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An overview of the physics of normal speech and analysis of disorders of voice in terms of physics.

The Speech Chain

I will be studying the speech chain from speaker to listener at the Physiological Acoustic Physiological level as indicated. I will not be covering linguistics. This will allow me to discuss the movements required for speech at the level of the diaphragm, lungs, vocal folds and articulators, along with the pattern of sound waves transmitted by the speaker and received by the listener. I will be able to explore how energy is transformed along the speech chain. Depending on resources I hope to be able to take measurements for normal speech in terms of volume and frequency and compare these to various speech disordered patterns (at the level of the vocal folds), eg breathy, hoarse, whispered voices. If it is not possible to make my own data, I will review literature and include findings on more complicated abnormalities at the vocal fold level e.g. paralysis or nodules. I will also collate data on how sound is received/perceived at the ear drum. Resources required Computer and internet access Book The physics of Speech Cambridge Text Books DB Fry Audiometer. To measure sounds heard in terms of volume and frequency I may be able to provide this Oscilloscope To measure wave patterns of various types of speech Sound level/decibel meter. If oscilloscope is not available A range of human subjects for measurement Peak Flow meter To measure lung output. I may be able to provide this

I will be able to vary this study depending on resources available.