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Interrelacin metablica entre tejidos y rganos

, Pncreas ,1 (p cells) . In$ulin lucose 1 ^ Glucose |Arn f no ife^ ly^j*,; 4Amino fc\ds Portal vein fftacids
; 1

W'

Protefin

i l t ^ - La Lctate
ChylomcroW
L y m p h a

Protein

Brain

"

, y"
S

t h e 8 , S

(all tissues)/

i CO H 0
2

Lamate

Red blood cells^ COt H2O /Gycogen Muscle tissue


Copyright 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Molecular Components of an E. coli Cell Approximate number of different molecular jpee es 1 3,000 1 >3,000 5 20 500 20 Palmillo ocl Amino acids

Percentaje of total weight of cell


| Water ^Proteins Nucieic acids DNA RNA

Protein9 Peptide hormones Neurotransmitters Toxic nlkaloids Nucieic acids ATP Coenzymes Neurotransmitters Mombrano liplds > Pata
Wqxo

70 15 1 6 3 2

Adenine

if/

Polysaccharidei
Liplds Monomeric subunits and intermediates Inorganic ions

Glucose

Cellulose Starch Fructosa Marinse Sucrose Lactose

Transparency 1 Figure 1-3, page S Monomcric aubunltn in inonr aequencoB can ipelt inflnitely complex messages

Lehninger, Nelson, and Cojt:

Principie* of Biochemlitry, Beeond Edltlor Copyright C 1993 by Worth Publlihtr, Inc.

Monomeric subunits
Letters of English alphabet (26 different kinds) Deoxyribonucleotides (4 different kinds) Amino acids (20 different kinds)

J T
w

Z y n " b Q v
F

R D

PU
W

E M O G X
L C

1t t
M E
i ii
|

i
!

M A i S s A i G Ei s
English words i i
1 1

ii

! P
ii ii ii

A S s A i G E s
ii i
1 1

S s A i G E S
ii i
1 1

ii

G i 1 A i 1 T i 1 C i 1 A i T i i A i l C I

A i1 G i 1 T i 1 C i 1 T
1

G A C T A G G T

T i i G 1 1
Q

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

Protein

Ordered linear sequences

For a segment of 8 subunits, the number of different sequences possible


r

,7

1\

2 6 or 2.1 X 1 0
8 11

4 or
8

65,536

2 0 or 2.56 X 1 0
8 1 0

i i

Principales constituyentes qumicos


HCO3

cr

200 190 180 170 160 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10

Nonelectrolytes

H ' H C O a

Cl

H C 0

Blood Plasma
Copyright 1997 Wiley-LIss, fnc.

Cell fluid

5+
copyright e I T winy-uii, m . o

(a)

Hydroxyl group

V
H

H '

R' Peptlde chaln

Y
^

Carbonyl

"A
Water

R'

Peptlde chuln

Copyright 01997 Wlliy-UM, Ir.

Thymlne ln DNA
Copyright O 9 7 -

, n 0

H H Adenine in DNA

Copyright e i M T i H U Ir.

LhUltttteti Nelson, end Cox:

fi''nsjiirHcy 11
]tyju-4i.6,pge85

Principies of Ulochemistry,

,.,.,.

Seeond M.t.on Copyright 1993 by Worth Publishers. Inc.

r e a t t e ' d u r i n g dlssolutlon of crystalhne salta

cr

+J

Na

H 0
2

Hydrated Cl" i o n

Hydrated N a ion
+

IVansparency 12b
Figure 4-Tb, page 87

Lehninger, Nelson, and Cox:


Principies of Blochemlstry, Second Edltlor
Copyright C 1993 by Worlh Publlaheri, Inc.

The hydrophobic effect: lipid dispersin in water (cont.)

Dispersin of lipids in H 0
2

Each lipid molecule forces surrounding H2O molecules to become highly ordered.

Clusters of lipid molecules


Only lipid portions at the edge of the cluster forc the ordering of water. Fewer H 0 molecules are ordered, and entropy is increased.
2

Micelles
A l l hydrophobic groups are sequestered from water; no highly ordered shell of H 0 molecules is present, and entropy is increased.
2

(b)

Tmmpatmcy 7 Flgtire 3-4, page 50 Three-dimensional structures of single- and double bonded carbons

Lehninger, Nelsbti, dnd Cox:

Principies of Biaoifnlstry, Secotiil Edil Ion


Copyright O 1993 by Wortli Publishers, Inc.

(c)

Transparency 8 Figure 3-9, page 62


C h i r a l and achira! molecules

Lehninger, Nelson, and Coi: /T? Principies of Biochemistry, Seco^^diton^ Copyright O 1993 by Worth Publiahcn. tot"\Jtei

Mirror image of original molecule

Chiral molecule:

Rotated molecule
cannot be

Mirror image of original molecule

Achiral molecule:

Original molecule

superimposed on mirror image of original

Original molecule

Rotated molecule can be superimposed on mirror image of original

Curva de titulacin del cido lctico y N H

"O 0) T

1.0 ( < 0F u
(

0.6

pK' = 3.86 pK' s 9 25

w 0.4

I
3 O" LU

0.2 0 2 4 '6 8 10 12 14

>

c u

PH
C o p y r i g h t 1997 Wlley-LIss, Inc.

HPQ42-/

as
= O)

H2P04~ 100/1 Lactate// 10/1 - Lactic / 1/1 1/10 " / / //

o o5
O

/ 7NH3/NH4+ /
/,
! 1 !

"5 ^ 1/100 CC ra
n

/
2 4

/
6

'
1

8 10 12 14 pH

Copyright 01997 Wlly-Llit, Inc.

M o n o p r e t l e acida Acebc . c i d ( X . - 1 . 7 4 X 1 0 " * M) Annonium gr.--62x 10-M)

CH.C, OH

4-IT

pjr.-4.76
WH + H
U 5
+

Di proto acida
Cmbuulc Bcd

UC,

1.70 X 1 0 " < M)p B (carbonata y r . - 6 . a i x 10-0

H,CO,:

HCO + H * .77

HCOs=s C0J4-H* lk-JO-2

Glydn*. eurboxyl (ir,-4.67 x 10-M); . Glydna, mirto (JT.-2J51 X 10-WM)

iNlQ , I / CH,<
1

NH

I
pX.-2.34

4
O-

H*

CH.C'

OH

o9.60

Trlproil

MI4I

tltotpharif i d d y r , - 7 . 2 5 x 10- M); t>ii)ydrtt*n ptiMiAata yr, - 1 J 8 x 10- M); Monohjdrogan phopht 10-"M)
1

I P 4 *f + H*0 UO
wr.-a.i4

H^I-O
f

uro

ir
10 11

H P O ? = * POJ-+ H pIC. 12.4

12

13

9 8 7 6 5 PH 4 pH = pK* 4.76 3 2 CH.COOH


8

CHaCOOlCH COOH] = CHaCOO"]

T 1

pH 5.76

BufTering regin pH 3.76

1 f0
J L

0.1 0.2 0,3 0,4 0,5


-

0.6 0.7 0.8

0.9 '

1,0

O H added (equivalente)
I

SO

Pcrcont titrated

I 10 0%

T -[H ][OH-]
w +

OH"

H 0
2

Aceticacid (CH COOH)


3

HAc T

AC
y

Actate
(CH3COO-)

[H ][Ac-] [HAc]
+

Buflerlng regin: - y 10.25

NH,

0.1

0.2

0.3

1~i 0.4 0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

r 0.0

1.0

OH" addcd (oquivalcnts)


JL
J

50 Pcrcont titratod

A1I ot Rnntam

1
t*notrophfl ' (*toWT from i Hght) II .luliL lili.

I
i " "

\. ttelerolroph (tfttbdrtfr^rtanl
(tftrtxm from ortanfc , : Miip<ran<lil |>H<r " fcxmplor. Purpl* bacteria i Q n m baciW

(carbn IVon,

% Jr>wWUrta:

(tp*yfrttn Irtorfantc , j comprondl) i!


f

*8Uuf^NcUteJ *IydrofnUeUrla

ROO

Divwilficntlrm ofrrHilllcMIular puknryoles lplnnf, ftmfri, nnimnli)

i.noo

Rnrlonytnblnnl* (rNttnchomlrin, pliwtlrlu)

i ,r.on rmftul, the frsl fuknryolrs

2,noo

3 2.r.no

Arrt>fo!c Imrpra Dcvrlnpmpnt nf Oj-rirh ntmnflphnrn

n.oon

:vr,oo

Photo.'ynthotic O prorlucing cynnobnctnrin rhotosynlhctic nulTur bncterin MpIhrtniKrnrt


a

i.ono

Formntion of ocrntm nml ronUnpnt-i

4,500

Fbrmnfinn of Enrth