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File System vs Data base Management System

1. Files act locally where as DBMS saves directly in a database 2. Saves in temporary locations where as DBMS in well arranged and permanent data base locations 3. In File Sys., transactions are not possible where as various transactions like insert,delete,view,updating etc r possible in DBMS 4. Data will be accessed through single or various files where as in DBMS, tables (schema) is used to access data 5. A "File manager" is used to store all relationships in directories in File Systems where as a data base manager (administrator) stores the relationship in form of structural tables 6. Last.... but not the least.... Data in data bases are more secure compared to data in files!!
7.

In File-based approach Data is not application independent where as in database approach data independence is an advantage.

8.

In file-based approach data sharing is not possible but in database approach its available

9. In file-based approach there is lot of rudendent data but in database there is controlled data rudundency

10. In

file-based there is week data integrity but in database there is better data integrity

DBMS(Data Base Management System )


A Database Management System (DBMS) is a set of computer programs that controls the creation, maintenance, and the use of the database of an organization and its end users. It allows organizations to place control of organization-wide database development in the hands of database administrators (DBAs) and other specialists. DBMSes may use any of a variety of database models, such as the network model or relational model. In large systems, a DBMS allows users and other software to store and retrieve data in a structured way. It helps to specify the logical organization for a database and access and use the information within a database. It provides facilities for controlling data access, enforcing data integrity, managing concurrency controlled, restoring database.

File Processing System.


File processing system store data in separate computer files. File processing system is a system used to store and manage data that involves each department or area within an organization having its own set of files, often creating data redundancy and data isolation.

File processing system store data in separate computer files

Disadvantages of File Processing Systems include:

1.

Program-Data Dependence. File descriptions are stored within each application

program that accesses a given file.

2.

Duplication of Data. Applications are developed independently in file processing

systems leading to unplanned duplicate files. Duplication is wasteful as it requires additional storage space and changes in one file must be made manually in all files. This also results in loss of data integrity. It is also possible that the same data item may have different names in different files, or the same name may be used for different data items in different files.

3.

Limited data sharing. Each application has its own private files with little

opportunity to share data outside their own applications. A requested report may require data from several incompatible files in separate systems.

4.

Lengthy Development Times. There is little opportunity to leverage previous

development efforts. Each new application requires the developer to start from scratch by designing new file formats and descriptions

5.

Excessive Program Maintenance. The preceding factors create a heavy program

maintenance load.

6.

Integrity Problem. The problem of integrity is the problem of ensuring that the

data in the database is accentuate. A collection of programs that enables you to store, modify, and extract information from a database. There are many different types of DBMSs, ranging from small systems that run on personal computers to huge systems that run on mainframes. The following are examples of database applications: computerized library systems

automated teller machines flight reservation systems

computerized parts inventory systems

From a technical standpoint, DBMSs can differ widely. The terms relational, network, flat, and hierarchical all refer to the way a DBMS organizes information internally. The internal organization can affect how quickly and flexibly you can extract information. Requests for information from a database are made in the form of a query, which is a stylized question. For example, the query SELECT ALL WHERE NAME = "SMITH" AND AGE > 35 requests all records in which the NAME field is SMITH and the AGE field is greater than 35. The set of rules for constructing queries is known as a query language. Different DBMSs support different query languages, although there is a semi-standardized query language called SQL (structured query language). Sophisticated languages for managing database systems are called fourth-generation languages, or 4GLs for short. The information from a database can be presented in a variety of formats. Most DBMSs include a report writer program that enables you to output data in the form of a report. Many DBMSs also include a graphics component that enables you to output information in the form of graphs and charts

What is a database?
A database is a collection of information that is organized so that it can easily be accessed, managed, and updated. In one view, databases can be classified according to types of content: bibliographic, full-text, numeric, and images. In computing, databases are sometimes classified according to their organizational approach. The most prevalent approach is the relational database, a tabular database in which data is defined so that it can be reorganized and accessed in a number of different ways. A distributed database is one that can be dispersed or replicated among different points in a network. An object-oriented programming database is one that is congruent with the data defined in object classes and subclasses. Computer databases typically contain aggregations of data records or files, such as sales transactions, product catalogs and inventories, and customer profiles. Typically, a database manager provides users the capabilities of controlling read/write access, specifying report generation, and analyzing usage. Databases and database managers are prevalent in large

mainframe systems, but are also present in smaller distributed workstation and mid-range systems such as the AS/400 and on personal computers. SQL (Structured Query Language) is a standard language for making interactive queries from and updating a database such as IBM's DB2, Microsoft's Access, and database products from Oracle, Sybase, and Computer Associates

A Database Management System (DBMS) is a set of computer programs that controls the creation, maintenance, and the use of the database with computer as a platform or of an organization and its end users. It allows organizations to place control of organization-wide database development in the hands of database administrators (DBAs) and other specialists. A DBMS is a system software package that helps the use of integrated collection of data records and files known as databases. It allows different user application programs to easily access the same database. DBMSs may use any of a variety of database models, such as the network model or relational model. In large systems, a DBMS allows users and other software to store and retrieve data in a structured way. Instead of having to write computer programs to extract information, user can ask simple questions in a query language. Thus, many DBMS packages provide Fourth-generation programming language (4GLs) and other application development features. It helps to specify the logical organization for a database and access and use the information within a database. It provides facilities for controlling data access, enforcing data integrity, managing concurrency controlled, restoring database.

Overview
A DBMS is a set of software programs that controls the organization, storage, management, and retrieval of data in a database. DBMSs are categorized according to their data structures or types. The DBMS accepts requests for data from an application program and instructs the operating system to transfer the appropriate data. The queries and responses must be submitted and received according to a format that conforms to one or more applicable protocols. When a DBMS is used, information systems can be changed much more easily as the organization's information requirements change. New categories of data can be added to the database without disruption to the existing system. Database servers are computers that hold the actual databases and run only the DBMS and related software. Database servers are usually multiprocessor computers, with generous memory and RAID disk arrays used for stable storage. Hardware database accelerators, connected to one or more servers via a high-speed channel, are also used in large volume transaction processing environments. DBMSs are found at the heart of most database applications. Sometimes DBMSs are built around a private multitasking kernel with built-in networking support although nowadays these functions are left to the operating system.

History

Databases have been in use since the earliest days of electronic computing. Unlike modern systems which can be applied to widely different databases and needs, the vast majority of older systems were tightly linked to the custom databases in order to gain speed at the expense of flexibility. Originally DBMSs were found only in large organizations with the computer hardware needed to support large data sets.

Databases are designed to offer an organized mechanism for storing, managing and retrieving information. They do so through the use of tables. If youre familiar with spreadsheets like Microsoft Excel, youre probably already accustomed to storing data in tabular form. Its not much of a stretch to make the leap from spreadsheets to databases.