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*Organisasi adalah sekelompok individu yang berinteraksi untuk mencapai tujuan tertentu dalam suatu sistem kerja yang

mempunyai kejelasan dalam pembagian kerja atau peran. Organisasi memilki subsistem yang saling berhubungan dan membutuhkan untuk menguatkan organisasi dalam mencapai tujuan organisasi tersebut. Organisasi merupakan sekumpulan orang yang bekerja bersama dalam suatu divisi untuk mencapai tujuan bersama (Schermerhorn, dkk., 1997:9). sistem terbuka Suatu sistem adalah terbuka, jika mempunyai transaksi dengan lingkungaanya. Transaksi antara suatu organisasi dengan lingkungannya mencakup input dan output. Input biasanya dalam bentuk informasi, tenaga, waang, pegawai, material dan perlengkapan yang diterima organisasi dari lingkungannya. Output organisasi pada lingkungannya dapat berbentuk macammacam tergantung pada sifat organisasi (Wexley & Yukl; 1995). Sistem terbuka adalah sistem yang berhubungan dan terpengaruh dengan lingkungan luarnya. Sistem ini menerima masukan dan menghasilkan keluaran untuk lingkungan luar atau subsistem yang lainnya. Lingkungan dapat dilakukan dengan dua arah iaitu organisasi dipenuhi perubahan dan sebaliknya lingkungan dipengaruhi oleh organisai. Organisasi sebagai sistem terbuka memerlukan input dari lingkungan, dan akan menjual produk (output) ke lingkungan sekitarnya. sistem tbuka menekankn interaksi dgn psekitaran, oleh itu organisasi bersifat dinamik bagi memastikan kelangsungannya.

Sistm tbuka merupakan sistem y saling bergantungn ant unsur2 org yg bersifat sosial & tekn. Perubahn yg belaku ant org. dgn pskitrn saling memberi kesan. Org. beradaptasi dgn psekitrn dgn cara melakukan perubhn2 susunan & proses komponen2 dlm org. tsebut.

The Organisation as an Open System


Organisations are an open system. They influence and are influenced by the environment in which they operate. This leads to a state of dynamic (changing) equilibrium between the organisation and its environment. Information about the balance between the two systems is called feedback. The relative health of an organisation is dependant on being able to match its pace of change in line with the rate of change with its environment. (See Organisational orientation to change model below) There can be dangers to an organisation if it reacts too slowly or too quickly to change. For example an organisation under huge external pressure to change may almost go into melt down and have change initiative after change initiative but not allow any of these to bed in and take effect. Work we did with a multinational insurance company reflected this where we saw its HR department under extreme pressure to improve its performance go through 5 major structural reorganisations within 18 months. Characteristics of Open Systems They are made up of interrelated parts subsystems The system is a whole and its performance needs to be looked at as an interrelated system. This is where silo mentality can often cause a problem to organisational performance when individuals align more to the performance of their department than to the performance of the organization as a whole. All systems transform inputs into outputs. They receive feedback from the operating environment and then react to this Open systems have a goal around which it seeks to organise itself Entropy Unless maintained systems will eventually fall apart as it takes energy and resources to hold its form. Systems seek a state of dynamic equilibrium Feedback gives information about the state of dynamic equilibrium e.g. sales falling because a company hasnt invested enough in new product lines

In a nutshell, Scott (2003, p. 89-91) proposes the following characteristics of open systems: 1. Self-maintenance: agents in the system take resources from the environment to survive. 2. Protection: Systems do not have to protect from the environment, they have to use it as a source of information. 3. Boundaries: Open systems do have boundaries, which are difficult to define 4. Sub-systems: Systems have subsystems that are linked in dynamic interaction 5. Negentropy: energy that turns into work (opposite of entropy which never turns into work). Open systems take the energy from the environment and they recreate themselves 6. Morphostasis and Morphogenesis: Morphostasis are the processes that sustain the system (e.g. socialization and control activities); morphogenesis are the processes that change the system (learning, growth, differentiation) 7. Law of limited variety: The variety in a system will be not more than the variety of the environment. Scott, W. R. (2003). Organizations: Rational, natural, and open systems (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall
Persekitaran 1. khusus rangkaian pembekal, pengedar, agensi kjaan dll 2. umum nilai budya eko perundangan Politik Pendidikan

kekuatan open sistem