn=aH''(f^N) for intrinsic fluctuation of the population of N carriers [12], or Kp in the SPICE 1/f noise model. A reciprocal dependence between L F N and charge transport Area in electronic device exists, following from both H o o g e equation and superposition models [1315]. For M O S transistor, it is oH _ oH 1 fN fn WL 2 a,H q fxWLCJVG2 S,
V T
^CoJ fxWLtlnJ (f/lHz)WL[lD where A r e a = W L of the M O S channel (emitter area A E in B J T ) ; n = N / A r e a ; q is electronic charge; kT is thermal energy; X~0.1nm for Si02 is tunneling attenuation distance in the gate dielectric with trap density Nt~10^^ cm^^eV"^ and capacitance per area Coxi gm/In is ratio of transconductance to D C current. Svo.nm' is unitarea input referred noise at f = l H z . Data [16] in Figure 2 show that (ECpxArea) is between 10"' and 10"^ [im^, w h e n the fabrication reaches maturity, implying LFNccArea"^ in electronic devices investigated last 85 years, from the v a c u u m tubes measured in 1925 up to tiny devices m a d e of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). There is a m i n i m u m for L F N , (ECFxArea)>10"' im^, and the device downscaling converts the nmscale transistors into FIGURE 3. Spiky, stochastic transfer "IV curves" of a CNT stochastic devices, in w h i c h even D C curve may not exist, fieldeffect transistor as seen in Figure 3 for a singe C N T F E T [17]. A dependence on oxides thickness is deduced for L F N . Since Cox=Sox/EOT in eq. (1), the models suggest higher L F N w h e n the equivalent oxide thickness E O T is higher, SnonnWLocEOT for M O S from H o o g e model, SnonnWLccEOT^ for M O S from superposition model. SnonnAE=cEOT' for BJT from tunneltransparency model [18], (2) (3)
1 1 , WL" Area
(1)
(4)
FIGURE 4. Input referred 1/f noise voltage at IHz in transistors of lxm^ area. nMOS (), pMOS (A), and BJT (O). The gray lines represent lognormal distributions shown in insets.
0.1 1 10 100 100 IFO (BJT EOT (Equivalent Si02 Thickness), nm
Hii mi m FIGURE 5. Flicker noise penalty in MOS transistors when using composite materials either in the channel or in the gate dielectric. Nt XSVG.
where eq. (4) for polysilicon emitter BJT with interfacial oxide with thickness IFO as described in [19]. The numerical data [20] from 51 publications in Figure 4 show the rates given by eqs. (3) and (4) for the noise increase by thicker oxides. We observe lognormal distributions, and a convergence at IFO and EOT ~0.8nm. We note [21] higher noise by using diverse materials in active layers in Figure 5(af), now with more data [22], whereas a noise from lattice strain is unlikely in Figure 5(gh).
f f.T MOS
VG.nm^ 4kT
(6)
where gm is the transconductance at given biasing condition, being not larger than gm,sat in the saturation regime, Vsat cm/s is the carrier saturation velocity, Svo.nm' is the unitarea gatereferred voltage noise at I H z , and the parameter (m) depends on operation regime, being m = { l , 1 . 5 , 2 } for linear, saturation and subthreshold regimes, respectively. Note that in M O S transistors with m i n i m u m gate length, gni/(CoxWvsat)~200nm/L>l, and fc/fi increases by downscaling. O n the contrary, in large M O S transistors, fc/fx depends o n the product SvG.um'^Cox, so, on biasing via SVG, but not on length L or width W of the transistor, which is size independence similar to that for BJT. Also, 1/f noise models for M O S transistors predict an increase of SVG with bias, resulting in an increase of fc/fi, as shown by lines in Figure 6. At present, the limited experimental data [2529], while being in the predicted range at low biases, do not confirm the increase of fc/fi at high biases.
Gate Voltage Overdrive V,
FIGURE 6. Ratio fc/fx. The patterned area separates MOS and BJTs. Data for BJT and HBT from several publications [21]. (O) 0.8nm nMOS [25], ( ) CSSjim SOI nMOS and pMOS [27], ( ) R F nMOS L=0.13nm W=72nm [26], ( A ) 0.13nm nMOS and pMOS [28], ( ) 0.09nm nMOS [29]. The lines are calculated according to eq. (6) for a virtual MOS transistor L=30nm, Cox=3nF/cm^ n=300cm^/Vs, Vsat=10'cm/s, Nt=3xlO"cm"'eV"' and X=0.1nm for An fluctuation, Coulomb screening Hco=3 x 1 O^cm/Vs for Ajic fluctuation, corresponding to Hooge parameter aH=kTXNt(n/ncof=7.8xlO"^, 9=3V"' for phonon or roughness scattering (as=q9/nCox=5.3xlO"'^Vs) for Aji fluctuation, and then all components were combined AnAjicAji. Note the linear scale for VG<VT.
Collector Current Density J^, mA/pm^
REFERENCES
1. W. Schottky, Ann. Physik, 362, 541, 1918. 2. J. Johnson, Phys. Rev., 26, 71, 1925. 3. W. Schottky, Phys. Rev., 28, 74, 1926. 4. R. Voss, Freq. Control Symp., 33, 40, 1979. 5. R. Jones, Proc. IRF, 47, 1481, 1959. 6. N. Mantena, et al, Flectr. Lett., 5, 607, 1969. 7. S. Hsu, SSF, 13, 1451, 1970. 8. A. Boomard, etal, SSC, 10, 542, 1975. 9. ITRS, http://public.itrs.net, editions 20012008. 10. J. Johnson, Phys. Rev., 32, 97, 1928. 11. H. Nyquist, Phys. Rev., 32, 110, 1928. 12. F. Hooge, Phys. Lett. A, 29, 139, 1969. 13. A. McWhorter, Semi. Surf Phys., 207, 1957. 14. O. Jantsch, TFD, 34, 1100, 1987. 15. G. Ghibaudo, et al, PSS (a), 124, 571, 1991. 16. Data from 48 publications for vacuum tubes, MOS and BJTs, IIIV semiconductor HBTs, optical noise from light emitting diodes, and carbon nanotube (CNT) and nanowire (NW) devices. Data is aggregated by years for CNT and NW, for BJT after 1980, and for MOS after 2000. 17. F. Liu, et al, APL, 86, 163102, 2005. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. H. Markus, et al, TFD, 42, 720, 1995. M. J. Deen, et al, IFF Proc, 151, 125, 2004. O. Marinov, et al, www.RDIF.ca, 1, 75, 2007. M. Deen, et al, AIP Conf Proc, 780, 3, 2005. Data (a) SiGeC pMOS transistors, NI increases with carbon content. Data (b) and (d) Si n and pMOS transistors, Nt increases with nitridation of gate oxide. Data (c) nMOS, N, is higher for highk dielectrics. Data (e) Nt increases with complexity of MOS structures, from Si channel to SiGe, SOI and highk dielectrics. Data (f) Nt variations by annealing of SiGe pMOS. Data (g) and (h) nMOS without and with strained lattice. 23. L. Vandamme, et al, TFD, 55, 3070, 2008. 24. J. Tang, et al, TMTT, 50, 2467, 2002. 25. A. Amaud, et al, TCS, 51, 1909, 2004. 26. C.C. Ho, et al, FDL, 26, 258, 2005. 27. D. Binkley, et al, TNS, 51, 3788, 2004. 28. V. Re, et al, TNS, 53, 1599, 2006. 29. M. Manghisoni, et al, NIMPR A, 572, 368, 2007.
200
Suppression of Random Telegraph Signal Noise in smallarea MOSFETs under switched gate and substrate bias conditions
Nicola ZanoUa*, Domagoj Siprak^, Marc Tiebout**, Peter Baumgartner^, Enrico Sangiorgi* and Claudio Fiegna*
*ARCESDEIS, University of Bologna and IU.NET, Via Venezia 260,147023 Cesena, Italy Infineon Technologies AG, Am Campeon 112, D85779 Neubiberg, Germany **Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Siemensstr 2, A9500 Villach, Austria Abstract. In this work we focus on the impact of substrate bias on the random telegraph signal (RTS) noise in smallarea MOSFETs operating under switched bias conditions. Our results clearly prove that when a MOSFET is switched between an ON and OFFstate, the application of forward substrate bias during the OFFstate modulates the mean trap emission and capture times and determines more than one decade reduction of the RTSnoise power. Keywords: MOSFET, RTS noise, switched bias, substrate bias PACS: 85.30.Tv, 73.50.Td, 72.20.Jv
INTRODUCTION
Lowfrequency noise (LFN) strongly degrades the performance of CMOS analog and RF nonlinear circuits, such as VCO's, due to the upconversion of the noise spectrum leading to phasenoise. In smallarea MOSFETs LFN is dominated by individual traps located at the Sidielectric interface or inside the gate dielectric [1] that, by changing their occupation and charge state, produce RTS noise, i.e. switching of the drain current (ID) between two discrete levels. In largearea transistors, the superposition of the effects of different individual traps leads to flicker (1/f) noise. In circuits using smallarea MOSFETs RTS noise is becoming a severe problem. For example, CMOS image sensors are affected by RTS noise that may influence the pixel read noise floor [2]. A reduction of LFN achieved by switching the gate bias between an ONstate and an OFFstate (SB), compared to a constant bias condition (CB), has been reported in the past [3]. More recently, [4] showed that the apphcation of a forward substrate bias (FSB) to a MOSFET under SB conditions effectively suppresses the 1/f noise.
201
VBS
(IP)
OV
VBS_OFF
VBS
(OP)
(a)
(b)
FIGURE 1. (a) Experimental differential setup and (b) waveforms for switched bias measurements: substrate bias can be switched inphase (IP) and 180 outofphase (OP) with respect to the gate bias.
performed for V D S = 1 0 V, under several gate and substrate bias conditions which may be relevant for analog apphcations: constant gate (CB) and substrate bias; switched gate (SB) and constant substrate bias, inphase (IP) switched gate and substrate bias; 180 outofphase (OP) switched gate and substrate bias (Fig. 1 (b)).
RTS NOISE
The drain current affected by an RTS switches between two values corresponding to two different charging states of the trap. Considering an acceptortype trap: it is negatively charged when occupied (low current) and neutral when empty (high current). RTS noise features a Lorentzian power spectral density (PSD) and a noise power (P) given by: PSD =
(Te + Tc)[(Te ^ + Zc ^)^ + {2nffY
P=
{Ze + rc){%
(1)
where: Tg and TC are the mean emission and capture times, respectively, and AIo is the amplitude of current fluctuation. For a given trap AID is insensitive to bias conditions in our experiments. P features a maximum for Te=Tc', according to the ShockleyReadHall theory, the maximum occurs at EF=ET, where Ej is the trap energy.
202
10
10
10
10
10
10
Frequency [Hz]
(b)
FIGURE 2. RTS PSD for: CB; SB; gate and substrateSB (OP case). The CB case is divided by 4 in order to have a fair comparison with the ONOFF modidated SB cases. Forward substrate bias appUed OP with respect to the gate bias reduces the lowfrequency plateau of the PSD. (a) Trap 1 and (b) Trap 2.
an OFFstate (VGS_ON and VGS_OFF) only marginally affects the PSD; furthermore, in the case of Trap 1 (Fig. 2 (a)), since the selected VGS_ON is significantly larger than the VGS value corresponding to the maximumP condition, SB can lead to a slight increase of P and of the lowfrequency plateau of the RTS PSD; application of a forward (positive) substrate bias (FSB) during the OFFstate (OP gate and substrateSB) significantly reduces RTS noise in both Trap 1 and Trap 2. On the other hand, when a FSB is applied during the ONstate (IP gate and substrateSB, not shown) RTS is hardly affected. Figures 3 (a) and (b) report the dependence of RTS PSD on VBS_OFF in the case of OP gate and substrateSB, showing that a reduction of RTS noise occurs only for FSB. In particular, compared to Trap 1 (Fig. 3 (a)), for Trap 2 (Fig. 3 (b)) a different sensitivity
on VBS_OFF can be noticed.
The analysis of extracted tg and tg under OP gate and substrateSB (upper part of Figs. 4 (a) and (b)) shows that the application of a FSB during the OFFstate significantly reduces tg and slightly increases Tc, thus enhancing the difference between the two time constants and suppressing P (lower part of Figs. 4 (a) and (b)). These results may be explained as follows: when the gate is biased at VGS_OFF=^ V, the forward substrate
= 0 3 Y OP
rr^ =0 7 5 Y Y
1 =0Y
10
Bs_oFF
Y
GS_ON
IraD 1
" f  ' *=10 kHz ' *GS_OFF
Trap 2
io"
<^ 18
" 10 Q
1/)
I. ^
0.25 Y OP
"'V*%ifiaWf^^>t5 /'"'f
10 10 10 10
10 10 10
10* (b)
10"
10"
Frequency [Hz]
(a)
Frequency [Hz]
FIGURE 3. RTS PSD under gate and substrateSB (OP case) for different values of the substrate bias VBS_OPP applied during the OFFstate. Increasing VBS_OFF the PSD plateau at lowfrequency decreases, (a) Trap 1 and (b) Trap 2.
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FIGURE 4. Tc, Te and RTSnoise power P under gate and substrateSB (OP case) as a function of substrate bias VBS_OFF applied during the OFFstate. Increasing VBS_OFF "^e decreases affecting also the noise power that shows a strong reduction, (a) Trap 1 and (b) Trap 2.
bias tends to drive the MOS system towards accumulation; therefore, we conclude that the FSB induced suppression of noise could be related to a transient accumulation of the silicon at the oxide interface leading to very large recombination rate of trapped carriers with accumulated holes during the OFFstate. Therefore, enhanced difference between Tg and Zc explains the suppression of RTSnoise power contributed by noisiest traps (i.e. those featuring Tg Zc in the ONstate).
CONCLUSION
In this work we have analyzed RTS noise in smallarea MOSFETs operating under switched bias conditions. We have studied the impact of the substrate bias on the noise. A more than one decade reduction of the RTSnoise power can be achieved if a forward substrate bias is applied outofphase with respect to the gate pulse, therefore, when the transistor is in the OFFstate. This method could be useful to reduce the RTS noise in circuit using smallarea MOSFETs and therefore affected by such a noise.
REFERENCES
M. J. Uren, D. J. Day, and M. J. Kirton, "1/f and random telegraph noise in siUcon metaloxidesemiconductor fieldeffect transistors," Appi. Phys. Lett., 47 (11), pp. 11951197,1985. Y. DegerU, F Lavemhe, P. Magnan, and J. A. Farre, "Analysis and reduction of signal readout circuitry temporal noise in CMOS image sensors for lowlight levels," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, 47 (5), pp. 949962, 2000. 1. Bloom and Y. Nemirovsky, "1/f noise reduction of metaloxidesemiconductor transistor by cycling from inversion to accumulation," Appi. Phys. Lett., 58 (15), pp. 16641666,1991. D. Siprak, N. ZanoUa, M. Tiebout, P. Baumgartner, and C. Fiegna, "Reduction of lowfrequency noise in MOSFETs under switched gate and substrate bias," in Proc. ESSDERC 2008, pp. 266269. T. Schiml et al., "A 0.13 lira CMOS platform with Cu/Lowk interconnects for system on chip applications," in Proc. Symp. on VLSI Technology 2001, pp.101102. J. S. Kolhatkar, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands, 2005. A. P. van der Wei, E. A. M. Klumperink, S. L. J. Gierkink, R. F Wassenaar, and H. WaUinga, "MOSFET 1/f noise measurement under switched bias conditions," IEEE Electron Device Lett., 21 (1), pp. 4346, 2000.
204
RTS in Submicron MOSFETs: Lateral Field Effect and Active Trap Position
J. Sikula", V. Sedlakova", M. Chvataf, J. Pavelka", M. Tacano^ M. Toita'
" Czech Noise Research Laboratory, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 8, 616 00Brno, Czech Republic, (sikula@feec.vutbr.cz) Meisei University, Hino, Tokyo, Japan 'Asahi Kasei Microsystems, Nobeoka, Miyazaki, Japan Abstract Experiments were carried out for nchannel devices, processed in a 0.3 lm spacerless CMOS technology. The investigated devices have a gate oxide thickness of 6 nm and the effective interface area is AQ = 1.5 lm^. The RTS measurements were performed for constant gate voltage, where the drain current was changed by varying the drain voltage. The capture time constant increases with increasing drain current The model explaining the experimentally observed capture time constant dependence on the lateral electric field and the trap position is given. From the dependence of the capture time constant % on the drain current we can calculate xcoordinate of the trap position. Electron concentration in the channel decreases linearly from the source to the drain contact. Diffusion current component is independent on the xcoordinate and it is equal to the drift current component for the low electric field. Lateral component of the electric field intensity is inhomogeneous in the channel and it has a minimum value near the source contact and increases with the distance from the source to the drain. It reaches maximum value near the drain electrode. Keywords: RTS noise, 1/f noise, MOSFET. PACS: 72.70.+m, 73.40.Qv, 73.50.Td, 85.30.Tv
INTRODUCTION
A systematic analysis of two levels RTS signal was made to obtain the information on the capture and emission processes as a fimction of gate voltage, drain current and temperature for the low and high lateral electric field [13]. In the submicron technology (for channel length less than 0.3 am) the application of the drain voltage IV results in the high lateral electric field, which exceeds about 5 times the silicon critical field. The electron temperature is then higher than the lattice one and the field dependent electron mobility must be considered. Due to the small gate area and the low traps concentration we were able to activate one trap only and then two levels signal was observed in the time domain. We suppose that there are oxygen vacancies and interstitials creating energy localized states in the Si02 gate insulating layer and on the interface SiSi02. GR stochastic exchange of electrons exists between the channel and the interface SiSi02 localized states, and this is a source of 1/f noise. It is supposed that there exists electron exchange between the channel and the trap localized in the gate insulating layer at about Inm distance from the channel. These quantum transitions are sources of RTS noise. We shall try to improve the model describing
CPn29, Noise andFluctuaUons, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
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the electron quantum transition between the channel conduction band and the trap localized in the gate insulating layer.
EXPERIMENTAL
Experiments were carried out for nchannel devices, processed in a 0.3 am spacerless CMOS technology. The investigated devices have a gate oxide thickness of 6 nm and the effective interface area is AQ = 1.5 am^. The RTS measurements were performed for constant gate voltage, where the drain current was changed by varying the drain voltage. The capture time constant increases with increasing drain current as is shown in Fig. 1.
NMos N51Ug07T260.ep2
./
1.0 I, / U A
FIGURE 1. Capture T and emission T time constants of Si MOSFET N51, measured for fixed gate ^ ^ voltage UQ= 0.7V as a function of drain current/^ at temperature 260 K We will give a model explaining the experimentally observed capture time constant dependence on the lateral electric field and the trap position. Proposed model is based on these assumptions: (i) the drain voltage is so low that electric field intensity is lower than the critical one E = 0.7 MV/m and electron mobility does not depend on the lateral electric field, (ii) electron concentration in given point r (x, y, z) in the channel is described by ( r ) = exp[y5f/(r)] (1)
where no is electron concentration at source, yS is constant and U(f) is voltage in given point r in the channel. Electron concentration decreases with increasing distance from the source and minimum value of electron concentration is near the drain. Here are two variables: electron concentration (r) and its gradient V(r) then drift and diffusion current components must be considered. Drift current density is given by / drift ejU^n(r)WU(f) (2) Where e is electron charge and /4 is electron mobility. And diffusion current density can be expressed using (1) as
y.dif
e/5D^n{r)WU{r)
(3)
Where D is diffusion constant. The relation between drift and diffusion current densities/ // = H^I{jiD^) we get from (2) and (3). In the special case near the
206
thermodynamic equilibrium for P = Po= e/kT and using Einstein relation that /4 =PoD we liave/^^,/^^=l. Total drain current density in one dimensional case is given by
JJ = ejU^yn{x)dU{x) I dx
Where y = 1 + {JiD^ )l jl^. Then we have the drain current /^=GoJiexp[y5f/(x)]fiff/(x)/fifx
(4)
(5)
Where L is the channel length and Go is the channel conductance in the vicinity of the source given by Go = (Ae/uno)/L. Voltage U(x) vs. given point x in the channel could be calculated form (5) as
u{x)=Un(\i(\pi,^iG,r))
(6)
Where ^ = x/L is relative distance from the beginning of the channel. The dependence of U(x) on ^is shown in Fig. 2. The relation between the electron density n(x) and the drain current Id follows from (1) and (6). After the integration we have
pi.^lG.r)
(7)
Electron concentration n(x) in the given point x in the channel decreases with the increasing drain current Id and this function is linear (see Fig. 3).
a= 0 , o.i
a = 0.9 =
;::
^
0.7/^ 0.5,
0.1
^ \ ^
a = 0.9^
0.4 0.6
IS
0.4 0.6
I;
FIGURE 2. Voltage U(x) vs. , for different value FIGURE 3. Electron concentration n(x)/no vs. , of a =pid/GoY and P= Po for different value of a=pi/Goyand P= Po Drain current Id as a function of drain voltage Ud for fixed gate voltage UQ = 0.7V at temperature 298 K is shown in Fig. 4. From (5) it follows that the drain current is an
exponential function of drain voftage for fixed gate voltage Id= IdoaeMPUd)) (8)
Fitting the measured characteristic we have for sample NMOS N51 the drain current Ido = 5.24 laA, P= 22.5 V"' and Gor= 1.18 x 10"'' S for the temperature T = 298 K and gate voltage f/G=0.7 V.
207
Capture time constant T^ of Si MOSFETs measured for fixed gate voltage Ug as a function of drain current can be expressed by T^=Tj{\IJ^IGj) Where r = 1 /aVj,o, and b = P^IG^y = ^^^. = Tj{\bI,) (9)
Fitting the dependence of T^ on the drain current (see Fig. 5) we have b = 0.113 and we can calculate the active trap position in the channel ^ = 0.67 for the temperature 298 K. We have evaluated also the characteristics measured for this sample at T= 260 K (see Fig. 1). In this case h = 0.330 and I^ determined from VA characteristic is 2.28 J.A. Active trap position is ^ = 0.75 for this temperature.
NMOS N51 RTS noise UG = 0 . 7 V T = 298 K y=a/(1 bx) a=114, b=0.129 >
Id=
U(1exp( PUJ
3=22.8 V 0.16
T
;U=5.21 E6A
0.08 0.12 U /V
FIGURE 4. Drain current Ij as a function of drain voltage U^ for fixed gate voltage UQ= 0.7 V at temperature 298 K
FIGURE 5. Tc and T^ time constants of Si MOSFET N51, measured for fixed gate voltage UG= 0.7 V as a function of /^ for r = 298 K
CONCLUSION
Experiments were carried out for nchannel devices, processed in a 0.3 am spacerless CMOS technology. We give a model explaining the experimentally observed capture time constant dependence on the lateral electric field. From the dependence of the capture time constant T^ on the drain current we can calculate xcoordinate of the active trap position. Electron concentration in the channel decreases linearly from the source to the drain contact. Diffusion current component is independent on the xcoordinate and it is equal to the drift current component for the low electric field. Lateral component of the electric field intensity is inhomogeneous in the channel and it has a minimum value near the source contact.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We are grateful to Asahi Kasei Microsystems for supplying us the MOS samples. This research has been supported by the grants GACR 102/09/1920, GACR 102/08/0260, and under project MSM 0021630503.
REFERENCES
1. M. Toita et al., Proc. of the 18 Forum of Science and Techn. of Fluctuations, 2003 Tokyo, p. 63 2. M.J.Kirton and M.J.Uren, Advances in Physics, 38(1989) 367468, No. 4 3. G. Ghibaudo, O. Roux, J. Brini, Phys Stat. Sol (a), 127, 281 (1991).
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INTRODUCTION The technology scaling to continue Moore's law necessitates the use of new materials and the introduction of a large variety of advanced processing modules, such as e.g. highK gate stacks, implementation of capping layers, fully sihcided and/or metal gates, strain engineering techniques, etc. Beside the technological innovations one can further make use of new and/or alternative gate architectures enlarging the standard single gate transistor approach towards double and multigate devices based on FinFET, MuGFET, GateallAround (GAA) or silicon nanowire concepts. A final parameter of choice is the starting substrate whereby standard Czochralski or Float Zone Si can be replaced by SihcononInsulator or one of the socalled highmobility substrates based on SiGe, strained Si, Ge or even strained Ge. In addition to the potential of Gebased technologies, there is worldwide research going on towards the monolithic integration of Ge and IIIV on Si. Therefore, there exist a large number of possible future devices in order to stay in hue with the ITRS roadmap. For most of these devices, there is only very hmited or no information available on their lowfrequency (LF) noise behavior. This review will highlight some general trends, illustrated by experimental noise data on devices fabricated in stateoftheart CMOS technologies.
209
attention was given to the impact of strain engineering on the low frequency noise characteristics [4]. This paper gives an update of the noise characterization of advanced Si and Ge processing technologies. The impact of important technological parameters, i.e., new materials and process modules will be addressed. For 45 nm and below technologies the standard Si02 or SiON gate dielectric has to be replaced by a highK gate stack. A large variety of gate dielectrics have been studied, including rare earths and lanthanides. Hfbased gate stacks are receiving much industrial interest. However, not only the gate dielectric itself but also the interfacial Si02 layer (IL) has an impact on the noise performance. The latter is illustrated in Fig. 1, giving the Hooge parameter versus gate voltage overdrive for an Hf02 dielectric with 0.4 and 0.8 nm IL [5]. The noise level is higher when the highK dielectric is closer to the interface, i.e., for thinner interfacial layers.
10 ^m X 1 ^m nMOSFETs
10 Jim X 1 nm pMOSFETs
10"'
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
10"':
8 10"^ ;
a
0.8 nm
1.0
10'
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
1.2
Figure 1. Hooge parameter versus gate voltage overdrive for two different interfacial Si02 thicknesses for HfDs n (EOT  0.92 and 1.44 nm) and pMOSFETs (EOT = 1.31 and 1.35 nm), respectively.
Other important gate stack parameters are the use of a capping layer on the highK dielectric, as shown in Fig. 2a for a LaO cap on top of an HfSiON layer [6], and the implementation of a metal gate (Fig. 2b) [7]. It can be noticed that a LaO cap can reduce the noise. Figure 2b indicates that FUSI on SiON lowers the noise level compared to the polysilicon gate reference. Recently, the impact of the metal layer thickness has been studied in detail for HfSiO/TiN stacks in MuGFETs [8]. A thicker metal gate increases the trap density and therefore also the noise. The study of the noise behavior has to take into account the whole gatestack, i.e., thickness of the different layers (interfacial layer, highK dielectric, capping layer), the different interfaces, and the nature of the gate electrode, in addition to the processing conditions (temperature, ambient, anneals, etc). Improved noise models for dual layers gate stacks are under development [9]. To boost up the device performance, strain engineering based on either a global approach using highmobility substrates or the implementation of socalled processinginduced stressors has become common practice for 90 nm and below CMOS technologies. The global approach generally results in biaxial stress in the transport plane, while local stressors generate uniaxial stress in the channel direction. The impact of different strain engineering approaches on the gate stack quality and its
210
reliability, including hot carrier performance, negative bias temperature instabilities, time dependent dielectric breakdown and radiation hardness has been reviewed by the authors [10]. The impact of strain engineering technique will be further discussed.
10 nmx0.15 urn nMOSFETs
10 nmxO.25 fxm nMOSFETs
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1.
FUSI+,10cycl
2''
*  *
FUSl V =0.05 V
DS
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 Gate Voltage (V) Figure 2a. Inputreferred voltage noise spectral density at 25 Hz versus gate voltage for 10 xmx0.15 xm nMOSFETs.
Figure 2b. Inputreferred noise spectral density .SvG at 10 Hz versus gate voltage overdrive (FDS=0.05 V) for a 10 xmx0.25 xm nMOSFET corresponding with a poly silicon gate (A), aNiSi FUSI gate () and a NiSi FUSI gate plus 10 cycles Hf02 on top of a 1.5 nm SiON gate dielectric (o).
Relying on the lattice mismatch between Si and Ge, it is possible to grow tensile strained Si on a relaxed SiGe buffer (referred to as a virtual substrate). Figure 3a shows the inputreferred noise .S'VG as a function of the gate voltage overdrive FGT [ 11 ] For strained Si devices fabricated on the thin VS a clear plateau is observed in .S'VG at low FGT, indicating that number fluctuations associated with traps are at the origin of the noise. The .S'VG increase at higher gate overdrive bias is most likely due to correlated mobility fluctuations. A general trend of the impact of processinduced strain approaches on the noise performance is given in Fig. 3b [10]. The used acronyms mean tensile (t) or compressive (c) contact etch stop layer (CESL), and stress memorization technique (SMT). The figure allows concluding that it is not possible to distinguish an intrinsic stress effect on the 1// noise performance. A recent study of the 1/f noise under external mechanical stress has revealed that the relative change in noise spectral density is in good approximation given by 4AID/ID [12] and is mainly associated with the straininduced change in mobility. Embedded recessed SiGe (compressive strain) or SiC (tensile strain) source/drain regions not only reduce the series resistance but also enhance the drive current of pand nchannel MOSFETs, respectively. It has been shown that the application of embedded SiGe S/Ds does not degrade the I// noise spectral density as long as no strain relaxation occurs. This is illustrated in Fig. 4a, where for 30% SiGe the noise is similar as for standard Si devices [13]. For 40% the noise increases. In the case of I or 1.5% Si:C S/Ds, used for the nMOSFETs, there is no impact on the noise performance, as shown in Fig. 4b.
211
Global strain engineering can be combined with a local technique, as shown in Fig. 5 for standard SOI and strained SOI (sSOI) combined or not with Selective Epitaxially Grown (SEG) S/Ds [14]. This has no pronounced impact on the noise performance.
f = 25 Hz VDS = 50 mV L X w = 0.5 X 10 Mm'
SIVTT
pMOS*
SIVTT+CCESL
CCESL
O
O O tCESL 
No strain
V
D5
nMOS SIVTT+tCESL
=50 mV
f = 2 5 Hz
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
Figure 3a. Inputreferred noise spectral density of strained Si devices measured at 25 Hz. The devices are Z X W= 0.5 ^ 10 jim^ and FDS=0.05 V.
10^mx0.25^m pMOSFET
Figure 3b. Trend between the 1//" noise (oxide trap density) and strain magnitude for p and nMOSFETs with or without strain engineering.
10 nmxO.3 Jim nMOSFETs
Figure 4a. Normalized noise spectral density vs drain current in linear operation for a 10 xmx0.25 xm pMOSFET with 30 or 40% SiGe embedded source/drain regions. The etch depth was 40 nm.
0.4 0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 Gate Voltage Overdrive (V) Figure 4b. Inputreferred noise spectral density vss gate voltage overdrive at_/^25 Hz, showing no difference between reference nMOSFETs and those with embedded 1 or 1.5% Si:C S/D regions.
10'
10'
I ,..
nFinFETT=300Kf=10l(Hz O SOI SOI+SEG n SOI+SEG+CESL sSOl e SSOI+CESL 10"' 10* lo(A) 10"
10*
Figure 5. Normalized drain current noise spectral density versus drain current at_/^10 kHz and at room temperature for different devices. The solid line indicates the (Gm/^o)^ parameter for the SEG+CESL+SOI device.
212
There is also much research effort devoted to the use of Gebased technologies to enhance the performance of both n and pchannel devices [15]. Initial investigations pointed out that the noise of Ge p^n junctions depends on the welldoping and on the use of a Nigermanidation, as shown in Fig. 6a for large area diodes [16]. The germanidation steps lowers the noise associated with the series resistance [17]. For large perimeter diodes the noise may be dominated by surface traps and void formation in the perimeter region. Similar as for Si devices, a correlation has been found between the lowfrequency noise and the mobility, as indicated in Fig. 6b. [18]. A very critical parameter from a noise viewpoint is the gate stack formation, whereby the thickness of the Si passivation layer has to be optimized [19].
 M  NiGe   NiGeLow Well Dose  i  No NiGe   No NiGeLow Well Dose Diode Perimeter, 10300jm f=1 H I ,17
2.0x10^
Figure 6a. Current noise power spectral Figure 6b. Correlation between Syg at 25 Hz and the density at 1 Hz for a largeperimeter p n mobility x for L=l xm Ge pMOSFETs. junction belonging to different processing splits: NiGe low well dose (o), no NiGe low well dose (); NiGe high well dose (n); no NiGe high well dose (x). The Ge technology also offers possibilities to come to a monolithic integration of Ge and IIIV devices on a standard Si substrate, forming the basis for SystemonChip (SoC) apphcations. CONCLUSION The implementation of new materials and advanced process modules require indepth noise investigations in order to determine whether or not low frequency noise may become a show stopper for future advanced and emerging technologies. This may surely be the case for technologies relying on approaches based on e.g. nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphene, spintronics, quantum devices, polymer electronics, etc.
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors want to thank A. Akheyar, R. Agaiby, F. Crupi, G. Eneman, G. Giusi, W. Guo, N. Lukyanshikova, R. Todi, L. Yan for helpful discussions and the use of some coauthored results.
REFERENCES
1. E. Simoen, A. Mercha, C. Claeys andN. Lukyanchikova, SolidState Electron. 51, 148 (2007). 2. C. Claeys and E. Simoen, J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G307 (2004). 3. C. Claeys and E. Simoen, in Proc. Semiconductor Technology  ISTC2006, Ed. M. Yang, The Electrochem. Soc. Ser. PV 200606, p. 242 (2006). 4. E. Simoen and C. Claeys, in Proceedings 8 Int. Conf. on SolidState and Integrated Circuits Technology ICSICT2006, Eds T.A. Tang, G.P. Ru and Y.L. Jiang, The IEEE 06EX1294, p. 120 (2006). 5. F. Crupi, P. Srinivasan, P. Magnone, E. Simoen, C. Pace, D. Misra and C. Claeys, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 11, 688 (2006). 6. F. Crupi, P. Magnone, E. Simoen, A. Mercha, L. Pantisano. G. Gisusi, C. Pace and C. Claeys, in Proc. Symposium on Advanced Gate Stack, Source/Drain and Channel Engineering for SiBased CMOS: New Materials, Processes and Equipment, San Francisco, May, 2007 (in press) 7. P. Srinivasan, E. Simoen, R. Singanamalla, H.Y. Yu, C. Claeys and D. Misra, SolidState Electron. 50, 992 (2006). 8. M. Rodrigues, A. Mercha, N. Collaert, E. Simoen, C. Claeys and J.A. Martino, these proceedings. 9. B. Min, S.P. Devireddy, Z. CelikButler, A. Shanware, L. Colombo, K. Green, J.J. Chambers, M.R. Visokay and A.L.P. Rotondaro, IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 53, 1459 (2006). 10. C. Claeys, E. Simoen, S. Put, G. Giusi and F. Crupi, SolidState Electron. 52, 1115 (2008). 11. L. Yan, E. Simoen, S.H. Olsen. E. EscobedoCosin, C. Claeys and A.G. O'Neill, submitted to IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 12. J.S. Lim, A. Acosta, S.E. Thompson, G. Bosman, E. Simoen and T. Nishida, J. Appl. Phys. (in press). 13. E. Simoen, P. Verheyen, A. Shickova, A. Hikavyy, R. Loo, C. Claeys, V. Machkaoutsan, P. Tomasini, S.G. Thomas, G. Groeseneken and H. Maes, Proc. ULIS2007, p. 75 (2007). 14. W. Guo, B. Cretu, J.M. Routoure, R. Carin, E. Simoen, A. Mercha, N. Collaert, S. Put and C. Claeys, SolidState Electron. 52, 1889 (2008). 15. C. Claeys and E. Simoen, eds, "Germanium Based Technologies: From Materials to Devices", Elsevier, 2007. 16. E. Simoen, S. Sonde, C. Claeys, A. Satta, B. De Jaeger, R. Todi and M. Meuris, J. Electrochem. Soc. 155, H145 (2008) 17. R.M. Todi, S. Sonde, E. Simoen, C. Claeys and K.B. Sundaram, Appl Phys. Lett. 90, 043501 (2007) 18. W. Guo, G. Nicholas, B. Kaczer, R.M. Todi, B. De Jaeger, C. Claeys, A. Mercha, E. Simoen, B. Cretu, J.M. Routoure and R. Carim, IEEE Electron Dev. Lett. 28, 288 (2007). 19.E. Simoen, A. Firrincieh, F.E. Leys, R. Loo, B. De Jaeger, J. Mitard and C. Claeys, These Proceedings.
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1. INTRODUCTION
Generation and detection of electromagnetic radiation in the TeraHertz (THz) domain is a subject in fast development because of its potential applications in different branches of advanced technologies, such as broadband communications, highresolution spectroscopy, medical and biological imaging, security, etc [1]. As a consequence, the realization of solidstate devices operating in the THz domain at roomtemperature and with compact, powerful, and tunable characteristics is a mandatory issue. To this purpose, one of the most promising strategies lies in the plasmonic approach, which exploits the plasma frequency associated with long range Coulomb interaction of charge carriers. In bulk semiconductors, the plasma frequency is given by the simple expression :
niomeoemat
(1)
with HQ^ the three dimensional (3D) average carrier concentration, nio and tn the free and effective electron masses, respectively, and eo, Smat the vacuum permittivity and the relative dielectric constant of the bulk material, respectively. For carrier concentrations of about 10'^ cm^^ the plasma frequency is in the THz range for most materials. For semiconductor layers embedded in an external dielectric and of width W sufficiently small (nanometer range) to justify the inplane approximation for the solution of the Poisson equation, it was found that the plasma frequency and its higher harmonics are given by [2] 1 I p2n^O]^
J2D ungated ^ J_ e H^ K
CPn29, tloise andFluctuattons, 20* International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
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where HQ^ is the average two dimensional (2D) carrier concentration, ediei the relative dielectric constant of the external dielectric, k the wavevector, / = 1,2,3... with the fundamental mode (1=1) given by A = 7t/2L with L the length of the layer (implying : that A = In/k with A the plasma wavelength) for boundary conditions corresponding to zero ac potential at the source and zero current at the drain contact, respectively. We notice that the 2D plasma frequency is dispersive, i.e. fp^ = fp^{k), and depends on the relative dielectric constant of the external dielectric. For the case of a gated channel, within the gradual channel approximation the 2D electron gas was found to behave as the support of 2D plasma waves with fundamental frequency [2]
J2D Jp gated
n^e^nl^d 1 2K V AmomeoedieiL'^
0)
where d is the gate to channel distance. Through these plasma oscillations, nanometric High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMT) provided experimental evidence as emitter and/or detector of electromagnetic radiation in the THz range [4]. This work investigates the same semiconductor structures from a microscopic point of view, thus testing the predictions of the analytical approaches and provides more physical insight into the problem. To this purpose, we consider an ntype Ino.53Gao.47As layer within an ungated and a gated configuration at room temperature, and investigate the plasma frequency characteristics by analyzing the frequency spectrum of voltage fluctuations obtained from a Monte Carlo simulator coupled with a 2D Poissson solver.
^
TtW
'
FIGURE 1. Schematic of the DUTs (not in scale) studied within the Monte Carlo simulation. The free charge is present only in the bar made by an ntype Ino.53Gao.47 As of length L along the x direction and thickness W along the z direction.
The Structures of the device under test (DUT), which is depicted in Fig. 1, represents a simplified version of an ungated and gated transistor channel. For the case of the ungated case, the bar is surrounded by a perfect dielectric (here taken as the vacuum) 10 ^m wide in the upper and lower region of the bar, where the 2D Poisson equation in
216
the xzplane is solved to account for the fringing of the external electric field [5]. The third dimension is used to relate the number of simulated carriers with the 3D carrier concentration. The time and space discretizations take typical values of 0.2 ^ 1 fs for the time step, 0.1 ^ 5 nm for the spatial scale of the bar and 500 nm for the spatial scale of the dielectric. In average, there are about 80 carriers inside a mesh of the bar, which are found to provide a reliable solution of the Poisson equation. The extracted potential V{t) is taken at the center of the bar while the fluctuations of current I{t) are taken at the second contact of the DUT (see Fig. 1). The contacts are realized by an infinite reservoir of thermalized electrons at electrochemical potentials differing by eU with U the applied voltage [3]. By evaluating the fluctuations of the voltage (current) around the steady value, the spectral density of these quantities is obtained from the corresponding correlation function. The characteristic peaks and the cutoff exhibited by the spectra are analyzed as detailed in [3]. We remark that, at low applied voltages, the DUT exhibits an Ohmic behaviour in the current voltage characteristics. At high applied voltages, the DUT exhibits a saturation behavior of the current.
0.1
1 Frequency CTHz)
10
100
FIGURE 2. (a) Typical autocorrelation function of voltage fluctuations and (b) associated spectral density of the DUT for a thickness W = 100 nm with n^^ = 10^* cm^^ and Z = 0.1 /jm at room temperature.
To illustrate the results of the simulator. Fig. 2 reports a typical correlation function and the associated spectrum of voltage fluctuations, Sv{f), normalized to its zero frequency value of the DUT for the case of L = 0.1 ^ m, ff = 100 nm, HQ^ = lO'^ cm^^ in the absence of an applied voltage. The results of simulations (dotted curve) compare favourably with those obtained by the 3D impedance equivalent circuit (continuous curve) [6]:
M/l =
(4)
with/the frequency, Tp = 4.2810^''* s, andTd= 1.81 10^''* s the plasma and dielectric relaxation times corresponding to the simulated bulk material. Here, the plasma peak is well evidenced by the good qualitative fit between numerical and theoretical results which validates the numerical approach. We notice that the relevance of the agreement mostly refers to the position of the plasma peak, since the amplitude of the peak is found to depend on the time window used for the Fourier transform of the correlation function. Furthermore, simulations evidence a cutoff decay as /^^, which is reminiscent of the presence of scattering mechanisms, instead of the sharper f^'^ predicted by the equivalent circuit model. Simulations performed for the case of current fluctuations do
217
not exhibit the plasma peak, but a simple Lorentzian decay at the collision frequency in close agreement with analytical expectations.
1 Frequency (THz)
10
0.1
1 Frequency CTHz)
10
FIGURE 3. Spectral density of voltage fluctuations normalized to the static value of the DUT for different values of the layer length, a fixed thickness W = \ nm and a free electron densities Q 10' cm (a), andfor different values of concentration, afixedlengthZ = 0.1/jm and width rr = 100nm(b).
The results concerning the voltage spectral density under thermal equilibrium conditions are summarized in Fig. 3 (a). Here, the normalized volatge spectral densities are reported for the case ofW=\ nm, n\^ = 10'^ cm^^ at different lengths. Results show the onset of a peak in the spectrum for lengths above about 50 nm, thus at the start up of the diffusive transportregime. By contrast, for lengths shorter than 50 nm all spectra are flat and exibit a beginning of cutoff at about 5 Thz, which is practically independent of the layer width. Remarkably, the shorter the layer length the less pronounced is the cutoff region. Figure 3 (b) reports the set of voltage spectral density at different carrier concentrations of the bulk material. The 3D plasma peak is resolved down to n^ = 10'^ cm^^ and the peak frequency is found to be in good agreement with the value predicted by Eq. (1). For n < 10 cm ^ the plasma peak is no longer resolved because the plasma time becomes comparable or shorter than the dielectric relaxation time.
" o
>
(bl .
t
:t
X
300
SOO
700
10 Width (nm)
Length (nm)
FIGURE 4. (a) Plasma frequencies of the DUT for electron density Q^ = lO^'' and 10^* cm^^ in the diffusive transportregime. Symbols refer to numerical simulations, curves to the analytical expression in Eq. (2) with k = n/L. (b) 2D plasma frequency normalized to the 3D value of the DUT as a function of the channel width for an electron density Q^ = 10^* :10^* cm^^. The continuous line refers to the 3D of Eq. (1), the shaded region refers to the 2D of Eq. (2) covering the two cases of Z = 0.111 fim, the dashed bars refers to Monte Carlo results covering the same two cases and include the numerical uncertainty estimated within 20 %.
Figure 4 (a) reports the plasma frequencies a function of the channel length in the diffusive transportregime for electron density n^^ = lO'^ and lO'^ cm^^. The comparison with the fundamental frequency of the analitycal model with k = n/L (see the continuous curves) is found to be satisfactory. Figure 4 (b) presents the values of the plasma
218
peak of the 2D case normalized to that of the 3D plasma peak as function of the layer width. Here we report the normalized plasma frequencies obtained from simulations for lengths covering the range of value 0.1 ^ 1 ^m and for 3D carrier concentrations in the range lO'^ ^ lO'^ cm^^ as bars. We also report the normalized theoretical values predicted by Eq (1) (horizontal continuous line) and Eq (2) with / = 1 and k = n/L (shaded region). The agreement between numerical results (bars) and analytical (shaded region) expectations is within numerical uncertainty, and thus considered to be satisfactory. We notice that the results evidence the constraint fjf < fj^ associated with the intrinsic characteristic of numerical simulations.
0.1
1 Frequency (THz)
10
0.1
1 Frequency (THz)
10
FIGURE 5. Voltage and current spectral densities of the DUT under thermal equilibrium conditions (a) and (c), respectively, and in the presence of a bias V = 1 V (b) and (d), respectively.
Figure 5 compares the noise spectra of voltage fluctuations with those of current fluctuations at thermal equilibrium (Fig. 5 (a) and (b)), and in the presence of an applied voltage (1 V) sufficiently high for the onset of Gunn instabilities (Fig. 5 (c) and (d)). Simulations are performed for the case of 1 nm. 3) 10 cm ^ and a layer length L = 1 ^m. The results show that the presence of the Gunn instabilities suppresses totally the plasma peak of the voltage spectal density and is responsible of a sharp peak in both the voltage and current spectra at the Gunn domain transit time frequency of about 0.1 THz. We remark that the voltage spectrum at equilibrium evidences a second peak at the 3D plasma frequency, while the current spectrum at 1 V exhibits higher harmonics, up to four over the fundamental of the Gunn transitfrequency. According to the analytical theory [2], the application of a gate voltage on the 2D channel should modify the internal concentration and thus the associate plasmonic frequency. Figure 6 shows the spectral densities of voltage fluctuations inside the channel of the gated structure represented in Fig. 1. In Figure 6 (a) the carrier density is fixed to niD . 10 cm ^, the width of the channel is 10 nm, the gate to channel distance isfif= 20 nm, the gate voltage is f/e = 1 V and the drain voltage is L/Q = 0.01 V. Here, only two different lengths of the sample are represented to accomodate the reader. For both lengths the spectra evidence a characteristic spike at 10 THz with is linked to the 3D plasma. Then, a second peak at 4 THz for L = 0.5 ^m and at 1 THz is found for
219
L= 1.5 jim. This particular frequency is moving as the square root of the inverse of the
(b)
UD=0.1V UD=O.SV
Un=1.0V
1 Frequency (THz)
10
FIGURE 6. Spectral density of voltage fluctuations normalized to the static value of the gated DUT. The gate voltage is fixed to 1 V and g^ = IQl** cm^^ (a) Uo = O.OlV. (b) i = 1 ^tm.
length and can be associated with the 2D plasma. In Fig. 6 (b) we have fixed the length to L= I jim and we have made varying the drain voltage. For a vanishing potential, the spectrum evidences as previously one peak at 10 THz, related to the 3D plasma, and a second peak at 2 THz, related to the 2D plasma. In analogy with the ungated channel and the results of Fig 5, at increasing the drain voltage the plasma peaks are replaced by a smaller frequency, 0.1 THz at the highest voltage applied, and are related to GUNN domains.
3. CONCLUSION
By studying voltage and current fluctuations with Monte Carlo simulations, we have investigated the evolution of plasmonic noise in ungated and gated nano channels of Ino.53Gao.47As. For the ungated case, in the absence of a bias, the results showed a complex scenario only partly in agreement with the 2D analytical model. In the presence of a bias we have observed a transition between the plasma and Gunn frequencies which is not explained by the analytical theory. The current spectral density does not evidence the plasma peak, as expected, but at high voltages it evidences peaks at the Gunn transitfrequency in analogy with the case of the voltage spectral density. For the case of the biased gated structure, the spectra evidence two peaks. One at the 3D plasma frequency and another that depends on the length of the chanel, as predicted by the analytical theory.
REFERENCES
D. L. WoUard, E. R. Brown, M. Pepper, and M. Kemp, Proc. IEEE 93(10), 1722 (2005). M. Dyakonov and M. S. Shur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 111501 (2005). J.F. Millithaler, L. Reggiani, J. Pousset, G. Sabatini, L. Varani, C. Palermo, J. Mateos, T. Gonzalez, S. Perez, and D. Pardo J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 20 384210 (2008). J. Lusakowski, W. Knap, N. Dyakonova, L. Varani, J. Mateos, T. Gonzalez, Y. Roelens, S. BoUaert, A. Cappy, and K. Karpierz, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 064307 (2005). M. Shur and V. Ryzhii, International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems 13 575 (2003). L. Varani and L. Reggiani, RivistaNuovo Cimento, bf 17, 1 (1994).
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INTRODUCTION
Shot noise in pn junctions should in principle be close to the ideal value predicted by Schottky's theorem [1]. As however demonstrated both theoretically [2, 3, 4] and experimentally [5], when a large contribution to the current is due to charge recombination in the depletion region, shot noise is significantly suppressed. Previous experimental results [5] have been obtained at low temperature and for relatively large current values (> 10^^ A), but a suppression of shot noise can in principle be observed, even at room temperature and at lower currents. In this work, we present the results of measurements performed at room temperature on three different pn junctions by means of the crosscorrelation technique, which has allowed us to investigate noise levels well below those already studied in the literature. In particular, we have focused our attention on a GaAs diode and a commercial silicon diode (1N4007) with ideality factor approximately equal to 1.6, and on a silicon diode with an ideality factor equal to 1 over many current decades [8]. The experimental data have then been compared with results obtained from numerical simulations based on a specifically devised Monte Carlo procedure.
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crosscorrelation of the outputs of the two channels, in order to suppress the components of the amplifier noise that are uncorrelated. In our specific implementation, the device under test is connected in series between the inputs of the two amplifiers, with the aim of minimizing contributions for the equivalent input current noise sources. In order to quahtatively explain the noise generating mechanism in nonideal pn junctions, we have developed a simple numerical model based on Monte Carlo simulations. In particular, let us consider a single story, lasting ttot seconds. At each time step At, one can observe three possible events in correspondence of the anode : 1) a thermionic electron reaches the anode; 2) a recombined electron arrives; 3) no electron arrival occurs. From a numerical point of view, this can be modelled as follows: at each time step, a random variable x with uniform distribution is generated. If 0 < x < XA (A interval) a thermionic emission has occurred, if XA < x < xg (B interval) a recombination is attempted, while in the case of XB < x < 1 (C interval) no carrier emission happens (inset of Fig. 1). Let us discuss in detail case 2), which refers to an electron with the following history: the electron is injected into the conduction band; it recombines via a trap in the valence band; it reaches the anode. We impose the further constraint that the trap can be occupied by only one electron at a time. For each recombination event, another random variable T, with mean exponential distribution and with value equal to T, is extracted: T is the time the traps involved in the recombination process will be occupied. For what concerns instead the power spectral density S(0) at low frequency, it is computed by means of Milatz's theorem [7]. In particular, if Mot is the sum of the thermionic and recombination events occurring during ttou S{0) reads: S(0) = ^ v a r { M o t } ,
Hot
(1)
where varjA^tot} is the variance of Mot computed over a record of 10000 stories. A key issue is the definition of the A and B intervals which specify the relative weight of the thermionic and recombination components, respectively, that make up the total current IF The thermionic component ID is due to the electrons which manage to overcome the barrier at the junction, and the recombination current IR is due to electrons which recombine with holes via recombination centers [9]. Such components are defined by the expressions
ID IR
= loD exp ( ^ )  1
(2)
= loR
where q is the elementary charge, kg is the Boltzmann constant, T is the temperature, and V is the bias voltage, while IQD and IQR represent the diffusion and recombination saturation currents, respectively. IQD and IQR can be extracted from the IV characteristic, by means of a least mean square fitting procedure. Once obtained, we can compute the ratio between the recombination current and the thermionic current R{IF) = IR/ID Since ID is unambiguously determined by XA {ID = qxA/At), XB XA can be expressed as XBXA= RlD^t/q, obtaining the widths of the intervals at different injection regimes. The quantity XA can then be
222
<
102 Quasiideal diode 104 n=l 10^ 10'^ 1N4007 diode 10^ GaAs diode n=1.61 ^ 108 n=1.65 109 1 1010 AB C 10" 1012 0 Xyl X B I X 1013 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.1
I 1 1 1 1
1
Voltage (V)
FIGURE 1. IV characteristics of the GaAs diode, the 1N4007, and the quasiideal diodes. The ideality factors n are indicated. In the inset, the event selection mechanism used to perform simidations is illustrated.
considered as the independent variable of the problem, while xg can be computed as a function of XA' XB = XA{1 + R)
RESULTS
We have applied the above described numerical model to three different diodes: a GaAs diode, a commercial silicon 1N4007 diode, and a quasiideal sihcon diode manufactured by ST Microelectronics [8], whose I V characteristics are shown in Fig.l. As can be seen, the three diodes have different ideality factors n. In Figs.2(a) and (b), the measured (empty triangles) and computed (sohd triangles) values for the Fano factor are shown. The values of the Fano factor in the region of low bias voltage (V < ksT/q) are computed taking into account the thermal component, with the correction formula 2ql coth (3) 2kBTj ^spe where Sspe is the measured shot noise value at the current /. The only fitting parameter used in the simulation is represented by the mean capture time (T), i.e. 9 ps for the GaAs diode and 3 ps for the 1N4007 diode. We observe the expected full shot noise for the quasiideal diode, while shot noise is suppressed in the other cases. As can be seen, the implemented models manage to quantitatively reproduces experimental results for the 1N4007 diode, while some discrepancy is present for
223
0.9 
1N4007 diode
Current (A)
FIGURE 2. Simulation and experimental data for the 1N4007 (a) and the GaAs (b) diode. In (b) shot noise experimental data are shown for the quasiideal diode. The solid line represents a Fano factor of one. All the measurements were performed at room temperature.
the GaAs diode. However, also in this case, the quahtative behavior of the Fano factor is recovered by the very simple statistical process that has been proposed.
CONCLUSIONS
Accurate measurements of the shot noise suppression factor have been performed over 4 decades of current on three different types of pn junctions: a GaAs diode, a commercial 1N4007 diode, and a quasiideal silicon diode. Except for the case of the quasiideal diode, a suppression of shot noise depending on the bias current has been observed, confirming previous results and extending them to a wider current range. Such a suppression has been attributed to carrier recombination phenomena, which have been modeled by means of a simple Monte Carlo approach. The results of the simulations, which depend on a single fitting parameter, do reproduce the quahtative behavior of the experimental data and are also in satisfactory quantitative agreement. Further work is needed to refine the model with the inclusion of direct recombination mechanisms and of the dependence of the trap occupation time on the bias voltage.
REFERENCES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. W. Schottky, Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 57, 541 (1918). P. O. Lauritzen, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 15, 770 (1968). K. M. Van Vliet, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 32, 1236 (1976). J. A. Jimenez Tejada, A. Godoy, A. Palma, and P Cartujo, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 3998 (2001). T. E. Wade, A. Van Der Ziel, Solid State Electronics 19, 909 (1976). B. Pellegrini, M. Macucci, G. Basso, in Advanced Experimental Methods for Noise Research in Nanoscale Electronic Devices , vol. 151, p. 203 (2004). 7. A. van der Ziel, A'oise in SoUd State Devices and Circuits, Wiley, New York, p. 16, 1986. 8. G. F CerofoUni and M. L. Polignano, J. Appl. Phys. 55, 579 (1984). 9. R. N. Hall, Phys. Rev 87, 835 (1952).
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INTRODUCTION The diode with Schottky barrier is the perspective nonlinear element used for the detection of microwave radiation. The decrease of effective height of the barrier yields the decrease of differential resistance of the diode; that allows producing the detector operating without external bias. The decrease of the effective height is reached by the increase of tunnel transparency near to the top of the potential barrier reached by strong nonuniform doping (5doping) of semiconductor at the contact with metal. The detailed description of investigated diodes is presented in papers [14]. Here we offer the model of the lowbarrier Schottky diode, focused on the reveal of technological areas responsible for 1/f noise. Dependence of the noise voltage spectrum of the diode on the current is analyzed. The experimental data treatment, within frames of the model of fluctuations in the charge state of external impurity atoms, is offered. The main idea is the modification of ref [5], that is movable (bistable) defects are the source of 1/f noise. MODEL OF THE DIODE The equivalent circuit diagram of Schottky diode with 5doping is shown in Fig. 1. This model is suggested for the determination of technological areas of the diode,
CPn29, Noise andFluctuaUons, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
225
which are responsible for the 1/f noise. Series resistance Rb of the base and contacts, and possible leakage current Ikak are taken into account. Equivalent parameters of the diode are defined from the analysis of the currentvoltage characteristic. R leak
'leak
t>h
*
The investigated diodes were manufactured on common technology and differ by the initial (at / =0) differential resistance i^co, varying from 610' Ohm to 400 Ohm. The leakage is negligible practically in all diodes, but there is nonlinear resistance i?i. Dependence of current/c on voltage VD supplied to Schottky barrier is described by relation:
/ ^ = / , exp
exp
Here J] is nonideality factor; a = d/D, d  distance from 5layer to metal, D width of Mott barrier ( a ~0.04); VT = kT/q  thermal potential determined by Boltzmann constant k, absolute temperature T, and elementary charge q. Characteristic current/^ is equal: /^= A**T^exA
dID).
This one is determined by height O of barrier at metalsemiconductor interface, surface concentration 7 ^ of donor impurity atoms, and dielectric permeability s of V semiconductor.
226
Nsp=488 Af=11.7Hz
/,Hz
1I I I iiiii 1I I I iiiii 1I I i i i i i i 1I I i i i i i i
10'
10^
10^
10^
10^
FIGURE 2. Family of noise voltage spectra at different currents through the diode.
The example of the dependence of the spectrum on the current, in the region of 1/f noise, is shown in Fig. 3. 10"i5^,V'/Hz
10^S
10'N
< AA/,model
m'U
10
15
I, A
1I I I I I I I I 1I I I I I I I I 1I I I I I I I I 1I I I Mill
10'
10^
lo'
10
10'
FIGURE 3. Dependence of the voltage noise spectrum on the current at frequency 12 Hz.
For an explanation of experimental data the model of fluctuations in the charge of noncompensated donors in 5layer of Schottky junction (ATV^ model) is suggested.
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ANs MODEL
Atoms of main impurity (Si) are ionized. However atoms of extraneous impurity (oxygen, hydrogen, etc.) may exist in 5layer. It is assumed that each atom has a few metastable states separated by rather low potential barrier [5]. Thermoactivated transitions between states yield the stochastic modulation of ionization energy of the impurity. This modulation may be treated as fluctuation A V in the effective concentration of donor impurity in 5layer. T^ That means, in Equation (3) value N^, should be replaced on (7V^ +A7V^). Thus, the effective height Ao of the barrier at zero current is subjected to fluctuations. Going through Equation (2) to Equation (1) we can determine the noise in total current ID, thus, in the noise voltage on the diode. The analysis of the 1/f noise spectrum allows assuming that, in investigated diodes, on 10*' atoms of main impurity there are 110 atoms of extraneous impurity, the ionization energy of which may stochastically be modulated.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Presented research was carried out in Nizhniy Novgorod State University in frames of the Priority National Project "Education". This investigation was supported by the State contract JSo6039r/8473 (PYSlC083).
REFERENCES
1. V.I. Shashkin, V. L. Vaks, V. M. Danil'tsev, A. V. Maslovsky, A. V. Murel, S. D. Nikiforov, O. I. Khrykin, and Yu. I. Chechenin, Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics 48, 485490 (2005). 2. V. I. Shashkin, Yu. A. Drjagin, V. R. Zakamov, S. V. Krivov, L. M. Kukin, A. V. Murel, and Y. I. Chechenin, Int J. Infrared and Millimeter Waves 28, 945952 (2007). 3. V. I. Shashkin, A. V. Murel, V. M. Danil'tsev, and O. I. Khrykin, Semiconductors 36, 505510 (2002). 4. V. I. Shashkin, and A. V. Murel, Semiconductors 3^, 554559 (2004). 5. V.B.Orlov, and A.V.Yakimov, PhysicaB 162, 1320 (1990).
228
229
FIGURE 1. (a) 3D schematic view of an SSD including the details of the heterostructure used in the fabrication, (b) Topview geometry {xy plane) considered in the 2D MC simulations. Different values of Wy are investigated. Lc=250 nm, Wc=50 nm, Wi,=5 nm, ^=^=1 andZ,a55=175 nm.
In this work, by means of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, we show that a high frequency collective phenomenon present in SSDs, which leads to a tunablebygeometry peak in the current noise spectra, couples to the DC response of the device, thus originating a THz resonance in the rectification of AC signals. First, SSDs with InGaAs as channel material are studied to identify the influence of the geometry and the link between noise and AC to DC rectification [5]. Then, we show that the amplitude and quality factor of the resonance can be improved by using narrow bandgap semiconductors with very small effective mass (like InAs and InSb) and by decreasing the operation temperature. MODEL In our analysis we make use of a MC simulator selfconsistently coupled with a 2D Poisson solver successfully employed in previous works for the study of SSDs [2,5,6] and different types of InGaAs based nanodevices [7]. We perform 2D simulations only in the channel [Fig. 1(b)]. The influence of the fixed charges present in other layers is accounted for by means of a "background doping" (7VDft=10^^ m"^), and a negative charge density is considered at the boundaries of the insulating trenches to take into account the depletion originated by surface states. More details can be found in [7].
W=5nm
W^20 nm M/,/=50 nm
3.0
CM
^
'E
o O Q
<
CO
2.0
Frequency (THz)
FIGURE 2. Comparison between the current noise spectrum (right axis) at equilibrium and the rectified DC current (left axis) when the amplitude of the AC excitation is Fo=0.25 V, for different W^.
The microscopic information provided by the MC simulations has allowed us to identify a common origin for the peak at lower frequency in the noise spectrum and the resonance in the rectification: the dynamics of the carriers reflected back at both sidewalls of the vertical trenches. Electrons experience a deceleration/acceleration process at the potential barrier created by the surface charge at the interfaces of the vertical trenches, which originates charge density fluctuations with a characteristic frequency closely connected to plasma oscillations [9]. This is a noise mechanism, in principle negative, which is coupled to the terminals by the capacitance of the vertical trench and leads to the peak observed at lower frequency in the noise spectra. However, due to the singular geometry of the SSD, these collective charge fluctuations become also visible in the AC to DC rectification as a result of the coupling to the channel via the horizontal trench, enhancing the DC responsivity in the form of a resonance. As observed, the resonance can be tuned in the THz range by means of the geometry of the diodes, shifting to higher frequencies for wider vertical trenches, what can be quite useful for detection apphcations. We have also found that the resonance shifts to lower frequencies when the permittivity of the vertical trench e^ is increased [5], suggesting a strong influence of the associated capacitor Cv=ev/^vSSDs Based on InAs and InSb Channels. Temperature Effect In this section we focus on the influence of the material constituent of the channel and on the operation temperature. Two narrow bandgap semiconductors, InAs and InSb, have been considered in the channel of the SSD (with the same geometry) to compare with the InGaAs case, by performing the same type of simulations. Figure 3(a) shows the results obtained for the noise spectra and the rectified DC current. As observed, the amplitude and quality factor of the resonance in the rectification are notably improved. For example, in the case of InSb the DC current at the resonance takes a value 12 times higher than that at low frequency. The more ballistic character of transport, achieved by the use of both higher mobility materials, enhances the observed phenomenon and shifts it to higher frequencies, what is quite interesting 231
from the point of view of applications. Concerning the noise, the 3D plasma peak moves to higher frequencies due to the lower effective mass of InAs and InSb, scahng exactly according to the formula f^^ = 4^ob'^^I'^^^"''^ ' where Nob, e, and m* are the electron density, charge, and effective mass, respectively, and s is the permittivity of channel material. The results also confirm that the low frequency peak in the noise spectra is hnked to a plasma effect, since it scales in the same way as the 3D peak. Finally, Fig. 3(b) shows that a decrease of temperature from 300 to 77 K in InGaAs SSDs implies a quite significant enhancement of the resonance, thus improving the sensitivity of detection, again due to a superior mobility. Interestingly, the frequencies of both peaks in the noise spectra remain unaltered, since temperature is not involved in the plasma frequency.
12 E" 10 InGaAs InAs InSb
Frequency (THz)
Frequency (THz)
FIGURE 3. Comparison of the current noise spectra at equilibrium (right axis) and the rectified DC current (left axis) when the amplitude of the AC excitation is Fo=0.15 V, for W^=5 nm. (a) Influence of the semiconductor in the channel: InGaAs, InAs and InSb. (b) Influence of the operation temperature in the case of the InGaAs SSD.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This work has been partially supported by the Direccion General de Investigacion (MEC, Spain) and FEDER through the project TEC20076I259/MIC and by the Consejeria de Educacion of the Junta de Castilla y Leon (Spain) through the project SA019A08.
REFERENCES
1. A. M. Song, M. Missous, P. Omling, A. R. Peaker, L. Samuelson, and W. Seifert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1881 (2003). 2. J. Mateos, B. G. Vasallo, D. Pardo and T. Gonzalez, Appl. Phys. Lett 86, 212103 (2005). 3. C. Balocco, A. M. Song, M. Aberg, A. Forchel, T. Gonzalez, J. Mateos, I. Maximov, M. Missous, A. A. Rezazadeh, J. Saijets, L. Samuelson, D. Wallin, K. Williams, L. Worshech and H. Q. Xu, Nano Letters S, 1423(2005). 4. C. Balocco, H. Halsall, N. Q. Vinh, and A. M. Song, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 20, 384203 (2008). 5. I. WiguezdelaTorre, J. Mateos, D. Pardo, A. M. Song and T. GonzaXez, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, to be published (2009). 6. I. MiguezdelaTorre, J. Mateos, D. Pardo and T. Gonzalez, J. Appl Phys 103, 024502 (2008). 7. J. Mateos, B. G. Vasallo, D. Pardo, T. Gonzalez, J. S. Galloo, Y. Roelens, S. BoUaert, and A. Cappy, Nanotechnology 14, 117 (2003). 8. K. Y. Xu, X. F. Lu, A. M. Song and G. Wang, J. Appl Phys 103, 113708 (2008). 9. M. Trippe, G. Bosman and A. Van der Ziel, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 34, 1183, (1986).
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Analysis Of Noise Characteristics And Noise Generation In SubTHz And THz Frequency Ranges
V.L.Vaks'', A.N.Panin", S.I.Pripolzin", E.A.Sobakinskaya'', D.G.Paveliev
'^Institute for Physics ofMicrostructures of Russian Academy of Science, GSP105, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. Nizhny Novgorod State University, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia Abstract. Noise characteristics of subTHz and THz devices (mixers, detectors) based on Schottky diodes and quantum superlattice diodes (SLdiodes) are presented. The test bench for measurements of device's characteristics is elaborated. Noise generator of THz frequency range based on SLdiodes multiplier and mm noise generator is also demonstrated. Keywords: THz range, mixer, multiplier, noise generator, superlattice, Schottky diodes. PACS: 85.30.De, 85.35.Be.
INTRODUCTION At present great efforts are being devoted to elaboration of sources and receivers of subTHz and THz ranges. The key point in this problem is noise parameters of devices (mixers, detectors, multiphers) used in a set up. Now the Schottky diodes are widely applied in various devices of THz frequency range. However, for a successful operation in this region, it is necessary to increase cut off frequency of Schottky diodes that has proven quite difficult due to fundamental restrictions. Furthermore, use of superlattice structures are expected to be more effective for frequency transformation and detection, since the lower values of inertness and parasitic capacitances and presence of negative differential conductivity (up to 1 THz) on the voltampere characteristic. Thus, the first part of our report concerns comparison of noise characteristics of devices, based on Schottky diodes and superlattice diodes. The second part deals with problem of noise generation in subTHz and THz frequency ranges. Many of applications, including superhighspeed data communications (up to few hundreds Mbit/s), require ultrawide band sources, which can be obtained with employment of noise generators. Measurement of Noise Characteristics For analysis of the noise parameters in subTHz and THz frequency ranges we elaborated a test bench (Fig.l), which includes highprecise and stable sources of radiation. Some results of measurements for Schottky diodes and SL diodes are presented in Fig.23.
CPn29, Noise andFluctuaUons, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
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IMHz generator
Mm range synthesizer
Attenuator
I I I I L_t_JL
Measuring block n
Lowpass filter
I
DAC Control device
Digital voltmeter
500
1000
234
il
NEP
10 w* HI''/=
, kOhm
\ ^
500 lOOD 1500
.
LDQD IJXQ
I, mkA
I, mkA
FIGURE 3. Noise parameters of Schottky diodes: NEP noise equivalent power, R differential resistance.
The results of our experiments show that noise parameters of Schottky and superlattice diodes are comparable for small signal. In the case of large signal superlattice diode is more stable. Generation of Noise Signal Noise generator up to 1.2 THz is elaborated with the help of BWO electronic beam modulation by comparatively lowfrequency (relative to carrier frequency) regular and noise signals. The point is that frequencymodulated signal has dense spectrum at large modulation indexes, (3, even if modulation is done by monochromatic signal (especially nonmonochromatic one). In this case the frequency modulated signal may be written as:
0} = C0 +Aco'^d^COSnQj:
where coo is a reference frequency, Aco is a noise band, Q is a interval between spectral hues of a frequencymodulated signal. If lowfrequency noise signal is additionally supplied, then the reference and lateral frequencies are broadened by noise signal frequency band Aco. If a condition Aco> Q is valid, the spectrum of modulated signal is continuous. The band of microwave noise is given by
Af
^^BWO^O
where uo is an amplitude of periodic signal, SBWO is a transconductance. The value of SBWO for the majority of BWO (in mm wavelength) is in the range between 30 and 80 MHzA^. Blockdiagram of experimental setup is shown in Fig.4.
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Power supply
For further advancing in noise generation at higher frequencies we used frequency multiphcation of mm noise generator (BWO or Gunn generator, working in noise mode). Spectrum of a noise signal obtained by multiphcation of Gunn generator's frequency (89117 GHz) with SLmultipher is presented in Fig.4.
T = 300 K
CD
O 1000 h
Q.
Q i U
LJj
I L
200
600
1000
frequency (GHz)
FIGURE 5. Noise signal from Gunn generator.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This work is financially supported by ISTC 3174, CRDF R U C 2  2 8 6 7  N N  0 7.
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INTRODUCTION
In spite of the extremely high speed of InP and GaAs based HEMTs, the use of narrow bandgap semiconductors is restrained to low power applications, since impact ionization limits the working voltages. In fact, HEMT technology has not been widely exploited for high power, high frequency applications due to the low value of the bandgap of the traditionally used IIIV semiconductors (in the range 0.71.5 eV). The wide bandgap of GaN, 3.42 eV, together with a moderately high mobility (as compared to Si) of about 1500 cm^A's, allows for high temperature operation (up to 300C) and high power amplification at microwave and millimetrewave frequencies [1]. Another important advantage of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs for high power operation is the spontaneous polarization charge appearing at the heterojunction, which provides extremely high electron concentrations in the channel without the need for any doped layer. As a consequence, the development of GaN HEMTs has a strong practical interest for mobile telecommunications, since they can provide some advantages over the technology commonly used in base station amplifiers, where high power and linearity are required. A low level of noise is also necessary for such high frequency applications.
237
trapped at surface states, is also considered. Due to the high delivered power, selfheating effects are crucial in GaN HEMTs and must be carefully considered in simulations. To this end, a selfconsistent method making use of the thermal resistance of the transistors, R,/,, has been implemented. The lattice temperature of the device r^a is continuously updated in the simulation by using the calculated value of//) according to the expression Tiatt=300K.+R,i,lDVDs By using this technique, the static output characteristics of a 250 nmgate Alo,27Gao,73N/GaN HEMT with the geometry shown in Fig. 1(a) have been calculated. Its layer structure consists of a 25 nm AlGaN barrier with 27% Al on the top of a 500 nm GaN layer. For the simulations we have usedP=12.46xlO'^ cm"^ (taken from [2]) and a=5.0xlO'^ cm"^ so that ^=7.46xl0'^ cm"^ in the range of values found experimentally.
RESULTS
When analyzing the influence of selfheating, in Fig. 1(b) it can be observed that, as compared with the simulations made at constant temperature, the IDVDS curves are very similar in the triode region and differ mainly in the saturation region for high currents, saturation being more pronounced when dissipated power is high and large R,/, is considered (even providing a negative slope). This behavior reflects in the transconductance curves shown in Fig. 2, the maximum of g decreases and the curve widens as Tiatt increases (at the side of high Vgs values). The effect of selfheating in the rest of elements of the small signal equivalent circuit of the transistors is significant only in the case of g and Cgs (both decreasing when increasing Tiatt). This dependence is more pronounced in the case of g, thus leading also to a reduction of the cutoff frequency/c (calculated as gJlnCgs) when the temperature increases.
2000
FIGURE 1. (a) Geometry of the simulated AlGaN/GaN HEMT and (b) intrinsic output characteristics at T=300 K compared with those obtained with the selfconsistent temperature model with iJft=10xlO'' andiJa=20xlO'K/(W/m). Top curve Fe5=2.5V, AFe5=0.5V.
238
V,=5.0V
^ ^ ^
J P
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
0.0
=(V)
FIGURE 2. Intrinsic transconductance at T=300 K compared with that obtained with the selfconsistent temperature model with iJft=10xlO"' andiJft=20xlO"' K/(W/m), for (a) FD5=5 V and (b) FD5=10 V. The dashed lines represent the experimental maximum transconductance measured in real devices. P, R and C are intrinsic parameters that include the influence of both the current fluctuations and the intrinsic dynamic response of the device (by means of the intrinsic Y parameters). P=SM/4KBTiatt\Y2i\ represents the noise in the drain current associated to electron velocity fluctuations, R=Sjg\Y2i\ /4KBTiatt\Yu\^ the noise at the gate induced by charge fluctuations in the channel, and C=j S^g^/ {SigS^y^ the crosscorrelation between both. Being KB the Boltzmann constant and Sjj, Sjg and 5/^/^ the spectral densities of drain and gate current fluctuations, and their crosscorrelation, respectively. The values of the intrinsic P, R and C noise parameters have been calculated as a function of temperature (in this case with constant values of r^a). In Fig. 3 we can observe that the drain and gate current noise (represented by P and R, respectively) decreases for high temperature, but mainly under high gate bias, far from the optimum low noise conditions (near pinch off). Regarding the extrinsic noise parameters (minimum noise figure, F,, associated gain, Gass, noise resistance, R and optimum reflection coefficient. Top,), they have been calculated by adding the contributions of the source, gate and drain resistances, Rs, RG and Rp, respectively, to the simulated intrinsic noise. We consider Rs=l.O Qmm, RG=2.6 Q/mm, and Rj)=2.0 Qmm, temperature independent as first approach. The extrinsic noise parameters are plotted in Fig. 3 (d)(h), showing that the influence of temperature on F, is not very significant under low bias conditions (since the decrease P and R obtained with higher Thtt is compensated by a lower fc). In order to link the behaviour of F, to that of P, R and C, the approximate formula for the intrinsic minimum noise figure F=l+2 (f/f,) [PR{lC^)Y'\ This formula indicates that F, increases with P and R, while the draingate correlation reduces the total noise. As observed in the figure, the optimum lownoise conditions (minimum value of F,) are achieved for low current. These conditions change with temperature, shifting to higher Vgs as Tiatt increases, but providing a similar F,, around 1.4 dB for 10 GHz and 3.0 dB for 26 GHz. The most significant effect of temperature is the reduction of Gass with the increase of Tiatt due to the decrease of g, while R and Top, remain almost unchanged. The fact that the extrinsic resistances are considered to be temperature independent could also contribute to the observed behaviour. If the values of extrinsic resistances raise with temperature (as expected in reality), the noise would increase.
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6 ' 4 2 0 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 6.0 4.0 2.0 0.0 2.0
FIGURE 3. Noise parameters: Intrinsic (a) P, (b) R, (c) C, and extrinsic (d) F,,, (e) G^,, (f) R and (g) magnitude and (h) phase of rp, as a function of VQS for F/)5=10 V and several T/^tt The results in (d)(h) are shown for two frequencies (10 y 26 GHz).
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We want to acknowledge the support of the Spanish Ministerio de Defensa and the KORRIGAN initiative [3]. This work has been partially supported by the Direccion General de Investigacion (MEC) and FEDER (project TEC200761259/MIC) and by the Consejeria de Educacion of the JCyL (project SA019A08).
REFERENCES
M.A. Wakejima, K. Matsunaga, Y. Okamoto, Y. Ando, T. Nakayama and H. Miyamoto, Electronics Letters 41, 13711372(2005). V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, andO. Ambacher, ^;)p/. Phys Lett 80, 12041206 (2002). See for example: G. Gauthier and F. Reptin, "KORRIGAN: Development of GaN HEMT Technology in Europe." 2006 Digests of the CS Mantech Conference, 4951, 2006.
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Current Collapse and Deep Levels of AlGaN/GaN Heterostructures monitored by LFN Measurements
M. TACANO", N. TANUMA", S. YAGI^ H. OKUMURA^ T. MATSUI', J. SIKULA''
"Meisei University, Hino, Tokyo, 1918506 JAPAN, ""Power Electronics Center, AIST, Tsukuba, JAPAN 'MM Device Section, NICT, Koganei, Tokyo, JAPAN, ''FEEC, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 8, 61600, Brno, CZ Abstract: The correlation between the current collapse in the IV characteristics of AlGaN/GaN HFETs and the traps monitored through the unpassivated and SiNpassivation processes of the AlGaN/GaN heterostructures by the low frequency noise measurements is reported: the noise level of Ei(47 meV) trap decreased by 10 dBA/VHz by the SiN passivation process together with the current collapse recovery in IV curves, while 2(131 meV) and 3(235 meV) levels became apparent after SiN passivation, indicating the remarkable suppression of the El trap by the passivation. The commercially available AlGaAs/GaAs LED heads for the page and FAX printers found several deep levels introduced during the contact formation processes, which could not be assigned by the DLTS measurements. Keywords: AlGaN/GaN HFETs, AlGaAs/GaAs LED Arrays, Low Frequency Noise, Arrenius plots without DLTS PACS:70, 62.25 .De
Introduction Best performances of AlGaN/GaN highelectronmobility transistors (HEMTs) are obtained by growing the heterostructure on the lattice matched SiC substrates, and improved device structures obtained 550 W pulse output at 3.5 GHz, and the via hole drain structure reahzed the breakdown voltage of over 10 KV for power devices, approaching GaN device properties to those of the vacuum power devices, the cutoff frequency of 190 GHz and gm of 420 mS/mm with the 60 nm gate length was also obtained. The growth technology of wide gap semiconductors, however, still needs years to put these promising materials for the practical use. The drain current collapse is the serious problem in the AlGaN/GaN heterostructures. This is induced by the traps within the AlGaN and GaN layers, and can easily be monitored by the LFN measurement without using the DLTS measurements. We have the generationrecombination noise at the corresponding time constant in addition to the intrinsic \lf noise level in the noise spectroscopy. We report here the simultaneous deep level assignments of the AlGaN/GaN heterostructures by the LFN measurement with the drain current collapses in the HFET drain currents. LFN measurement technology is also apphed to an AlGaAs/GaAs PNPN junction LED, to which the DLTS measurements cannot be applied to monitor the deep level traps in the too much complicated structures.
CPn29, Noise and Fluctuations, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
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the anode noise can determine the deep levels existing within these complicated device stmcture, which cannot be done by the conventional DLTS measurements, i.e., most powerful way in this case. Two kinds of substrates are compared by the LFN measurements in Fig. 5. We knowthat similar deep levels are induced in these substrates, independent of the wafer preparations. Well prepared GaAlAs/GaAs HEMT has no deep levels, and observed deep levels might be introduced in the Ohmic contacting process. Conclusion 1) AlGaN/GaN Heterostmcture HFET Low frequency noise measurements both before and after the SiN passivation of AlGaN/GaN HFETs made it possible to trace the reduction of deep level(47 meV) trap density corresponds to the dramatic decrease of the drain current collapse. This passivation also revealed another two deep levels E2=131 meV and E3=235 meV in addition to the reduction of the trap density of the deep level Ei=47 meV These traps need to be diminished by improving the substrate growth technology. We need also to make enhanced temperature measurement hopefully up to 200 C so that we can assign another huge trap just above the room temperature, which could affect much on the drain current at room temperature. 2) AlGaAs/GaAs Heterostmcture Thyristor
Light emitting thyristor is a kind of new practical application of AlGaAs/GaAs heterostmcture devices, and is now commercially available as the page printer head LED. Low frequency noise measurements of this complicated stmcture made it possible to assign the deep levels induced within the stmcture. These levels were observed independent of the substrate preparation and of the substrate lots, indicating the deep level introduction through the Ohmic contacting processes, just as typically observed in AllnAs/lnGaAs heterostmctures. Improvements of the contacting processes must be procecuted to diminish the deep levels. The thin film passivation on AlGaAs surface could improve the rehability of the device. Low Frequency noise measurements have shown a valuable tool to assign the deep level trap energy and density of hard electronics devices made of SiC or GaN as well as those made of the shallow band gap devices like InGaAs and InAs as well as those of the conventional devices like GaAs and Si, and of the comphcated device stmctures.
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Temperature (K)
Fig. 1. Drain IV characteristics of AlGaN/GaN HFET before (dashed) and after(solid) SiN passivation.
Fig. 2a. Temperature dependences of current noise characteristics for HFET without SiN passivation at 5 mA.
E3
235
TOV
E2
131 meV
47 meV _
i
S 10
7
^
f
Ji
d"
t,
'
.?''''
t 8 g' ? Si'S
10
15
20
iooo/r(K"') Fig. 3 Arrhenius plots of the fluctuation time constant, r, for AlGaN/GaN HFET.
Fig. 2b. Temperature dependences of current noise characteristics for HFET with SiN passivation at 5 mA.
A L l f C r (anode>
AiyCr/AuGe/Cr
N N
1
1 . ,,,
C
100
150
200
250
Temperature [K]
Temperature [ K ]
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INTRODUCTION
High electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) based on GaN channels are promising for highpower applications at microwave frequencies. High electron mobility, high density of twodimensional electron gas (2DEG), and high drift velocity at high electric fields are in the wish list for a better highfrequency performance. It is well known, that highfield electron drift velocity measured at a high 2DEG density is lower than that achieved in semiinsulated undoped GaN (pin diode) [1]. The velocity is limited, in part, by accumulation of nonequilibrium LO phonons (hot phonons) [2]. As a result, an ultrafast decay of hot phonons is desired for an advanced HEMT technology. Fluctuation technique seems to be the best for measuring dependence of hotphonon lifetime on 2DEG density and hotphonon mode occupancy. The paper reports on experimental investigation of the optimal conditions for the ultrafast decay of hot phonons.
RESULTS
The pumpprobe Raman scattering experiment on bulk GaN revealed a monotonous decrease of the hotphonon lifetime as the carrier density increases (Fig. 1, bullets [3]). The dependence was interpreted in terms of LOphononplasmon interaction (solid curve [4]). However, similar Raman data are not available for a highdensity 2DEG, and the fluctuation technique is used most often for estimating the hotphonon lifetime in the 2DEG channels of interest for microwave electronics (pentagon [2], diamond
CPn29, Noise and Fluctuations, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
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[5]). The pioneering result (diamond [5]) is confirmed by optical pumpprobe LOphononassisted intersubband absorption experiment (black triangle [6]). A reasonable agreement with the data on bulk GaN is obtained if the electron density per unit volume is estimated as the 2DEG density divided by the width of the quantum well at the Fermi energy (Fig. 1).
293 K
O A O
GaN model [4] GaN [3] AIGaN/GaN [5] AIGaN/GaN [6] AIGaN/AIN/GaN [2]
0.1
10^^
10"
FIGURE 1. Hotphonon lifetime at different carrier density for GaN (bullets [3]) and GaNbased 2DEG channels: Alo.isGao.gsN/GaN, 5x10^^ cm"^ (diamond [5] and black triangle [6]), Alo.33Gao.67N/AlN/GaN, lxlO"cm"^ (pentagon [2]). Solid curve stands for plasmonassisted model [4].
GaN 2DEG
* ^
00 r s ^ A
^^^ ^%:
>o
o^o^"n>o;oO^
0 00 0 0 OOo Q?3C(, X
ni
0.01 0.1 Occupancy of hotphonon modes
*
1 "
FIGURE 2. Hotphonon lifetime as a function of hotphonon mode occupancy for GaN 2DEG channels: lno,i8Alo,82N/AlN/GaN, 1.2xl0"cm"^ (squares [8]); Alo.isGao.gsN/GaN, SxlO^^cm"^ (diamonds [5,9] and black triangle [6]); Alo,33Gao,67N/AlN/GaN, lxlO"cm"^ (pentagons [2]); Alo.22Gao,78N/GaN/AlN/GaN, SxlO^^cm"^ (circles [7]), lno,i8Alo.82N/AlN/GaN, 1.5xlO"cm"^ (stars, present paper).
246
Stars in Fig. 2 show an essential decrease of the hfetime at a high occupancy of hotphonon modes (the latticematched InAlN/AlN/GaN heterostructures were grown and processed at Virginia Commonwealth University). On the other hand, at a low occupancy, a nonmonotonous dependence on the 2DEG density is resolved (Fig. 3, symbols, solid curve).
2.0 Fluctuations GaN 2DEG * InAIN/AIN/GaN present paper O AIGaN/GaN [5] O AIGaN/AIN/GaN [2] O AIGaN/GaN/AIN/GaN [7] D InAIN/AIN/GaN [8] IR absorption A AIGaN/GaN [6]
1.5
1.0
^ 0.5
0.0
0.01
0.1
FIGURE 3. Hotphonon lifetime measured at a lowmoderate occupancy as a function of 2DEG density for GaNbased channels: lno.i8Alo.82N/AlN/GaN, 1.2xl0"cm"^ (square [8]); Alo.15Gao.85N/GaN, 5xlO"cm"^ (diamond [5] and black triangle [6]); Alo.33Gao.67N/AlN/GaN, lxlO"cm"^ (pentagon [2]); Alo.22Gao.78N/GaN/AlN/GaN, SxlO^^cm"^ (buUet [7]); lno.i8Alo.82N/AlN/GaN, 1.5xlO"cm"^ (star, present paper). Solid curve guides the eye.
>
10
10"
10'
10"
10"
FIGURE 4. Phonon and plasmon energies against electron density [10] for bulk GaN (solid curves, coupling neglected) and coupled modes (dashed curves).
247
The observed nonmonotonous dependence can be interpreted in terms of LOphononplasmon resonance (Fig. 3, solid curve): the strongest LOphononplasmon interaction and the fastest decay of hot phonons are expected when the plasmon energy approaches the LOphonon energy. In bulk GaN, the resonance electron density is close to 10^' cm"^ (Fig. 4). Since there is no universal relation for the plasmon energy in a 2DEG channel, the resonance 2DEG density is estimated from the experiment: 7x10^^ cm"^ (Fig. 3). The LOphononplasmon resonance can explain, in part, why the hotphonon lifetime decreases as the hotphonon mode occupancy increases (Fig. 2, squares, stars). The essential decrease is observed in the channels with high 2DEG density. According to the resonance model, the plasmon energy exceeds the LOphonon energy if the occupancy is low. However, at a given 2DEG density, the electron density per unit volume changes with the electron temperature responsible for the increase in the hotphonon mode occupancy. Thus, the associated plasmon energy decreases and the LOphononplasmon resonance condition can be satisfied when the electrons and the phonons become hot. In other words, the resonance 2DEG density is higher, when the hotelectron temperature is higher.
CONCLUSIONS
The optimal 2DEG density for the fastest decay of hot phonons at not too high electric fields is estimated from the experimental investigation of hotelectron fluctuations. The hotphonon lifetime depends on the hotphonon mode occupancy as well.
REFERENCES
1, M. Wraback, H. Shen, J. C. Carrano, C. J. Collins, J. C. Campbell, R. D. Dupuis, M. J. Schurman and 1, T, Ferguson, Appl, Phys, Lett, 79, 13031305 (2001), 2, A, Matulionis, Phys, Status SoUdi A 203, 23132325 (2006), 3, K, T, Tsen, J, G, Kiang, D, K, Ferry and H, Morko?, Appl, Phys, Lett, 89, 11211113 (2006), 4, A, Dyson and B, K, Ridley, J, Appl, Phys, 103,11450714 (2008), 5, A, Matulionis, J, Liberis, 1, Matulioniene, M, Ramonas, L, F, Eastman, J, R, Shealy, V, Tilak and A, Vertiatchikh, Phys, Rev, B 68, 03533817 (2003), 6, Z, Wang, K, Reimann, M, Woerner, T, Elsaesser, D, Hofstetter, J, Hwang, W, J, Schaff and L, F, Eastman, Phys, Rev, Lett,, 94, 03740314 (2005), 7, E, Sermuksnis, J, Liberis and A, MatuUonis, Lithuanian J, Phys, 47, 491498 (2007), 8, A, Matulionis, J, Liberis, E, Sermuksnis, J, Xie, J, H, Leach, M, Wu and H, Morkog, Semicond, Sci, Technol, 23, 07504816 (2008), 9, A, Matulionis, J, Liberis, L, Ardaravicius, L, F, Eastman, J, R, Shealy and A, Vertiatchikh, Semicond, Sci, Technol, 19, S421S423 (2004), 10, A, Matulionis and 1, Matulioniene, "Accumulation of hot phonons in GaN and related structures" in Gallium Nitride Materials and Devices II, edited by H, Morkog and C, W, Litton, Proc SPIE 6473, 64730P115, 2007,
248
INTRODUCTION
Noise issues continue to be point of focus in the International Technology Road Map for Semiconductors (ITRS), especially when pertaining to novel gate dielectric materials and structures in MOSFETs. As novel gate stacks are introduced into the technology with higher dielectric constants to allow thicker gate dielectric layers for the same value of gate capacitance, although the problem of gate leakage is minimized, other issues are raised that need to be measured, analyzed, and modeled. Among these is the increased 1/f noise due to the introduction of novel and poorly understood highdielectric constant (highK) materials into the gate and additional interfaces resulting from these multilayers. The most widely used 1/f noise model for MOSFETs is the socalled Unified Flicker Noise Model introduced by the Berkeley group [1]. This model attributes the noise to the trapping/detrapping of the channel carriers by traps in the gate dielectric that are assumed to be uniformly distributed in the energy gap and with respect to location. While the uniform trap density assumption may be reasonable for noncomposite gate dielectrics, it certainly is not for the multilayered gate dielectric stacks. In addition, high K incorporation affects some of the fundamental parameters
CPn29, Noise andFluctuaUons, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
249
of MOSFET devices, NtlLO of which the carrier mobility degradation / [2,3] and the low frequency noise X behavior are of exp(yiLz) particular interest exp[yHK(zTiL)] [4,5,6,7]. In this X exp(yiLTiL) context, the Unified \Flicker Noise Model \ shows significant \ discrepancies when \ applied to the analysis of noise in devices \ with high K gate I HK \ stacks. \ Consequently, we N propose modifications to include the non FIGURE 1. The trap density values at any location in the gate uniformity in trap dielectric stack are referenced with respect to the values at the intrinsic profile of highK (HK) Fermi level and the surface of the corresponding dielectric as depicted and interfacial layer by N^io and N^IKO in the diagram. (IL) materials. In this new model, the trap density profile is assumed to vary exponentially (Fig. 1)  (a) with respect to the trap energy level referred to the Si substrate intrinsic Fermi level and (b) with the location of the trap in the dielectric layer with reference to the corresponding HK/IL and IL/Si interfaces. There is an additional nonuniformity in the trap density encountered by the tunneling electrons, due to the combined effect of the nonuniform energy distribution of the traps and the band bending in the gate dielectric caused by the applied gate bias.
5V(/)
^ A
^AN
(x,f)Axclx
(1)
Here, L and W are the channel length and width, respectively; jUeff is the carrier mobility; a^^ is the Coulomb scattering coefficient;/is the frequency; and N(x) is the inversion layer charge density at distance x from the source. S^ (x, / ) is the power spectral density of the mean square fluctuations in the trapped charge carriers over the area WAx. It can be written as the summation of generationrecombination fluctuations
250
(Lorentzians) due to traps in the interfacial and highk layers with the interaction occurring through constant energy tunneling of carriers [8,9]:
J
'S'AW {x,f) = AkTWAx
NuLiEf,z)
T
+T
T^IL ( 2 )
NtHK(.Ef,z)
iz)
l+0)^Tlf:{z)
dz
where, T is the temperature, THK and Tn are dielectric thicknesses, co=27rf, and r i s the tunneling time constant for the charge carriers inside the dielectric expressed as r = roexp(?^) using the WKB approximation. For IL, 0<Z<TIL, the trap density becomes NtjL(E,z) = Ntjuoexp\^jL(EE,)+(qAjiVgjL/TjL)z+7]jLz] and for HK, NtHK(.E,z) = NtHKo ^W^HK(.EE,)+{qXHKVgHKlTHKy+VHK^'^^ z is the distance into the dielectric stack, z'=zTji, TIL<Z<THK+TIL,. Here,
at the Si/IL interface, Njfjf^Q is the trap density at Ei and at the IL/HK interface, it, is the intrinsic Fermi level at Si/IL interface, ^ represents the modeling parameter that defines the energy dependence of the traps, rj is the modehng parameter for the spatial distribution of the traps, A is the fitting parameter for the band bending term. Then, [Sj^) for HK/IL MOSFETs is derived from the first principles using the above trap density and tunnehng considerations to arrive at the new MSUN Model: N, ,exp[^HK(EfirE,)] tHKO'
^///)=
AkTU
WU
dx
(3)
\+U, HK
PIL=1^ILITILThe integration 1 ^HK I'^HK variable is COTJJ}^ ='^HK The contribution from the IL is neglected since this has been
Here,
a
.\l{fi,,4N(x)\ PHK
shown to be small compared to the noise coming from HK. [8, 9] Experimental noise data was obtained in the 78350K range on MOSFETs with various gate stack compositions from different processing conditions (Table 1). The data supports the vahdity of the correlated numbermobility fluctuations theory for HK/IL MOSFETs at all temperatures. From the temperature independence of the normalized noise (Fig. 2), it can be concluded that there is no additional noise component resulting from phonon scattering in HK/IL MOSFETs. Fig. 3 illustrates the frequency exponent d of 1// spectrum to extract /ifff^, rjfff^. It can be shown that
S = [l + {J3HKVHK + VHK IYHK )\, where ^^^ = qA^^ / V , KK = ^ " ^J V /T,,.
and Fj; is the channel voltage. Noting that 1/f noise in 1IOOHz is due to HK, the five parameter set (Njfjf^Q,
^fjf^ ,
^HK' VHK and jUcQ) can accurately predict the noise as indicated in Figs. 4 and 5.
251
Fig. 6 plots the average effective dielectric trap density obtained from the Unified Model and indicates an order of magnitude variation with temperature that is inconsistent with the underlying assumption of uniform trap density. On the other hand, with proper choice of ^HK X'HKand?]ffj^ in our new model, a single value of N^fff^Q at all temperatures can model the inherent nonuniform trap profile.
:;; 10"' I
23
~~ 10^ tn
24
25 J 10
10"'
26
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
Temperature (K)
FIGURE 2. Normalized current noise spectral density showed no noticeable dependence on temperature, irrespective of equivalent oxide thickness or process.
TABLE 1. Description of the highK MOSFETs used m this study Gate Material Poly Si Poly Si Poly Si Poly Si Metal (TaSiN) Metal (TaSiN) Metal (TiN) Metal (TiN) Metal (TiN) HighK Layer HfSiON(3.0nm) HfSiON(3.0nm) HfSiON(3.0nm) HfSiON(3.0nm) HfOj (2.7 nm) HfOj (2.7 nm) HfSiON/10%SiO2(2.0 nm) HfSiON/10%SiO2(2.0 nm) HfSiO,: (2.0nm) Interfacial Layer SiON (0.8 nm) SiON(l.Onm) SiON (1.5 nm) SiON (1.8 nm) SiO2(1.0nm) SiO2(1.0nm) EOT (nm) 1.24 1.33 1.46 1.66 1.65 1.85 1.06 1.03 1.17 Process
CONCLUSION
The MSUN model is shown to accurately model the 1/f noise exhibited by multistack gate dielectric MOSFETs with several HK/IL compositions, with different oxidation and nitridation processes and metal and poly gates. The model is being incorporated into compact models like PSP.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This work is partially supported by Semiconductor Research Corporation under contract 2004VJ1193. We would like to thank Texas Instruments and Freescale Semiconductor for supplying the test MOSFETs. I would like to express my appreciation to Tanvir Morshed, Siva Devireddy and Shahriar Rahman..
252
1.4 1.2 1
<fa o EOT=1.24nm EOT=1.33nm
c 0) c o
Q. X 0)
=
0) ^
1.2
EOT=1.66nm
0.8 0 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.4 0.6 0.8 ^HK=^HK=455eVTl =4.67x10 cm" 0 o 0 o o
^HK=^HK=947eVTi^i^=3.53x10^cm"^
1.2
0.6
0.8
1.2
1.4
V (V)
g
FIGURE 3. The frequency exponent yfor 1lOOHz vs. gate bias for polygated HfSiON/SiON MOSFETs. A straight line fit is made to the data from which Tjff]^ , /i}jK ^''^ extracted.
T=172K EOT=1.24nm V =0.96V N =13x10^^cm"^eV"^ tHKO
Frequency (Hz)
FIGURE 4. The calculated current noise spectral density is compared to the data for HfSiON/SiON MOSFETs with different interfacial layer thicknesses and in the temperature range of 172K300K.
253
T=225K230K
<n15
^_ *" ^ *
U A
1
"
' \
10
^ ^ ^ ^ c*
1.24nm (HfSiON/SiON) 1.33nm (HfSiON/SiON) 1.46nm (HfSiON/SiON) 1.85nm (HfO / SRPO SiO )
2 2
FIGURE 5. The Viinc dependence of the MSUN Model was verified by comparing drain current noise spectral density calculated at 1 Hz to the experimental values, over the bias range of moderate to strong inversion.
N10''
I
1.65nm (HfO^/RCASiO^)
"
'k
D
T=300K 10"^^ .
A__A_#____
 fc^^
1 R
K^^tr"
5^^2 ' *
"
A T
10^''
C )
0.2
0.8
.  10^
>
(EOT=1.85imHf02/SRPOSi02)
A ^ A A A ^
"HK
(EOT=1.65im HfO^/RCASiOj)
1 10^^
Figure 6. Temperature dependence of trap density values extracted using the original Unified Model (solid) and that at midgap energy using the newly developed MSUN Model (open). The latter shows much less variation for both EOTs at all temperatures as expected.
> g 10^'
Q Q.
' n n g n H
A
H B 0
Ei
^ 10^'
, *^
A,
A
A
r
50 100 150 200 250 300
350
4()0
Temperature
REFERENCES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. K. K. Hung, P. K. Ko, C. Hu, Y. C. Cheng, IEEE Trans Electron Dev 37, 654 (1990). R. Chau, S. Datta, M. Doczy, B. Doyle, J. Kavalieros, M. Metz, IEEE Elect Dev Lett 25, 408 (2004). A. L. P. Rotondaro, et al, IEEE Elect Dev Lett 23, 603 (2002). B.Min,etal., IEEE Trans Electron Dev 51, 1679(2004). Y. Yasuda, C. Uu, lEDMTech Dig 2006; 277. B. Min, et a\.. Proc SPIENoise and Fluctuations 2005; 31. E. Simoen, et al., IEEE Trans Electron Dev 51, 780 (2004). S. V. Devireddy, et al.. Microelectronics Reliability 49, 103 (2009). T. Morshed, et al., IEEElEDM, p. 561 , 2007.
254
Low Frequency Noise in Highk Dielectric MOSFETs. How Far From the Channel Are We Probing the Traps?
S. Rumyantsev''' , C. Young", G. Bersuker", and M. Shur"
'^Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy NY 121803590 lojfe Institute, 194021 St. Petersburg, Russia 'SEMATECH, Inc., Austin, Texas 78741, USA Abstract. The low frequency noise dependencies on the thickness of the highk dielectric and aging time for nchannel Si MOSFETs revealed the presence of the generationrecombination noise in HfD2(4nm)/Si02(lnm) dielectric stack devices. Assuming that traps responsible for the generation recombination noise are located at the Hf02/Si02 interface (i.e. at the distance of ~lnm from the channel), we extracted the value of the capture cross section of those traps ~10"^''cm^, which is typical for repulsive centers. A constant gate voltage stress led to the increase of the noise at high frequencies and decrease of the characteristic time constant of the generationrecombination noise. Keywords: Highk, MOSFET, capture cross section, generationrecombination, noise PACS: 85.30.Z, 85.30.Tv, 72.70.+m
INTRODUCTION
Dielectrics with a high dielectric constant (highk dielectrics) are supposed to replace silicon dioxide in the next generation of CMOS technology in order to decrease the gate leakage current in submicron devices. Hafnium oxide (HFO2) is one of the prime highk dielectric candidates because of its high dielectric constant (>20) and relatively high bandgap (~5.8eV). However, all known highk dielectrics (including Hf02) suffer from high density of traps that causes the mobility degradation, temperature shift of the transistor parameters, instabilities, and high level of the low frequency noise (see [1,2] and references therein). The low frequency noise dependencies on the interfacial layer thickness, gate metallization, and hot electron degradation for different types of highk dielectrics have been studied in multiple papers [26]. Most of these pubhcations reported that the noise spectra exhibit small deviations from the pure 1/f noise. In the present work, we studied the noise in Hf02/Si02 stacks transistors with different Hf02 thicknesses. The generation recombination noise found in the devices with the thickest Hf02 layer (4nm) allowed us to make a conclusion about the location and capture cross section of traps responsible for noise.
CPn29, Noise and Fluctuations, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
255
"Xw x /
1nmSi02/2nm Hf02
^V X
Frequency f, Hz
S ^
^SwlU
FIGURE 1. Noise spectra for different gate stack configurations at the same gate voltage.
FIGURE 2. Dependence of the noise on the drain current for different gate stack configurations.
256
Figure 3 shows the dependence of the characteristic time of the GR noise x=l/27rfo on the gate voltage overdrive {Vg  Vt) (for the Hf02 (4nm)/Si02 (1 nm) gate stack). The characteristic frequencies, fo, were extracted as the position of the maxima on versus frequency dependencies (see inset in Fig.3). As mentioned above, the tunneling noise mechanism links the GR noise to the traps locahzed at a certain welldefined distance away from the channel. We may speculate, based on the discussion on the spectral density slopes in Fig.l, that the observed GR noise is likely dominated by the high density of the highkinduced traps located in Si02 layer near the Hf02/Si02 interface, i.e. about 1 nm away from the channel. Since the characteristic tunneling length in Si02 is about lO'^cm, it means that electrons should tunnel ten characteristic tunneling lengths in order to be captured. This assumption agrees with the results published in ref [10], where sihcon nanocrystals were incorporated in the oxide at the predefined distances of 1.2nm, 1.5nm and 2nm from the channel. The gate stacks with the nanocrystals located at the 1.2nm range resulted in GR noise within the same frequency range as was observed in our samples suggesting similar trap distance from the channel (assuming that the trap capture crosssection values are similar). The data on l//like noise in highk MOSFETs reported in ref [2] also indicates that both interfacial layer and highk dielectric might contribute to noise, i.e. the traps can be probed within the depth of at least ten characteristic tunneling lengths in the frequency range of interest. As seen from Fig. 3, the characteristic time x decreases with the increase of the gate voltage overdrive {VgVt). The characteristic time of the GR noise is defined as T"'=Te"'+Xc"' where X is the emission time and X is the capture time. Since X e c c decreases and X increases with the increase of the gate voltage, we assume that e capture time dominates in the overall characteristic time of the GR noise. The hue in Fig.3 shows the characteristic time x= X calculated as Xc=i/c!WvV (here c ny=n/d is the electron volume concentration, ^ is the electron sheet concentration, d is the channel thickness, v is the Fermi velocity, and a is the effective capture cross section (o=5xlO"^cm^ as extracted by fitting). The channel thickness was calculated as d=E(/Fm, where F^ is the surface electric field in the channel, and Eg is the lowest energy electron level in the triangular quantum well. As seen, the model describes the overall trend of this dependence. The extracted small value of the effective capture cross section indicates that the traps act as repulsive centers. (Similar or smaller values of the capture cross section are often reported in the noise measurements [11] although existence of such negatively charged centers have not been independently confirmed). Effect of the constant gate voltage stress (~ 3V) on the currentvoltage and noise characteristics has been studied on the same transistors with the Hf02(4nm)/Si02(lnm) dielectric stack. The stress led to the increase of the gate leakage current and to the decrease of the characteristic time r (see Fig.4). While at low frequencies (1lOHz), the noise amplitude was virtually independent of stress, the noise increased at higher frequencies.
257
(VV,)=0.1V 10'
10
!
10^
V =1 B J V
1.
10^ 10
10
10'
lO"* 10^
10(Vgv,), V
FIGURE 3. Dependence of the characteristic time x of the GR noise on the gate vohage overdrive (VgVt). Line shows the time x calculated as d/on,v (a=5xlO^"cm^).
FIGURE 4. Dependence of the characteristic time x of the GR noise on the stress time for different gate voltage overdrives
In conclusion, the noise level in highk/metal gate nchannel MOSFETs is shown to depend on the thickness of the highk dielectric. The GR noise was found in Hf02(4nin)/Si02(lnin) dielectric stack devices, and, therefore, our data suggest that the traps at the distance of up to ~lnin from the substrate might be probed at the low frequency noise measurements. A very small extracted capture cross section of those traps ~10"^cm^ points to their repulsive nature. A constant voltage stress resulted in higher noise level at high frequencies and decrease of the GR noise characteristic time constant.
REFERENCES
L C D . Young, D. Heh, S. V. Nadkarni, R. Choi, J. J. Peterson, J. Bamett, B. H. Lee, G. Bersuker, IEEE Trans, on Device and Material Reliability, 6, 123 (2006). 2. T. H. Morshed, S.P. Devireddy, Z. CelikButler, A. Shanware, K. Green, J. J. Chambers, M. R. Visokay, L. Colombo, SolidState Electronics 52, 711 (2008). 3. E. Simoen, A. Mercha, L. Pantisano, C. Claeys, and E. Young, IEEE Trans on El. Dev. 51780 (2004) 4. F. Crupi, P. Srinivasan, P. Magnone, E. Simoen, C. Pace, D. Misra, and C. Claeys, IEEEE. Dev. Lett, 27, 688 (2006) 5. B. Min, S. P. Devireddy,, Z. (JelikButler, A. Shanware, L. Colombo, K. Green, J. J. Chambers, M. R. Visokay, and A. L. P. Rotondaro, IEEE Trans on El Dev 53, 1459 (2006) 6. H. D. Xiong, D. Heh, M. Gurfmkel, Q. Li, Y. Shapira, C. Richter, G. Bersuker, R. Choi, and J. S. Suehh, Microelectronic Eng. 84 2230(2007) 7. A. L. McWhorter, Proc. of the Conf on the Phys. Semicond. Surf, 1956, Philadelphia, pp. 207 29 8. R. Jayaraman, C. G. Sodini, IEEE Trans, on Electron Devices 36, 1773 (1989). 9. G. Bersuker, P. S. Lysaght, C. S. Park, J. Barnett, C. D. Young, P. D. Kirsch, R. Choi, B. H. Lee, B. Foran, K. van Benthem, S. J. Pennycook, P. M. Lenahan and J. T. Ryan, J. Appl Phys 100, 094108 (2006) 10. S. Ferraton, j . Zimmermann, L. Montes, G. Ghibaudo, J. Brini, J. Gurgul, and J. A. Chtoboczek, Proceedings ofSPIE Vol. 5470, 2004, p.560. 11. M. E. Levinshtein and S. L. Rumyantsev, Semicond Sci. Technol. 9, 1183 (1994)
258
1/f noise in 0.12 Lim PMOSFETs with Highk and metal gate fabricated in a Si Process Line on 200 mm GeOI Wafers
J. Gyani^, F. Martinez\ S. Soliveres\ M. Valenza\ C. Le Royer'' and E. Augendre''
'lES  UNIVERSITE MONTPELLIER II  UMR CNRS 5214 Place E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France CEALETI Minatec 17, rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9, France jason.gyani@ies.univmontp2.fr
This paper presents an experimental analysis of the noise measurements performed in germanium on insidator (GeOI) 0.12 jam PMOS transistors. The front gate stack is composed of a Si02/Hf02 material with a TIN metal gate electrode. The residt is an aggressively reduced eqinvalent oxide thickness (EOT) of 1.8 nm. The slow oxide trap density of the front gate oxide is Nt(Ep) = 1.2 10 cm eV and is comparable to values for nitrided oxides on Si bidk. These residts are of importance for the future development of GeOI technologies. Keywords: pMOS, germanium, noise, highk. PACS: 73.50.Td, 74.40.4k
INTRODUCTION
To fulfill the ITRS roadmap requirements for sub32 nm MOSFETs, the carrier mobility will have to be improved by a factor 2 with respect to Sihcon. Thanks to the development of highK dielectrics and the improved transport properties in Germanium (Ge) with regards to Silicon, Ge MOSFETs with a highK gate stack on GermaniumOnInsulator (GeOI) have become a very attractive candidate for ultrascaled MOS technologies. In this contribution, we present lowfrequency drain current noise investigations performed on HfOigated pMOS transistors, (with low EOT value). The studied devices are elaborated on 200 mm GeOI wafers with a 6080nm thick Ge active layer obtained using SmartCut^'^ technology.
CPn29, Noise and Fluctuations, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
259
EXPERIMENT
Lowfrequency drain current noise investigations are performed on TiN/HfOi GeOI pMOSFET transistors with low equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) value. The studied devices (Figure 1) are elaborated on 200 mm GeOI wafers with a 6080nm thick Ge active layer obtained using Smart Cut^'^ technology. The devices were fabricated using GeOI transistor processes similar to those reported in [1], with thin Si capping passivation (~2.5nm) between Ge and HfOi.
Ge ~80nm
BOx 200nm
The front gate stack exhibits an EOT of 1.8 nm. The buried oxide is a 200nm thick SiOi layer and is used as a back gate for experimental purposes (to suppress the back channel conduction). The devices under test for noise analysis have a width W=lim and a length L between 0.12 to 5 im. A complete currentvoltage characterization using an Agilent 4156C semiconductor parameter analyzer was performed before noise measurements. Lowfrequency noise measurements were performed using a HP89410A dynamic signal analyzer loaded by a high sensitivity current/voltage converter EG&G 5182.
VBQ=
10V '
'
//
/20V
60V
li
/ /
\ '
V^V / /
VFG (V)
VpG (V)
FIGURE 2. Typical variation of the front gate a) ID/VFG characteristics, b) gm/ VFG , with respect to the substrate bias VBG; VDs=50mV, W=lim, L=0.75 im.
Noise measurements were performed with VFG varying between 0.5 V and +1.2 V, with VDS=50 mV and VDS=VFGVT (saturation regime) and VBG at +60V and +30V. The comparison of noise measurements performed at VBG=+60 V and +30 V showed that for these biases we do not observe any influence of back gate interface. Figure 3.a shows typical drain current noise spectrum measured at VDS=50 mV on transistors biased from weak to strong inversion. For frequencies lower than 100 Hz we observe a powerlaw dependence 1/f with 1<Y<1.3. For frequencies higher than 100 Hz we observe 1/f noise with 0.8<Y<1. Figure 3.b shows the variation of the power factor y at high and low frequencies as a function of VFG This increase of the power factor y for lower frequencies indicates that the trap density increases when moving away from the Si02/Si/Ge interface to Hf02/Si02 the interface. The higher noise level measured at 1 Hz compared to those extrapolated from 100 Hz indicates a higher trap density at the Hf02/Si02 interface. As shown figure 3.b, the excess slow oxide traps located at the Hf02/Si02 interface are active at strong inversion.
1e18
1 
\l\
lem.
y=1.3
"
i
f
F
\
\
\
1e20
1e21
"'WBj^ y=0.9
1e22
Frequency (Hz)
VpQ (V)
FIGURE 3. Slope variation of the measured 1/f spectra (left) and Variation of the power factor y at high and low frequencies as a function of VFG (right).
Figures 4.a and 4.b show typical drain current power spectral density extrapolated at 1 Hz versus drain current for the front side transistor operation, at VDS=50 mV and VDS=VFGVT, respectively. In both cases, the drain current 1/f noise follows the carrier number fluctuation model (AN model) [3,4], allowing the extraction of the trap density
261
at the SiOi/Si/Ge interface. From both investigations, a trap density Nt(EFn) = 1.2x10 cm"^ eV"^ is extracted. These values are comparable to those reported in literature [5]. Ref. [5] refers to PMOSFETs with a nitrided oxide on Si bulk, and much better than those reported by Srinivasan et al [6], who extracted trap densities of 1.4x10^ cm"^ eV"^ on pMOSFETs Hf02 and metal gate on GeOI substrates. Under the voltage biases studied, we have not observed any influence of access resistance noise.
1e9
1e8
1e7
ID
1e6
(A)
1e5
1e4
ie^5
1e4
ID
(A)
FIGURE 4. Power spectral densities measured at 1 Hz, with VBG at +30V and +60V (left) and Comparison between the power spectral density measured at 1 Hz and the AN model (right).
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors thank French OSEO organization for financial support.
REFERENCES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. C. Le Royer et al, SolidState Electronics 52, 12851290 (2008) G. Ghibaudo In : Haddara H., editor. Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1995 (chapter 1). G. Ghibaudo, SolidState Electron , 30,1037, (1987). M. Valenza et al, lEE ProcCircuits Devices Syst., 151, 102110, (2004). E. Simoen et al, Appl. Phys. Letters, 85, pp. 10571059 (2004). P. Srinivasan et al. Material science and semiconductor processings 9, 721726 (2006)
262
Low Frequency Noise Degradation in 45 nm Highk nMOSFETs due to Hot Carrier and Constant Voltage Stress
M. Shahriar Rahman, Zeynep ^elikButler, M.A. QuevedoLopez*, Ajit Shanware , and Luigi Colombo
University of Texas at Arlington, Electrical Engineering Dept, NanoFab, P.O. Box 19072, Arlington, TX76019,USA ^Texas Instruments Incorporated, Dallas, TX 75243, USA Abstract. Hafnium based materials are the leading candidates to replace conventional SiON as the gate dielectric in complementary metaloxidesemiconductor devices. Hot carrier and constant voltage stress induced i//" noise behavior is presented for HfSiON nMOSFETs. The additional lowfrequency noise introduced through stressing was evaluated on nMOSFETs with TiN metal gate and HfSiON gate dielectric. Nitridation of HfSiO was achieved either by high temperature thermal nitridation or by relatively lower temperature plasma nitridation. The difference in stress induced noise behavior is attributed to the nitrogen profile across highk/Si interface and bulk of highk gate oxide caused by different nitridation techniques. Keywords: 1/f noise, highk, MOSFET, HfSiON, plasma nitridation, thermal nitridation. PACS: 77.55.+f Dielectric thin films; 73.50.Td: Noise process and phenomena; 73.40.QV: Metalinsulatorsemiconductor structures. 77.22Ch: Permittivity (Dielectric function).
INTRODUCTION To reduce the excessive leakage current through the conventional gate oxide along with the high stand by power dissipation, planar CMOS technology is in the process of integrating novel highk gate materials into Si MOSFETs. Hafnium (Hf) based dielectrics, especially HfSiON exhibits attractive properties among different high dielectric constant (highk) gate materials, such as relatively high dielectric constant, stability in contact with silicon and no Hf interdiffusion into Si substrate [1,2,3]. Low frequency noise (LFN) poses a major limitation to analog and RF ICs as the device dimensions are scaled down. Therefore, it is essential to characterize the LFN not only for fresh devices but also during the lifetime of the transistor. In this paper. Hot Carrier Stress (HCS) and Constant Voltage Stress (CVS) induced noise degradation in plasma and thermally nitrided HfSiON and HfSiO devices are presented. EXPERIMENT As a gate dielectric, 2nm HfSiO (10% Si02) was deposited using an optimized atomic layer deposition (ALD) process that includes optimized interface between
CPn29, Noise andFluctuaUons, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
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highk and Si substrate. Similar nitrogen (N) concentrations were incorporated in ALD HfSiO by plasma and thermal nitridation. For plasma nitrided samples, the N content was increased by increasing the nitridation time, while N content in thermally nitrided films was increased by increasing the temperature of the NH3 anneal. A custom made noise measurement setup with dc biasing circuitry, an EG&G PAR 113 preamplifier and HP 3562 dynamic signal analyzer was used for 1/f noise measurements. A constant drain bias of 50 mV (hnear region of operation) was applied at the drain and the gate overdrive (VgVt) was varied from 0.1 to 0.7 V. A semiconductor parameter analyzer Agilent 4155C was used for DC characterization to extract the threshold voltage (Vth), transconductance (gm), conductance (gd) and subthreshold slope (S). Transistors with WxL= 10x0.1 ^m^ were used for hotcarrier and positive constantvoltage stressing, i/f noise and dc characteristics were taken before and after applying the stress for 1000s
264
in NH3 ambient. This causes an increase in positive charge centers and noise due to Coulomb scattering from these centers [6]. Fig. 3 shows the DC characteristics after HCS (forward and reverse mode) and CVS induced degradation. Higher degradation in gm,max duc to HCS indicates significant interface degradation. Trapping of charges at the bulk of the gate oxide for thermal nitrided sample is responsible for highest shift in Vth. Although transconductance characteristics shift with CVS in plasma nitridation and pure HfSiO sample, there is apparently no degradation in gm^max This is attributed
TABLE 1. Stress induced % degradation oig,ax, ^i^ojand v,i, for different samples Percent Degradation Thermally Nitrided
Snuimix ^d.sat * th
Plasma Nitrided
Snuimix ^d.sat * th
No Nitridation
Snuimix ^d.sat * th
0.27%
3.62%
1.72%
4.19%
5.07%
7.46%
5.54%
5.8%
10.6%
7.31%
6.95%
10.76%
0.62%
1.14%
3.85%
1.69%
2.89%
2.89%
3.8%
4.75%
4.76%
5.1%
6.43%
10.76%
2.18%
2.72%
2.89%
T >
10 Frequency (Hz)
100
1""
FIGURE 1. Drain voltage noise power spectral density at 7^=50 mV and (VgV^=Q3 V after applying hot carrier stress for 1000s on lOxO.ljim^ nMOSFET. HCS: Hot carrier stressing. HCSR: Hot carrier stressing, reverse mode measurement
FIGURE 2. Noise characteristics of two differently nitrided HfSiON nMOSFETs along with HfSiO device. Fi=50mV and (VgV^=0.3 V. Gate area is 10 x 0.1 jim^. Constant voltage stress of lOMV/cm is applied at the gate terminal for 1000s.
265
to the increase in electron trapping rather than increase in interface defect density. On the other hand, degradation in gm^max in thermally nitrided sample is due to pile up of N and increased SiN bonds at the interface due to the high thermal budget during nitridation.
CONCLUSION
2.510
'
/(^S
Plasma
Various stress induced noise degradation behavior are summarized for plasma and thermal nitrided HfSiON and HfSiO devices. It is found that the LFN of deep submicron HfSiON nMOSFET devices can degrade by orders of magnitude over the lifetime of circuit due to hot carrier and constant voltage stress, most likely due to increased dielectric traps in nitrided sample. This problem could be alleviated to a large extent by using plasma nitridation rather than thermal. Plasma nitrided devices showed better noise performance than thermal nitrided devices, though thermal nitrided devices scaled equivalent oxide thickness (1.03nm) more than plasma nitrided devices (1.06nm).
2 10' 1.510' 110' 510'' 010 210' 1.510' 110' 510'' 010 ^ 210' 1.510' 110' 510"' 010 V(V) None
e
Fresh ^ 1
Thermal
CVS
^ /
1
HCS HCSR
FIGURE 3. Drain current and transconductance characteristics of three different nMOSFETs after hot carrier and constant vohage stress measured in forward and reverse modes. Gate area is 10 x 0.1 jim^. Plasma and thermally nitrided gate dielectrics to obtain HfSiON are compared to pure HfSiO (none).
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This work is partially supported by SRC under contract 2004VJl 193.
REFERENCES
1. M. R. Visokay, etal,Appl Phys.LettersSO, 3183 (2002). 2. K. Sekine, et al, lEDM Tech. Dig., 2003, pp.103106. 3. M. A. QuevedoLopez et al., inlEDMTech. Dig. 2005, pp. 425428. 4. C. Choi, et al., in VLSISymp. Tech. Dig, 2004, pp. 214215. 5. J. L. Gavartin, etal, Appl. Phys. Letters, 89, 082908 (2006). 6. M. S. Rahman, et al., J. Appl. Phys., 103, 033706 (2008).
266
The consequence of continuous current branching on currentnoise spectra in fieldeffect and highelectron mobility transistors
E. Starikov*, P. Shiktorov*, V. Gruzinskis*, L. Varani^ H. Marinchio''' and L. Reggiani**
'Semiconductor Physics Institute, A. Gostauto 11, LT 01108 Vilnius, Lithuania ^Institut d'Electronique du Sud (CNRS UMR 5214), Universite Montpellier II, 34 095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France **Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell 'Innovazione and CNISM, Universita del Salento, Via Arnesano s/n, 73100 Lecce, Italy Abstract. The problems related with the intrinsic noise in FET/HEMT channels induced by continuous branching of the total current between channel and gate are considered in the framework of a simple analytical model and its predictions on the currentnoise spectra. Main branchinginduced effects such as the appearance of an additional noise related to the excitation of plasma waves, its dependence on FET/HEMT embedding circuits, interference properties, etc. are analysed. Keywords: Highfrequency noise. Highelectron mobility transistors. Plasma waves PACS: 72.20.Ht, 72.30.+q, 72.70.+m
INTRODUCTION
Electron transport and noise analysis in discreteelement circuits is based on the conservation law of total current (Kirchhoff's law), which in the general case writes: hotdS = 0 s where jtot = SSQ^ + f"^* is the local total currentdensity consisting of the displacement and conduction (drift) components, and S is a surface surrounding some volume of interest. In the case of twoterminal devices (resistors or diodes), a one dimensional treatment of carrier transport, which supposes that j'^"^*Ex, is usually used. In this case the conservation law reduces to the scalar relation: (1)
j^[S{x)Mx,t)] = 0
(2)
which corresponds to the current flow inside a tube with crosssection S{x). Direct consequences of such a formulation are: (i) the validity of RamoShockley theorem for the induced current in the external circuit; (ii) the duality (equivalence) representation of the intrinsic electronic noise in terms of Norton and Thevenin noise generators, etc. In going from two to threeterminal (transistors) devices the local parallelism of j"^"^* and E inside the device is in general violated, so that a one dimensional approximation no
CPn29, Noise and Fluctuations, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
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longer applies. This implies the branching of totalcurrent tubes, so that Eq. (2) becomes invalid at the branching areas where in accordance with Eq. (1) total current conservation is formulated as zerosum rule for incoming/outcoming currents for a certain volume bounded by some closed surface S. Such a situation is typical in fieldeffect transistor (FET) and highelectron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures. Here, the conduction current mainly flows along a conducting channel and the governing direction of the local electric field does not coincide with the current flow due to the presence of a gate. In essence, under the gate action, the whole channel becomes practically a continuous region of totalcurrent branching between the sourcedrain and channelgate directions. The aim of this report is to elucidate noise phenomena induced by such a branching.
ANALYTICAL MODEL
Following ref. [1], we shall describe the selfconsistent distribution of charge density p^^(x) and potential ^(x) in FETs/HEMTs channels by using the following system of equations which includes: (i) the charge conservation law
p^^W + ^if^^(x) + ^ ^ = 0
(3)
and, (ii) the onedimensional (ID) approximation for the twodimensional (2D) Poisson equation ^c^^ix) + ^[Ug<p(x)] =   p ^ ^ ( x ) (4)
which takes into account the gate influence (second term in l.h.s. of Eq. (4)) on the potential distribution. Here, Ug is the gate potential, d{x) is the local gatetochannel distance, 5 is the channel width, EC and e^ are the dielectric constants in the channel and the gatetochannel spacer, respectively. To close Eqs. (3) and (4) we use the hydrodynamic approach to describe the drift components of the currents along and transverse to channel, Jc {x) and jg"^\x), respectively, on the basis of the foUowing assumptions: (i) charge transport between the channel and the gate is absent, i.e. jg"^*{x) = 0, and (ii) the drift current along the channel Jc {x) = en^^{x)v{x) is determined by the free electron stream with concentration n^^ which flows upon the homogeneous donor background with concentration A^^^ and where the velocity of the electron flow is described as: d d V ^v+ dt ax 2
e
m*^^ '
+ evDn^^{x)
= vv+f
(5)
where m* is the carrier effective mass, v is the velocity relaxation rate, D is the longitudinal diffusion coefficient, / is the Langevin force with a spectral density 5correlated in space, S/f = AkbTv/m* (with kb the Boltzmann constant and T the bath temperature), that describes the thermal source of fluctuations in the channel. The system of Eqs. (3)(5) is closed, and, as shown in refs. [1,2], it allows us, on one hand, to obtain the spectral
268
S^^{m)
0
3)
\G^{(o,xo)YSffdxo
(6)
where L is the channel length, G^{(i),xo) is the spectral representation of the response function of the quantity ^ = J,U to a local perturbation at x = XQ induced by the Langevin force / . On the other hand, by linearizing Eqs. (3)(5) we can construct an analytical model which describes transient characteristics, impedance/admittance matrixes, Norton and Thevenin generators of diffusion noise, etc. In the most interesting case of commonsource configuration, where the leading role is played by current variations in the sourcedrain (SD) and sourcegate (SG) circuits, A/j and AJg, respectively, the fluctuations of currents and potentials in SD and SG circuits can be presented in a vector form as: AJ = AX, AU: AUd (7)
Here, the explicit linearized dependence of AJ on AU and /takes the form: AJ = 7AU+ /
0
G/(to)/(xo)fifxo
(8)
where
chPL Oil PchfiLl chPLl (9) ecSo ico + v a shjiL 1 is the matrix of HEMTs/FETs admittance under the commonsource operation, and
colfi ch^xo/sh^L (10) G/(,xo) = Sceo1(0+ v 5/1/3 (fxo)/c/i/3 is the response function in SD and SG circuits which determines in accordance with Eq. (6) the Thevenin generator of noise, (Dp = \/e^n/[ecEom*] is the volume plasma frequency of electrons in the channel, and a = cOp/[cOp + ico{ico + v)], ji^ = ?^^[ico{ico + v)l{col ico{ico v))],A: \/{.d/c)/d5. By considering the impedance matrix,
1
Z=7"' =
Eq. (8) can be rewritten as:
ft);
CQ.
1(0
V a
shjiL chjiL+l
1
chPL ch/iLl
(11)
AU = ZAJwhere
Gu{(o,xo)f{xo)dxo
(12)
c/i/3(fxo)/c/i/3f" (13) shli{Lxo)/shjiL is the voltage responsefunction in SD and SG circuits, which determines the Norton generator of noise in accordance with Eq. (6). Gc/(ft),xo) = ZG/(ft),xo) = a
269
FIGURE 1. Time response of currents respectively at source, drain, and gate terminals calculated by the hydrodynamic approach for a local perturbation introduced by the Langevin force at two different points xo = 0.05 fim (a) and XQ = 0.45 fim (b) of the channel. As boundary conditions we take Ug = 0 and Usd = 0. Other parameters are: channel length L = 1000 nm, thickness 5 = 15 nm, channel to gate distance d = 15 nm, donor concentration N^^ = 8 x 1 0 ^^. Kinetic parameters of electrons in the channel correspond to Ino.siGaoAl^s at room temperature, namely: v = 3 x 10 s and m* = 0.048OTO
^{XL/nf + k^
The fuU set of resonances (A: = 0, 1,2, ...) corresponding to the excitation of standing waves appears for fluctuations in the SD circuit only, while in the SG circuit one observes only odd spatial modes (k= 1, 3,5, ...). As follows from Eq. (14), the spectrum of excited plasma modes exhibits an upper limit at A ^ oo given by the 3D plasma frequency : (Dp. Note that the widely used gradual channel approximation of Poisson equation [3]
270
FIGURE 2. Spectral density of current fluctuations: (a) in SD and SG circuits calculated with Usd = 0 and Ug = 0, and (b) in an SD circuit for a short (MJg = 0) and open (A.^ = 0) SG external circuit (curves 1 and 2, respectively).
(obtained when the second spatial derivative in Eq. (4) is omitted) gives an infinite equidistant spectrum of DyakonovShur plasma waves which corresponds to the limit k XL/n in our Eq. (14). Interference of currents in the gate. The absence of even modes in the spectrum of current fluctuations in the SG circuit (see Eq. (14) and Fig. 2 (a)) is related to the interference of local channeltogate currents, since, due to continuous branching, their spatial sum gives a zero value to the SG current for even modes. Indeed, a nonzero contribution is given only by those spatially excited modes which symmetry center coincides with the center of the gate. Thus, even if a mode is excited its contribution can be "invisible" due to symmetry restrictions for certain circuits. Influence of embedding circuits on the noise spectrum. Another situation can be realized when, due to some symmetry restrictions (introduced, for example, by embedding circuits), a mode cannot be excited at all. Let us demonstrate that a change of the operation regime of one of the adjoint circuit (e.g. SG or SD) leads to a corresponding change of the current fluctuation spectrum. Figure 2 (b) reports noise spectra of current fluctuations Sjj in the SD circuit in two cases, namely: when the SG circuit is short (Af/g = 0), or open (A/g = 0). As follows from Fig. 2 (b), under the transition from the former case to the latter one, the fluctuation spectrum Sjj looses the contribution of the odd harmonics of plasma excitations, thus only the even (k = 2,4,6,...) harmonic contribution remains in the spectrum. Indeed, when the SG circuit is open, so that A/g = 0, spatiallydifferent partial contributions of the channeltogate current must fully compensate each other to provide zero current at the gate. This condition can be satisfied only for even modes with the inversion centrum in the channel center. Thus, such an influence of the operation mode of one of adjoint circuits on the noise spectrum in the other one destroys the property of the Thevenin and Norton generators to describe the intrinsic noise in embedding circuits independently of their properties. Excess noise due to plasma excitations. Figure 3 (a) demonstrates the appearance of an excess noise in the current fluctuation spectra caused by the excitation of plasma waves. For the ungated channel, (d ^ ), we obtain the usual Lorentzian spectrum. With the decrease of the channeltogate distance d there appears an excess noise at frequencies below the 3D plasma value ( / = cOp/ln 10 THz). With the decrease of
271
E 10"'
nm nm nm nm
f (THz)
FIGURE 3. (a) Spectral density of current fluctuations in an SD external circuit calculated with U^d = 0 and Ug = 0 at different values of the distance d between the channel and the gate, and (b) integral intensity of current noise in an SD circuit vs the dimensionless parameter y = LX r^LjJWd.
d, the frequency region involved into the excess noise expands into the lowfrequency region. This is accompanied by the growth of the noise intensity inside the excess noise region. Figure 3 (b) shows the integral intensity of current noise in an SG circuit, hfi = J^Sjj{a))da), as a function of dimensionless parameter j = L'k ^^ Ll^fbd determined by ratio between the transverse channeltogate capacitance and the longitudinal capacitance of the channelundergate region. As follows from Fig. 3 (a), when 7 < 1 (plasma excitations are absent) Kp keeps a constant value. When 7 > 1 there takes place an exponential growth of Kp which, in accordance with Fig. 3 (a), is correlated with the increase of the number of plasma modes excited between the channel and the gate.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This work is supported, in part, by the Lithuanian State Science and Studies Fundation contract No P01/2007.
REFERENCES
1. p. Shiktorov et al., J. Stat. Mech. 01, 01047 (2009). 2. P. Shiktorov et al., Rev. Nuovo Cimento 24, 1 (2001). 3. M. Dyakonov and M. Shur, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 43, 1640 (1996).
272
INTRODUCTION
O
0) hC M
''
^^

40 60 80
II
E 55 ^ ^ _ _ ^  100 P r,
In MOS transistors of minimum gate length LmmlOOnm, 5doping layers are implanted to remedy the drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) [1]. The implantation depth tdep is reduced with Lmm, Figure 1, according to [2], (1) ^ # *dep "^ *dep' where tj is the depth of source and drain junctions, and tox is the gate oxide thickness. Assuming tjoctiep and tox cannot be downscaled further, then eq. (1) implies that tdepOcLmmWith a Poisson distribution for the implanted atoms [3, 4, 5], the positions of the atoms are shown in Figure 2 by dots. The lines represent depletion profiles, given by (l/tdep)^~Z(l/tia)^ for the depletion depth tdep, where tia is the implantation depth of individual atoms. Decreasing LGATE from 90nm to 12nm, the standard deviation (Jr=(odep/tdep) increases from 7% to 20%, causing local current variations
(2)
 140
160
..^^^ ^
lO''^ lO'"^
180
II
li
o
^ 200
"^"^
lO''^
220
lO'ls
FIGURE 1. Idealized Sdoping profiles with Poisson distributions and peak impurity concentration of lO'* cm"'. The lefthand axis is in nanometers, and righthand axis is in number of atomic distances.
because tdep modulates the threshold voltage VT [6]. Since the variation in tdep is due to fabrication, then o, is fixed in the device, thus one has a "frozen noise".
CPn29, Noise and Fluctuations, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
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The "frozen noise" can be studied by MonteCarlo simulations, statistical evaluation of identical samples, and theoretical extrapolation toward small devices. The MonteCarlo simulations provide insights on forthcoming problems from device downscaling, e.g. dispersions in threshold voltage [4, 5, 7], carrier velocity [8], and noise margin [9]. MonteCarlo simulations are feasible for highfrequency noise [10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15], while for a low frequency of IHz, the computational volume is in the range of 10^' FLOPs (floating point operations), or about a month for supercomputers holding record rates of 11.1 PFLOPs/s [16]. The statistics of identical samples accesses only existing devices, and the populations of devices and measurements are also large [17]. Therefore, we seek the dependences between the "frozen noise" and temporal noise by extrapolation toward nanoscale devices.
4 + k=l
<
a10%
(3)
GATE' =90nm
a7%
where C are regression coefficients that k describe the transfer of Or into variance (ok)^ at each probing instance k=l,...,K, e.g. position in MOS transistor channel for the "frozen noise", or scattering event for mobility. Eq. (3) is a relation in the socalled "irmovation variance" statistics [18, 20, 21], introduced in [22] by first order (onestep) autoregression in a random sequence { X I , X 2 , . . . , X K } , with a random variation AXK from average <XK>
AXK = XK  (X) = Ai^^ + (cKi /cK )AXKI , (4)
where Amnov is uncorrelated random "irmovation" added to X at step K, Amnov has variance (omnov)^, and (omnov)^ is added at step K to the previous variance (OKI)^ for AXK1. Then, by also comparing to eq. (3),
+ (CKI/CK)
22 CT^C^K , w i t h ((Jinnov)^=(Or)^(CK)^ a n d C=CK=Ck (5)
274
As the carriers traverse the sample, for an observation time (t), the variance (ot)^ at the device terminals is cj2=c72c2K^ = c 7 2 c 2 ^ ^ = (c72cVAt)t = At, (6)
T+ Zit T +
the quantities in the brackets are device constants, and the derivative of eq. (6) is because dAJdt=0,
(7)
where we have also changed the time (t) with the reciprocal variable frequency f=l/t, with the meaning that twice longer time of observation gathers Vi lower frequency in the spectrum of the variance (ot)^. The variance and the power spectrum density S(f) are proportional, ((Jt)^ocS(f). Substituting this relation in eq. (7), we get eS/ef=S/f with solution ln(S)=ln(f), from the finite difference of which we obtain the expression for the noise related to accumulation of variance in the sample as (8) s(fl = !.^s(f) = ^ , S(fo) f f where the reference frequency fo can be chosen arbitrary, and S(fo) is the power spectrum density at fo. Noticeably, the statistical accumulation of variance produces 1/f noise, owing to the ability of the matter to probe and forward variance. In fact, a common mechanism that causes fluctuations with 1/f power spectrum in the nature [23] is the statistical accumulation of variance. Note that the 1/f noise from variance accumulation is statistical in origin, and not contradicting with the superposition of fluctuations probed instantly. The derivation considers hnear system of first order. Nonlinear and high order effects may lead to stochastic resonance or bistability (random telegraph signal). The derivation provides qualitative result for 1/f noise behavior. The value of S(fo) in eq. (8) has to be obtained by an alternative method, not cancelling the quantities in the brackets of eq. (6). Choosing fo=lHz in eq. (8), and since Or is normahzed standard deviation, then the equation is for normalized flicker noise and the expression for the parameter Kp is
FIGURE 3. Spot and average standard deviations of doping atom locations compared to the ITRS prediction for 1/f noise in MOS and bipolar transistors
Minimum Device Area, jm^
s(f) =
X DC
Kr
1 second At
(9)
where X is a quantity of interest, e.g. current, XDC is the average of X, and the rate of variance accumulation cVAtKp/or^O.OOl s"' can be deduced from the trend lines through the diamonds and triangles in Figure 3 for (or^) and Kp in RF MOS transistors.
275
Figure 4 for minimumsized transistors L=W=Ln,in, with (A) for gate referred voltage and with (A) for Kp. Shown by (), the number of carriers (n) is low, <100 for Lmin=90nm down to few for Ln,in=12nm. By the increasing "frozen noise" Or^ ( ) at low Lmm, the Hooge parameter aH=KFxn (O) decreases unreahstically. For the An noise model, the equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) decreases from 2.2nm for Lmin=90nm to 0.9nm for Ln,in=14nm, Cox {^) is in the range 1639fF/im^, resulting in nearly constant oxide trap density Nt~10 cm ^nm ^eV"' (O). However, for the minimumsized transistor, assuming highk dielectric with permittivity 4esi02, the number of acting traps around Fermi level, ()=Ntx4EOTxLn,in^x4kT, becomes a small fraction of one trap, which is unrealistic condition for generating 1/f noise. On the other hand, taking the values for the frozen noise G/ ( ) from ion implantation, the substitution in eq. (9) yields nearly constant value cVAtKp/or'O.OOl s"' (D) for the variance accumulation rate. We conclude that a temporal accumulation of variance can explain the 1/f noise in nmscaled MOS transistors, in /* " ] Accum. Rate c'/At=Kp/cj^', 1/s  m^eV which the extrapolation of other models IZ meets with difficulties. The variance D e c r e a s e s at l o w e r L accumulation model provides relation between spatial nonuniformities caused KF=fSo(g/lo)', f o r WL=Li by device fabrication, called here "frozen w i t h g / l p = 1 3 V' a t ( V 3  V T ) = 0 . 1 V noise", to temporal lowfrequency 1/f I 103 102 noise, a relation which is qualitatively Channel Area=WL=Lin' observed very often [24]. Indeed, the variance accumulation is well established FIGURE 4. Several quantities by MOS transistor downscaling, related to An, Aji and for phasefrequency noise, by the method variance accumulation models for 1/f noise known as Allan variance [25, 26, 27].
REFERENCES
1. ITRS, http://public.itrs.net. 2. J. Brews, et al, EDL, 1, 2, 1980. 3. V. De, etal, Symp. VLSI, 198, 1996. 4. H.S. Wong, etal, MReliab., 38, 1447, 1998. 5. P. Stolk, et al, TED, 45, 1960, 1998. 6. C. Wann, et al, TED, 43, 1742, 1996. 7. S. Toriyama, et al, Phys. E, 19, 44, 2003. 8. C. Alexander, et al, TNanotech, 4, 339, 2005. 9. K. Samsudin, et al, SSE, 50, 86, 2006. 10. P. Tien, etal, JAP, 27, 1067, 1956. 11. V. Gruzinskis, et al, SST, 6, 602, 1991. 12. T. Gonzalez, et al, TED, 42, 991, 1995. 13. J. Mateos, etal, SSE, 42, 79, 1998. 14. R. Rengel, etal, SST, 16, 939, 2001. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. B. Vasallo, et al, TED, 55, 1535, 2008. Top 500, 32"'' list, www.top500.org, 2008. S. Springer, et al, TED, 53, 2168, 2006. T. Pukkila, et al, Biometrika, 72, 317, 1985. N. Wiener, MIT Press, Mass., 1970. H. Davis, et al, JASA, 63, 141, 1968. A. Walden, Tr Signal Proc, 43, 181, 1995. L. Froeb, "Computational Economics and Finance ", ed. Varian, Springer, 305, 1996. R. Voss, Freq. Cont. Symp., 33rd, 40, 1979. L. Vandamme, TED, 41, 2176, 1994. D. Allan, Proc. IEEE, 54, 221, 1966. F. Vemotte, etal, TIMeas., 42, 968, 1993. R. Navid, et al, SSC, 40, 630, 2005.
276
Impact of Advanced Gate Stack Engineering On Low Frequency Noise Performances of Planar Bulk CMOS transistors
A. Mercha'', H. Okawa , A. Akheyar", E. Simoen", T. Nakabayashi , T. Y. Hoffmann*
"IMEC, Panasonic, 'Infineon, IMEC, Kapeldreef75, B3001 Leitven, Belgium Abstract. This paper discusses on the impact of gate stack engineering on the lowfrequency noise performance of stateoftheart deep submicron planar CMOS technologies. Focus is on the scaling of the Equivalent Oxide Thickness (EOT) in highk gate oxides in combination with metal gates, requiring the implementation of cap layers. As will be shown, different trends in the LF noise can be observed, indicating that LF noise optimization is a complex interplay between the different gate stack components. Keywords: metal gate. Lowfrequency noise, CMOS, highk dielectrics PACS: 72.70.+m  73.40.Qv
INTRODUCTION
The international effort through the ITRS presented a roadmap on the best estimates of introduction time, at the production level, of successive generations of leading technology nodes and the R&D needs. For the 45nm node and below, it will become necessary to introduce revolutionary changes in the materials, process modules and device architectures [12]. The classic scahng of the 1/f noise with the gate oxide thickness has first been affected with the introduction of heavily nitrided gate oxides. Due to the high trapping density, the 1/f noise in highk dielectrics is even higher than in SiON, although a lot of improvement can be obtained through process optimization. Though progress has been made in the areas of highk gate dielectrics and metal gate systems, several issues remain (EOT scaling, threshold voltage control, mobility degradation...) [3]. Figure 1 illustrates the level of complexity that needs to be tackled in order to achieve acceptable results with scaled gate dielectrics and metal gates. Interfacial interactions due to subsequent thermal processing (between the highk gate dielectric and the sihcon channel as well as between the highk material and the gate electrode) may impose the introduction of capping layers. In addition, it has been shown that the thickness of the metal gate, for example, TiN seriously impacts both the static and LF noise performance of CMOS transistors [45].
CPn29, Noise andFluctuaUons, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
277
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diffii^oi.
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^
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FIGURE 1. Factors that influence metal electrodes properties. The diffusion of dopants, intermixing of films and growth of interfacial layers are key issues affecting the stability and controllability of highk films.
The same capping layers can be also used to tune the work function [67]. These modules for the gate insulator and gate electrode need to be codeveloped to achieve expected performances for both digital and analog performances. In addition, socalled strain engineering and the implementation of highmobility channel materials can also impact the density of interface and oxide traps in the highk stack. The focus in this work, however, is on the factors described in Fig. 1.
0) Q U) (fl 0 c
D
[Hf] lOOte
^ T j i , , =1.5nm * Hf02
HfSiON
U 
F
u
=. 'S = Ifl
1III 11. (fl
ITRS LitteratLire HfOj and reducing interfaoial layer thickness T^ Tint =0.8nm + HfSION and reducing Hf content [Hf] HfSiON TiN metal electrode thickness Tg HfSION and TaCNO + capping layer
1.2nm(60%Hf)cap 1.5nm(60%Hf)cap 1.8nm(60%Hf)cap 1.8nm no cap 1.8nm cap PNA 1.8nm(40%Hf)cap 1.8nm<80%Hf)cap
c o
o s
FIGURE 2. Overview of the input referred noise voltage spectral density at 1 Hz, normalized over the area, for different gate stack options (highk thickness, presence or not of a capping layer, content of Hf and annealing).
The noise properties are strongly dependent on the Hf content. The Hf content is certainly a knob on which the noise level can be adjusted, but it is also in conjunction of other elements like the permittivity of the resulting oxide, the thickness of the high k layer (Fig. 3), the interaction with the metal gate or the capping layer that can be inserted on top of the main highk layer to control the threshold voltage (dipole capping layermetal electrode). However, most of the options can suffer from limited scahng capability, such that it is today still challenging to define the options for dielectrics with EOT around Inm and below. Another issue is that in the case of gate stack first, its robustness against further thermal budget, necessary for the implementation of straininducing cap or Source/Drain layers should be guaranteed, as this may compromise the 1/f noise [12].
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.100% 10'
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i 10
11.5
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12.5
13.0
13.5 EOT
14.0
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FIGURE 3. Figures illustrating the impact of the Hf content and the passivation process [3] and the highk layer thickness.
279
CONCLUSIONS
The impact of different options for gate stack processing in deep submicron CMOS transistors on the LF noise performance has been demonstrated and discussed. It is shown that simultaneous EOT scaling and 1/f noise scaling is difficult, yet not impossible The combination of a metal gate and cap layers may certainly help in improving the highk gate stack integrity and defectiveness, and, hence, reduce the LF noise.
REFERENCES
1. P. Wambacq, A. Mercha, K. Scheir, et al.; Advanced planar bulk and multigate CMOS technology: analogcircuit benchmarking up to mmwave frequencies; IEEE ISSCC 2008, p. 5289, 633, 2008. 2. M. Fulde, A. Mercha, C. Gustin, et al.;.; Analog design challenges and tradeoffs using emerging materials and devices; ESSCIRC 2007, p. 1236, 2 0 0 7 . 3. C. Claeys, E. Simoen, A. M e r c h a et al.; Lowfrequency noise performance of Hf02based gate stacks; J. Electrochem . S o c , 152: 9, p i 1523; 2 0 0 5 . 4. A. Mercha, R. Singanamalla, V. Subramanian et al.; The impact of ultra thin A L D TiN metal gate on low frequency noise of C M O S transistors; 19th I C N F 2007, p. 336, 2 0 0 7 . 5. M. Rodrigues, A. Mercha, N . CoUaert et al. ; Impact of the TiN layer thickness on the lowfrequency noise and static device performance of nchannel M u G F E T s ; these Proceedings. 6. V.S. Chang, L.A. Ragnarsson, G. Pourtois et al. ; A Dycapped Hf02 dielectric and TaCxbased metals enabling lowVt singlemetalsingledieleclric gate stack ; lEDM 2007, p. 2358 , 2007. 7. S. Kamiyama, E. Kurosawa and Y. Nara; Improving threshold voltage and device performance of gatefirst HfSiON/Metal gate nMOSFETs by an ALD La203 capping layer. J. Electrochem. Soc, 155: 6, p. H3737, 2008. 8. E. Simoen, A. Mercha, L. Pantisano et al.; Lowfrequency noise behavior of Si02Hf02 duallayer gate dielectric nMOSFETs with different interfacial oxide tiiickness; IEEE Trans. Eleclron Devices, 51, p. 7804, 2004. 9. B. Min, S.P. Devireddy, Z. QelikButler et al.; Impact of interfacial layer on lowfrequency noise of HfSiON dielectric MOSFETs; IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, 53, p. 145966, 2006. 10. F. Crupi, P. Srinivasan, P. Magnone et al.; Impact of the interfacial layer on the lowfrequency noise (1/f) behavior of MOSFETs witii advanced gate stacks; IEEE Electron Device Lett., 27, p. 68891, 2006. 11. P. Srinivasan, E. Simoen, Z.M. Rittersma et al.; Effect of nitridation on lowfrequency (1/f) noise in n and pMOSFETs with metal gate/Hf02 gate dielectrics; J. Electrochem. Soc, 153, p. G81925, 2006. 12. E. Simoen, P. Verheyen, A. Shickova et al.; On the lowfrequency noise of pMOSFETs witii embedded SiGe source/ti^ain and fully silicided metal gate; IEEE Eleclron Device Lett., 28, p. 9879, 2007.
280
Length Dependent Transition of the Dominant 1/f Noise Mechanism in SiPassivated GeonSi pMOSFETs
E. Simoen^ A. Fimncieli^'^ F.E. Leys^ R. Loo^ B. De Jaege/, J. Mitard^ and C. Claeys"'*'
"IMEC, Kapeldreef75, B3001 Leuven, Belgium ''EE Depart, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, B3001 Leuven, Belgium Abstract. The impact of the Si passivation on the lowfrequency noise of GeonSi pMOSFETs is investigated. A transition from number to mobility fluctuations dominated 1/f noise is found going from shorter to longer channel transistors. Keywords: germanium, MOSFETs, 1/f noise, silicon passivation PACS: 72.70.+m; 73.40.Qv
INTRODUCTION
Historically speaking, germanium is an important material for the study of lowfrequency noise and fluctuations in semiconductor materials and devices, leading among others to the famous McWhorter number fluctuations (An) model for 1/f noise [1]. Since the early 60ties most of the device and related noise research shifted towards silicon, but in the past five years, interest in Ge MOS transistors has revived, mainly triggered by the introduction of highk gate dielectrics in 45 nm and below technology generations [2]. Recently, successful operation of ~ 100 nm gate length Ge pMOSFETs has been reported, showing a lowfield hole mobility superior to the universal curve for silicon [3]. Key to this achievement is the passivation of the Ge surface by the implementation of a thin epitaxial silicon layer, which is partly oxidized and on top of which HfOa is deposited [3]. As shown recently [4], the Si passivation details, i.e., the thickness, the deposition temperature and chemistry, have a strong impact on the static device parameters. In addition, it has been demonstrated that this interfacial layer has a pronounced effect on the lowfrequency (LF) noise of Ge pMOSFETs, from which a dominance of An fluctuations has been derived [5][8]. Here, the LF noise of stateoftheart Ge pchannel transistors is investigated in linear operation, in function of the device length. Based on the variation of the normalized drain current noise spectral density SI/1D^ with drain current ID, it will be shown that the dominant 1/f noise mechanism changes from carrier (An) for short devices, to mobility (Aj,) fluctuations for the longer ones. This could point to a larger
CPn29, Noise and Fluctuations, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
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nonuniformity and associated carrier scattering in the passivation of the longchannel transistors. EXPERIMENTAL The pchannel transistors have been fabricated in GeonSi substrates, using a process flow detailed elsewhere [3]. The gate stack consists of a 3 to 8 monolayers (ML) Si passivation, followed by a partial ozone oxidation to form 0.4 nm SiOa. A layer of 4 nm HfOa has been formed by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), which was subsequently covered by a TaN/TiN metal gate. Typical input IDVGS characteristics in linear operation (VDS=0.05 V) are shown in Fig. 1 for 6 ML devices. Transistors with a width W=10 am and various lengths have been characterized. Noise was measured on wafer as described before [5][7].
0.0005
6 ML Si passivation 6.05 V
0.0006
Figure 1. Input characteristics in linear operation (VDS=0.05 V) for 6 ML Sipassivated Ge pMOSFETs with length 0.25, 0.5 and 1 xm.
0.9
0.6
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282
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6 ML Si passivation Vos=0.05V
0)
f=10Hz
. 1 1
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Figure 3. Inputreferred noise spectral density versus gate voltage of two 6 ML Si passivated Ge pMOSFETs with L=0.25 xm and W=10 xm. The frequency f=10 Hz.
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Figure 5. Normalized drain current noise spectral density versus drain current of 6 ML Si passivated Ge pMOSFETs with L=0.25, 0.5 and 1 xm and W=10 xm. The frequency f=10 Hz.
283
N1010 >
0) (A O
6 ML Si passivation
10'
0)
11
r 1 am
Figure 6. Inputreferred noise spectral density versus gate voltage of 6 ML Si passivated Ge pMOSFETs with L=0.25, 0.5 and 1 rm and W=10 rm. The frequency f=10 Hz.
As a result, the SVG in weak inversion does not scale with 1/L. For the lowest currents measured, the high offstate draintobulk leakage current can cause an increase of the 1/f noise magnitude. As will be shown, reduction of the Si passivation thickness has a strong impact on both the DC and LF noise parameters, resulting in a higher noise magnitude and a stronger Aj, tendency with channel length. REFERENCES
1. A.L. McWhorter, Semiconductor Surface Physics, Ed. R.H. Kingston, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia (PA), p. 207 (1957). 2. C. Claeys and E. Simoen, eds, "Germanium Based Technologies: From Materials to Devices", Elsevier, 2007. 3. G. Nicholas, B. De Jaeger, D.P. Brunco, P. Zimmerman, G. Eneman, K. Martens, M. Meuris and M.M. Heyns, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 2503 (2007). 4. J. Mitard, B. De Jaeger, F. Leys, G. Hellings, K. Martens, G. Eneman, D. Brunco, R. Loo, D. Shamiryan, T. Vandeweyer, G. Winderickx, E. Vrancken, K. De Meyer, M. Caymax, L. Pantisano, M. Meuris and M. Heyns, in lEDM Tech. Dig., p. 873 (2008). 5. P. Srinivasan, E. Simoen, B. De Jaeger, C. Claeys and D. Misra, Mater. Sci. in Semicond. Process. 9,721 (2006). 6. W. Guo, G. Nicholas, B. Kaczer, R.M. Todi, B. De Jaeger, C. Claeys, A. Mercha, E. Simoen, B. Cretu, J.M. Routoure and R. Carin, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 28, 288 (2007). 7. W. Guo, B. Cretu, J.M. Routoure, R. Carin, A. Mercha, E. Simoen and C. Claeys, in Proc. 19"' ICNF, M. Tacano, M. Yamamoto and M. Nakao, eds, AIP Proc. Vol. 922, p. 29 (2007). 8. D. Maji, F. Crupi, G. Giusi, C. Pace, E. Simoen, C. Claeys and V.R. Rao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 1635081 (2008).
284
INTRODUCTION
The downscaling of CMOS according to the historical law of Moore is achieved by the reduction of the dimensions. The scahng rules impose very thin oxide thicknesses of the order of one nanometer. The low frequency noise is known as an accurate tool to evaluate the quality of the interface region in MOSFETs. Within the carrier number fluctuation model, bulk oxide defects can be characterized from low frequency noise measurements [1]. Nevertheless, the aggressive reduction of the dimensions has made questionable the accuracy of simple analytical models used over past 15 years. Numerical noise modehng is an alternative that allows to take into account scaling effects. Scahng down induces a large number of new physical phenomena; among them, direct tunneling current increases exponentially and leads to modifications in the normal device operation and to degradations of the device performance. This gate current induces additional noise sources. In this paper, we present numerical low frequency noise modeling related to oxide trapping/detrapping process, based on green's functions formulation and its apphcation to ultrathin oxide characterization.
285
the last 15 years to study and model the LFN in MOS transistors. The advantage is that one can extract the slow oxide trap density with 1V and LF noise measurements, without having to model of the drain current. However, the initial formulation of the flat band voltage fluctuation was established under approximations which no longer hold true with ultrathin oxide devices. In this first section, we present a numerical LFN model for ultrathin oxide MOSFETs. In order to describe the static behaviour of the device, a onedimensional formulation is used, taking into account polydepletion effects in the gate material as well as quantummechanical effects. The physical model is based on a selfconsistent PoissonSchrodinger numerical resolution which includes a polysihcon gate. For the noise analysis, charge fluctuations are introduced in the oxide, and a Green's function approach is used to calculate the spatial crossspectrum of potential fluctuations.
S,(x,x',f)= j G^(x,xJS,^Jx,,f)G^(xX)dx,
Oxide
(1)
where Gv(x,Xa) is the Green's function of the potential V(x), defined as the response of the potential V a point x due to a 5 function in the oxide at a point x^. The spectral density of the fluctuation of the number of occupied traps in a volume AV is given by [3]:
S (:f\^<^) ft(lft)Nt(x)
VJx,t)i^27rfVxf AV ^^^ where T(X) is the trap time constant as a function of its depth, ft is the trap occupation probability, and Nt(x) is the trap density at a point x. The power spectral density (PSD) of the inversion charge fluctuations is expressed by taking into account the overall collection of potential fluctuations V (f) =jjJv"(^) Sv (x,x'/) ft'(^ydxdx' (3)
where Jy*^ is the jacobian matrix of the inversion charge Qmv with respect to the electrostatic potential V(x). Finally, we calculate the equivalent flatband voltage fluctuations that induce the same inversion charge fluctuation than the one evaluated by Green's functions. S ff) ^"(^) = T f ^ 7 T f 7 ^ ; 7 T ^ ^ ^ * 8n(x)=F(x).8V^ (4)
F(x).F(x)dx.dx
A comparison of the classical formulation SwB*^^(f) and the Green's function approach to the flatband voltage PSD SwB^"'(f) was carried out. Results are presented in Fig. 1, showing that for a given trap density, the new flat band voltage PSD SvFB^"'(f) is smaller than the classical SvFB*^^(f) for ultrathin oxides. The classical formulation leads to an overestimation of the flat band voltage PSD in the case of ultrathin oxide devices. This result shows that the classical model is no longer suitable for characterization of advanced MOSFETs devices. The oxide trap density vs. equivalent oxide thickness is usually used as figure of merit of a process. This model has been used to correct the data for thin oxides, showing that trap density continues to increase even for ultrathin nitrided oxides (Fig. 2).
286
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'
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SiO, Oxick
10
100
FIGURE 1 : Classical flatband voltage fluctuations PSD SvFB^^(f) and Green's function approach flatband voltage fluctuations PSD SvFB"'(f) for a metal gate at f=lHz.
EOT(mn) FIGURE 2 : Figure of merit Nt vs EOT extracted with corrections for ultrathin oxide.
=^"(x^q(>^.^(y))E)
(5)
where n is the reduced Planck constant, mox is the effective mass of the electron in the conduction band in the oxide, Tox is the oxide thickness, Xb is the barrier height, ys is the surface potential, y(y) is the potential at point y, and E is the energy of the tunnelhng electron. The gate leakage current is expressed as: lG=qN.(C(^)T(^)f(^) (6) Where Nmv is the inversion charge, C is the correction coefficient due reflections at the interface, and fj is the frequency impact. The spectral density of the gate current fluctuation is given as:
with
S^,(x,x',f) j
G^(x,Xj)S4^^(xj,f)G^(x',Xj)dxj
(8)
where J^ ^ is the Jacobian matrix of the gate current IG with respect to the electrostatic potential y(y), Gy(x,xl) is the Green's function of the potential y(x) defined as the response of the potential y at a point x due to a unit charge in the oxide at a point xi. Results and discussion In this study, ntype MOSFETs with a 1.2 nm equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) targeted value and featuring a polysilicon gate were investigated. The nitridation of the dielectric films was carriedout using either a Decoupled Plasma Nitridation (DPN) or 287
a Rapid Thermal Nitridation (RTN). The devices were processed on 200 mm diameter sihcon wafers. The gate current noise was investigated on isolated nMOS transistors with source, drain and substrate tied together with VGS varying from 0.4 to 1 V. The main feature observed is the slope of the spectra. For RTN devices, a power factor a ~ 0.8 was observed (i.e. the LFN level varies as l/f'^). For DPN devices, we observed 1/f spectra and lorentzian spectra with a cutoff frequency of about 12 Hz. In order to fit this experimental data, our new gate current LF noise model was used. In particular, the slow oxide trap density profile for each nitridation technique was extracted. Fig. 3 shows the results of the power spectral density simulations for different gate voltages and for both nitridation techniques.
Experimental data Simulation
f(Hz)
Frequency (Hz)
FIGURE 3 :. (a) Transistor (W/L=10 nm/0.34 nm), with an RTN oxide. The best fit is obtained with a constant trap density profile, (b) (W/L=10 nm/10 jim), with an DPN oxide. The best fit is obtained with a Gaussian profile.
DPN RTN
FIGURE 4 :. Slow oxide trap density profiles extracted from DPN and RTN devices using gate current low frequency noise as a function of the physical oxide thickness.
As reported on Fig. 4, the best fitting profiles are a constant profile for the RTN devices and Gaussian profile for DPN ones. These results confirm the strong correlation between low frequency noise and Nitrogen related traps [4]. For thermal nitrided gate oxides, nitrogen profiles show that the nitrogen concentration is greater at the Si02/Si interface, and constant when approaching the poly/Si02 interface. The DPN process induces a peak in the nitrogen concentration at the PolySi/Si02 interface to preserve the Si/Si02 interface. Extracted profiles are in agreement with the typical distribution of nitrogen atoms.
288
289
is observed when computing noise with long stress time profile, which indicates that traps created in the channel by the hot carrier stress are the origin of the 1/f noise level increase. We conclude that degradation of defects related to 1/f noise level at 1 Hz (at a depth of around 2 nm in the oxide) follows the classical scheme of interface state degradation under Hot Carrier regime [5].
le17 j . .
^P
^ le20
T^^O
,9 le21
le23 I le8
le7
le6 ID (A)
le5
le
le6 ID (A)
FIGURE 5 : 1/f noise level @ IHz vs. ID before and after stress short stress time.
FIGURE 6 : 1/f noise level @ IHz vs. ID before and after long stress time.
FIGURE 7: Slow oxide trap density profiles used for simulation of LFN of the drain current.
FIGURE 8: Simulation of the stressed device noise level (at IHz) normahzed to fresh device noise level for from subthreshold to strong inversion regime.
REFERENCES
M. Valenza, A. Hoffmann, D. Sodini, A. Laigle, F. Martinez, D. Rigaud, "Overview of the impact of downscaling technology of 1/f noise in pMOSFETs to 90 nm", IFF ProcCircuits Devices Syst., Vol 151, No 2, pp 102110, April 2004. G. Ghibaudo, "A simple derivation of Reimbold's drain current spectrum formula for flicker noise in MOSFFTs," SolidState Electronics,vol. 30, no. 10, pp. 10371038, Oct. 1987. FanChi Hou, Gijs Bosman, Mark F, "Simulation of trapping noise in submicron nchannel MOSFFTs, Electron Devices, IEEE Trans, on, Vol.50, Iss.3, pp :846852. M. Marin, J.C. Vildeuil, B. Tavel, B. Duriez, F. Arnaud, M. Stolk, M. Woo ,"Can 1/f noise in MOSFFTs be reduced by gate oxide and channel optimization", ICNF 2005, September 2005. C.Guerin, V.Huard, A. Bravaix, M.Denais, "Impact of hot carrier degradation modes on I/O n MOSFFTs aging prediction", IEEE IIRW 2006, pp.6367.
290
LowFrequency Noise of Strained and NonStrained nChannel TriGate FinFETs With Different Gate Dielectrics
N. Lukyanchikova'', N. Garba/, V. Kudina'', A. Smolanka'', E. Simoen and C. Claeys'''''
"v. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Prospect Nauki 45, 03028 Kiev, Ukraine IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B3001 Leuven, Belgium 'KULeuven, B3001 Leuven, Belgium Abstract. The influence of different front gate Hfbased highk dielectrics (HfSiON/Si02 and Hf02/Si02) on the shape of the lowfrequency noise spectra for nchannel trigate FinFETs processed in standard silicononinsulator (SOI) substrates, and global Strained Si Directly On Insulator (sSOI) wafers with/without Selective Epitaxial Grown (SEG) source and drain regions is studied. For different process splits the concentration distributions of slow traps over the thickness of the gate dielectric are estimated and it is shown that these distributions depend on the dielectric type. Keywords: LowFrequency Noise, 1/f noise, highk dielectric, SOI FinFET, sSOI FinFET PACS: 85.30.Tv; 73.50.Td
INTRODUCTION
Highk dielectrics are currently replacing SiOa in sub 45 nm CMOS transistors in order to reduce excessive offstate leakage current by direct tunneling through the scaled gate oxide. However, this is traded for a loss of Ion by the degradation of the channel mobility, through scattering at defects and charges in the highk layer. This problem can be tackled by socalled mobilityengineering, which relies either on the use of channelstraininducing techniques or of socalled highmobility channel materials. In combination with the multiplegate channel architecture offered by MuGFETs, it has been shown to yield significant performance benefits. At the same time, the question is raised how other parameters like the lowfrequency (LF) noise are affected by these process changes. Therefore, the LF noise of MuGFETs fabricated in SilicononInsulator (SOI) and strainedSOI (sSOI) substrates with different highk dielectric gate stacks has been studied. EXPERIMENTAL In the case of a HfSiON/SiOa dielectric, the gate stack consisted of 2.3 nm HfSiON (50% Hf) on top of 1 nm interfacial SiOa while for the HfOa/SiOa dielectric, it
CPn29, Noise and Fluctuations, 20 International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
291
consisted of 2 nm HfOa on top of 1 nm interfacial SiOa. The parameters of the devices were: Hfl=65 nm and 55 nm for SOI and sSOI nFinFETs, respectively, Wefj^O.02^9.^7 am, Lg^O. 15^0.9 am, where Hfl is the fm height, We/f and Le/f are the effective fm width and length, respectively. The full device width Z^f was calculated by the formula Zefj^Nflx(2Hfl+Weff) where Nfl is the number of fms. The drain current noise spectral density Si(f) was measured on wafer in the frequency rangey=0.7 Hz to 100 kHz at 0.2 V<FGF^1.5 V and ^0^=25 mV where VGF and VDS are the gate and drain voltage, respectively. To analyze the shape of the noise spectra, the frequency dependences of [fi<Si(f)] were considered.
MWH
/Hf"
^ >^ W' ^^
w^
?
V^pV /,iiA 'l~''X
m
^^
Jj
2 3 4 5 e
04 0e 05 10 12
10' 10
10 10' itf
10' 10' 10
10
10
10
10
10
f, Hz (a)
f, Hz (b)
f, Hz (c)
FIGURE 1. Drain current noise spectral density multiplied by the frequency for the sSOI nFinFETs with the HfSiON/SiOj gate dielectric where W^frl.?,! xm, LejrO.9 xm and Nfl=5 (a) and for the SOI nFinFETs with the Hf02/Si02 gate dielectric where Wgff=9.%l xm, Lgff=OA xm and Nfl=l (b) and We^M xm, Lef=0.9 xm andAf;i=30 (c).
It has been revealed that for the FinFETs with HfOa/SiOa gate dielectric the shapes of the spectra [/x^H/)] vs./differ significantly from those shown in Fig. la. This is demonstrated in Figs, lb and Ic where the behaviour of the spectra shown in Fig. lb appears to be typical not only for SOI devices of Weff>0.l2 \xm or Le^O.16 am but also for sSOI ones [1] while Fig. Ic presents the spectra typical for the SOI FinFETs of Weff=0.02 j,m. It is seen from Fig. lb that the highfrequency plateau corresponding to the 1//noise is observed at/>400 Hz and the decrease of [/x^H/)] with decreasing/ takes place at f<AOO Hz where a=0.3 which corresponds to the (1//)'^ noise. 292
Therefore, the "highfrequency" 1//"noise is typical for the SOI FinFETs of Weff>0.l2 \xm or Lefj<0.l6 am and sSOI ones with a HfOa/SiOa gate dielectric at/>400 Hz. As to the very thin SOI FinFETs, it follows from Fig. 1 c that the main component of their noise spectra is the Iz/noise which is observed fromy^O.7 Hz up toy=5 kHz. Figure 2 demonstrates that the equivalent gate voltage noise spectral density, SVG, is independent of the overdrive gate voltage V*={VGFVth) in a sufficiently wide interval of V* where SrG=Si/{gmf and g^ is the transconductance. Observation of a plateau in SrG{V) is known to be typical for the McWhorter noise of a (1//)'' type where / depends on the distribution of the density of the noisy traps Not over a distance x from the Si/SiOa interface. By using the plateau values of SrG=SrG(fmeas) measured at different fmeas, we have calculated the distribution of Not over x as follows [2]:
Not{x)=Not{Xmeas)=fmeasSrG(/meas)ZeffLefj(Co) ^Q kT where X = X m e a i =  ^ l n ( 2 ;7/^eai r ^ m ) ,
1=10"* cm is the tunneling parameter, rm>j=10"' s, Co is the equivalent gate capacitance per cm^, q is the electron charge, k is the Boltzmann constant and T is the temperature. The results obtained are shown in Figs. 3 and 4.
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FIGURE 2. Equivalent gate voltage noise normalized for Z^^and Z^y at different gate overdrive voltages for sSOI, sSOI+SEG and SOI+SEG nFinFETs with a HfSiON/SiOj gate dielectric measured at / = 1 0 Hz and 3 kHz; W^j^(0.87 H 2.87) xm, L,^(0.15 H 0.9) xm andAf;j=5 and 1.
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FIGURE 3. Distributions of the slow traps concentration N^i over the gate dielectric thickness for sSOI (a), sSOI+SEG and SOI+SEG (b) nFinFETs with a HfSiON/SiOj gate dielectric; W^(0.87 H 2.87) xm, Leg=(0.15 H 0.9) xm and Nfln=5 and 1. 
It is seen from Fig. 3 that in the case of the HfSiON/SiOa dielectric a linear decrease of Not with increasing x from x=0.98 nm to x=1.4 nm is observed for the sSOI, sSOI+SEG and SOI+SEG FinFETs where the gradient of the trap concentration for the sSOI devices is higher than for the sSOI+SEG and SOI+SEG ones. At the same 293
time, at 1.6 nm<x<2.1 nm this decrease slows down (Fig. 3b) or stops (Fig. 3a). It is also seen from Fig. 3b that the dependences Notix) for the sSOI+SEG and SOI+SEG devices can be approximated by one and the same line. Therefore, the global straining technique does not influence the distribution of the slow traps over the HfSiON/SiOa gate dielectric in SEGdevices. At the same time, in the case of the HfOa/SiOa dielectric (Fig. 4) the decrease of Not with increasing x for SOI devices of Weff>0.02 j,m and for sSOI devices takes place only atx>1.3 nm while the range of x between 1 nm and (l.l^1.4) nm is characterized by a homogeneous distribution of Not over x. As a result, the values of Not for the HfOa/SiOa dielectric are higher than for the HfSiON/SiOa one at 1.15 nm<x<2.1 nm. It is also seen from Fig. 4a that the global straining technique does not influence the distribution of the slow traps only at sufficiently high values of x but increases the trap concentration atx<1.65 nm. Note that even a stronger influence of the global straining technique on Notix) in the case of the HfOa/SiOa dielectric is observed for the devices of Wefri^m am (Fig. 4b).
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FIGURE 4. Distributions of the slow traps concentration Not over the gate dielectric thickness for sSOI (curve 1) and SOI (curve 2) nFinFETs with the HfOj/SiOj gate dielectric; f % > 0.87 xm, L^j=(OA H0.9) xm and Nfl=l (a) and Wgg=0.02 xm, L^g^iOA H 0.9) xm and Nfl=30 (b); curve 3 presents the dependence NJx) for the sSOI nFinFETs with the HfSiON/SiOj gate dielectric; f % > 0.87 xm, is;r(0.15 H0.9) ^mandNf,=l.
CONCLUSION
The essential difference in the lowfrequency noise spectra has been revealed for nchannel trigate FinFETs with HfSiON/SiOa and HfOa/SiOa gate dielectrics. The effect is attributed to different distributions of the concentration of slow traps Not over the thickness of the gate dielectric.
REFERENCES
1. Lukyanchikova, N. Garbar, V. Kudina, A. Smolanka, E. Simoen and C. Claeys, Semiconductor Physics, Quantum Electronics & Optoelectronics 11, 203208 (2008). 2. R. Jayaraman and C. Sodini, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 36, 17731782 (1989).
294
LowFrequency Noise Behavior in Pchannel SOI FinFETs Processed With Different Strain Techniques
W. Guo, R. Talmat, B. Cretu, JM. Routoure, R. Carin, A. Mercha", E. Simoen' and C. Claeys"'*'
GREYC UMR 6072 CNRS / ENSICAEN / University of Caen, 6 Bd Marechal Juin, Caen, France "IMEC Kapeldreef75, B3001 Leuven, Belgium, ''E.E. Dept. KULeuven, B30001 Leuven, Belgium Abstract. The aim of this paper is to investigate the lowfrequency noise behavior in pchannel SOI FinFETs processed with different strain techniques. An unusual noise behavior was observed for all devices studied. This unusual noise was investigated for different applied gate voltages and different channel lengths at room temperature. The carrier number fluctuations explain the flicker noise for all devices. The different strain techniques employed have no significant impact in the noise level. Keywords: FinFET, SOI Substrate, Strain techniques, Lowfrequency noise PACS: 72.70.+m, 73.40.Qv
INTRODUCTION
The main advantages of multigate FinFET (MuGFET) devices include the improvement of the short channel effects, the leakage currents, the threshold voltage dopant fluctuations, and eventual higher mobility due to the undoped channels [14]. The transistor performances depend on the semiconductordielectric interface quality. The lowfrequency noise analysis is one of the tools used to analyze the quality of the gate oxide. For a better understanding of the device physics a study of the lowfrequency noise is required. In this work, the lowfrequency noise performance of pchannel trigate FinFETs is investigated. We have first evidenced an unusual noise behavior for all the tested devices. The impact of the channel length on the unusual noise behavior is analyzed at room temperature. This unusual behavior was already observed in [5] for nchannel FinFETs only in devices processed with selective epitaxial growth. Finally, we have shown that the different strain techniques used to enhance the performances of MOS devices have no significant impact on the noise level.
CPn29, Noise and Fluctuations, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
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EXPERIMENTAL
The available devices are pchannel FinFETs, with gate mask length Lpm varying from O.lS^im up to l^im, mask width Wpm from O.lS^im to 3^m, fixed fm height Hpin = 65nm, and having five fms in parallel. The highk gate stack consists of TiN/TaN/HfOa/SiOa, with a measured equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) of 1.9 nm. The device fabrication details can be found in [6]. The standard FinFETs on an SOI substrate were used as a reference (noted SOI). Other analyzed structures are: FinFETs using selective epitaxial growth (SEG) in order to reduce the access resistance by increasing the height of the source and drain regions (noted SOI+SEG), as well as FinFETs using SEG combined with a CESL (contact etch stop layer) strain technique (noted SOI+SEG+CESL). Lowfrequency noise measurements were performed directly on wafer using a 2 inch "Lakeshore TTP4" prober. The devices were biased in the linear regime with an applied drain voltage VD = 20 mV. The experimental setup sweeps a range from 0.1 Hz to 100 kHz.
(equation 1)
In [5] it was also demonstrated that the K2 1/f noise component could be attributed to the carrier number fluctuations in the channel. Moreover, it was clearly pointed out that in the case of the nchannel FinFETs, the unusual noise behavior is observed only for the SEG devices. Examples of the frequency normalized gate voltage spectral density in pchannel FinFETs are showed in Figure 1 for Lmask = 0.25^m for all tested structures. Contrary to nchannel FinFET, the unusual noise behavior can be observed for all the analyzed structures. Additional Lorentzian noise components can be observed, but will be discussed further. From Figure 1, it is clear that the different strain techniques employed have no significant impact on the noise level. Good agreement between the measured noise spectra and the empirical model proposed in [5] has been verified for all channel gate lengths for all structures studied. Figure 2 illustrates this agreement for the case of a reference device with Lmask = 0.16^m, with different applied gate biases. We can notice that the unusual noise can be clearly observed only in the weak inversion regime. In strong inversion operation, additional noise components can "hide" the Ki 1/f noise component, as shown in the Figure 2.
296
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FIGURE 1. Frequency normalized gate voltage spectral density for Lmask = 0.25nm
FIGURE 2. Frequency normalized gate voltage spectral density for L,jsk = 0.16\im, for different applied gate biases
A Study of the lowfrequency noise was performed for different channel lengths at fixed drain current (i.e. ID = 3^A). In Figure 3 the gate voltage spectral density normalized by frequency and the mask gate length for the reference device is shown. We can notice that at the same drain current conditions (i.e. ID=3^A), the unusual noise can be observed only for gate mask lengths smaller than O.T^im. This result could suggest a possible access resistance contribution on the low noise spectra. Figure 4 shows the variation of the frequency normalized K2 1/f level noise spectral density (@VD=20mV) versus the absolute value of the applied gate voltage. We consider the hypothesis that the K2 1/f noise component could be attributed to the carrier fluctuations in the channel (i.e. as in [5]). One can notice that there is no significant difference in the noise magnitude in the weak inversion for all the FinFET structures investigated. These results show that the different strain techniques employed do not affect the noise level.
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rn
1)
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FIGURE 4. The variation of the frequency normalized K2 1/f level noise spectral density versus the applied gate voltage
It can also be observed that in weak inversion the gate voltage spectral density related to the K2 1/f level is quasiindependent on the applied gate voltage. This suggests that the carrier number fluctuations due to hole trapping in the oxide
297
dominate for all devices in weak inversion. This result may be striking since the 1/f noise in pMOS transistors can usually be explained using the Hooge model. Therefore, the carrier number fluctuations model can be used to explain the origin of the noise and extract an average value of the oxide trap density Nit (eV'cm"^) [7]. Using the effective gate length and width, this oxide trap density was found to be a b o u t 4  1 0 ' W cm" for all tested devices.
CONCLUSION
An unusual noise behavior is observed for the all pchannel FinFET structures tested in the present. This striking noise behavior clearly appears only in weak and weak to strong inversion transition. In the same ID biases, it was observed for gate mask lengths smaller than 0.7^m. These results imply a possible contribution of the access resistances on the lowfrequency noise spectra. The empirical model proposed in [5] can perfectly model the unusual noise behavior. We have found that the carrier number fluctuations dominated the flicker noise for all studied FinFET structures. Further investigations are still necessary in order to validate the origin of the two 1/f noise sources.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This work was accomplished in the framework of the project "Flemish Tournesol" (Project no. 1807 IRC) of the Partnerships Hubert Curien (PHC) of EGIDE.
REFERENCES
1. Hisamoto D et al. "FinFET  a selfaligned doublegate MOSFET scalable to 20 nm". IEEE Trans Electron Dev 2000;47(12):23205. 2. Kavalieros J, Doyle B, Datta S, Dewey G, Doczy M, Jin B, et al., "Trigate transistor architecture with highk gate dielectrics, metal gates and strain engineering", VLSI Technol Symp 2006:501. 3. Park JT, Colinge JP, Diaz CH. "Pigate SOI MOSFET". IEEE Electron Dev Lett 2001;22(8):405. 4. Von Arnim K et al. "A lowpower multigate FET CMOS technology with 13.9 ps inverter delay largescale integrated high performance digital circuits and SRAM". VLSI Technol Symp 2007:1067. 5. Guo W et al. "Impact of strain and source/drain engineering on the low frequency noise behaviour in nchannel trigate FinFETs". SolidState Electronics 52 (2008) 18891894 6. CoUaert N, Rooyackers R, De Keersgieter A, Leys FE, Cayrefourq I, Ghyselen B, et al. "Stress hybridization for multigate devices on supercritical strainedSOI (SCSSOI)". IEEE Electron Dev Letter 2007;28(7):6468. 7. McWhorter A.L. "1/f noise and germanium surface properties". Semiconductor surface physics. PA: University of Pennsylvania Press; 1957.
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Abstract. In this paper, we present a review of recent results on Monte Carlo modeling of highfrequency noise in IIIV fourterminal devices. In particular, a study of the noise behavior of InAlAs/InGaAs DoubleGate High Electron Mobility Transistors (DGHEMTs), operating in common mode, and Velocity Modulation Transistors (VMT), operating in differential mode, has been performed taking as a reference a similar standard HEMT. In the DGHEMT, the intrinsic P, R and C parameters show a modest improvement, but the extrinsic minimum noise figure NFj reveals a significantly better extrinsic noise performance due to the lower resistances of the gate contact and the source and drain accesses. In the VMT, very high values of P are obtained since the transconductance is very small, while the differentialmode operation leads to extremely low values oiR. Keywords: DoubleGate HEMT, Velocity Modulation Transistor, Monte Carlo simulations. PACS:81.05.Ea, 85.30.De.
1. INTRODUCTION
InAlAs/InGaAs High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) have revealed an excellent performance for lownoise highfrequency apphcations [1]. To further improve their behavior, alternative solutions based on an evolution of the standard HEMT design have been proposed [26]. Thus, the DoubleGate (DG) HEMT, a HEMT with two gates placed on each side of the conducting InGaAs channel (see Fig. 1), has been recently fabricated. The DG architecture, originally conceived for Si devices [7], has demonstrated to provide a better noise operation in comparison with similar SingleGate (SG) transistors [6,810]. In particular, the DG geometry in IIIV devices allows to counteract the effect of carrier injection into the buffer (since no buffer is used in the structure), and provides a better charge control, with the subsequent improvement of the pinchoff behavior (lower drain conductance) and the transconductance gm Moreover, the lower contact resistances contribute to a better extrinsic noise performance, mainly at high frequency [6]. As well, the progress of the DGHEMT technology allows the design and fabrication of IIIV Velocity Modulation Transistors (VMTs) [II]. In VMTs [1215], the source and drain electrodes are connected by two channels with different mobility a, while two gates allow the control of the global channel electron density nr. Electrons can be shifted between the two channels by changing the gate voltages in differential mode, that is, a potential VGDIFF/2 is added with different sign in each of
CPn29, Noise and Fluctuations, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
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the gates to a bias voltage VGOFF which adjusts the total carrier concentration in the channel. Due to the different transport properties in the two channels. ID is modified while keeping rir constant, that is, by velocity modulation. In this way, it is in principle possible to overcome the transittime limit for highfrequency operation. Evidently, the differentialmode operation involves an inherent change in the noise properties of DGdevices. The purpose of this work is to review recent results on Monte Carlo (MC) modeling of highfrequency noise in IIIV fourterminal devices. The MC technique has been proved to be a very useful tool in the highfrequency noise analysis of SG and DG transistors [6,10,1618]. A thorough comparison between the noise performance of an InPbased latticematched 100 nmgate DGHEMT and the corresponding standard SG structure is performed by means of a semiclassical 2D ensemble MC simulator which reproduces satisfactorily the experimental static and dynamic characteristics of DG [6] and SG [1820] transistors, and allows predicting their noise performance. Previously to the noise analysis, the dynamic behavior of the devices must be determined. The procedure [6,18,20,21] is the same for both DG and SGdevices, what is correct as long as the DGHEMT works in common Z. =lQQn m , 2QQnm;innnm* * mode, that is, the potential applied at both igg gate electrodes being identical lOnrr^^l Bfftl'tJi'iM^^nWM nid llnAIAs {Vas=Vasi=Vas2) Once calculated the intrinsic Y parameters, the intrinsic P, R and QlnGaAs nid C noise parameters are evaluated taking llnAIAs Buffer 1 into account the intrinsic noise sources {Sm, Sia, and SIDIG) [22]. Then, the extrinsic SGHEMT minimum noise figure NFmi, the noise resistance R, and the associated gain Gass are determined by considering both intrinsic and extrinsic noise sources [23]. On the other hand, the analysis of the VMT behavior, still controversial, requires to include the differentialmode parameters for the input potential and current, typically
500nm , 12nm lOjs m"^ Schottky layer baoping 1 g 20nm Channel B 200nm
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[24].
In addition, the inclusion of the parasitic elements is still uncertain when dealing with the differentialmode operation, since the small signal equivalent circuit (SSEC) is not well established, so that here we just analyze the intrinsic P, R, and C parameters.
2. PHYSICAL MODEL
VMT FIGURE 1. Schematic drawing of the simulated SGHEMT, DGHEMT, and VMT.
For the calculations we make use of a semiclassical ensemble MC simulator selfconsistently coupled with a 2D Poisson
300
solver which takes into account important physical effects, like the influence of degeneracy in the channel by using the rejection technique [1820]. Our MC model, by providing an accurate description of the microscopic dynamics of carriers, allows predicting adequately the noise behavior. The reliability of the model is essential in fourterminal devices since, to our acknowledge, there are no available experimental results of their noise performance. The devices under study are recessed Ino 52AI0 48As/lno ssGao 47AS 100 nmgate DGHEMTs, and the corresponding standard SGHEMT, taken as a reference in the comparison. The detailed topology is plotted in Fig. 1. The SGHEMT consists of a InP substrate (not simulated), a 200 nm InAlAs buffer followed by a 20 nmthick InGaAs channel, three layers of InAlAs (a 5 nm spacer, a 5xI0'^ cm"^ 5doped layer modeled as a 5 nm layer doped at 10^' cm"^ and a 12 nm Schottky layer), and, finally, a 10 nm thick InGaAs cap layer (doped 6xI0'^ cm"^). In the DG device, the buffer is suppressed and substituted by a layer structure symmetrical to that at the top of the channel, and two opposite 100 nmgate electrodes control the total electron density in the channel. As well, they control the carrier shift between the high and lowa channels in differentialmode operation in the VMT device. The only difference in the VMT with respect to a typical DGHEMT is that the channel is divided into two 10 nmthick regions: a highj, undoped channel and a lowa channel with compensated doping of 7V^=7VD=10'^ cm"^. The compensated doping increases the ionized impurity scattering and thus decreases the electron mobility. The calculated lowelectricfield mobilities in the highj, and lowa channels are 12000 CWL'/YS and 2700 cm^/Vs, respectively.
3. RESULTS
To better understand the noise performances of the devices under study, the static and dynamic behavior of SG and DGHEMTs (operating in common mode) must be previously analyzed [25]. Due to the presence of two chargeaccumulation regions in the channel, the drain current ID provided by the DGHEMT is about twice that given by the SGtransistor for the same biasing, which leads to a significant increase of g^ (see Fig. 2). However, the higher values of gm are compensated by the increased gatetosource capacitance Cgs, thus providing lower values of the intrinsic cutoff frequency fc,  DGHEMT  V  SGHEMT j ^ * : evaluated as gm I InCgs. In particular, MC 500 i simulations predict a maximum of 401 and 387 400 GHz for the SG and DGHEMT, respectively, 300 r /^^^ rr2izij for KDS=0.5 V. Concerning the extrinsic dynamic 200 performance, the experimental parasitic elements 100 r W^^^K'~Trr'^.have been taken into account in the SSEC for the 00 0 1 0 2 03 0.4 05 0.6 . calculation of the extrinsic ft and fmax [5]. The DGHEMT benefits from two gates in parallel, FIGURE 2. MC 1DVDS curves in thus reducing its gate resistance Rg to nearly half the DG and SGHEMT. The gate than that of the SGHEMT. The source and drain vohage of the top curves is VQS= 0 V access resistances are also much lower in the DGand the step of the gate bias is tiVnfr 0.1 V for both sets of curves. HEMTs due to the higher electron density. The
. . , . . , . 1 . . . . , , , . . , . . , , 1 , , . . .
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301
200
400
/(mA/mm)
FIGURE 3. MC values of (a) P, (b) R and (c) C parameters vs. ID for the 100 nmgate DG and SGHEMTs. FTO=0.5 V.
simulations show a significant improvement in the maximum values of fmax 287 GHz for the DGHEMT compared to 226 GHz for the SGHEMT. Regarding ft, similar values are obtained for both the DG and SGdevices (around 200 GHz). The improvement of fmax due to the DG architecture is more pronounced than that of ft because of the reduced value of Rg and gd, which are important for fmax without much affecting the value of^. The intrinsic noise behavior of the transistors is illustrated in Fig. 3, which presents the (a) P, (b) R and (c) C noise parameters as a function of ID for the simulated DGand SGHEMTs for KDS=0.5 V. The MC results fori? and C are not very accurate due to the uncertainty in the calculation of the gate noise [18], and also the value of P for very low ID, when g^ is practically zero. Moreover, the gate leakage current and its consequent shot noise, that may affect the value of R (mainly near pinchoff) is not included in our model. For a better understanding of the figure, tendency lines have been drawn. P and R, representing, respectively, the noise due to the drain and gate current fluctuations, take lower values in the DGHEMT than in the SGdevice. This happens because carriers in the DGdevice are completely confined in the channel and the current fluctuations due to electrons injected into the buffer are avoided. The change between low/high horizontal velocity of electrons in the buffer/channel leads to drain current fluctuations, while the associated vertical motion generates an excess of gate current noise. Thus, the suppression of these real space transfer processes reduces both drain and gate current noise. On the other hand, C is about the same for both types of devices, since the electron dynamics inside the channel and the gatechannel couphng are similar. The extrinsic noise performance of the commonmode devices is analyzed in terms of the parameters NFmi and R, together with Gass In Fig. 4 we present their MC
' '
(b) 000
100
10
600
FIGURE 4. MC values of (a) AfF,, (b) G^, and (c) _R vs. ID for the 100 nmgate DG and SGHEMTs, at 94 and 150 GHz. F=0.5 V.
302
values as a function of ID for F D ^ O . 5 V at 94 GHz and 150 GHz for both DG and SGHEMTs. The minimum noise figure shows the typical Ushape, mainly due to the influence of Rn, which increases at both high (due to the increase of the drain noise, associated with the P parameter) and low (due to the decrease of the cutoff frequency) drain current. For the same biasing, NFmi is lower for the DG device than for the SG one. This occurs due to not only the reduction of the intrinsic drain and gate noise (lower P and R), but also the lower parasitic contact resistances. At a frequency of 94 GHz, the minimum values taken by NFmi are 2.1 dB (for /D=21 mA/mm) for the DGHEMT and 2.9 dB (for /D=68 mA/mm) for the SGdevice. At 150 GHz, the minimum values of NFmi are 2.8 dB for the DGHEMT and 4.2 dB for the SGdevice, which proves that the improvement introduced by the DG architecture is more noticeably the higher is the frequency. The extrinsic R and Gass are also much improved in the DGstructure, thus allowing both for a better noise matching and a higher gain at low noise conditions, and, as a consequence, a more flexible MMIC design. The wellknown increase of NFmi and decrease of Gass with frequency is clearly observed. Concerning the VMT, the analysis of the static, dynamic and noise behavior requires a different treatment. Carriers are shifted between the two channels by changing the gate voltages, Vai and Va2, in differential mode. In this way. ID depends on VQDIFF due to the different electron velocity in the channels while keeping the total electron density constant (see Fig. 5). When increasing VQDIFF the electron density is transferred from the lowa to the highj, channel, thus increasing the drain current [11]. However, the maximum values of gm related to this type of current control, extracted from the static characteristics, are extremely low, around 120 mS/mm in the device under analysis. As mentioned before, since the small signal VMT equivalent circuit is still controversial, we E restrict our analysis to the study of the P, R, and C E parameters. They are presented as a function of ID <
E
the VMT is about the same to that of similar commonmode devices. On the other hand, Sia is notably lower. However, due to the low values of gm, P is significantly higher than in the SG and DGHEMTs. In contrast, the differentialmode
(a)
30
a, 20 10
1
0
0 J  ^ 100 C
200
300
400
100
200
300
400
100
200
300
400
/ (mA/mm)
/ (mA/mm)
/ (mA/mm)
FIGURE 6. MC values of (a) P, (b) R and (c) C parameters vs. I^ for the 100 nmgate VMT. 1^^=0.5 V.
303
operation leads to values ofR much lower than in common mode. Since C is about the same (within the uncertainty of this quantity), the intrinsic values of NF^m result to be similar to the DGHEMT ones.
4. CONCLUSIONS
We have presented a review of a MCanalysis of the noise behavior in InPbased fourterminal devices. The simulations confirm that the intrinsic P and R noise parameters in the DGdevice (operating in common mode) are lower than in SGHEMT due to the suppression of the current fluctuations originated by the injection of electrons into the buffer. Furthermore, the extrinsic noise behavior (in terms of NFmi, Gass and R) is significantly improved due not only to the better intrinsic noise performance, but also to the lower contact resistances. However, recent results on the noise performance of VMTs (operating in differential mode) show very high values of P due to the small values of gm
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This work has been partially supported by the Direccion General de Investigacion, MCyT, and FEDER through the project TEC200761259/M1C and by the Consejeria de Educacion, JCyL, through the project SA019A08.
REFERENCES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. S. Tiwari, Compound Semiconductor Device Physics, New York: Academic, 1992. N. Wichmann, I. Duszynski, X. Wallart, S. Bollaert, and A. Cappy, IEEE Electron. Device Lett, 25 354 (2004). N. Wichmann, I. Duszynski, S. Bollaert, J. Mateos, X. Wallart, and A. Cappy, in lEDM Tech Dig., 1023 (2004). N. Wichmann, I. Duszynski, X. Wallart, S. Bollaert, and A. Cappy, IEEE Electron. Device Lett, 26 601 (2005). B. G. Vasallo, N. Wichmann, S. Bollaert, Y. Roelens, A. Cappy, T. Gonzalez, D. Pardo, and J. Mateos, IEEE Trans. Electron Dev., 54 2815 (2007). B. G. Vasallo, N. Wichmaim, S. Bollaert, Y. Roelens, A. Cappy, T. Gonzalez, D. Pardo, and J. Mateos, IEEE Trans. Electron Dev., 55 1535 (2008). G. K. Celler, and S. Cristoloveanu, J. Appl. Phys., 93 4955 (2003). A. Lazaro, and B. liiiguez, SolidState Electronics, 50 826 (2006). B. liiiguez, T. A. Fjeldly, A. Lazaro, F. Danneville, and M. J. Deen, IEEE Trans. Electron Dev., 53 2128 (2006). P. Dollfus, A. Boumel, S. Galdin,Retailleau, and J. E. Velazquez, J. Comput Electron., 5 479 (2006). N. Wichmann, B. G. Vasallo, S. Bollaert, Y. Roelens, X. Wallart, A. Cappy, T. Gonzalez, D. Pardo, and J. Mateos, ^pp/. Phys. Lett, 94 (2009, to be published). H. Sakaki, Jpn. J. Appl Phys., 21 L381 (1982). K. J. Webb, E. B. Cohen, and M. R. Melloch,/ Trans. Electron Dev., 48 2701 (2001). M. Prunnila, J. Ahopelto, K. Henttinen, and F. Gamiz, Appl. Phys. Lett., 85 5442 (2004). C. Sampedro, F. Gamiz, A. Godoy, M. Prunila, and J. Ahopelto,^pp/. Phys. Lett, 86 202115 (2005). R. Rengel, T. Gonzalez, and M. J. Martin, Fluctuations and Noise Lett, 4 L561 (2004). V. M. Polyakov, andF. Schwierz, Semicond Sci. Technol, 19 S145 (2004). J. Mateos, T. Gonzalez, D. Pardo, V. Hoel, and A. Cappy, IEEE Trans. Electron Dev., 47 1950 (2000). J. Mateos, T. Gonzalez, D. Pardo, V. Hoel, H. Happy, and A. Cappy, IEEE Trans. Electron Dev., 47 250 (2000). J. Mateos, T. Gonzalez, D. Pardo, V. Hoel, H. Happy, and A. Cwppy, Microelectton. Reliab., 41 73 (2001). T. Gonzalez, mAD.VarAo, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices A2 605611 (1995). A. Pucel, H. A. Haus H., and H. A. Statz,^ A. Electron. Electton Phys., 38 195 (1974). H. Rothe, and W. Dahlke, Proc. IRE, 44 811 (1956). D. E. Bockelman, and W. R. Eisenstadt, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., 43 1530 (1995).
304
INTRODUCTION
Since GaAs pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistors (pHEMTs) have demonstrated excellent microwave and noise performance, they are very attractive for millimeterwave and optoelectronic applications. In order to optimize the noise performance of pHEMTs for low noise apphcations, a scalable noise model for the pHEMTs which provides good accuracy and scalability based on the gate width is very important for monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC) design. This work presents the smallsignal and noise model of 0.15 imgate AlGaAs/InGaAs/GaAs pHEMTs with different gate widths fabricated by WIN semiconductor. The full noise characterization requires the four noise parameters: minimum noise figure , noise resistance R, optimum source conductance Gopt and optimum source susceptance Bopt. We found that the noise model parameters from different gate widths of the pHEMTs at the same current density show the similar noise coefficients unless considering the deviation in the noise coefficient P. This scaling observation fit well to the measured noise characteristics.
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intrinsic equivalent circuit. Both resistances contribute uncorrelated thermal noise. In Pucel et a/.'s model, the shortcircuit noise currents at drain <id> and gate <ig^> are modeled by the two equations: <id> = 4kTgmPAf and <ig^> = 4kT(Q)Cgs)2RA f/gm, with <igid > = j4kTAfQ)Cg,C(RC)" This model needs the noise coefficients R, P and C, where C is a complex number.
Gate
Drain
A smallsignal model is established first. Utihzing YangLong and ColdFET method, extrinsic parameters of pHEMTs can be extracted [2] [3]. Then by using matrix operation method to obtain the intrinsic parameters, which we can get all parameters to set up the smallsignal equivalent model of pHEMTs. Moreover, according to the H. Hillbrand method [4], we obtain the noise correlation matrices to match the four noise parameters from measurement for extracting noise coefficients: P, R and C. Therefore, the equivalent noise model of the pHEMTs with divinable noise characterization can be estabhshed. The Fig. 2 and Fig. 3 show the noise characterization of the 8 x 75 xm gate width pHEMT with model and measurement data, which shows an excellent agreement.
10
12
14
16
18
20
Frequency (GHz) FIGURE 2. The F, a.nAR versus frequency of the 8 x 75 jim pHEMT.
306
measure model
0.08
^ .
Av
G
y/ ^
 0.02
0.01
 0.00
20
10
12
14
16
18
Frequency (GHz) FIGURE 3. The G^, and Bop, versus frequency of the 8 x 75 ^rn pHEMT.
/ \A V r "
10
12
14
16
18
20
Frequency (GFIz)
FIGURE 4. The intrinsic C'^u between the pHEMTs with different siz
307
o""
\ \ _ \
. ^ ^
*8x75fjm
'V
.
i: 4.0x10"" o O 2.0x10""
0
V ^ A^
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Frequency (GHz) FIGURE 5. The intrinsic C'^22 between the pHEMTs with different sizes.
CONCLUSION
In this work, the noise coefficients between different gate widths pHEMTs maintain constant though the noise coefficient P shows the small deviation. Even though P has the small deviation, the similar value can be used as the initial value of the noise parameter extraction to optimize the four noise parameters. Such that it is convenient to model and avoid the complex noise extraction procedure.
TABLE 1. The parameters of pHEMTs with three jate widths for small signal am noise model. Extrinsic elements device 2x75 4x75 8x75 device 2x75 4x75 8x75 R.
Rd
R>
m 4.1
2.2 1.1
m 4.2
2.3 1.25
Cgd
m 4
Lg (PH)
U
(pH) 171 161 150
Rds
c
(fF) 90 70 55
T
Cpd
(fF) 63 54 44 Noise coefficients P 0.39 0.58 0.68 R 0.15 0.16 0.15 C 0.91 0.9 0.91
c
(fF) 96 189 374
(fF) 25 53 111
(fF) 42 88 176
(a)
0.8 0.4 0.2
Ri
(PS)
REFERENCES
1. R. A. Pucel, H. A. Haus, and H. Statz, "Signal and noise properties of GaAs microwave FET," Advances in Electronics & Electron Physics, vol. 38. New York: Academic Press, 1975, pp.195265 2. L. Yang, and S. I. Long, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 7, 7577 (1986). 3. G. Dambrine, A. Cappy, F. Heliodore, and E. Playez, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 36, 11511159(1988). 4. H. Hillbrand, and P. Russer, IEEE Trans. Circuits and Systems 23, 235238 (1976).
308
INTRODUCTION SiGe heterojuntion bipolar transistor technology nowadays offers high speed transistors capable to operate in cryogenic environment. Compared to BJTs, SiGe HBTs are naturally suitable for cryogenic temperatures, including 4 K [2],[3], and have achieved /jbeyond 600 GHz at 45 K [1]. Careful SiGe HBT profile optimization can yield an improved hf performance at very low temperatures [2],[4],[5]. It was shown that SiGe HBTs can be used for cryoapphcations, such as LNAs for satellite electronics [6], amplifiers for cooled Analog Digital Converters [7] and operational amplifiers working at 4 K [8]. Profile optimization suggests to lower the emitter concentration and to use a trapezoidal Ge profile with constant base doping. Along with high speed, reduced high frequency noise of cooled SiGe HBTs is an advantageous feature for LNA design. It was shown that significant improvement of NFjj was achieved at cryogenic temperatures even for SiGe HBTs with conventional doping profiles [5],[11],[12],[13]. Circuit design for these apphcations requires accurate physics based compact models (CM),
CPn29, Noise and Fluctuations, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
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which capture all important effects of HBTs operating within a large temperature range. It was shown in [10] that SiGe HBTs are also reliable devices for high temperature apphcations. In this work we present experimental and modehng results of LEC SiGe HBTs at different ambient temperatures.
310
and base respectively and Lg is emitter length and Wg is base width, AEg is bandgap reduction of the base. At CT p increases due to exponential term and decreases due to enhanced recombination of the minority carriers in the base, so compensating the current gain increase [17]. Electron delay distribution in collector exhibits peak, which was also given in [5] and is associated with HD model peculiarities.
10'
473 K y ^
10'
S^
no
# ^ /
10 "\ ^
!
HICUM HD model Exp. 423 K Exp. 373 K Exp. 323 K Exp. 300 K Exp. 75 K Exp.4 K
1010
^^
10' 10'
O 10'
^
' ^ ^^ l/f 'J/^my ^,JY
D C o = A 4 Q o
10'
10* 10=
c
'3
\//
r r
p
A *
r
i 0.8 1.0
^ ffl A A o
10'
10'
10' 10
' = /y^ /
* ^ *
O cP o
,^:
1.2
1.4
0.4
0.5
0.8
1.0
(a)
[V] VBE m (b) FIGURE 1. (a) J c (^BE) and (b) J^ (VBE) at different T..
VBE
2.0
^^Base423K Base323K ^^Emitter423K ^Emitter323K Collector 323K ^Collector 423K
0.2
0.3
X[nm] FIGURE 2. HD simulated: (a) energy band (b) total delay distribution at Fc=l5 V, ^^=0.^ V..
160F
140 120 O 100 80 60 40 20
10.00
IX
100
200
300
400
500
T[K (b) FIGURE 3. (a)/j. vs. J^ at ^c=l5 V, thick line: HD, solid line HICUM (b) peak/j. vs. T.
HD simulated NFjj,j versus JQ is in perfect agreement with experimental data for higher T range (Fig.4, a, b). NFjj,j analysis revealed that the main noise contributors are related to collector current fluctuations (shotlike noise) (Fig.4, a) and thermal noise in the base at higher T (Fig.4, b). At both Tbase current fluctuation related noise becomes important at high injection only. Simulated diffusion noise spectral density distribution (Fig. 5) demonstrates that electron noise origins at the BE junction but not in BC junction area. 311
(4
1UTWpf=^GH^ 9  1. Al ndife 6'feou .irtniii T1 miiii 2. Only collector shot ' '  ^ ^'~ ' Vr^r^O 8 ^V 3. Only base Shot ^BE ^'^ 4. No base resistance thern'ial noise Symbols are measured data ^ Thick solid li ne HD
IIL
/ / /
^
f .. III!
Ll+lf ' 9 /
"3/
J ^__
(b) J(^ [mA/fim J(^ [mA/fim FIGURE 4. M^; vs. J^, thick line: HD, solid line: HICUM. (a): 7=323 K (b): 7=423 K.
Electron diffusion noise V^ =1.5V, V=0.8V, 1GHz =1.5V, V =0.8V Hole diffusion noise distribution
I
O 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30
HM
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.3C
S (a) X[nm] (b) X[nm] FIGURE 5. (a): Collector terminal electron noise density distribution (b): Base terminal hole noise density distribution.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This work was supported by DOTFIVE European project. Atmel GmbH is acknowledged for wafers. Authors M. Ramonas, P. Sakalas and M. Schroter are thankful to DFG for financial support.
REFERENCES
[I] p. Chevalier etal., IEEE BCTM, pp. 121124, 2008. [2] J. D. Cressler, et al., IEEE TED, Vol. 40, No. 3, pp. 542  556, 1993. [3] H. Geissler et al.. Digest IEEE ARTFG, CDROM, 2006. [4] Y. Cui et al.. Digest, IEEE BCTM 9.3, 2006. [5] J. D. Cressler, G. Niu, "SiliconGermanium Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors", Artech House, 2003. [6] E. Soares et al., IEEE MTT, Vol. 48, No.7, pp. 11901198, 2000. [7] D. Gupta et al., IEEE Transactions on applied superconductivity, Vol.13, No.2, pp. 477483, 2003. [8] R. Krithivasan et al., IEEE BCTM 4.1, 2006. [9] A. Schiippen et.al., Proc. ESSDERC, SolidState Device Research Conference, pp. 8891, 2000. [10] T. Chen et al., IEEE TED,Vol. 51, No.ll, pp. 18251823, 2004. [II] B. Banerjee et al., IEEE TED, Vol. 52, No.4, pp. 585593, 2005. [12] S. Pruvost et al., IEEE EDL, Vol. 26, No.2, pp.105108, 2005. [13] J. D. Cressler, IEEE BCTM 15.1, pp. 248251, 2005. [14] M. Schroter, lEICE Transactions on Electronics, Vol. E88C, No. 6, pp. 10981113, 2005. [15] P. Sakalas et.al., IEEE TED, Vol. 56, No.2, pp. 328336, 2009. [16] B. Neinhus et al., VLSI Design, Vol. 8, pp. 387391, 1998. [17] C Arnaboldi et al., IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, Vol.50, No.4, pp. 921927, 2003.
312
INTRODUCTION
CdTe is a member of the IIIV semiconductor family. It is a material of great importance in the fields of both fundamental research and technical applications, because of its structural, optical electronic and photoelectronic properties. In the last years, single crystals of cadmium telluride (CdTe) have become useful as a nuclear radiation detector, an electrooptical modulator, an optical material in the infrared and a solar cell, whose maximum efficiency is as high as 23%. The main application of CdTe consists in high resolution detection of yrays and Xrays 0. Germanium and silicon is the common semiconductor materials used respectively for gammaray and xray spectrometers. However, because of their small band gaps they must be cooled and in most cases operated near liquid nitrogen temperatures (77 K) to avoid excessive thermal currents. At the other extreme, CdTe detectors operate at room temperature because of their wide gap zone Eg~1.5eV (T=300 K). CdTe has high absorption coefficient to absorb high energy radiations. That makes CdTe the most suitable material for nuclear detectors manufacturing [23].
CPn29, Noise and Fluctuations, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
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NOISE
All the samples show 1/f noise as a dominant noise and some samples also show GR noise. The noise characteristic of lowohmic sample is in Figurel and there is 1/f" noise with parameter n very close to 1 for all the values of applied voltage.
f33b8sivoltages300k15.01.2009.ep
<
f/Hz FIGURE 1. The noise spectral density of sample F33B8 and background noise. Applied voltages U = 0.19; 1.25; 13 V.
The intensity of 1/f noise is inversely proportional to the total number of the carriers in the sample (AO [4]:
S,
Nf
[1]
where Si is the noise spectral density of a fluctuating current (I) developed across the terminals of a linear resistor when a current is injected into it; an is Hooge constant, it insignificantly depends on temperature and its value for CdTe a n  210"^. The hole concentration within the depleted region for the applied voltage U = 1.25 V is in Fig.2. The calculation according to equation 1 shows that the value of noise spectral density should have been much less than the measured value. The hole concentration distribution within the depleted region was calculated with the assumption that the hole concentration in the homogenous part of the sample p = 710^'* cm"^. The total number of free carriers can be obtained by integration of the function in Figure 2. When the result is substituted in equation 1, the current noise spectral density is the same as the measured one. These calculations were carried out for all the samples and it proves that the source of excess 1/f noise is in the depleted region at metalsemiconductor junctions.
314
f33b8pconc1.25v16.06.08.ep
200 x/nm
300
FIGURE 2. The holes concentration distribution within the depleted region of ptype CdTe sample F33B8 at the metalsemiconductor junction. Applied voltage U = 1.25 V.
The noise spectral density of highohmic sample B39D1H with no light is in Figure 3. The dominant noise at low frequencies is 1/f" noise with parameter n very close to 1. The noise spectral density of the same sample illuminated by 548 nm wavelength is in Figure 4. The dominant noise at low frequencies up to 20 Hz is 1/f" noise with parameter n close to 1. At higher frequencies and with higher voltages the GR noise is dominant.
b39d1hnolight20.11.08.ep
315
<
1 f/Hz
10
100
CONCLUSION
The noise spectral density of 1/f noise depends on the quantity of free carriers in the sample. The analysis of low frequency noise showed that the experimental value of 1/f noise is always much higher than the theoretical value which corresponds to the total quantity of free carriers in the sample. Free carriers are distributed uniformly throughout the homogenous part of the sample. But within the depleted region there is very low concentration of free carriers The excess value of low frequency noise is caused by the low carrier concentration within the depleted region at the metalsemiconductor junction.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This research has been supported by GACR No. 102/07/0113 and by the Czech Ministry of Education in the frame of MSM 0021630503 Research Intention MIKROSYN "New Trends in Microelectronic System and Nanotechnologies".
REFERENCES
1. J. Singh, Semiconductor Devices: Basic Principles. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2001 2. CAPPER, P. and Co. Properties of Narrow Gap Cadmium Based Compounds. INSPEC, 1994. 648 pages. 3. ZANIO, K. Semiconductors and Semimetals. Volume 13. Cadmium Telluride. Academic Press, INC. 1978. 4. HOOGE, F.N. 1/f Noise is no surface effect. Physics Letters A. 1969, v ol. 29, no 3, p. 139140. ISSN 00036951
316
INTRODUCTION
Low Frequency (LF) or flicker noise parameters are of prime importance for the design of high performance infrared image sensors. For room temperature sensors, these parameters are generally given by the foundry as part of the design kit. However, as those high performance infrared sensors must be cooled at low temperature, typically 77 K, to attain their highest sensitivity, LF noise parameters must be extracted prior to integrated circuit design as they are generally not given by the foundry [1]. This paper reports the LF noise measurements of MOSFETs done on devices of different gate lengths and widths and having different threshold voltages or oxide thicknesses. The CMOS technology is first presented. Thereafter, experimental setup is described. The third part is dedicated to the main results and modeling.
CMOS TECHNOLOGY
We characterize a mixed mode/RF CMOS process optimized for room temperature operation. In this dual gate oxide process, two kinds of MOSFET transistors are available: (1) transistors with a physical gate thickness of 3.3 nm, a minimum channel length of 0.18 ^im and operating at a maximum recommended voltage of 1.8 V and (2) transistors with a physical gate thickness of 6.5 nm, a minimum channel length of 0.35 i^m and operating at 3.3 V. pMOSFET are made in a NWELL. Depending on the channel doping, transistors with different threshold voltages are provided. pMOSFET transistors may be done either with a standard threshold voltage (STD) or with a low
CPn29, Noise andFluctuaUons, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
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threshold voltage (LVT). nMOSFET transistors are made either in a Psubstrate (also referred as the PWELL) or in a triple well (TWELL). NMOSFET transistors have either a standard threshold voltage (STD), a low threshold voltage (LVT) or a zerovolt threshold voltage (ZVT). As a whole, twelve MOSFET transistors are allowed for mixed analogdigital circuit design. This process is a dual gate process and uses two kinds of polysilicon gates, N^ doped polysilicon gate for nMOSFET and P^ doped polysilicon gate for pMOSFET. As a consequence both NMOS and PMOS are surface channel transistors. This deep submicron process has pocket implants to combat short channel effects. Finally we have to mention that this process has LDD zones to diminish hotcarrier degradation and use ShallowTrench Isolation (STI). Low temperature characterization of this process is presented in [2].
LF NOISE MEASUREMENTS
LF noise was measured using a specific computercontrolled system with programmable biasing current amplifiers. This system allows automatic current fluctuations measurements on up to six devices inside a cryostat using low noise switches. Lownoise voltage sources are used to bias drain, gate and bulk terminals. The noise is measured, not as it is classically done in the linear regime (Vds ~ 50 mV), but in saturation (Vds = 1.8 or 3.3 V) as it will be representative of their operation in analog circuits. Prior to noise measurements, the devices are characterized in the DC mode using an Agilent 4155 parameter analyser. Important quantities, such as subthreshold slope, drain current (Id), gate transconductance (Gm), drain conductance (Gds) and bulk transconductance (Gmb) are measured. The high sensitivity of our experimental setup allows to measure the thermal noise floor at frequency lower than 100 kHz on long channels biased in weak inversion with a current power spectral density very closed to 2/3 x 4 kT (Gm + Gmb + Gds) as expected in saturation. Different gate lengths have been under investigations from 20 ^m to the minimum allowed transistor length (0.18 or 0.35 ^im), with gate widths from 20 ^m to 1 ^m. Transistors were biased at different gate voltages ranging from weak inversion (Id ~ 10 pA) to strong inversion (Id ~ 1 mA). The slope of each recorded spectrum is carefully analyzed. RTS noise components are eliminated. After this treatment, the LF noise is found to follow a 1/f^ variation with a mean y value of 0.97 0.10.
318
al. [3] by taking into account the correlated mobility fluctuations occurring at the highest currents: Si^ = [l + a n C i r G ^ S , , ( f )
d L " ox y^ i m Vfb \ /
(1)
CJ
W L C
where Nt (Ep) is the oxide trap volume density per unit energy (eV"' cm"^) evaluated at Fermi level, X a tunnel attenuation distance (0.1 nm) and a the Coulomb scattering coefficient (V s/C). Extracted values of a for 3.3 V STD nMOSFETs are 7x10^ at 295 K and 9x10^ at 77 K.
1E16 NMOS 3.3 V STD PWELL 77 K f=1 Hz 1E17 Improved model ; 1E18 'B h 1E19 ^1E i 1E20 McWhorther model 1E22 1E12 Improved model
s
1E04 1E.03 1E10
1E22 1E.09
1E07
1E06 ld*L/W(A)
1E05
1E08
1E.06
1E04
1E
ld*L/W(A)
FIGURE 1. Experimental and best fit of Sld/Id^ versus Id for nMOSFET at 295 K.
Figures 3 and 4 show the experimental drain current power spectral densities Sid at 77 K versus Gm for 3.3 V STD nMOSFET and pMOSFET, respectively. This representation shows that the following simplified carrier number fluctuations model suits in a very large range of inversion for analog transistors used in the design of image sensors: SF KFG' 1 WLC F (2)
where KF and EF are parameters. The extracted EF parameter is slightly different from 2, and lies between 1.7 and 2.4 on the different MOSFETs of this process. This result was previously reported on other advanced CMOS technologies [4]. This LF noise model has been introduced in the EKV3 chargebased compact model [5].
1E30 1E32 T, 1E34
t/i
E
1E30 NMOS 3.3 V STD PWELL 77 Kf=1Hz f' 1E32 1E34 EF=2.08KF 5.2E27 1^^
g 1E36
\
m ^
\
:, ^'
f*'
1E38 1E^0
^^^' %^
V^
1E05
'^
^
1E^2 1E OS 1E07 1E06
1E^2 1E)4 1
1E.07
FIGURE 3. Experimental and best fit of WLCox^ Sid versus G^ for nMOSFET at 77 K
FIGURE 4. Experimental and best fit of WLCox^ Sid versus G^ for pMOSFET at 77 K
319
Figure 5 shows the calculated concentration Nt (Ep) of oxide traps on the different transistors at 295 K and 77 K. The oxide trap density typicaUy ranges from 5x10"' to 3 x l 0 " eV"' cm"^ at room temperature. Most of the transistors present systematically a higher trap density at low temperature. nMOSFET are noisier at 77 K by a factor 7 ~ 13, while pMOSFET are only noisier by a factor 0.6 ~ 3. The increase of Nt at low temperature should be related to higher trap density as getting closer to the band edge at low temperature [6]. ; : : \
A A A A 295 K A 7 7 K
TAX
rJ'"
rJ
CONCLUSION
LF noise characteristics of a mixedmode 0.18 ^m CMOS technology have been investigated at low temperature. LF noise behavior in these MOSFETs is well described by the carrier number fluctuation with correlated mobility fluctuation model. A simpler model, where only the gate transconductance Gm is used, was shown to work in a wide range of operation for transistors used in image sensors operating at low temperature.
ACKOWLEDGMENTS
This work has been supported by DGA (Delegation Generale a I'Armement).
REFERENCES
1. P.Martin and M. Bucher, Proceedings of the 6 European Workshop on Low Temperature Electronics, WOLTE6, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, pp. 133136 (2004). 2. P. Martin, M. Cavelier, R. Fascio, G. Ghibaudo and M. Bucher, accepted in Cryogenics (2009). 3. G. Ghibaudo, O. Roux, Ch. NguyenDue, F. Balestra and J. Brini, Phys. Stat. Sol. (a), 124, 2, 571581 (1991). 4. P. Martin and M. Bucher, Proceedings of the 10 International Conference on Mixed Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, Lodz, Poland, 2628 June 2003, pp. 8992. 5. A. Bazigos, M. Bucher, F. Krummenacher, J.M. Sallese, A.S. Roy, C. Enz, "EKV3 Compact MOSFET Model's Documentation, Version 301.02", Technical University of Crete (2008). 6. I.M. Hafez, G. Ghibaudo and F. Balestra, J. Appl. Phys., 66, 22112213 (1989).
320
INTRODUCTION Recent experiments devoted to the detection of photoexcited plasma waves in High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) channels in the THz frequency region [1,2,3] have stimulated the consideration of the possibility to use the photoexcitation technique also for the development of roomtemperature operating tunable sources and detectors of THz radiation [4]. Such devices are based on the resonant excitation of currents in the sourcedrain and sourcegate circuits at the beating frequency of two laser sources producing carriers photoexcitation in the HEMT channel. Due to the conversion nature of such a source, one of its important characteristics is the signaltonoise ratio at the generation frequency [5]. Up to now, the highfrequency behavior of the electronic noise in HEMT channels was considered only near thermal equilibrium without any external excitation of plasma waves [6]. Nevertheless, these investigations have demonstrated the resonant enhancement of the excess noise in the frequency region of the plasma waves excitation. Such an extra noise will determine, in essence, the signaltonoise ratio at the generation frequency. The aim of the present investigation is to study the behavior of such an excess noise directly under photogeneration conditions. MODEL For this sake, the current noise behavior at the source, drain and gate terminals of an InGaAs HEMT under a photoexcitation at the beating frequency is simulated by the
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hydrodynamic (HD) approach based on the conservation equations for carrier concentration and velocity coupled with a quasi2D Poisson equation [3,4]. The noise spectra are calculated in the framework of the transfer impedance method by using acceleration fluctuations during scattering events as a microscopic noise source [6]. For noise calculations under photoexcitation, an additional averaging of the spectral densities over a period of the beating signal is performed. The parameters of the HEMT structure mainly correspond to those of refs. [3,4]: the channel thickness is 5 = 15 nm, the gatetochannel distance d=l5 nm, the gated channel lengthLg = 940 nm with 30 nm ungated regions at the source and drain terminals, the channel effective donors density 7V^ = 8x10'^ cm^^ [3]. The velocity relaxation rate is v = 10'^ s^'. The electronhole pair generation rate is expressed as g{t) = Go[l + cos{27tfbt)] where Go = 10^^ s^'cm^^ and fb is the beating frequency. The simulations of noise and the photoexcitation phenomena are carried out near thermal equilibrium. Two operation modes of HEMT are considered. In the first case, to simulate a voltage driven operation, all the potentials applied to source (Us), drain (Ud) and gate (Ug) terminals are supposed to be zero. These values are used as boundary conditions for the quasi2D Poisson equation [3,4] in a straightforward way. In the second case, for a constant total current operation at the drain terminal, the condition Ud = 0 is replaced by Jd = 0. To fulfill the latter condition, an additional differential equation for the electric field at the drain contact: jf = {Jd J^""'^)/seo is solved in parallel with the HD equations and a value Ed{t) at each time step is used as a boundary condition for the quasi2D Poisson equation at the drain terminal.
NUMERICAL RESULTS
It should be emphasized that the characteristic feature of a gated channel of HEMT is the possibility of an excitation of standing plasma waves in the channel. As a consequence, both internal fluctuations caused by carrier scattering events inside the conducting channel and external excitations (such as photogeneration, ac voltages and currents applied to HEMT terminals, etc.) will originate in spectral response series of resonant peaks at frequencies corresponding to eigen spatial modes of plasma waves. This is illustrated by Fig. 1 which shows the spatial profiles of electron concentration calculated by the HD approach under photoexcitation for constant drainvoltage and draincurrent operation modes when the beating frequency corresponds to the fundamental plasma wave frequency of 476 and 250 GHz for the first and second operation modes, respectively. As follows from Fig. 1 excited standing modes correspond, respectively, to A/2 and A/4 waves. Figs. 2 and 3 present noise spectra calculated without and with photoexcitation (solid and dashed lines, respectively) for the above described two operation modes. Let us discuss firstly the case without photoexcitation. For the voltagedriven operation the first resonance at the fundamental frequency / ( corresponds to the standing plasma wave with A/2 = Lg where Lg is the length of the gated part of the channel. In agreement with analytical considerations [3], the intrinsic noise spectrum at source and drain terminals contains resonances at all the frequencies fk = kf{ (k = 0,1,2,3,...), while
322
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CD
2 3 4
'
/ ^
' 
~y^
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/...""
80 75 70
'.
(a) '
0.4
X (^im)
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FIGURE 1. Spatial profiles of electron concentration in InGaAs HEMT operating under constant (a) voltage Uci = () and (b) current Jd = 0 applied to the drain terminal in the case of photoexcitation with the generation rate Go[l+ cos((<)]. Curves 1 to 4 correspond to phases (< = 0, n/l, n, 'iTijl.
FIGURE 2. Spectral density of current fluctuations at the (a) source and (b) gate terminals of InGaAs HEMT operating under constant sourcedrain voltage Uds = 0. Calculations are performed by the HD approach without and with carrier photoexcitation at the beating frequency / / = 476 GHz (solid and dashed lines, respectively). The arrow indicates the photogeneration frequency.
only odd spatial modes with A = 1,3,5,... manifest themselves in the spectrum of current : fluctuations. For the second operation mode, which keeps the constant total current at the drain terminal Jd = 0, the first resonant peak at the fundamental frequency f(^ corresponds to plasma wave with A/4 = Lg, so that f^^ /]f/2. As follows from Fig. 3, here both spectral densities of current and voltage fluctuations at the source/gate and drain terminals, respectively, exhibit series of resonant peaks at frequencies fk = kf[', A:=l,2,3,... To calculate the noise spectra modifications due to photoexcitation under the drainterminal voltage and current driven operation modes we use the beating frequency of the electronhole pairs generation rate to be equal to / ( and f{', respectively. The results are presented in Figs. 2 and 3 by dashed lines. It is evident that, when the photoexcitation amplitude is sufficiently high, a significant supression of the excess noise both at the beating frequency and all the frequencies where plasma waves can be excited, is observed. In part, this can be explained by photoexcitation of the regular plasma waves (see Fig. 1) which damp effectively "irregular" plasma waves appearing due to
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FIGURE 3. Spectral density of (a) current fluctuations at the source and (b) voltage fluctuations at the drain terminals of InGaAs HEMT operating under constant current Jd = 0 flowing through drain terminal. Calculations are performed by the HD approach without and with carrier photoexcitation at the beating frequency / ^ = 250 GHz (solid and dashed lines, respectively). The arrow indicates the photogeneration frequency.
fluctuations.
CONCLUSIONS
Summarizing, we can conclude that, when the beating frequency coincides with the fundamental frequency of plasma waves, an increase of the photoexcitation amplitude results in a significant suppression of the intrinsic excess noise both at the beating frequency and at all the frequencies where plasma waves can be excited. Such a behavior is favourable for the development of roomtemperature operating tunable sources and detectors of THz radiation based on the photoexcitation technique.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This work is supported, in part, by the Lithuanian State Science and Studies Fundation contract No P01/2007, by the french DGA project DEMETER and by the french ANR project AITHER.
REFERENCES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Otsuji T, et al. 2004 Appl. Phys. Letters 85 2119 Torres J, et al. 2006 Appl. Phys. Letters 89 201101 Torres J, et al. 2008IEEEJ. Select. Top. Quant. Electron. 14 491 Shiktorov P, et al. 2009 J. Stat. Mech. 01 01047 Shiktorov P, et al. 2003 IEEE Trans. Electr Dev. 50 1171 Shiktorov P et al. 2001 Rivista Nuovo Cimento 24, ser 4, No. 9, 172
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study of the Low Frequency Noise of Metallic Emitter SiGeC Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors
F. Pascal^ J. Raoult\ C. Leyris^
' Institut d'Electronique du Sud, UMR 5214, Place Bataillon, Universite .Montpellier. II, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France. Tel: 33 4 6714 32 14; Fax : 33 4 67 54 71 34; Email: pascal@cem2.univmontp2.fr ^ STMicroelectronics 850 rue Jean Monnet, 38926 Crolles cedex, France. Abstract. In this paper, we have been investigating both static and LowFrequency noise (LF noise) characteristics of metallic emitter SiSiGe:C Heteroj unction Bipolar Transistors (HBTs) based on a 0.13 jim technology developed by ST Microelectronics. This study is based on a comparison between the standard monoemitter process and the metal emitter process. Static results confirm an increase in IB with an Ic constant and an increase in the figureofmerit fxx BVcEo. We found a decrease in the 1/f noise level for the metallic emitter HBTs. The base current noise spectral density SJB evolves quadratically with IB and Kp is found to be inversely proportional to AE. These static and noise results will be presented and discussed. In particular, we emphasize the role of the cobalt silicidation on the excess noise. Keywords: BiCMOS, Heteroj unction Bipolar Transistor, Metallic emitter, SiGeC base. Lowfrequency noise. PACS: 85.30De, 85.30Pq, 85.40Qx
INTRODUCTION
Recent technological and design developments have allowed for the fabrication of silicon^based heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) with unity current gain frequencies (fi's) and maximum oscillation frequencies (fmax) in the 250s of GHz. With these extremely high fi and fmax, SiGeC bipolar devices become very attractive for wireless and optical communications. Such advances are made possible by the increase in collector doping, that delays the Kirk effect, and enables high collector currents. A very high current gain (3 is also achieved but with a detrimental effect on collectortoemitter breakdown voltage BVCEO The integration of a metalhc emitter, based on the use of a very thin polyemitter, has thus been developed\ This metallic emitter has to increase the base current IB without reducing the collector current Ic. Hence, the BVCEO is increased without affecting the fj.
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EXPERIMENTAL Devices structure and measurement setup We study here the static and noise behavior of standard monoemitter process and the metal emitter process. Figures 1 and 2 show a schematic crosssection of devices with standard emitter and with metallic emitter devices respectively. The architecture of the two HBT types is a Fully SelfAhgned doublepolysilicon structure using Selective Epitaxial Growth of the SiGeC base layer. The SiGe growth is terminated by an undoped silicon capping layer separating the emitter and the base. The Sicap layer acts as a buffer for the carbon outdiffusion mechanism\ Arsenic insitu doped polysilicon is deposited to form the emitter. Cleaning treatment (HF clean) associated with high annealing temperatures and times results in an epitaxial regrowth of this polyemitter. The emitter is also partially monocrystalline. To perform metalhc emitter process, the polyemitter thickness is reduced from 150 nm for the standard process to 40 nm, while keeping the rest of the process unchanged. Particularly, the cobalt sihcidation module is not modified in order to keep CMOS compatibility. Finally, at the end of the process, the emitter is composed of a sihcon epitaxial layer (monocrystalline sihcon emitter) and a thin silicided polyemitter.
1
Fig 1: Schematic crosssection of HBT with standard emitter.
The static characteristics (GummelPlots) are measured using an HP4156 semiconductor parameter analyzer. For the LF noise measurements, the devices are biased in a commonemitter configuration at a constant collector voltage of IV. Noise analysis is based on the direct measurement of the base current noise spectral densities SIB. Noise measurements are performed in the frequency range of 1 HzlOO kHz, using a spectrum analyzer (HP89410A) and a lownoise currenttovoltage amplifier (EG&G5182). More details about the LF noise measurement setup are proposed in refl In this paper, we focus on the study of the 1/f noise. As often reported in the literature for polyemitter B JTs^ and SiGe HBTs"*, the 1/f noise component of the base current spectral densities can be identified to the SPICE model by : Sm =K  5 , with y ~ 1, Ap and Kp are the SPICE parameters. When Ap ~ 2 this
r
model is used for a direct comparison of the 1/f noise level through the unitless parameter Kp. Moreover when Kp is inversely proportional to the emitter area, most results shows that the main 1/f noise sources are located in the intrinsic EB volume"*.
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Static Analysis
Figure 3 compares the GummelPlots and current gain of standard emitter and metallic emitter HBTs. Both the standard and metallic emitter HBTs show ideal GummelPlots except for the low forward emitterbase junction bias (VBE<0.4V), where a strong band to band tunnelling current is observed\ The tunnel current is reduced when the emitter is thinner, this probably means that the emitterbase junction is less abrupt and the arsenictoboron distance is increased. At high forward emitterbase junction bias, the base current VBEM of the metallic emitter is increased Fig 3 : GummelPlots and current gain comparison of by a factor of 2 compared to the metallic and standard emitter 0.15x 3.7 jim^ HBTs. standard emitter, without degrading the ideality and affecting the collector current. Current gain is also decreased from 2700 down to 1300. The combination of fast surface recombination at the emitter contact and a very thin neutral emitter region allows controlhng IB by varying the remaining thickness of the monocrystalline silicon. This principle is illustrated in ref^. But the gain reduction is not sufficient to significantly increase BVCEO (here +0.4V). Further investigations have shown that when lowly doped emitters are used, the base current becomes more controllable by the emitter thickness. The current gain and the breakdown voltage are therefore more significantly changed\
LF Noise Analysis
This study compares the noise behaviour of standard HBTs (with emitter thickness of 150 nm) and metallic emitter HBTs (with emitter thickness of 40 nm). Representative noise spectra of SIB for the metalhc emitter are reported in the figure 4.
10^' i
A 10^
10'
Fig 4: Noise spectra Sm for metallic emitter with emitter area of AE =0.3x3.7 jim^.
Fig 5: Noise spectra SIB at 1 Hz as a function of base current IB, for standard and metallic emitter.
The excess noise is only composed of a 1/f noise component and the white noise is reached. All investigated metallic and standard emitter HBTs show a similar behavior 327
for different geometries. According to the SPICE model, the extraction of Ap and Kp parameters are undertaken. Figure 5 shows that the 1/f noise exhibits an IB^ dependence. The 1/f noise amplitude Kp for metallic emitter device is found to be inversely proportional to the emitter area. Hence, the associated figureofmerit KB defined as KB=KF X AE (nm^) has an excellent value ~ 3x10"' ^m^ compared to previous pubhshed data^. A noticeable reduction of the 1/f noise level (almost one decade) is observed for the metalhc emitter HBTs. This noise reduction will be discussed in the next section.
DISCUSSION
Several assumptions can be proposed to explain the significant reduction in the 1/f noise level for the metallic emitter devices. All the parameters extracted with LF noise measurements show that the 1/f noise source are located in the intrinsic emitterbase volume. Many researchers have shown that 1/f noise, in BiCMOS bipolar transistors, is caused by a fluctuation in the density of minority carriers, which is determined by a fluctuation in surface recombination^. The base current is composed of several recombination components which can fluctuate^. Generally, in modem HBT technology, the fluctuation in the recombination current at the polysilicon/monosihcon interface is proposed to explain the origin of the 1/f noise. In the case of the devices studied in this paper, the density of interface traps can be reduced by the cobalt silicidation process. Since the polyemitter is very thin, cobalt can have a passivation action of the interface states. Moreover, this phenomenon is enhanced by the epitaxial regrowth of the polysihcon layer. An other possible explanation for the reduction in the 1/f noise level in metalhc emitter is the strong decrease in the polysihcon thickness, from 150 nm down to 40 nm. Hence, the recombination current in the polysihcon emitter, due to dangling bonds and trapping sites at the grain boundaries, can fluctuate and produce noise. However since the polysihcon is degenerately doped this resulting noise must be very low^.
CONCLUSION
We have presented static and noise results on metalhc emitter in a highspeed SiGe HBT technology. A significant reduction of 1/f noise level has been observed compared to the standard emitter devices. We have pointed out the role of the cobalt silicidation of the polyemitter in the excess noise improvement.
REFERENCES
1 B. Barbalat, F. Judong, L. Rubaldo et al, IEEE BCTM, 810 octobre 2006. 2 J. Raoult, F. Pascal, C. Delseny et al, J Appl. Phys. 103, 2008. 3 M.J. Deen, J. 1. llowski, P. Yang, J. Appl. Phys. 77, 1995. 4 F. Pascal, C. Chay, M. J. Deen, and al, lEE Proc: Circuits Devices Syst. 151, 2004. 5 J. J. T. M. Donkers, T. Vanhoucke, P. Agarwal et al, lEDM Tech. Dig., 2004. 6 A. Van derZiel, X. Zhang, A. H. Pawlikiewicz, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED33, 1986.
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Abstract. This paper presents the first results of the Monte Carlo analysis of the noise performance of Schottky barrier (SB) SOI MOSFETs, focusing our attention in saturation conditions. We analyze the influence of the applied gate bias and the barrier height over the different noise parameters. The main importance of this work lies in the innovation of the study, since this is the first time in the literature that the noise performance of SBMOSFETs is analyzed by means of a 2D Monte Carlo simulator. Keywords: Monte Carlo simulator, Schottky Barrier MOSFET, noise performance. PACS: 05.10.Ln, 73.30.+y, 85.30.Tv, 72.70.+m
INTRODUCTION Schottky barrier (SB) MOSFETs, where the highly doped source and drain (S/D) are replaced by metal silicide, are receiving a lot of attention nowadays. They fulfill some of the requirements exposed in the ITRS [1] due to their interesting features, such as a reduced thermal budget in the fabrication process, a low S/D parasitic resistance and an inherent scalability to gate lengths down to 10 nm due to the low resistance of the metal [2]. For these reasons, the modelling of SBMOSFETs is a key issue in the development of metal source/drain architectures that may potentially replace conventional MOS devices. Within this framework, an accurate modelling of principles of operation across the Schottky barrier in SBMOSFETs has been developed in a previous work by means of a 2D EMC simulator [3]. It must be highlighted that there are very few works in the literature that deal with the modelling of SBMOSFETs, and they are mainly devoted to the study of IV curves. In particular, uptodate the noise modeling of SBMOSFETs remains unexplored. The Ensemble Monte Carlo (EMC) method is one of the best tools to develop an accurate analysis of the dynamic and noise performance [4]; its stochastic nature mimics the real, noisy movement of carriers inside the device, without defining primary noise sources or considering any approach about its physical origin. In the present work, we have focused on the study of the noise performance of SBMOSFETs, and the influence of the Schottky barrier height of the contacts on the intrinsic noise sources. Such study is of great relevance since the reduction of the
CPn29, Noise andFluctuaUons, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
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barrier height is proposed by some groups as a main goal for SBMOSFETs to enhance the current drive and to be competitive with regard to conventional MOSFETs [5].
SIMULATION DETAILS
The simulated structures considered (see Table 1) consist on an nchannel accumulationmode SBMOSFET on SOI substrate. The topology is similar to that of a conventional SOIMOSFET, but the ohmic contacts have been replaced by Schottky junctions; moreover, there is an underlap between the gate and the source and drain contacts. Three different Schottky barrier heights have been considered. Since quantum tunnelling across the barrier is of prime interest in these devices, it has been properly implemented in our inhouse EMC. The key quantity in the procedure is the quantum transmission coefficient (TC), which is determined from the selfconsistent EMC potential profile by solving the Schrodinger equation using the WKB approach. This methodology of the 2D problem is detailed in [3]. An analogous procedure has been realized and properly checked for the ID study of Schottky diodes in [6].
TABLE 1. Main parameters considered in the simulated structure. Parameter Value Description 120 nm Gate length L, 5 nm Underlap length ^un 10 nm Body thickness tsi 210'^ cm' Channel doping Nosi 0.25eV//0.20eV//0.15eV Schottky barrier height q1>Bn 2.2 nm Gate oxide thickness ^ox 400 nm Buried oxide thickness ^box
In order to determine the intrinsic gate and drain noise sources in a twoport device configuration, the instantaneous values of gate and drain current were recorded during longtime simulations (typically 1 ns simulation time). From those values the correlation functions are obtained, and through the Fourier transform of these quantities the power spectral densities of gate (Sia), drain (SID) and crosscorrelation (SIGID) are directly calculated.
330
ID (Am')
xchannel (nm)
FIGURE 1. (a) Transfer characteristics for SBMOSFETs of three different barrier heights for Vj}s = 2 V. Inset: ratio IJIg fox the three structures for Vj^ = 2 V and VQS adjusted to provide the same current level (200 Am''), (a) Ratio of injected tunnelling current over total current at the source versus total current for Vns = 2 V. (b) Conduction band along the xchannel for Vns = 2 V and different values of Vas to provide the same current level (200 Am"').
Our Monte Carlo simulator considers the total current as a composition of four current components: the thermionic and tunnelling injection and the thermionic and tunnelling absorption. Therefore, we are able to evaluate the contribution of each one of them to the total current. Figure 1 (bc) shows the ratio between the tunnelling injection and the total current as a function of the total drain current lo and the conduction band properly weighted by the carrier concentration along the x distance along the channel. The ratio (Figure 1 (b)) proves that the tunnelling current is more important for the larger values of qOsn as a consequence of the narrower tunnelling path (that can be observed in Figure 1 (c)).
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FIGURE 2. Spectral densities of gate (S,a, at 4 GHz) and drain (S,o) for the simulated SBMOSFET as a function of the total drain current for Vns = 2 V.
In Figure 2 we present the spectral densities of gate (Sia) and drain (SID) current fluctuations as a function of the drain current. We observe that Sia increases almost linearly with the drain current and it is not strongly influenced by the barrier height. On the contrary, Sm gets significantly decreased for high current levels when the barrier height is larger. We also have plotted in the graph the value of the ideal long channel Van der Ziel's model for a MOSFET under saturation conditions [7], which shows much reduced values as compared to the MC results. The MC simulator provides many internal quantities that can be related to the behaviour of the intrinsic noise sources. As the barrier height decreases, for the same current level there is an important rise of the electron energy and density of scatterings
331
close to the drain (see Fig. 3), where the band bending is noticeable (Fig. 1 (c)). Consequently, there is a significant velocity overshoot and even some impact ionization events take place for hot carriers approaching the forward biased drain contact. It must be taken into account that the principles of operation of the accumulation SBMOSFET are completely different than that of a conventional MOSFET. In this way, the behaviour of the carriers in the last few nanometres of the channel seems to have an important influence on the final SJD. On the other hand, under the gate (Sio) there is a minor effect of varying the barrier height. It can be concluded that although lower barrier heights are needed in order to obtain a better current drive, we also obtain a larger intrinsic noise. This fact has to be taken into account in the device design, assessing the requirements of the transistor for each specific application. However, the final effect on the noise circuital parameters (NFmi, Gass) could be tempered by an enhancement in the dynamic performance when q<pBn is reduced, since a lower barrier height is expected to provide an improvement of ft and gm [8].
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F I G U R E 3 . Energy and total average number of scattering meclianisms along the xchannel for Vos = 2 V for the same current level (200 Am"') and three q(pBn
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This work was supported by research projects METAMOS (IST016677) financed by the European Commission and SA010A07 from the Junta de Castilla y Leon and TEC200802266/TEC from the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion in Spain. We would like to thank also R. Valentin from the lEMN, in France.
REFERENCES
The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, 2007 Available: http://public.itrs.net. J. M. Larson, J. P. Snydsr, IEEE Trans Electron Devices, 53, 10481058, (2006). E. Pascual, R. Rengel and M. J. Martin, Spanish Conference on Electron Devices 2009, IEEE Conference Proceedings, in press (2009). Jacoboni C and Lugli P, "The Monte Carlo method for Semiconductor Device Simulation", McGrawHill, (1989). D. ConnsWyetal, IEEE Trans. On Nanotechnology, 3, 98104, (2004). E. Pascual, R. Rengel, M. J. Martin, Semicond Set Technol, 22, 10031009, 2007 A. Van der Ziel, "Noise in Solid State Devices and Circuits", Wiley. (1986). R. Valentin et al, IEEE Trans Electron Devices, 55, 11921202, (2008).
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LowFrequency Noise Measurements of the Tunneling Current in Single Barrier GaAs/AlAs/GaAs Devices
Jacek Przybytek and Michai Baj
Institute of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Hoza 69, 00681 Warsaw, Poland Abstract. The experimental results of the low temperature (T = 4.2 K) lowfrequency current fluctuations measurements in the singlebarrier resonant tunneling GaAs/AlAs/GaAs vertical devices with Si 5doping in the center of the 10nm thick AlAs barrier are reported. The dimensions of the device were 200 lm by 200 lm. For the small bias voltages (low transmission of the barrier) there is only the shot noise with Fano factor F close to 1 observed. For higher voltages the generationrecombinationlike and/or llf' noise arises and superimposes on the shot noise. Keywords: noise processes and phenomena, tunneling, shot noise, l//noise, generationrecombination noise PACS: 72.70.+m, 73.50.Td, 73.40.Gk
INTRODUCTION
Measurements of current fluctuations in resonant tunneling devices are complementary for the averaged currentvoltage characteristics and can provide more insight into the system and its electronic transport mechanisms. Time dependent fluctuations of a tunneling current reflects the temporal correlations between charge transfer events through a conductor. The deviations from the classical Poissonian full shot noise power density 2el can provide additional information about interactions between electrons inside the tunneling barrier and the mechanism of the transport (e.g. existence and number of localized states which participate in transport) [1,2]. The singlebarrier resonanttunneling device is interesting for its simplicity and many authors have investigated electronic transport in this system until now [3,4]. Incorporating impurities inside the barriers changes dramatically their properties, enables resonant transport through the barrier and makes it useful for applications. However, not only intentionally introduced impurities exist inside the barrier. Some impurities/imperfections which only shghtly influence the I{V) characteristics can manifest its existence in current noise measurements. In this paper we present the continuation of the investigations reported previously [5].
CPn29, Noise andFluctuaUons, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
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SAMPLE & EXPERIMENT Singlebarrier resonant tunneling GaAs/AlAs/GaAs structure with Si 5doping (3*10^ cm"^) in the center of the 10 nm thick AlAs barrier has been grown by MBEtechnique. The dimensions of the mesa structure was ca 200 [im by 200 [im. More details about the sample and its tunneling characteristics can be found in Ref 6. The current noise measurements have been performed by means of crosscorrelation technique [7]. In this technique the signal from the sample is provided by means of two independent signalcarrying and amplifying channels to the analogdigital converter. The power signal density of the samplerelated correlated signal has been numericaly calculated as a crosscorrelation spectra from two channels. The uncorrelated noise of amplifiers will not appear in crosscorrelation spectra. The sample has been placed inside the liquid helium container. The current signal has been provided by means of lownoise coaxial cables to the inputs of two homemade, batterydriven transimpedance amplifiers with gain ranging from 10^ to lO' V/A and it has been additionally amplified by two pairs of voltage amplifiers with total gain up to 10"* VA^. Two lowpass Butterworth filters prevent an ahasing effect. The PCdriven AID converter and Matlab^^ software enables the numerical analysis of the signal. Sample was polarized by means of lownoise homemade bipolar voltage source applying bias between virtual grounds of the transimpedance amplifiers.
334
different transport mechanisms at different biases. Applying the bias we change the Fermi level position and its alignment to various electronic states inside the barrier. (b)
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(a)
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10
100 1000
10000
10
100 1000
Frequency (Hz)
Frequency (Hz)
FIGURE 2. PSD (crosscorrelation) spectra for the sample at 7=4.2K and several biasing voltages indicated on the right hand side. For lower biases the spectra are almost flat (white noise) and starting from ca ^~0.3V they reveal generationrecombination and l/f^ components.
The value of the shot noise and the Fano factor (the ratio of the measured shot noise to the full Poissonian 2el noise) has been determined from fitting the amplifier characteristics to the high frequency tail of the measured spectra, assuming that the shot noise is a white noise with PSD independent of frequency. The Fano factor shown in Fig. 2b has values between 0.55 for higher biases and 1 for lower. Differently from other results for the sample from the same wafer [5], the Fano factor close to F=0.75, expected for tunneling through strongly localized states randomly distributed in the center of the barrier [2] is observed for biasing voltages 0.7V<t/<0.1V and 0.1V<t/<0.4V. Certain asymmetry of the Fano factor is probably related to the nonintentional, determined by growth technology, noncentral position of the Si 6layer in the barrier.
5. CONCLUSIONS
For biases t^<500mV smaller than those for which resonant tunneling through intentionally introduced impurities is observed, we have observed Fano factors lower 335
than 1, which indicates that even below this voltages we have a variety of different transport mechanisms. Only for the lowest biasing voltages (f/<0.1V) the Fano factors tend to/is equal F~l. For higher biasing voltages 500mV< f/<700mV, where in I{V) characteristics the resonant tunnehng through the impurity states is observed, we have measured the Fano factor close to 0.7 and 0.6 for negative and positive biases, respectively. Because low frequency noise originating from the trapping electrons on impurities/imperfections superimposes on the shot noise, the measurements of the pure shot noise is difficult in the configuration of experimental setup with transimpedance amplifier, which limits the band below lOOHz for the highest gains used. However, because in our experiment Fano factor F does not exceed one, it means that in our tunneling device we have multiple uncorrelated sequential and/or parallel transport channels, each of which is governed by a full Poissonian process and a resulting transport statistics of a whole system is exclusively subPoissonian.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Authors are very much indebted to Dr Antonella Cavanna, Dr Ulf Gennser and Dr Giancarlo Faini from Laboratoire de Photonique et Nanostructures (Marcoussis, France) for the growth and fabrication of the samples. Work has been partially supported by the European Community project No. MTKDCT2005029671 and by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education project No. N N202 192534.
REFERENCES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Ya.M. Blanter, M. Biittiker, Physics Reports 336, 1166 (2000). Y.V. Nazarov, J. J. R. Straben, Phys Rev. B 53, 15466 (1996). G. lannaccone, M. Macucci, and B. Pellegrini, Phys Rev. B 55, 4539 (1997) J. Davies, P. Hyldgaard, S. Hershfield, J. Wilkins, Phys Rev B 46, 9620 (1992) J. Przybytek, M. Baj, ActaPhysicaPolonica 112, 221 (2007). M. Gryglas, M. Baj, B. Chenaud, B. Jouault, A. Cavanna, and G. Faini, Phys Rev. B 69, 165302 (2004). 7. G. Ferrari, M. Sampietro, Rev. of Set Instr. 73, 2717 (2002).
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Suppression of 1/f Noise in Accumulation Mode FDSOI MOSFETs on Si(lOO) and (110) Surfaces
W. Cheng", C. Tye , P. Gaubert'', A. Teramoto'', S. Sugawa , T. Ohmi"'"
"^New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University ''Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University "World Premier International Research Center, Tohoku University AzaAoba 6610, Aramaki, AobaKu, Sendai, 9808579, Japan Abstract. In this paper, a new approach to reduce the 1/f noise levels in the MOSFETs on varied silicon orientations, such as Si(lOO) and (110) surfaces, has been carried out. We focus on the Accumulationmode (AM) FDSOl device structure and demonstrate that the 1/f noise levels in this AM FDSOl MOSFETs are obviously reduced on both the Si(lOO) and (110) surfaces. Keywords: Accumulationmode, SOI, 1/f noise, silicon orientation.
INTRODUCTION
The noise of CMOS is dominated by 1/f noise and increases continually while scaling the transistor size and limits all the electronic devices, especially analog and RF apphcations [12]. To reduce 1/f noise levels, the MOS transistor fabrication processes are extensively studied, especially the high quality gate oxide and the oxide/silicon interface [34]. On the other hand, SOI technology and Si(llO) devices are very useful for improving the analog and RF performance [5]. In previous research, we demonstrated the MOSFETs drain current can be obviously improved by optimizing the SOI device structure introducing Accumulationmode (AM) SOI MOS transistors. However, 1/f noise characteristics are stiU not thoroughly investigated. In this study, a new approach has been carried out to improve the CMOS performance and suppress 1/f noise levels by optimizing the SOI device structure. EXPERIMENTAL In this paper, the novel accumulation mode (AM) FDSOI MOSFETs shown in Fig. 1 are fabricated on Si(lOO) and (110) surface to investigate the noise characteristics and revel the mechanisms. The SOI layers impurity concentrations (Nsub) are adjusted from lO'*^ to 2xl0'^cm"l The thickness of SOI layers (Tsoi) is from 40 to 50 nm. To avoid the increases of 1/f noise induced by the surface roughness at the oxide/sihcon interface, the radical oxidation has been repeated 4 times to achieve flattened interfaces with the Ra of 0.08 nm for the SOI devices shown in Fig. 2 and maintained by 5step room temperature cleaning [6]. Gate oxides are formed by high quality
CPn29, Noise andFluctuaUons, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
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microwave excited radical oxidation at 400C [7]. B^ ions (1.0x10^^ cm"^) are implanted to gate PolySi layer (300 nm) for AM n and inversion mode (IM) pMOSFETs. As^ and BF^^ (1.5x10^^ cm"^) ions are implanted to Source/Drain region for n and pMOSFET, respectively. Each step of device fabrication and measurement was carried out in the Fluctuation Free Facility for New Information Industry at Tohoku University.
P+ Poly
n+
n
Buried Oxide Si Substrate
P
Buried Oxide Si Substrate
P1
(a) SOI surface initial Ra=0.I3nm (b) SOI (100) surface after (c) SOI (IIO) surface after surface flattening process surface flattening process repeatedly 4 times repeatedly 4 times Ra=0.07nm Ra=0.08nm
Fig. 1 Schematic of the accumulation mode (AM) FDSOI nMOSFET and pMOSFET.
Fig. 2 AFM images of the flattened SOI (100) and (110) surfaces before gate oxidation. Ra is reduced to 0.07nm on (100) and 0.08nm on (110) surface.
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observed. Fig. 6 shows the measured PSD of nMOSFETs drain current at 10 Hz on Si(lOO) as a function of the drain current from 0.1 to 1 mA at saturation operation region with the bias of VD=3 V. It is observed that the 1/f noise levels have been suppressed very well at a wide range in AM nMOSFET operated at the saturation region on Si(lOO). Especially, the reduction of the 1/f noise levels turns much remarkable, what is very useful for analog circuits, in our experiment. Fig. 7 shows the measured PSD of nMOSFETs gate voltage on Si(llO) as a function of the measurement frequency at linear operation region with the bias of ID=0.1 mA, VD=0.05 V. 1/f noise levels of MOSFETs on Si(llO) surface are higher compared with those on Si(lOO) and are difficult to be effectively reduced. However, the 1/f noise level in AM nMOSFET operated at the linear region on Si(llO) is obviously reduced compared with that in IM FDSOI nMOSFET. Fig. 8 shows the measured PSD of nMOSFETs drain current on Si(llO) as a function of the measurement frequency at saturation operation region with the bias of ID=1 mA, VD=2 V. Suppression of 1/f noise level in AM nMOSFETs operated at saturation region on Si(llO) has been exhibited.
Si(100) FDSOI nMOSFETs Linear regime UW=10/20nm TQj^=7.5nm TgQ=50nm V^y =2.5V
accumulation mode
"""^^^^./'N
ID" Frequency (Hz)
Frequency (Hz)
Fig. 3 1/f noise level in AM nMOSFETs operated at linear region on Si(lOO) is reduced about 1 digit compared with that in IM nMOSFET.
Sl(100) FDSOI nMOSFETs Saturation regime
Fig. 4 1/f noise level in AM pMOSFETs at linear region on Si(lOO) is greatly reduced compared with that in IM SOI and bulk pMOSFETs.
''' :
______ m o o _  o L/W=10/20^im o1
" ;
10^ 10' Frequency (Hz) 10' 10*
1^1 OHz
mode \
1
.("^)
Fig. 5 1/f noise in AM nMOSFETs at saturation region on Si(lOO) is reduced about 1 digit compared with that in IM nMOSFFT Fig. 6 Measured drain current noise at lOHz as the function of drain current from 0.1 to 1 mA. A suppressed 1/f noise level has been observed at AM devices at wide range.
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100
1000
10000
100
Frequency(Hz)
Fig. 7 1/f noise level in AM nMOSFETs operated at linear region on Si(l 10) is reduced about 1 digit compared with that in IM nMOSFET.
Fig. 8 Suppression of 1/f noise level in AM nMOSFETs operated at saturation region on Si(l 10) has been exhibited.
CONCLUSION
Reduction of noise is achieved not only by optimized processes but also by optimized the device structure. In this study, we demonstrate that accumulation mode SOI device is a potential candidate for the advanced analog and RF circuits in the future.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This work was partly supported by the project under GrantinAid for Specially Promoted Research (project No. 18002004) and the project under GrantinAid for Young Scientists (A) (project No. 19686019), supported by Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.
REFERENCES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 1. M. Stey aert et al., IEEE International Symp. On Circuits and Systems, 2(1993) 1447 Y. C. Tseng et al.JEEE Trans Electron Devices, 48, 1428 (2001). P. Gaubert et al., IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, 53, 851 (2006). R. Kuroda et al., European SolidState Device Research Conference, 8386, 2008 A. Teramoto et al., IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, 54, 1438 (2007) T. Ohmi et al., Phys D: Appl Phys., 39, R l (2006). T. Ohmi, J. Electronchem. Soc., 143,2957 (1996).
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INTRODUCTION
The first SiC power DMOSFET was reported in 1997. [1] Even since, higher and higher blocking voltages were reported for this device reaching 10 kV [2]. Radio frequency 4HSiC MOSFETs reached cutoff frequencies of 7 GHz and 12 GHz [3,4]. When devices are used as active elements oscillators or mixers, their low frequency noise is one of the major factors determining the phase noise characteristics. Low frequency noise measurements are also a tool to study impurities, defects, interface states in semiconductor structures, and to diagnose quality and rehability of semiconductor devices. Low frequency noise in Si MOSFETs has been studied extensively in hundreds of papers (see, for examples, [5,6] and references therein). However, the low frequency noise studies of SiC field effect transistors are limited to a very few pubhcations. In the present work, we present the results of the experimental study of the low frequency noise in vertical and lateral double implanted 4HSiC MOSFETs. More detailed description of the results is presented in [7].
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The noise spectra were close to the 1//'dependence with Y= 0.9 1 over the entire range of frequencies, / and of Fg and Fd values for all the structures: large and test DMOSFETs, and LDMOSFETs (Figure 2). At frequency/ 1 kHz, a weak bulge in this dependence was often noticeable.
10 10 Frequency f, Hz
FIGURE 2. Frequency dependencies of spectral noise density at different gate voltages (from Fg = 1.8 V (deep subthreshold region) to Fg Fih (strong inversion) for large and test VDMOSFETs. Vj = O.IV. Dashed lines show the 1/f slope [7].
The dependencies of noise on Id at constant drain voltage Vd (when Id was varied by Fg) had the form, which qualitatively differed from that for conventional silicon MOSFETs. Figure 3 shows the dependencies of the relative spectral noise density S/Id^ on the drain current (at the constant drain voltage) for the large VDMOSFET, test VDMOSFET and LDMOSFET. For Si MOSFETs, as well as for many other FETs, the noise Si/Id^ decreases in strong inversion ~l//d^. At low currents, below the threshold, this dependence usually tends to saturate. As seen in Fig. 3, the Sj/h^ dependence on/^ for the SiC MOSFETs is very different.
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test VDMOSFET
vj \
^ \ VDMOSFET E
O test VDMOSFET
(E  E l , eV
FIGURE 3. Dependencies of noise spectral density on FIGURE 4. Traps density in oxide, A'tv, as a li (at Vi = 0.1 V ) . / = 10 Hz. Arrows show the current, function oi_EcEp [7]. which corresponds to the threshold voltage VQ^ at given
Over the entire range of Id, from deep subthreshold to strong inversion, Sj/Id decreases with the current increase approximately as /d'^. Similar dependences are often observed in amorphous and polycrystalline TFTs [8]. These noise versus current dependences can be explained by the energy dependence of the density of the oxide trap states. Figure 4 shows dependencies of trap density T t on energy ('c'F)_for different Vv MOSFETs extracted based on the McWhorter model. As seen, the characteristic value of Mv atEcEF=0.l V is about 10^' cm"^ V \ which is of the same order of magnitude as for polycrystalhne TFTs and about two to three orders of magnitude higher than corresponding values in conventional Si MOSFETs. In reference [7], we proposed a new method for extraction of interface trap density Dit{E) based on the analysis of subthreshold hiVg) characteristic of MOSFET and using the comparison of measured Id{Vg) characteristic with "ideal" MOS charactreristics (with Dit=0) (see Fig. 5)
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
(E,Ep), eV
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As expected, the interface density of states sharply increases closer to the conduction band edge, Ec. The value of Dit 4x10 cm " e V ' at ECEF = 0.2 eV, ^ where E^ is the Fermi level, agrees rather well with the typical values of D^ for 4HSiC MOSFETs extracted by alternative techniques [9,10].
CONCLUSIONS
The low effective channel mobility in SiC MOSFETs (37 cm^ A^ s) can be explained by a high density of localized states near the conduction band in the thin ion implanted SiC layer. The energy dependence of trap density, TVtv, was estimated from the gate voltage dependencies of noise. Mv ranges between 10^' and 10^ cm"^ V \ which is of the same order of magnitude as in polycrystalline TFTs and about two to three orders of magnitude higher than in Si MOSFETs.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This work was supported by Cree, Inc. At the loffe Institute this work was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research Grant No. 080200010_. The work in RPI was supported by the National Science Foundation under the auspices of the I/UCRC "Connection One."
REFERENCES
1. J.N. Shenoy, J. A. Cooper, and M. R. Melloch, IEEE El. Dev. Lett. 18, 93 (1997) 2. S.H. Ryu, S. Krishnaswami, M. Das, J. Richmond, A. Agarwal, J.W. Palmour, and J. Scofield, IEEE Electron Device Lett 25, 556 (2004). 3. D. Alok, E. Arnold, R. Egloff, J. Barone, J. Murphy, R. Conrad, and J. Burke, IEEE Electron Device
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Monte Carlo analysis of noise spectra in InAs channels from diffusive to ballistic regime
G. Sabatini*, H. Marinchio*, L. Varani*, C. Palermo*, J.F. Millithaler''', L.Reggianil', H. Rodilla**, T. Gonzalez**, S. Perez** and J. Mateos**
*Institut d'Electronique clu Sucl (CNRS UMR 5214), Universite Montpellier II, Place Eugene Bataillon  34095 Montpellier Ceclex 5  France ^Dipartimento cli Ingegneria dell 'Innovazione and CNISM, Universita del Salento, Via Arnesano s/n  73100 Lecce  Italy **Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca, Pza. Merced s/n  37008 Salamanca  Spain Abstract. Modem technology allows the downsizing of electronic devices deeply into the nanometric scale thus reducing the electrons transit time between contacts. By means of Monte Carlo simulations coupled with a twodimensional Poisson solver, we have analysed the transition from diffusive to ballistic transport in InAs channels of differents lengths. The increased number of ballistic electrons associated with the shrinking of the device length is found to progressively modify the time dependence of the autocorrelation function of current fluctuations while significant modifications of plasma oscillations appear in the autocorrelation function of voltage fluctuations inside the structure. Keywords: Monte Carlo, Ballistic transport, InAs PACS: 73.23.Ad,72.30.+q, 72.70.+m
INTRODUCTION
The increase of the operation speed and the associated downsizing of electronic device dimensions is often obtained using highmobility materials such as InGaAs and, more recently, InAs, employed for the fabrication of novel devices where ballistic or nearballistic transport is expected even at room temperature. For instance, recent studies showed that High ElectronMobility Transistors (HEMT) with InGaAs channels can be used as emitters or detectors in the THz domain [1]. On the other hand, despite its small gap, InAs has attracted recent interest for advanced electronic applications because it presents a higher mobility and higher intervalley separation than InGaAs, thus implying that its transport properties should be even better [2]. By means of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations coupled with a twodimensional Poisson solver, we can evaluate the possibility to use this semiconductor as the active zone of ultra fast devices exploiting ballistic transport. In particular, we have calculated the correlation functions of current and voltage fluctuations in several InAs channels and discussed their microscopic behavior, in diffusive and ballistic regimes.
CPn29, Noise and Fluctuations, 20"" International Conference (ICNF 2009) edited by M. Macucci and G. Basso 2009 American Institute of Pliysics 9780735406650/09/$25.00
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MODEL DESCRIPTION
We consider a thin semiconductor slab, with thickness ff = 50 nm and length L which can be shorter (longer) than the carrier mean free path so that ballistic (diffusive) regimes can be analysed. The carrier concentration ND is equal to 10'^ cm^^. Electrons are injected in the channel at a constant rate from contacts treated as thermal reservoirs according to the model detailed in Ref [3], which is well adapted to the case of mesoscopic conductors. The Monte Carlo model here used to simulate transport in InAs at room temperature has been previously validated by comparison with experimental data [4]. For the conduction band we have used three nonparabolic spherical valleys. The scattering mechanisms which are included are the collisions with ionized impurities, the transitions due to absorption and emission of polar and nonpolar optical phonons, the collisions with acoustic (elastic) phonons, and the intervalley scatterings. Carriercarrier interaction and impact ionization are neglected.
BALLISTIC TRANSPORT
To asses the ballistic or diffusive character of transport, we have performed simulations of InAs channels of different lengths. Fig. 1 reports on the left the fraction of ballistic electrons as a function of the channel length at equilibrium. While for a 1 ^mlength
1
1
1 1 ^
^
1000
C O _C
100
y'
O Cf)
to
1000
0.5
Voltage (V)
FIGURE 1. Fraction of ballistic electrons at equilibrium as a function of length (left) and number of scatterings (rigth) as a function of voltage for InAs channels of different lengths.
channel transport is basically diffusive, when reducing the length, the fraction of ballistic electrons strongly increases: for instance, about one half of electrons are ballistic for a 50 nmchannel. Moreover, due to the high doping level, most of these interactions are elastic collisions with ionized impurities. On the right panel of Fig. 1 we have reported the average number of scatterings A^s a carrier undergoes inside channels of different lengths as a function of the applied voltage. At equilibrium, electrons crossing the shortest channels make few scatterings while in the long channel the average number of scatterings is around 200. These numbers increase with the applied voltage showing the activation of different collision processes with characteristic energy thresholds. To better understand the behavior of these channels, we have calculated and reported in Fig. 2 also the free flight time TF = TT/NS where TT is the transittime spent by a carrier to
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move from one contact to the other. At equilibrium Tp is slightly shorter than 0.1 ps, i.e, it approaches TT as it must be in ballistic conditions.
0.04
1.5
2.5
Voltage (V) FIGURE 2. Free flight time as a function of voltage for InAs channels of different lengths.
At increasing voltages, tp decreases due to the increasing efficiency of scattering processes. The strong decrease observed around 1 V, which is more evident in short channels, is associated with the onset of intervalley transfers.
CORRELATION FUNCTIONS
To analyse the noise properties of the simulated structures, we have calculated the auto
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