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Alexandrium catenella

Taxon Alexandrium catenella (Whedon & Kofoid) Balech 1985 Family / Order / Class / Phylum Goniodomataceae / Gonyaulacales / Dinophyceae / Pyrrophycophyta

COMMON NAMES (English only) Unknown SYNONYMS Gonyaulax catenella Whedon and Kofoid, 1936 Protogonyaulax catenella (Whedon et Kofoid) Taylor 1979; Gessnerium catenellum (Loeblich III et Loeblich) Taylor 1979 SHORT DESCRIPTION It is an armoured, marine, planktonic dinoflagellate typically occurring in characteristic short chains of 2, 4 or 8 cells, swimming together in a snake-like fashion. Single cells are almost round, 20-48 m in length and 18-32 m in width. BIOLOGY/ECOLOGY Dispersal mechanisms It is dispersed by water currents. Reproduction It reproduces asexually by binary fission. This Chain of cells of Alexandrium catenella species also has a sexual cycle with opposite mating types (heterothallism). After gamete Photo: Jan Rines, East Sound Phytoplankton Checklist. fusion, a planozygote forms which then encysts into a characteristic resting cyst. The life cycle has several stages: motile vegetative cells, haploid gametes, diploid zygotes, resting cysts and temporary cysts. Known predators/herbivores Unknown. Resistant stages (seeds, spores etc.) The species produces a colourless resting cyst. The cyst is roughly ellipsoidal with rounded ends,and is covered by a smooth wall and a mucilaginous substance. In the cyst stage cells can survive long periods in darkness until environmental conditions are suitable for germination. HABITAT Native (EUNIS code) A7: Pelagic water column, occupies the upper water layers in coastal and estuarine waters. Habitat occupied in invaded range (EUNIS code) A7: Pelagic water column, occupies the upper water layers in coastal waters and estuarine waters. Habitat requirements It is considered to be a coldwater species that is seldom found at temperatures over 12C. However, in Japanese and Spanish Mediterranean waters at temperatures over 20C this species not only survives, but also blooms. The salinity range is 20 to 37 ppt. The experimental optimal physical conditions for growth are pH 8.5, salinity of 3035 ppt, temperature of 20-25C.

DISTRIBUTION Native Range Type Locality: NW Pacific Ocean: San Diego, California, USA. Known Introduced Range Populations have been recorded from the west coast of North America (from California to Alaska), Chile, Argentina, western South Africa, Japan and Kamchatka peninsula in Russia, Australia and Tasmania, in the North Sea, NE Atlantic (Faroe Islands) and several localities in the Mediterranean Sea. Trend There is a rapid expansion and increasing abundance in the Mediterranean Sea. MAP (European distribution)

Known in country

Legend Known in CGRS square

Known in sea

INTRODUCTION PATHWAY A. catenella was probably introduced with ballast water discharges. Its resting cells were found in sediment samples from ballast tanks. IMPACT Ecosystem Impact Responsible for creating red tides, it is a known paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins-producing species. The toxins can affect humans, other mammals, fish and birds. Recently, it has been shown that PSP toxins can also be found in crabs and lobsters. Health and Social Impact This species is responsible for numerous human illnesses and several deaths after consumption of infected shellfish. Economic Impact Its toxicity may cause considerable economic damage to aquaculture and the shellfish harvest. The PSP toxins affect living sea resources that feed by filtering plankton (e.g. gastropods, bivalves). MANAGEMENT Prevention Avoiding ballast water uptake during the red tides, mid ocean exchange of ballast water

Mechanical Unknown. Chemical Chemical treatment in ship ballast tanks can work. Biological Unknown. REFERENCES Fukuyo Y (1985) Morfology of Protogonyaulax tamarensis (Lebour) Taylor and Protogonyaulax catenella (Whedon and Kofoid) Taylor from Japanese coastal waters. Bulletin of Marine Science 37:529-537 Hallegraeff GM, Marshall JA, Valentine J and Hardiman S. (1998) Short cyst-dormancy period of an Australian isolate of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella. Marine and Freshwater Research 49(5):415420 Vila M, Garces E, Maso M, and Camp J. (2001) Is the distribution of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella expanding along the NW Mediterranean coast? Marine Ecology Progress Series 222:73-83 OTHER REFERENCES Avaria SP (1979) Red tides off the coast of Chile. In: L.T. Taylor & H.H. Seliger (eds.), Toxic Dinoflagellate Blooms, Elsevier/North-Holland, New York: 161-164 Faust MA, Gulledge RA (2006) Alexandrium catenella. Identifying Harmful Marine Dinoflagellates. http://www.nmnh.si.edu/botany/projects/dinoflag/Taxa/Acatanella.htm (download 2006-09-08)Fukuyo, Y.H., Takano, M., Chihara & K. Matsuoka. 1990. Red Tide Organisms in Japan. An illustrated Taxonomic Guide. Uchida Rokakuho, Co., Ltd., Tokyo. p 407 Hallegraeff GM (1991) Aquaculturists Guide to Harmful Australian Microalgae. Fishing Industry Training Board of Tasmania/CSIRO Division of Fisheries, Hobart, p 111 Kim C-H, Sako Y & Ishida Y (1993) Variation of toxin production and composition in axenic cultures of Alexandrium catenella and A. tamarense. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 59:633-639 Meksumpun S, Montani S & Uematsu M (1994) Elemental components of cyst walls of three marine phytoflagellates, Chattonella antiqua (Raphidophyceae), Alexandrium catenella and Scrippsiella trochoidea (Dinophyceae). Phycologia 33:275-280 Microbial Biorealm (2006) The genus Alexandrium. http://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/Alexandrium#Classification Nishitani L & Chew K (1988) PSP toxins in the Pacific coast states: monitoring programs and effects on bivalve industries. J. Shell. Res. 7:653-669 Ogata T & Kodama M (1986) Ichthyotoxicity found in cultured media of Protogonyaulax spp. Mar. Biol. 95:217220 Onoue Y, Noguchi T & Hashimoto K (1980) Studies on paralytic shellfish poison from the oyster cultured in Senzaki Bay, Yamaguchi Prefecture. Bull. Japan. Soc. Sci. Fish. 46:1031-1034 Onoue Y, Noguchi T, Maruyama J, Hasimoto K & Ikeda T (1981a). Comparison of PSP compositions between toxic oysters and Protogonyaulax catenella from Senzaki Bay, Yamaguchi Prefecture. Bull. Japan. Soc Sci Fish 47:1347-1350 Onoue Y, Noguchi T, Maruyama J, Hasimoto K & Ikeda T (1981b) New toxins separated from oysters and Protogonyaulax catenella from Senzaki Bay, Yamaguchi Prefecture. Bull. Japan. Soc Sci Fish 47: 1643 Penna A, Garcs E, Vila M, Giacobbe MG, Fraga S, Lugli A, Bravo I, Bertozzini E and Vernesi C (2005) Alexandrium catenella (Dinophyceae), a toxic ribotype expanding in the NW Mediterranean Sea. Marine Biology. 148(1):13-23 Prakash A, Medcof JC & Tennant AD (1971) Paralytic shellfish poisoning in eastern Canada. Bull. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 177:1-87 Sharpe CA (1981) Paralytic shellfish poison, California- Summer 1980. State of California Dept. Health ServicesSanitary Engineering Section Steidinger KA and Tangen K (1996) Dinoflagellates. In: Carmelo R. Tomas (ed.) Identifying Marine Phytoplankton. 387-584 Taylor FJR, Fukuyo Y & Larsen J (1995) Taxonomy of harmful dinoflagellates. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, D.M. Anderson & A.D. Cembella (eds.), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae, IOC Manuals and Guides No. 33. UNESCO, France: 283-317 Turki S & Balti N (2005) Detection of toxic Alexandrium catenella (Whedon & Kofoid) Balech in clam production zone of North Lake and Channel, Tunisia. Harmful Algae News. No 28: 1-3

Whedon WF & Kofoid CA (1936) Dinoflagellata of the San Diego region. I. On the skeletal morphology of two new species, Gonyaulax catenella and G. acatenella. Univ Calf Publ Zool 41:25-31 Yoshimatsu S (1981) Sexual reproduction of Protogonyaulax catenella in culture I. Heterothallism. Bull Plank Soc Jpn 28:131-139

Author: Irina Olenina & Sergej Olenin Date Last Modified: September, 2006