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Polynomials are expressions in the form 3 x + 2 x 6 x + 11 Polynomials higher than quadratics must be factorised using:
4 3 2

ax n +1 + C n 1 n +1 raise the power by one, divide by the new power then add C ax n dx =
T he area between the graph y = f ( x ) and the x-axis from x = a to x = b is
b a

Integration

Higher Mathematics HSN22500 Radians Exact Values R adians D egrees: replace by 180, simplify. eg 2 = 180 = 90 2 2 45 1 D egrees R adians: 45 45 = by 180, by , simplify. eg 45 = 180 4 1 radians = 180 2 30 3 2 = 360 3 = 60 2 = 90
4

y = f(x)

Trigonometry

Synthetic Division

## eg 5 x 4 + 2 x 2 + 8 x 2 by ( x 2 ) 2 5 2 8 2 soln: ( x 2 ) ( 5 x 2 + 12 x + 32 ) + 62 10 24 64 divisor quotient remainder 5 12 32 62

f ( x ) dx note: no +C

If the remainder is 0 then the divisor is a factor In expressions like 5 x 3 + 3 x 4 where there is a missing term, eg x 2 , a zero must be placed on the top line of the table in the correct place, eg Similarly, if a letter is a coefficient, eg 4 x 3 + px 2 + 3 x +1 5 0 3 4 then a letter must be placed in the table. A n equation can then be formed using the remainder and information in the question.

Integrate, then sub in (top minus bottom) y If the area is split by the x-axis then calculate as 2 separate areas, eg 2 5 x 2 5 G ives negative area. f ( x ) dx and f ( x ) dx 0 2 Ignore sign and add the two A rea enclosed between two graphs y = f ( x ) and y = g ( x ) from x = a to x = b is given by y y = g( x )
b a

= 45

6 = 30

3 = 135 4

60

## Algebraic Solutions of Trigonometric Equations

M ust use a C A ST diagram C heck inequality to see if answer is in degrees or radians and how many solutions are required eg 0 x or 0 x 360 R emember for sin 3 x = 0.5, 0 x 360, there will be 3 pairs of solutions

f ( x ) g ( x ) dx , f ( x ) g ( x )

## Equations of Polynomials from a Graph Curve Sketching

Synthetic division is common in these questions. See U 1O C 3.

x a b c If a graph is given and the roots are known, eg then the equation can be calculated using f( x ) = k ( x a ) ( x b ) ( x c )

Iteration

x integrate top curve minus a b y = f(x ) bottom curve If a and b are not know, they can be calculated by equating two equations.

3D Trigonometry
Q uestions in 3D are dealt with in the same way as 2D usually, SO H C A H T O A or sine/cosine rule is used

## U sed if a root has to be calculated to a given number of decimal places.

In y = ax + bx + c if a > 0 then shaped and stat. pt. is a min. if a < 0 then shaped and stat. pt. is a max.
2

Unit 2

Must Know
Pythagoras T heorem s
SO H C A H T O A

Identify shape, ie or Find y-axis intercept ( x = 0) Find roots ( y = 0) A xis of symmetry C oords of turning point

## Completing the Square

T he coefficient of x 2 must be 1 before starting. T his may mean taking out a common factor from x 2 and x eg 2 x 2 4 x + 3 = 2 ( x 2 2 x ) + 3 W hen y = ax 2 + bx + c is written in the form
y = a ( x + p ) + q the turning point is ( p, q )
2

## T he equation of a circle with centre ( a, b ) and radius r is ( x a )2 + ( y b ) = r 2

2

The Circle

Sine R ule:

G eneral equation: x 2 + y 2 + 2 gx + 2 f + c = 0 ; y centre is ( g, f ) , radius is g2 + f 2 c A ll of the above is given in the exam A circle and line can have two, one (tangent) or no points of intersection. T o work this out, substitute equation of line into circle and solve (ie factorise). For tangency, b 2 4 ac = 0 can be used. A tangent is a straight line, and y b = m ( x a ) gives its equation. ( a, b ) will be the point given, and since the tangent is perpendicular to the line from the centre of the circle, use m 1 m 2 = 1 to find its gradient

The Discriminant
2

Given in Exam
sin (

2 2 2 C osine R ule: a 2 = b 2 + c 2 2bc cos A or cos A = b + c a 2bc 2 2 2 2 sin x + cos x = 1 sin x = 1 cos x cos 2 x = 1 sin 2 x

## a = b = c sin A sin B sin C

b 2 4 ac > 0 two roots, real and unequal b 4 ac = 0 one root, real and equal b 4 ac < 0 no roots, not real
2

In this example, Example the turning point x 2 6x + 7 is ( 3, 2 ) = x 2 6 x + ( 3)2 ( 3)2 + 7 = ( x 3)2 9 + 7 = ( x 3)2 9 + 7 = ( x 3)2 2

## ) = sin cos cos sin cos ( ) = cos cos sin sin

sin 2 = 2 sin cos cos 2 = cos 2 sin 2

= 2 cos 2 1 = 1 2 sin 2 R emember: if equations involve a sin 2 with a sin , or a cos 2 with a cos , it must be substituted using one of the above formulae, before attempting to solve.

## Intersection Between a Line and Curve

Substitute (or equate) equation of line into curve then use discriminant to show two, one (tangent) or no points of intersection.